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1

Early and Middle Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Occupations in Western Amazonia: The Hidden Shell Middens  

PubMed Central

We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region’s past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene “Earthmovers” of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged. PMID:24013964

Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M.; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

2013-01-01

2

Early and middle holocene hunter-gatherer occupations in western Amazonia: the hidden shell middens.  

PubMed

We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region's past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene "Earthmovers" of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged. PMID:24013964

Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

2013-01-01

3

Using shell middens to assess effects of fishing on queen conch ( Strombus gigas ) populations in Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Queen conch, Strombus gigas, is a commercially important gastropod that has been exploited throughout the Caribbean islands for thousands of years. Shell\\u000a middens in the region are the physical record of a long-term fishery and their study can provide valuable information on selectivity\\u000a patterns followed by fishermen and on resulting morphological shifts reflected by shells. In this study, we surveyed

Diego Schapira; Irene A. Montaño; Andrzej Antczak; Juan M. Posada

2009-01-01

4

An experimental approach for archeological soil micromorphology: building a model for site taphonomy in coastal shell middens of the Beagle Channel (Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are still many archaeological contexts where soil micromorphology has been little applied. Examples of such are anthropic shell deposits, common in coastal settings worldwide. These archaeological sites have complex stratigraphies composed mainly of shell from diverse species of local mollusks and gastropods. They have the peculiarity of being highly porous sediments with a coarse fraction that is dominated by gravel-sized bioclastic remains (shell, fish bones) and a fine fraction composed of organic material (charcoal, organic matter). The use of soil micromorphology in shell deposits was started by the Spanish-Argentinean research team working in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) since 1986. This project focused on excavation of hunter-gatherer sites from the contact period. One of the main objectives was to develop a detailed excavation method for shell middens that maximized the amount of recorded data during archaeological excavation. In this perspective, microstratigraphy was conceived as a fundamental complement for the study of site formation processes, as it would provide with high definition data for identification of shell accumulation episodes, trampling on site, abandonment periods, taphonomic alterations etc. A reference collection of known environmental and anthropic control features, such as hearths, trampling areas, wood ashes from local species, among others, was built to help in the microscopic characterization of archaeological samples. In this work, we analyze this experimental collection and compare it with samples from the Tunel VII archaeological site, located in the northern coast of the Beagle Channel and dated from the 18th-19th centuries. The set of modern samples included: trampling area from an animal pathway; beach deposit; forest litter; soil under the forest; hearths lit in diverse contexts (on the prairie, the beach and from the archaeologist camp site); and experimental burnt valves of Mytilus edulis, the main malacological component of the Tunel VII archaeological site, combusted in a muffle furnace at temperatures from 200 to 800° C. The original archaeological samples from Tunel VII included resin-consolidat columns taken from vaious profiles within the shell midden site. The thin sections analysed here were taken from a profile dug through a passageway that crosses the shell dumping area. The experimental reference collection showed the intense bioturbation of both exposed and buried surfaces, despite the low temperatures that characterize the area, commonly associated to inhibition of biological activity. The same intense bioturbation was observed in the shell midden, were a form of anthrosol develops during abandonment periods of the site. The experimental samples of Mytilus edulis served as reference for identification of burning temperatures reached by the anthropic fires and were useful aids to identify reworked burnt layers as accretion material for the shell midden.

Balbo, Andrea; Suarez Villagran, Ximena; Madella, Marco; Vila, Asumpcio; Estevez, Jordi

2010-05-01

5

Paleo Slide Set: Packrat Middens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show discusses plant-rich deposits called middens, that are found in caves and rock shelters in the arid southwestern United States. Middens are an amalgamation of plant and animal remains encased in crystallized packrat urine, and can be used to reconstruct past vegetation and climate in the immediate area of the midden deposit. This slide set outlines past climate variability by reconstructing vegetation change in the southwestern US as preserved in packrat middens. The set contains a comprehensive text and accompanying color photographs of middens, packrats, desert vegetation, and laboratory techniques which can be enlarged for better viewing.

6

A conspiracy of silence - the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service (NP&WS), under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 (NSW) ('the Act'), is responsible for the 'care, control. and management' of Aboriginal cultural hentage sites (middens, burial sites, rock art sites, etc.) throughout NSW.2 Section 90 of the Act states that it is an offence to destroy, deface or disturb an

Michael K. Organ

1994-01-01

7

Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Institute for Aboriginal Development (IAD) is an Aboriginal-controlled language resource center and adult education center serving the Aboriginal communities of central Australia. Its activities include education programs, which range from literacy and numeracy to vocational and tertiary-level courses; an Aboriginal language and culture center…

Chee, Donna Ah; Maidment, Debra; Hayes-Hampton, Margie

8

Midden sites in relation to sea level and paleoecology  

SciTech Connect

Midden shell mounds consisting mainly of shallow marine, estuarine and lagoonal molluscan species are known from the coasts of every continent (except for Antarctica). While principally mid- to late Holocene in age, they date back to late Pleistocene in some glacioisostatic uplift areas (Scandinavia) and even the last interglacial at about 125,000 BP (Southern Africa). Inasmuch as the camp sites would normally be located immediately adjacent to the best shellfish collecting areas, they constitute useful shoreline indicators. Large, complex mounds disclose horizons showing temporary inundation and short-term abandonment. Occupation dates match independent chronologies of sea-level change. Analysis of shell species permits estimation of paleosalinity and paleotemperature, as well as assisting appraisal of general paleoecological setting. It is speculated that an abrupt change in trend of the Flandrian sea-level rise at about 6000 BP (C-14) stabilized the development of large lagoons and estuaries, particularly favorable sites for safe shellfish gathering. Prior to that the frequent and very rapid transgressions created repeatedly displaced (drowned) habitats. Since then man has been able to occupy semi-stable coastal sites, thus contributing to the world-wide post-Neolithic shift away from nomadic economy and towards village way of life.

Fairbridge, R.W.

1985-01-01

9

Aboriginal Information & Communication Technologies  

E-print Network

preparation, communication skills, business understanding, ability to work within various projects, and solidAboriginal Information & Communication Technologies Diploma Program 2010/2011 Division of Continuing Education #12;Division of Continuing Education Aboriginal Information & Communication Technologies

Martin, Jeff

10

Archaeologists regularly investi-gate oyster shell middens (piles of  

E-print Network

inspection is not the continuous "carcass-by- carcass" inspection associated with red meat and poultry. Sea No. 434 Aquacultured Oyster Products Inspection · Quality · Handling · Storage · Safety Brian E apparatus. Alabama oysters reach harvestable size (3 inches) in 24 to 30 months. Inspection Because oysters

Florida, University of

11

Aboriginal Education Program, 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the beginning of time, Aboriginal people have had a high regard for education. Euro-Canadian contact with Aboriginal peoples has and continues to have devastating effects. The encroachment on their traditional territory has affected the lands and resources forever. Generations of experience within the residential school system have greatly…

British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

2012-01-01

12

Holocene Vegetation History from Fossil Rodent Middens near Arequipa, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rodent (Abrocoma, Lagidium, Phyllotis) middens collected from 2350 to 2750 m elevation near Arequipa, Peru (16°S), provide an ?9600-yr vegetation history of the northern Atacama Desert, based on identification of >50 species of plant macrofossils. These midden floras show considerable stability throughout the Holocene, with slightly more mesophytic plant assemblages in the middle Holocene. Unlike the southwestern United States, rodent middens of mid-Holocene age are common. In the Arequipa area, the midden record does not reflect any effects of a mid-Holocene mega drought proposed from the extreme lowstand (100 m below modern levels, >6000 to 3500 yr B.P.) of Lake Titicaca, only 200 km east of Arequipa. This is perhaps not surprising, given other evidence for wetter summers on the Pacific slope of the Andes during the middle Holocene as well as the poor correlation of summer rainfall among modern weather stations in the central Andes-Atacama Desert. The apparent difference in paleoclimatic reconstructions suggests that it is premature to relate changes observed during the Holocene to changes in El Niño Southern Oscillation modes.

Holmgren, Camille A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Roque, Jose; Tovar, Oscar; Zeballos, Horacio; Linares, Eliana; Quade, Jay

2001-09-01

13

Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18??S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Holmgren, C.A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J.L.

2008-01-01

14

Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18°S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area.

Holmgren, C.A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J.L.

2008-01-01

15

Aboriginality in Adelaide: An Urban Context of Australian Aboriginal Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginality is discussed as a contemporary adaptation that can provide persons of Aboriginal descent with advantages in the urban setting. The nature of this adaptive mechanism can be viewed and understood, however, only within the more general context. (Author)

Pierson, James C.

1977-01-01

16

Aboriginal Education: Fulfilling the Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is at the heart of the struggle of Canada's Aboriginal peoples to regain control over their lives as communities and nations. Based on hearings and research generated by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP), this collection of articles documents recent progress in transforming Aboriginal education to support…

Castellano, Marlene Brant, Ed.; Davis, Lynne, Ed.; Lahache, Louise, Ed.

17

Aboriginal Documentary Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Libraries and Archives Canada "web exhibition recounts first-hand information illustrating the complex and often contentious relationship between the Canadian government and Canada's Aboriginal people from the late 1700s to the mid-20th century." Visitors interested in reading about the importance and meaning of these documentary resources to the aboriginal people, should read the link on the left side menu entitled: "The Resources from an Aboriginal Perspective". Visitors unfamiliar with the current and historical vocabulary used regarding Aboriginal people should refer to the "Glossary" on the left side menu to learn the definitions of such words as "band", "M'tis", "Indian Act", and "First Nation". The "Treaties, Surrenders and Agreements" link contains the following sections: "Essay", "Gallery" and "Database". The Gallery contains images of original treaties that, among other things, ceded vast amounts of land to Canada. Visitors can view one of the treaties that ceded the land of southwestern Ontario north of Lake Erie which originally was part of the Aboriginal people's territory.

18

Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2013-07-01

19

Molecular analysis of a 11 700-year-old rodent midden from the Atacama Desert, Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

DNA was extracted from an 11 700-year-old rodent midden from the Atacama Desert, Chile and the chloroplast and animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene sequences were analysed to investigate the floral environment surrounding the midden, and the identity of the midden agent. The plant sequences, together with the macroscopic identifications, suggest the presence of 13 plant families and three orders that no longer exist today at the midden locality, and thus point to a much more diverse and humid climate 11 700 years ago. The mtDNA sequences suggest the presence of at least four different vertebrates, which have been putatively identified as a camelid (vicuna), two rodents (Phyllotis and Abrocoma), and a cardinal bird (Passeriformes). To identify the midden agent, DNA was extracted from pooled faecal pellets, three small overlapping fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were amplified and multiple clones were sequenced. These results were analysed along with complete cytochrome b sequences for several modern Phyllotis species to place the midden sequence phylogenetically. The results identified the midden agent as belonging to an ancestral P. limatus. Today, P. limatus is not found at the midden locality but it can be found 100 km to the north, indicating at least a small range shift. The more extensive sampling of modern Phyllotis reinforces the suggestion that P. limatus is recently derived from a peripheral isolate.

Kuch, M.; Rohland, N.; Betancourt, J.L.; Latorre, C.; Steppan, S.; Poinar, H.N.

2002-01-01

20

Excavation of red squirrel middens by grizzly bears in the whitebark pine zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Whitebark pine seeds Pinus albicaulis are an important food of grizzly Ursus arctos horribilis bears wherever whitebark pine is abundant in the contiguous United States of America; availability of seeds affects the distribution of bears, and the level of conflict between bears and humans. Almost all of the seeds consumed by bears are excavated from middens where red squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus have cached whitebark pine cones. 2. Relationships among the occupancy of middens by squirrels, the excavation of middens by bears, and site features were investigated in this study. Data were collected from radio-marked bears and from middens located from line transects on two study sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem. 3. Densities of active middens were positively related to lodgepole pine Pinus contorta basal area and negatively related to steepness of slope. 4. The probability that a midden was occupied by a squirrel (i.e. active) was positively related to lodgepole pine basal area in the surrounding stand, size of the midden and size of the whitebark pine cone crop, and negatively related to elevation and to bear excavation during the previous 2-12 months. 5. The probability that a midden had been excavated by a bear during the previous 12 months was positively related to size of the midden, and to whitebark pine basal area and cone crop, and negatively related to nearness of roads and town sites. 6. The influence of midden size on bear use was attributable to a positive relationship with the number of excavated cones. The positive association between bear excavations and whitebark pine basal area or cone crops was attributable to availability of pine seeds. 7. Grizzly bears would benefit from the minimization of roads and other human facilities in the whitebark pine zone and from increases in the availability of whitebark pine seeds, potentially achieved by increasing the numbers of cone-producing whitebark pine trees, especially in lower elevations of the whitebark pine zone where red squirrels are more abundant.

Mattson, D.J.; Reinhart, D.P.

1997-01-01

21

Complicated grief in Aboriginal populations  

PubMed Central

To date there have been no studies examining complicated grief (CG) in Aboriginal populations. Although this research gap exists, it can be hypothesized that Aboriginal populations may be at increased risk for CG, given a variety of factors, including increased rates of all-cause mortality and death by suicide. Aboriginal people also have a past history of multiple stressors resulting from the effects of colonization and forced assimilation, a significant example being residential school placement. This loss of culture and high rates of traumatic events may place Aboriginal individuals at increased risk for suicide, as well as CG resulting from traumatic loss and suicide bereavement. Studies are needed to examine CG in Aboriginal populations. These studies must include cooperation with Aboriginal communities to help identify risk factors for CG, understand the role of culture among these communities, and identify interventions to reduce poor health outcomes such as suicidal behavior. PMID:22754293

Spiwak, Rae; Sareen, Jitender; Elias, Brenda; Martens, Patricia; Munro, Garry; Bolton, James

2012-01-01

22

Preliminary analysis of stable oxygen isotoPes and shell growth in the soft-shelled clam Mya arenaria  

E-print Network

shells with confidence. In this report we discuss the potential for using M. arenaria in archaeological of shellfish remains recovered from shell midden sites from Port Joli Nova Scotia can provide insight into local and regional patterns of shellfish harvest, the season of shellfish harvest, and by proxy, site

Schöne, Bernd R.

23

CKD in Aboriginal Australians.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one component of a spectrum of chronic disease in Aboriginal Australians. CKD is marked by albuminuria, which predicts renal failure and nonrenal natural death. Rates vary greatly by community and region and are much higher in remote areas. This reflects the heterogeneous characteristics and circumstances of Aboriginal people. CKD is multideterminant, and early-life influences (notably low birth weight), infections (including poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis), metabolic/hemodynamic parameters, and epigenetic/genetic factors probably contribute. CKD is associated intimately with cardiovascular risk. Albuminuria progresses over time, with a high incidence of new onset of pathologic levels of albuminuria in all age groups. All the usual morphologic findings are found in renal biopsy specimens. However, glomerular enlargement is notable in individuals from remote regions, but not those living closer to population centers. Glomerulomegaly probably represents compensatory hypertrophy caused by low nephron number, which probably underlies the accentuated susceptibility to renal disease. In the last decade, health care services have been transformed to accommodate systematic chronic disease surveillance and management. After a relentless increase for 3 decades, rates of Aboriginal people starting renal replacement therapy, as well as chronic disease deaths, appear to be stabilizing in some regions. Official endorsement of these system changes, plus ongoing reductions in the incidence of low birth weight and infections, hold promise for continued better outcomes. PMID:20728257

Hoy, Wendy E; Kincaid-Smith, Priscilla; Hughson, Michael D; Fogo, Agnes B; Sinniah, Rajalingam; Dowling, John; Samuel, Terrence; Mott, Susan A; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Bertram, John F

2010-11-01

24

Examining Aboriginal Corrections in Canada. Aboriginal Peoples Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information about the state of Aboriginal corrections in Canada. It draws on survey results, analyses of quantitative data, and a review of the relevant literature and research and raises some complex questions about the meaning and future of Aboriginal corrections. There are nine parts that: (1) discuss the reliance on…

LaPrairie, Carol; And Others

25

Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf Aboriginal

Power, Des

2013-01-01

26

A 16,000 14 C yr B.P. packrat midden series  

E-print Network

consisted of open pinyon­juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. P. edulis and J. scopulorum disappeared or were rare in the midden record by 10,670 14 C yr B

27

Employment Equity for Aboriginal Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a letter of understanding between British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) and British Columbia Public School Employers' Association (BCPSEA) in response to Employment Equity for Aboriginal Teachers. The parties recognize that Aboriginal teachers are under-represented in the public education system. The parties are committed to…

British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

2012-01-01

28

Palynology of late Pleistocene hyrax middens, southwestern Cape Province, South Africa: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botanical remains, especially pollen, preserved in dung middens of rock?dwelling hyraxes (herbivorous mammals belonging to the genus Procavia) have been studied in the Southern African winter?rainfall area. Seven middens from a single rock shelter on the north?eastern side of the Cederberg mountain range, Cape Province, are dated by 15 radiocarbon age determinations to between about 19,700 and 1370 yr BP.

L. Scott

1994-01-01

29

High-throughput sequencing of ancient plant and mammal DNA preserved in herbivore middens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of arid palaeoenvironments is often frustrated by the poor or non-existent preservation of plant and animal material, yet these environments are of considerable environmental importance. The analysis of pollen and macrofossils isolated from herbivore middens has been an invaluable source of information regarding past environments and the nature of ecological fluctuations within arid zones. The application of ancient DNA (aDNA) techniques to hot, arid zone middens remains unexplored. This paper attempts to retrieve and characterise aDNA from four Southern Hemisphere fossil middens; three located in hot, arid regions of Australia and one sample from South Africa's Western Cape province. The middens are dated to between 30,490 (±380) and 710 (±70) cal yr BP. The Brockman Ridge midden in this study is potentially the oldest sample from which aDNA has been successfully extracted in Australia. The application of high-throughput sequencing approaches to profile the biotic remains preserved in midden material has not been attempted to date and this study clearly demonstrates the potential of such a methodology. In addition to the taxa previously detected via macrofossil and palynological analyses, aDNA analysis identified unreported plant and animal taxa, some of which are locally extinct or endemic. The survival and preservation of DNA in hot, arid environments is a complex and poorly understood process that is both sporadic and rare, but the survival of DNA through desiccation may be important. Herbivore middens now present an important source of material for DNA metabarcoding studies of hot, arid palaeoenvironments and can potentially be used to analyse middens in these environments throughout Australia, Africa, the Americas and the Middle East.

Murray, Dáithí C.; Pearson, Stuart G.; Fullagar, Richard; Chase, Brian M.; Houston, Jayne; Atchison, Jennifer; White, Nicole E.; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Clarke, Edward; Macphail, Mike; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Haile, James; Bunce, Michael

2012-12-01

30

Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

2011-03-01

31

Discarded queen conch ( Strombus gigas ) shells as shelter sites for fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Caribbean millions of queen conch (Strombus gigas Linnaeus) are harvested each year and shells discarded randomly or as middens. Fish use of discarded conch shells was investigated in four different habitat types: sand, seagrass beds, mangrove forests, and coral reefs. The study was carried out in the waters off South Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI), between October

S. K. Wilson; T. Sato

2005-01-01

32

Late Holocene vegetation and historic grazing impacts at Capital Reef National Park reconstructed using fossil packrat middens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Holocene vegetation change from a high desert site in southern Utah was reconstructed using fossil plant macrofossils and pollen from packrat middens. Presettlement middens consistently contained abundant macrofossils of plant species palatable to livestock that are now absent or reduced such as: Ceratoides lanata, Stipa hymenoides, Pinus edulis, and Artemisia spp.. In contrast, species typical of overgrazed range, such

1995-01-01

33

Late Quaternary Biogeographic and Climatic Changes in Western North America: Evidence From Mapped Arrays of Packrat Midden Data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USGS/NOAA North American Packrat Midden Database is a standardized archive of published paleobotanical data derived from packrat middens in western North America. We use midden age, location, and species presence-absence data from this dataset to generate maps illustrating the past occurrence of important woody plant taxa in western North America during the late Quaternary. We explore late Quaternary changes in the distributions of selected plant taxa commonly found in packrat middens and presently associated with western desert ( Carnegiea gigantea), steppe ( Artemisia tridentata-type), woodland (pinyon pines), montane ( Pinus ponderosa), and subalpine ( Pinus flexilis) plant communities. We compare the current geographic and climatic distributions of these taxa with the present-day climates at sites where these taxa have been found in packrat midden macrofossil assemblages. These comparisons suggest that late Pleistocene climates in western North America were generally characterized by cooler-than-present summers and by much greater-than-present mean annual precipitation.

Strickland, L. E.; Thompson, R. S.; Anderson, K. H.; Pelltier, R. T.

2005-12-01

34

’The privilege of being born aboriginal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rita Huggins and Jackie Huggins, Auntie Rita (Aboriginal Studies Press) Canberra, 1994. Margaret Somerville with Marie Dundas, May Mead, Janet Robinson, and Maureen Suiter, ’The Sun Dancin’: People and Place in Coonabarabran (Aboriginal Studies Press) Canberra, 1994.

Ann Curthoys

1996-01-01

35

Australian Aboriginal health and health-care.  

PubMed

The health status of Australia's Aborigines is far inferior to that of non-Aboriginal Australians. The factors underlying this low standard of health are complex, but relate to the gross social inequality experienced by Aborigines, even today. The social inequality, characterised by extreme socioeconomic deprivation and relative powerlessness, is the end result of the European occupation of Australia, which caused Aboriginal depopulation and dispossession. Since the early 1970s a number of special programs have attempted to overcome the health inequalities of Aborigines, but have really met with only limited success. This limited success is explicable in terms of the gross social inequalities experienced by Aborigines. Alleviation of Aboriginal ill-health requiries integrated comprehensive programs, with continued support, at least in the medium term, of special Aboriginal health programs. PMID:6740341

Thomson, N

1984-01-01

36

Centring Aboriginal Worldviews in Social Work Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Aboriginal peoples gain more access to schools of social work, the academy needs to respond to their educational needs. This involves incorporating Aboriginal worldviews and research methodologies into social work education. This paper focuses on one definition of worldviews according to Aboriginal epistemology and implements an anti-colonial…

Baskin, Cyndy

2005-01-01

37

Using Technology to Enhance Aboriginal Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a focus on the use of technology when evaluating programs for Aboriginal people, this article explores the possibility of using visual and oral computer technology to enhance the incorporation of Aboriginal worldviews in program evaluation. The author situates Aboriginal worldviews, including methods of communication and transmission of…

Johnston, Andrea L. K.

2008-01-01

38

Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

39

Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

Clarke, Philip A.

40

Stick-Nest Rat Middens as Sources of Paleoecological Data in Australian Deserts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing paleoenvironmental data from the Australian arid zone lack sensitivity and come from only a few sites. Macrofossils and pollen from four dated middens of the stick-nest rat ( Leporillus spp.) were analyzed from two sites in Western Australia. Animal and plant macrofossil remains were well preserved and provided evidence of change in species distribution within the last 1150 yr. Brush-tail possum and golden bandicoot have contracted their ranges in the recent past, possibly since the introduction of cats into Australia. An undescribed lacewing was also a significant find. Pollen preserved in parts of the same midden and in middens from different sites indicates that records are sensitive to the composition of the local vegetation when the midden was built. Pollen spectra are quite different from playa lakes, which record largely regional vegetation. Pollen preserved in the fecal pellets, desiccated urine, and grass mat nesting material provided similar information but some differences were apparent, suggesting dietary preferences were reflected in the fecal component. The pollen record suggested a trend to less-wooded vegetation cover in central Australia between 900 and 300 yr B.P.

Pearson, Stuart; Dodson, John R.

1993-05-01

41

Distinct Modes of Transmission of Tuberculosis in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ?20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR)?=?5.98, p<0.0001). MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9%) among southern people, and Beijing (62.5%) and Haarlem (52.9%) among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR) were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (?15%) than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05); MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ?20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p?=?0.01) and aboriginal ethnicity (p?=?0.04) were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy. PMID:25393403

Chang, Jia-Ru; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Yeh, Jun-Jun; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Sun, Jun-Ren; Su, Ih-Jen; Dou, Horng-Yunn

2014-01-01

42

Years of life lost to incarceration: inequities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal representation in Canadian correctional institutions has increased rapidly over the past decade. We calculated “years of life lost to incarceration” for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians. Methods Incarceration data from provincial databases were used conjointly with demographic data to estimate rates of incarceration and years of life lost to provincial incarceration in (BC) and federal incarceration, by Aboriginal status. We used the Sullivan method to estimate the years of life lost to incarceration. Results Aboriginal males can expect to spend approximately 3.6 months in federal prison and within BC spend an average of 3.2 months in custody in the provincial penal system. Aboriginal Canadians on average spend more time in custody than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The ratio of the Aboriginal incarceration rate to the non-Aboriginal incarceration rate ranged from a low of 4.28 in Newfoundland and Labrador to a high of 25.93 in Saskatchewan. Rates of incarceration at the provincial level were highest among Aboriginals in Manitoba with an estimated rate of 1377.6 individuals in prison per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1311.8 – 1443.4). Conclusions The results indicate substantial differences in life years lost to incarceration for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Canadians. In light of on-going prison expansion in Canada, future research and policy attention should be paid to the public health consequences of incarceration, particularly among Aboriginal Canadians. PMID:24916338

2014-01-01

43

A 16,000 14C yr B.P. packrat midden series from the USA–Mexico Borderlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.–Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and\\/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals:

Camille A Holmgren; M. Cristina Peñalba; Kate Aasen Rylander; Julio L Betancourt

2003-01-01

44

Aboriginal Languages of Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This WWW Virtual Library site features annotated links to over 130 resources for nearly 40 of Australia's indigenous languages. The resources are categorized by type of resource, language, and region (i.e., Australian state). Included here are links to dictionaries, word lists, complete texts -- some with translations, bilingual education resources, language courses, academic papers, bibliographies, relevant libraries, indigenous songs and sounds, language rights and policy Websites, and more. The resources are succinctly and informatively annotated with graphic icons to represent sites with original text and bibliographies or catalogs as well as dates-of-posting to the directory. Updated in late July, Aboriginal Languages of Australia is created and maintained by David Nathan of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies and sponsored by the Linguistics department of the University of Melbourne.

45

Chronic liver disease in Aboriginal North Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death. Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD, but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of

John D Scott; Naomi Garland

2008-01-01

46

ADHD Characteristics in Canadian Aboriginal Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors examine how many Aboriginal children attending two reservation-based elementary schools in Northern Alberta, Canada, would demonstrate symptoms associated with ADHD using standardized parent and teacher questionnaires. Method: Seventy-five Aboriginal children in Grades 1 through 4 are tested. Seventeen of the 75 (22.7%)…

Baydala, Lola; Sherman, Jody; Rasmussen, Carmen; Wikman, Erik; Janzen, Henry

2006-01-01

47

Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

2013-01-01

48

As We See...Aboriginal Pedagogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years, Aboriginal knowledge was invalidated by Western ways of knowing. This collection of papers discusses ways of teaching, ways of knowing, and ways of being that have sustained Aboriginal people for over 500 years. The papers are: "Spirit Writing: Writing Circles as Healing Pedagogy" (Lenore A. Stiffarm); "Pedagogy from the Ethos: An…

Stiffarm, Lenore A., Ed.

49

Aboriginal Language Knowledge and Youth Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief report details a preliminary investigation into how community-level variability in knowledge of Aboriginal languages relate to "band"-level measures of youth suicide. In Canada, and, more specifically, in the province of British Columbia (BC), Aboriginal youth suicide rates vary substantially from one community to another. The results…

Hallett, Darcy; Chandler, Michael J.; Lalonde, Christopher E.

2007-01-01

50

Aboriginal Healing Foundation Annual Report, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) is a nonprofit organization established in 1998 with funding from the Canadian Government. Its mission is to support Aboriginal people in building sustainable healing processes that address the legacy of physical and sexual abuse in the residential school system, including intergenerational impacts. AHF…

Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

51

Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

Vize, Anne

2009-01-01

52

Response to Principal's Vision Statement Aboriginal Council  

E-print Network

organizations are working together to achieve better outcomes for Aboriginal students at all levels of learning and this has left both the Aboriginal Teacher Education Program (ATEP) and the Four Directions Centre in crisis. Initiatives such as the Ontario First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Education Policy Framework aim to build

Ellis, Randy

53

No Aboriginal Students left Behind in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…

Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia

2005-01-01

54

The Holistic/Rainbow Approach to Aboriginal Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes approaches to literacy in Canadian aboriginal communities. It provides statistical data on education, employment, income, culture, language, and social issues among Canadian aboriginal people, comparing aboriginal people on and off the reserve. The statistics demonstrate issues that aboriginal literacy learners bring with them…

George, Priscilla

55

Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review.  

PubMed

The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence gambling by Aboriginal groups, which are individually different, making it difficult to implement a cohesive strategy to address gambling-related harms. Because of this complexity, a thorough literature review is necessary to identify gaps in policy and research. This paper uses a public health framework to consider multi-dimensional influences (personal, environmental, economic, cultural and social) that affect gambling uptake. Such analysis is also important for identifying risk factors which facilitate the development and maintenance of problem gambling and potentially for underpinning protection, prevention and treatment programs. It is advised that strategies be developed in consultation with Aboriginal peoples to guide public health policy and research to minimise any gambling-related harms. PMID:24707239

Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

2013-01-01

56

Aboriginal language knowledge and youth suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief report details a preliminary investigation into how community-level variability in knowledge of Aboriginal languages relate to “band”-level measures of youth suicide. In Canada, and, more specifically, in the province of British Columbia (BC), Aboriginal youth suicide rates vary substantially from one community to another. The results reported demonstrate that not only did this simple language-use indicator prove to

Darcy Hallett; Michael J. Chandler; Christopher E. Lalonde

2007-01-01

57

Does the EDI Equivalently Measure Facets of School Readiness for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the current paper was to examine the equivalence of the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher rating measure of school readiness, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The current study used an approach, which analyzes the structure and properties of the EDI at the subdomain level. Similar subdomain score distributions…

Muhajarine, Nazeem; Puchala, Chassidy; Janus, Magdalena

2011-01-01

58

Explaining aboriginal/non-aboriginal inequalities in postseparation violence against Canadian women: application of a structural violence approach.  

PubMed

Adopting a structural violence approach, we analyzed 2004 Canadian General Social Survey data to examine Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequalities in postseparation intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Aboriginal women had 4.12 times higher odds of postseparation IPV than non-Aboriginal women (p < .001). Coercive control and age explained most of this inequality. The final model included Aboriginal status, age, a seven-item coercive control index, and stalking, which reduced the odds ratio for Aboriginal status to 1.92 (p = .085) and explained 70.5% of the Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequality in postseparation IPV. Research and action are needed that challenge structural violence, especially colonialism and its negative consequences. PMID:24048189

Pedersen, Jeanette Somlak; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Pulkingham, Jane

2013-08-01

59

The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

Stote, Karen

2012-01-01

60

The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal literacy programs in Canada are using literacy as a means of reclaiming Aboriginal languages and a positive cultural identity. The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal literacy uses seven ways of knowing, each corresponding to a color. The approach recognizes that spirit, heart, mind, and body equally contribute to a life of balance,…

George, Ningwakwe Priscilla

2003-01-01

61

Aboriginal Students' Perspectives on the Factors Influencing High School Completion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Canadian education system is failing its Aboriginal students as evidenced by the significant proportion not completing high school. The Aboriginal population has experienced a significantly greater proportion of people living in poverty and higher rates of unemployment than has the non-Aboriginal population. These factors can be linked to the…

MacIver, Marion

2012-01-01

62

Supporting Educational Success for Aboriginal Students: Identifying Key Influences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The academic difficulties experienced by many Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, Inuit) students in Canada have been well-documented. Indicators such as school persistence and post-secondary enrollment are typically far lower for Aboriginal students as a group compared to non-Aboriginal students. Identifying facilitators of success is key to…

Whitley, Jessica

2014-01-01

63

Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada: Issues of Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…

Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.

2012-01-01

64

Smoking and Other Drug Characteristics of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Prisoners in Australia  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Aim. Although tobacco and alcohol use have declined substantially in the Australian community, substance use among prisoners remains high. The aim was to compare the smoking, drug, and alcohol characteristics, sociodemographic profile, and general health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal male prisoners in a smoking cessation intervention. Design and Methods. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of data from 425 male prisoners who joined a quit smoking trial conducted at 18 correctional centres in NSW and Queensland using data collected by standardised self-report instruments. Results. Average age was 33 years with 15% from Aboriginal descent. Compared to non-Aboriginal prisoners, Aboriginal prisoners were significantly more likely to have left school with no qualifications, to have been institutionalised as a child, to be previously incarcerated, and commenced smoking at a younger age. The tobacco use profile of both groups was similar; most of them had a medium to high level of nicotine dependence, smoked roll your own tobacco, and were “serious” about quitting. Discussion and Conclusion. Despite differences in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and offending history, the smoking characteristics of Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal prisoners were similar. Incarceration offers an opportunity to encourage smoking cessation and reduction of drug use. PMID:24940513

Richmond, Robyn L.; Indig, Devon; Butler, Tony G.; Wilhelm, Kay A.; Archer, Vicki A.; Wodak, Alex D.

2013-01-01

65

Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Characteristics and Survival in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Western Australians  

PubMed Central

Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignancy affecting the oral cavity. While exposures to main risk factors for oral SCC such as smoking and alcohol use are higher amongst the Aboriginal people, little is known about oral cancer in this population. This study aimed to describe characteristics and survival of oral SCC in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Methods: All primary oral SCC cases reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry (WACR) between 1990 and 1999 were analysed with respect to person characteristics including: date of birth, sex and indigenous status; and disease characteristics including: date of biopsy, disease stage and site as well as date of recurrence and date of death. Exclusion criteria included diagnosis not based on incisional or excisional biopsy, diagnosis other than oral SCC or a history of another malignant neoplasm. Results: Aboriginal individuals were more likely to reside in rural areas. No statistically significant differences in oral SCC characteristics and survival were noted between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Conclusion: This study provides new information on person and disease characteristics of Aboriginal Western Australians diagnosed with oral SCC. PMID:25328552

Frydrych, A.M; Slack-Smith, L.M; Parsons, R; Threlfall, T

2014-01-01

66

Absent otoacoustic emissions predict otitis media in young Aboriginal children: A birth cohort study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in an arid zone of Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed regularly from birth to age 2 years. Tympanometry was conducted at routine field follow-up from age 3 months. Routine clinical examination by an ENT specialist was to be done 3 times and hearing assessment by an audiologist twice. TEOAEs were measured at ages <1 and 1–2 months. Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between absent TEOAEs and subsequent risk of OM. Results At routine ENT specialist clinics, OM was detected in 55% of 184 examinations in Aboriginal children and 26% of 392 examinations in non-Aboriginal children; peak prevalence was 72% at age 5–9 months in Aboriginal children and 40% at 10–14 months in non-Aboriginal children. Moderate-severe hearing loss was present in 32% of 47 Aboriginal children and 7% of 120 non-Aboriginal children aged 12 months or more. TEOAE responses were present in 90% (46/51) of Aboriginal children and 99% (120/121) of non-Aboriginal children aged <1 month and in 62% (21/34) and 93% (108/116), respectively, in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children at age 1–2 months. Aboriginal children who failed TEOAE at age 1–2 months were 2.6 times more likely to develop OM subsequently than those who passed. Overall prevalence of type B tympanograms at field follow-up was 50% (n = 78) in Aboriginal children and 20% (n = 95) in non-Aboriginal children. Conclusion The burden of middle ear disease is high in all children, but particularly in Aboriginal children, one-third of whom suffer from moderate-severe hearing loss. In view of the frequently silent nature of OM, every opportunity must be taken to screen for OM. Measurement of TEOAEs at age 1–2 months to identify children at risk of developing OM should be evaluated in a routine health service setting. PMID:18755038

Lehmann, Deborah; Weeks, Sharon; Jacoby, Peter; Elsbury, Dimity; Finucane, Janine; Stokes, Annette; Monck, Ruth; Coates, Harvey

2008-01-01

67

Amino acid racemization dating of marine shells: A mound of possibilities  

PubMed Central

Shell middens are one of the most important and widespread indicators for human exploitation of marine resources and occupation of coastal environments. Establishing an accurate and reliable chronology for these deposits has fundamental implications for understanding the patterns of human evolution and dispersal. This paper explores the potential application of a new methodology of amino acid racemization (AAR) dating of shell middens and describes a simple protocol to test the suitability of different molluscan species. This protocol provides a preliminary test for the presence of an intracrystalline fraction of proteins (by bleaching experiments and subsequent heating at high temperature), checking the closed system behaviour of this fraction during diagenesis. Only species which pass both tests can be considered suitable for further studies to obtain reliable age information. This amino acid geochronological technique is also applied to midden deposits at two latitudinal extremes: Northern Scotland and the Southern Red Sea. Results obtained in this study indicate that the application of this new method of AAR dating of shells has the potential to aid the geochronological investigation of shell mounds in different areas of the world. PMID:21776187

Demarchi, Beatrice; Williams, Matt G.; Milner, Nicky; Russell, Nicola; Bailey, Geoff; Penkman, Kirsty

2011-01-01

68

The politics of evaluating Aboriginal Health Services.  

PubMed

Evaluation of Aboriginal Health Services (AHSs) has become a topic of importance to service providers and governments in recent years. This paper examines some of the difficulties AHSs have in conducting evaluation and presents an example of an inappropriate evaluation methodology as proposed by the Commonwealth Department of Aboriginal Affairs (DAA) in 1986. The paper examines the contradictory nature of the DAA proposal and the mistrust it has engendered in many AHSs. It then highlights some of the political difficulties in developing meaningful national and community health objectives as a basis for sound evaluation of health services. The paper concludes by identifying some of the processes whereby more appropriate evaluation methodologies might be developed and suggests that negotiation and consultation with the Aboriginal communities and their health services are imperative to successful evaluation. PMID:2627787

Moodie, R

1989-01-01

69

Communication disorders after stroke in Aboriginal Australians.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: Limited research exists on acquired communication disorders (ACD) in Aboriginal Australians despite their high rates of stroke. Their uptake of rehabilitation services is low, and little information is available on functional consequences for this population. This pilot study explored consequences of ACD for Aboriginal Australians after stroke, including their experiences of services received. Method: Semi-structured interviews were collected with 13 Aboriginal people with ACD, and family members, in Perth. Ages ranged from 30 to 78 years and time post stroke from 0.5 to 29 years. A qualitative, thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken. Results: The key themes which emerged were "getting on with life", coping with change, independence/interdependence, the importance of communication for maintaining family and community connection, role and identity issues and viewing the stroke consequences within the broader context of co-morbidities. Conclusions: While similar life disruptions were found to those previously reported in the general stroke population, this study highlighted differences, which reflect the particular context of ACD for Aboriginal people and which need to be considered when planning future services. While implications are limited due to small numbers, the findings emphasise the importance of a holistic approach, and integration of communication treatments into community-led social activities. Implications for Rehabilitation Aboriginal Australians frequently experience a range of concurrent and complex co-morbidities and demanding social or family circumstances at the same time as coping with communication disorders post-stroke. A holistic approach to post stroke rehabilitation may be appropriate with services that accommodate communication disorders, delivered in collaboration with Aboriginal organisations, emphasising positive attitudes and reintegration into community as fully as possible. Communication and yarning are important for maintaining family and community connection and identity, and family and community context should be incorporated into all assessment and treatment activities. PMID:25365701

Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan

2014-11-01

70

Successful partnerships are the key to improving Aboriginal health.  

PubMed

Partnership is a process that must be recognised as a fundamental part of any strategy for improving health outcomes for Aboriginal people. Addressing the inequities in health outcomes between Aboriginal people and other Australians will require a sustained, coordinated and well-informed approach that works to a set of goals and targets developed with input from the Aboriginal community. Partnerships provide the most effective mechanism for obtaining this essential input from Aboriginal communities and their representative organisations, enabling Aboriginal people to have an influence at all stages of the health-care process. Within the health sector, effective partnerships harness the efforts of governments and the expertise of Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services, which offer the most effective means of delivering comprehensive primary health care to Aboriginal people. PMID:22697093

Bailey, Sandra; Hunt, Jennifer

2012-06-01

71

Brothers Inside: Fathering Workshops with Aboriginal Prisoners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a fathering program that has been operating for a number of years for Aboriginal men in the corrective system. The discussion groups focus on how the men see their role as fathers whilst in jail. The discussions examine ways of changing and developing new skills for them on release. The basis of the program is that just…

Hammond, Craig

2011-01-01

72

UNIVERSITY OF CANBERRA Aboriginal and Torres Strait  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF CANBERRA Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Employment Strategy UC 2012 ­ Building for Indigenous Australians." (University of Canberra Academic, General and UCELI Staff Agreement 2006-2008:A Employment Strategy represents a commitment by the University of Canberra to work collaboratively

Canberra, University of

73

Attitudes towards Aboriginal issues in Saskatchewan  

E-print Network

Attitudes towards Aboriginal issues in Saskatchewan: A research brief January 2012 SaskatchewanGrane, St. Thomas More College, University of Saskatchewan Dr. Loleen Berdahl, University of Saskatchewan Dr and growing part of the Saskatchewan population. As of the 2006 Census (2011 Census data is not yet available

Saskatchewan, University of

74

Comet and Meteorite Traditions of Aboriginal Australians  

E-print Network

Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

Hamacher, Duane W

2014-01-01

75

Sustaining an Aboriginal mental health service partnership.  

PubMed

The Regional Aboriginal Integrated Social and Emotional (RAISE) Wellbeing program commenced in February 2003 as an Aboriginal mental health service partnership between one Aboriginal Health Service and three mainstream services: a community mental health team, a hospital mental health liaison, and an "outback" community counselling service. A case study method was used to describe the drivers (incentives for program development), linkage processes (structures and activities through which the partnership operated), and sustainability of the program. Program drivers were longstanding problems with Aboriginal peoples' access to mental health care, policy direction favouring shared service responsibility, and a relatively small amount of new funding for mental health that allowed the program to commence. Linkage processes were the important personal relationships between key individuals. Developing the program as a part of routine practice within and across the partner organisations is now needed through formal agreements, common care-management tools, and training. The program's sustainability will depend on this development occurring, as well as better collection and use of data to communicate the value of the program and support calls for adequate recurrent funds. The development of care-management tools, training and data systems will require a longer period of start-up funding as well as some external expertise. PMID:16296956

Fuller, Jeffrey D; Martinez, Lee; Muyambi, Kuda; Verran, Kathy; Ryan, Bronwyn; Klee, Ruth

2005-11-21

76

Clinical manifestations of taeniasis in Taiwan aborigines.  

PubMed

From 1974 to 1989, a total of 24,500 aborigines at 67 villages in ten mountainous districts/towns in Taiwan were examined for the Taiwan Taenia infection and 12% were found to be infected. In order to define the clinical manifestations of taeniasis caused by the Taiwan Taenia, 1661 aborigines in ten mountainous districts were surveyed. The overall clinical rate was 76%. The clinical rate was highest among Atayal aborigines (81%), followed by Bunun (66%) and Yami (61%) aborgines and lowest among Ami aborigines (40%). Among 1153 infected people, 10% had passed gravid segments in the faeces for less than 1 year, 24% for 1-3 years, 17% for 4-5 years, 23% for 6-10 years, 16% for 11-20 years, 7% for 21-30 years, and 3% over 30 years. Twenty-six occurrences of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms were reported by 1258 infected persons. Passing proglottides in the faeces (95%) was the most frequent sign, followed by pruritus ani (77%), nausea (46%), abdominal pain (45%), dizziness (42%), increased appetite (30%), headache (26%), etc. PMID:1640085

Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Lin, C Y; Chan, C H

1992-06-01

77

Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to renew the relationship between the Canadian government and the Aboriginal peoples of Canada, this action plan contains a statement of reconciliation, a statement of renewal, and four key objectives for action. First, renewing partnerships includes community-based healing to address the negative effects of the residential schools…

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

78

Developmental milestones among Aboriginal children in Canada  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Windows of achievement provide age ranges for the attainment of early developmental skills. Group-specific research is warranted given that development may be influenced by social or cultural factors. OBJECTIVES: To examine developmental milestones for Inuit, Métis and off-reserve First Nation children in Canada, based on developmental domains collected from the 2006 Aboriginal Children’s Survey. Sociodemographic and health predictors of risk for developmental delay were also examined. RESULTS: The ranges in which children achieve certain developmental milestones are presented. Gross motor and self-help skills were found to be achieved earlier (across the three Aboriginal groups), whereas language skills were achieved slightly later than in Canadian children in general. Furthermore, health factors (eg, low birth weight, chronic health conditions) were associated with late achievement of developmental outcomes even when sociodemographic characteristics were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the timing of milestone achievement may differ for Aboriginal children, highlighting the importance of establishing culturally specific norms and standards rather than relying on those derived from general populations. This information may be useful for practitioners and parents interested in identifying the age ranges for development, as well as age ranges indicating potential for developmental risk and opportunities for early intervention among Aboriginal children. PMID:24855426

Findlay, Leanne; Kohen, Dafna; Miller, Anton

2014-01-01

79

Aboriginal Teacher Education Program BACHELOR OF EDUCATION  

E-print Network

1 Aboriginal Teacher Education Program BACHELOR OF EDUCATION OR DIPLOMA IN EDUCATION APPLICATION of Native ancestry, as specified by the Ontario College of Teachers, when they apply to the College City Province Postal Code Email Address Alternate Phone Number Status in Canada Canadian Citizen

Ellis, Randy

80

Test of the prey-base hypothesis to explain use of red squirrel midden sites by American martens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the prey-base hypothesis to determine whether selection of red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) midden sites (cone caches) by American martens (Martes americana) for resting and denning could be attributed to greater abundance of small-mammal prey. Five years of livetrapping at 180 sampling stations in 2 drainages showed that small mammals, particularly red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi) and shrews (Sorex spp.),

Dean E. Pearson; Leonard F. Ruggiero

2001-01-01

81

A 16,000 14C yr B.P. packrat midden series from the USA-Mexico Borderlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals: 16,000-10,000 and 4000-0 14C yr B.P. Vegetation along pluvial lake margins consisted of open pinyon-juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis, and a rich understory of C 4 annuals and grasses. This summer-flowering understory is also characteristic of modern desert grassland in the Borderlands and indicates at least moderate summer precipitation. P. edulis and J. scopulorum disappeared or were rare in the midden record by 10,670 14C yr B.P. The late Holocene is marked by the arrival of Chihuahuan desert scrub elements and few departures as the vegetation gradually became modern in character. Larrea tridentata appears as late as 2190 14C yr B.P. based on macrofossils, but may have been present as early as 4095 14C yr B.P. based on pollen. Fouquieria splendens, one of the dominant desert species present at the site today, makes its first appearance only in the last millennium. The midden pollen assemblages are difficult to interpret; they lack modern analogs in surface pollen assemblages from stock tanks at different elevations in the Borderlands.

Holmgren, Camille A.; Peñalba, M. Cristina; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Betancourt, Julio L.

2003-11-01

82

Late Holocene vegetation and historic grazing impacts at Capital Reef National Park reconstructed using fossil packrat middens  

SciTech Connect

Late Holocene vegetation change from a high desert site in southern Utah was reconstructed using fossil plant macrofossils and pollen from packrat middens. Presettlement middens consistently contained abundant macrofossils of plant species palatable to livestock that are now absent or reduced such as: Ceratoides lanata, Stipa hymenoides, Pinus edulis, and Artemisia spp.. In contrast, species typical of overgrazed range, such as: Chrysothamnus visidiflorus, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and Gutterezia sarothrae, are now more abundant than prior to the historic introduction of grazing animals. Similar changes are evident in the fossil pollen from the packrat middens. Pine and sagebrush pollen is now far lower than prior to settlement, while Salsola sp. is first recorded following settlement. Ordination of the plant records using Detrended Correspondence Analysis demonstrates that the modem assemblages are substantially different from the presettlement assemblages and that the rates of vegetation change accompanying settlement are far greater than any recorded during the previous 5000 years. These results suggest that the plant communities and rates of vegetation change observed during this century are unlike previous natural communities and rates of vegetation change.

Cole, K.L. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

1995-06-01

83

Shell damage and shell repair in the Antarctic limpet Nacella concinna from King George Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nacella concinna is the most conspicuous macroinvertebrate in the intertidal of King George Island. An important predator, the Kelp gull Larus dominicanus, feeds on Nacella during spring low tides. The gulls deposit empty Nacella shells as regurgitates mainly on roosts on coastal rocks. The regurgitates were found to consist of 40% shell fragments by weight and 60% intact shells. Faeces of Kelp gulls contained much smaller fragments than the regurgitates. Some of the Nacella, particularly those too large to ingest, are handled in the intertidal. The middens are, therefore, inadequate to study size selection by Kelp gulls: the largest Nacella are underrepresented. Seventy-five per cent of the intact Nacella shells from the Larus middens showed one or more shell repairs. Such repairs may be due to unsuccessful attacks by gulls, but more probably they indicate damage caused by rolling ice blocks and stones in the intertidal and shallow subtidal. A number of living Nacella were found stranded on the beach, detached from the rocks. They showed damage along the shell margin and even one Nacella was collected without any shell left. The observed repair frequency of 75% in Nacella was much higher than in other (smaller) intertidal gastropods at Potter Peninsula (3-11%, av. 8%). Comparably high frequencies are observed for instance in tropical intertidal gastropods, where repair is due to heavy unsuccessful crab predation; however, shell-crushing crabs are absent on King George Island. This indicates that palaeontologists should be cautious in ascribing all shell repairs in fossil shells (particularly from tidal environments) to predators. Shell repair in the related Nacella deaurata, collected in a less exposed site at Port Stanley (Falkland Islands), occurred only in 13% of the specimens. Another conspicuous form of shell damage was due to grazing by Nacella on the boring algae living in other Nacella shells. Epigrowth of crustose calcareous algae inhibited such grazing, but in the absence of epigrowth deep hollows were scraped in the shells, the parallel scratches by the radula clearly visible, urging Nacella to repair its shell by producing more shelly material on the inside.

Cadée, Gerhard C.

1999-03-01

84

Considering Aboriginal palliative care models: the challenges for mainstream services.  

PubMed

This review discusses palliative care and end-of-life models of care for Aboriginal people in the Australian state New South Wales, and considers Aboriginal palliative care needs by reflecting on recent literature and lessons derived from Aboriginal consultation. Aboriginal people in Australia account for a very small proportion of the population, have poorer health outcomes and their culture demonstrates a clear resistance to accessing mainstream health services which are viewed as powerful, isolating and not relevant to their culture, way of life, family and belief systems. Aboriginal people regard their land as spiritual and their culture dictates that an Aboriginal person needs to know their origins, emphasising the value placed on kin and also demonstrating a strong desire to remain within their own country. Currently Aboriginal people tend to not access palliative care services in mainstream facilities; and there is very little data on Aboriginal admissions to palliative care centres. Over the last two decades only two models of palliative care focusing on and developed in Aboriginal communities have been implemented. The seminal contribution to Aboriginal Palliative Care was in the form of a resource kit developed to support palliative care providers to examine their practice for cultural appropriateness for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. The 'living model' coming from this project is adaptive and flexible, enabling implementation in different Aboriginal country as a participative process with community input. The Australian government's National Indigenous Palliative Care Needs Study similarly indicated that Australian empirical research on Aboriginal palliative care service provision is in its infancy, and comprehensive data on the rates of Aboriginal access to palliative care services did not exist. What literature does exist is drawn together in an argument for the development and need for culturally specific Aboriginal palliative care models, which are culturally appropriate, locally accessible and delivered in collaboration and partnership with Aboriginal controlled health services. This is essential because Aboriginal people are a minority cultural group who are disconnected from mainstream health service delivery, and have a sense of cultural isolation when accessing mainstream services. It is preferable that palliative care is delivered in a collaboration between Aboriginal Controlled Health Service and mainstream palliative care services to ensure a dignified end of life for the Aboriginal person. These collaborations and partnerships are fundamental to ensure that a critical mass of Aboriginal clinicians are trained and experienced in end of life care and palliation. Developing palliative care programs within Aboriginal communities and training Aboriginal Health Workers, promoted and developed in partnership with the Aboriginal community, are important strategies to enhance palliative care service provision. Further partnerships should be championed in this collaborative process, acknowledging a need for palliative care models that fit with Aboriginal peoples' community values, beliefs, cultural/ spiritual rituals, heritage and place. PMID:23651262

O'Brien, Anthony P; Bloomer, Melissa J; McGrath, Pam; Clark, Katherine; Martin, Tony; Lock, Mark; Pidcock, Tina; van der Riet, Pamela; O'Connor, Margaret

2013-01-01

85

Fostering Fire: Cultural mentorship for Aboriginal girls in foster care on Vancouver Island.  

E-print Network

??Historically and currently, the federal and provincial or territorial governments of Canada have neglected to ensure that Aboriginal children in foster care receive genuine, Aboriginal-centered… (more)

Ritchie, Katherine

2015-01-01

86

The MACAW Study : models of antenatal care for Aboriginal women with diabetes.  

E-print Network

??[Truncated abstract] Introduction: Australian Aboriginal people do not experience the same health as Australian non- Aboriginal people. The Australian universal health care is not universally… (more)

Porter, Cynthia Louise

2013-01-01

87

My journey into Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.  

PubMed

Although all Australian healthcare providers are acutely aware of the health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, many general practitioners may feel unprepared to take on the challenge of working in an Aboriginal medical service or in a remote Indigenous community. To highlight the immense rewards, without minimising the challenges, AFP invited Dr Lara Wieland, a GP with longstanding experience in the front-line of providing primary care for Aboriginal peoples, to share her thoughts. PMID:24563885

Wieland, Lara

2014-01-01

88

Decolonizing sexual health nursing with Aboriginal women.  

PubMed

Nurses striving to provide quality health care for and with Indigenous individuals and communities in Australia face particular challenges. Past and present discriminatory or non-responsive health-care practices and policies have caused many Aboriginal women and their families to mistrust health-care professionals and practices. It is vital that nurses develop culturally safe and respectful ways of working in partnership with Aboriginal colleagues and clients. The author discusses how nurses in both Canada and Australia have drawn on critical and postcolonial feminist theories, Indigenous epistemologies and methodologies, and models of cultural safety to develop a more responsive, decolonizing approach to health care and training. Two practice examples from the Australian context highlight both the challenges and the benefits of incorporating decolonizing approaches into practice. The similarities in and differences between situations reveal a clear need for responsive and flexible decolonizing approaches. PMID:24236371

Kelly, Janet

2013-09-01

89

Adverse outcomes among Aboriginal patients receiving peritoneal dialysis  

PubMed Central

Background The Aboriginal population in Canada experiences high rates of end-stage renal disease and need for dialytic therapies. Our objective was to examine rates of mortality, technique failure and peritonitis among adult aboriginal patients receiving peritoneal dialysis in the province of Manitoba. We also aimed to explore whether differences in these rates may be accounted for by location of residence (i.e., urban versus rural). Methods We included all adult patients residing in the province of Manitoba who received peritoneal dialysis during the period from 1997–2007 (n = 727). We extracted data from a local administrative database and from the Canadian Organ Replacement Registry and the Peritonitis Organism Exit-sites/Tunnel infections (POET) database. We used Cox and logistic regression models to determine the relationship between outcomes and Aboriginal ethnicity. We performed Kaplan–Meier analyses to examine the relationship between outcomes and urban (i.e., 50 km or less from the primary dialysis centre in Winnipeg) versus rural (i.e., more than 50 km from the centre) residency among patients who were aboriginal. Results One hundred sixty-one Aboriginal and 566 non-Aboriginal patients were included in the analyses. Adjusted hazard ratios for mortality (HR 1.476, CI 1.073–2.030) and adjusted time to peritonitis (HR 1.785, CI 1.352–2.357) were significantly higher among Aboriginal patients than among non-Aboriginal patients. We found no significant differences in mortality, technique failure or peritonitis between urban- or rural-residing Aboriginal patients. Interpretation Compared with non-Aboriginal patients receiving peritoneal dialysis, Aboriginal patients receiving peritoneal dialysis had higher mortality and faster time to peritonitis independent of comorbidities and demographic characteristics. This effect was not influenced by place of residence, whether rural or urban. PMID:20660579

Sood, Manish M.; Komenda, Paul; Sood, Amy R.; Reslerova, Martina; Verrelli, Mauro; Sathianathan, Chris; Eng, Loretta; Eng, Amanda; Rigatto, Claudio

2010-01-01

90

Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ? 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ?0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the case in Australia, and along with Gorelli, I encourage WGN readers to get involved in studying meteoritic events in oral traditions. There is a lot of information regarding meteoritical events and phenomena in the literature that is still waiting to be collected and analysed ...and I applaud McBeath for his pursuit to publish this material through the successful Meteor Beliefs Project!

Hamacher, Duane W.

2011-06-01

91

TUBERCULOSIS 1 Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Populations in Canada  

E-print Network

TUBERCULOSIS 1 Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Populations in Canada: The Role of Health Care, PhD March 27, 2013 #12;TUBERCULOSIS 2 Abstract The persistent presence of infectious and increasingly). Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which is far more common in the Aboriginal population than the Canadian

Peak, Derek

92

Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, and its own ceremonies and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Sadly, the Australian media tend to focus on negative aspects of contemporary Aboriginal culture, and very few non-Aboriginal people in the wider Australian community are aware of the intellectual depth of traditional Aboriginal cultures. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 seemed an excellent opportunity to tell the wider public about Aboriginal astronomy, so that they might understand something of the depth and complexity of traditional Aboriginal cultures. This article describes some of the challenges and successes of this programme, and the impact that this work has had on Australian perceptions of Aboriginal culture, helping to build a bridge across the cultures. It also describes the achievement of an unexpected and unplanned goal: the inclusion of Aboriginal astronomy opened up astronomy to a section of the population who had never before intentionally attended a talk on science.

Norris, R. P.

2010-10-01

93

An Exploratory Study of Binge Drinking in the Aboriginal Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is little research available on binge drinking among the Aboriginal population. Between March and June 2004, 15 Aboriginal persons participated in a semi-structured interview related to their binge drinking behaviors. The majority of participants were women and described a family history of alcoholism and childhood abuse. Factors that…

Wardman, Dennis; Quantz, Darryl

2005-01-01

94

Reconsidering Approaches to Aboriginal Science and Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Canada, Aboriginal postsecondary enrollment and completion rates are significantly lower than those of non-Aboriginal students. This is most evident in studies involving science and mathematics. The investigation of this issue was informed by focus group discussions with eight participants representing a Blackfoot community. Themes emerging in…

Sterenberg, Gladys; Hogue, Michelle

2011-01-01

95

Aboriginal Education at Two Australian Schools: Under One Dream  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the author shares his experience visiting two schools that serve Aboriginal children in the state of Queensland, Australia: (1) Cherbourg State School in central Queensland; and (2) Kuranda State School in the Far North. Prior to his visit he had learned somewhat of Australia's troubled history regarding Aboriginal education, a…

Hones, Donald F.

2005-01-01

96

On the reception of aboriginal art in German art space  

Microsoft Academic Search

German art history and ethnology have led to a binary reading of art that has inhibited the exhibition of Aboriginal art as contemporary art in the twentieth and early twenty-first century. This thesis addresses the question of how Australian Aboriginal art is displayed in the institutional spaces of art galleries and museums in Germany. I argue that there is an

Friederike Krishnabhakdi-Vasilakis

2009-01-01

97

Aboriginal Child Welfare: Framework for a National Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The executive officer, Secretariat of the National Aboriginal and Islander Child Care (Australia), examines the problems confronting aboriginal children in the welfare system and their overrepresentation in foster care and concludes that the system must be examined to identify sources of racism and action needs, as a precursor to child welfare…

D'Souza, Nigel

1993-01-01

98

Aspirations of Adult Learners in Aboriginal Family Service Agencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a gap in the literature on the experiences of Aboriginal adults who have made the transition into education and employment after moving to an urban community. Staff of three Aboriginal inner-city family services agencies participated in an interview that included the question: What changes do you see in your employment and education?…

Brown, Jason; Fraehlich, Cheryl; Debassige, Brent

2012-01-01

99

Creating Community: A Roundtable on Canadian Aboriginal Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 13 essays on Canadian Aboriginal literature. Topics include literary criticism, pedagogical issues, and the experiences of Native authors and of faculty teaching Aboriginal literature in mainstream institutions. Entries are: (1) "Natives on Native Literature: What Do We Rightly Write? Or: Shot Headfirst from the Canon" (Anna…

Eigenbrod, Renate, Ed.; Episkenew, Jo-Ann, Ed.

100

Relationships Matter: Supporting Aboriginal Graduate Students in British Columbia, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current Canadian landscape of graduate education has pockets of presence of Indigenous faculty, students, and staff. The reality is that all too often, Aboriginal graduate students are either among the few, or is the sole Aboriginal person in an entire faculty. They usually do not have mentorship or guidance from an Indigenous faculty member…

Pidgeon, Michelle; Archibald, Jo-ann; Hawkey, Colleen

2014-01-01

101

Aboriginal English: Some Grammatical Features and Their Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…

Malcolm, Ian G.

2013-01-01

102

Black sisterhood: The situation of urban aboriginal women and their relationship to the white women's movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article argues that Aboriginal women in urban aboriginal society experience very different oppressions than do white women in urban white society. Aboriginal women believe that their greatest oppression is racism not sexism. When their objective conditions are examined it becomes obvious that this is indeed so. In fact Aboriginal women are statistically better educated and better employed than are

Meredith Burgmann

1982-01-01

103

Becoming "Real" Aboriginal Teachers: Attending to Intergenerational Narrative Reverberations and Responsibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our paper, and the inquiry from which it emerges, is situated in world-wide concern to increase the numbers of Aboriginal teachers in schools. In Canada, the population of Aboriginal young people is rapidly increasing. Yet, at the same time, the gap between the attainment of a university credential in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations is…

Young, Mary; Chester, Jerri-Lynn; Flett, Brenda Mary; Joe, Lucy; Marshall, Laura; Moore, Dorothy; Paul, Khea; Paynter, Florence; Williams, Jennifer; Huber, Janice

2010-01-01

104

Preliminary development and content validity of a measure of Australian Aboriginal cultural engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Aboriginal people form one of the populations most in need of mental health and substance abuse services within Australia, although many services are not adequately sensitive to, or inclusive of, relevant aspects of Aboriginal culture in their programmes. The Aboriginal Cultural Engagement Survey (ACES) was developed with the objective of assessing the level of cultural engagement of Aboriginal clients.

Stacey L. Berry; Trevor P. Crowe; Frank P. Deane

2012-01-01

105

Mining the Midden: A Facility for Dynamic Waste Harvesting at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining the Midden intends to re-frame the sanitary landfill as a new typology of public land containing an embodied energy of cultural and material value. By reconnecting the public with the landfill and seriously exposing its layers of history and then digesting both mined and new waste within an industrial facility of materials recovery and plasma gasification technology waste-to-energy plant. The sequence of experience for a public visitor begins where the waste is transformed to energy and flows in the opposite direction of the trash through the facility and then into the active landfill mining operation which is the large site component of the project. The mine is flanked by the visitor path, which is suspended from the soldier piles of the excavation system and allows the visitor to interpret along the 1/3 mile path their personal connection to the waste stream and the consumption patterns which drive our waste. Interpretation results from multi-sensory experience of the open mine and its connection to the processing structure as one hovers above, through moments of seeing through structural glass lagging directly into the sectional cut of the landfill, and through cultural artifacts harvested by landfill archaeologists which are displayed in rhythm with the structure and lagging. The culmination of the prescribed path is a narrow cut which frames the view of Mt. Rainier in the distance and opens up a visual connection with the remaining majority of the landfill which have up to this point been blocked by the small mountain of trash which they just walked up and through. This thesis intends that by confronting people with the juxtapositions of 2 potentially destructive mounds or mountains, and how we as a culture value and protect land while we simultaneously dump our rubbish on other lands, this experience will make the visitor more conscious of ones personal contribution to our culture of disposable commodities.

Allan, Aaron

106

The University of Saskatchewan's Aboriginal Equity Access Program in dentistry.  

PubMed

Persons of Aboriginal ancestry are underrepresented in the dental profession in North America. In Canada, the University of Saskatchewan College of Dentistry began a proactive program to recruit, retain, and graduate more Aboriginal students in 1996. This program, entitled the Aboriginal Equity Access Program, has seen the inclusion of twenty-two Aboriginal students in the predoctoral program. This article describes the program and reports on the success of the students enrolled via this route. The primary conclusion is that selection of Aboriginal dental students with lower entry scores--who would not have gained entry if the program did not exist--has not impaired their ability to successfully complete the dental undergraduate program and pass the National Dental Examining Board licensure examination. PMID:24489025

Teplitsky, Paul Elliot; Uswak, Gerald Stephen

2014-02-01

107

Raising Awareness of Australian Aboriginal Peoples Reality: Embedding Aboriginal Knowledge in Social Work Education through the Use of Field Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective social work practice with Aboriginal peoples and communities requires knowledge of operational communication skills and practice methods. In addition, there is also a need for practitioners to be aware of the history surrounding white engagement with Aboriginal communities and their cultures. Indeed, the Australian Association of Social…

Duthie, Deb; King, Julie; Mays, Jenni

2013-01-01

108

The Structural and Predictive Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…

Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.

2013-01-01

109

Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

2013-11-01

110

Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2014-06-01

111

Aboriginal Oral Traditions of Australian Impact Craters  

E-print Network

We explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records, and fieldtrip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool, and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff and Wolfe Creek craters and non-impact origins of Liverpool and Henbury craters, with Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have formed during human habitation of Australia - Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole - do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

Hamacher, Duane W

2013-01-01

112

Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage.  

PubMed

We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates. PMID:24751666

Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H

2014-07-01

113

An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia  

PubMed Central

We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa. PMID:21940856

Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Tridico, Silvana; Metspalu, Ene; Nielsen, Kasper; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Muller, Craig; Dortch, Joe; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Lund, Ole; Wesolowska, Agata; Karmin, Monika; Weinert, Lucy A.; Wang, Bo; Li, Jun; Tai, Shuaishuai; Xiao, Fei; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; van Driem, George; Jha, Aashish R.; Ricaut, François-Xavier; de Knijff, Peter; Migliano, Andrea B; Romero, Irene Gallego; Kristiansen, Karsten; Lambert, David M.; Brunak, Søren; Forster, Peter; Brinkmann, Bernd; Nehlich, Olaf; Bunce, Michael; Richards, Michael; Gupta, Ramneek; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Krogh, Anders; Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta M.; Balloux, Francois; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

2013-01-01

114

Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy  

E-print Network

1 Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy Ray P. Norris CSIRO Astronomy & Space Science, NSW, Australia Warawara Dept. The International year of Astronomy seemed an excellent opportunity to tell the wider

Norris, Ray

115

Colonial judiciaries, Aboriginal protection and South Australia's policy of punishing "with exemplary severity".  

PubMed

The ways in which Europeans experienced the legal system for crimes against Aboriginal people needs more systematic research. Although for the first fifty years of Australian settlement Aboriginal legal status was protractedly ambiguous, the foundational principle of later-established South Australia was that Aboriginal people were British subjects and settler crimes against them would be punished 'with exemplary severity'. This paper puts this foundational principle to the test by examining the working of the legal system where Europeans were investigated for the deaths of Aboriginal people. Ultimately, we argue, the principle of protecting Aboriginal people as British subjects not only failed, but became inverted into a principle of Aboriginal punishment. PMID:20845583

Nettelbeck, Amanda; Foster, Robert

2010-01-01

116

Dialysis and transplantation among Aboriginal children with kidney failure  

PubMed Central

Background: Relatively little is known about the management and outcomes of Aboriginal children with renal failure in Canada. We evaluated differences in dialysis modality, time spent on dialysis, rates of kidney transplantation, and patient and allograft survival between Aboriginal children and non-Aboriginal children. Methods: For this population-based cohort study, we used data from a national pediatric end-stage renal disease database. Patients less than 18 years old who started renal replacement treatment (dialysis or kidney transplantation) in nine Canadian provinces (Quebec data were not available) and all three territories between 1992 and 2007 were followed until death, loss to follow-up or end of the study period. We compared initial modality of dialysis and time to first kidney transplant between Aboriginal children, white children and children of other ethnicity. We examined the association between ethnicity and likelihood of kidney transplantation using adjusted Cox proportional hazard models for Aboriginal and white children (data for the children of other ethnicity did not meet the assumptions of proportional hazards). Results: Among 843 pediatric patients included in the study, 104 (12.3%) were Aboriginal, 521 (61.8%) were white, and 218 (25.9%) were from other ethnic minorities. Hemodialysis was the initial modality of dialysis for 48.0% of the Aboriginal patients, 42.7% of the white patients and 62.6% of those of other ethnicity (p < 0.001). The time from start of dialysis to first kidney transplant was longer among the Aboriginal children (median 1.75 years, interquartile range 0.69–2.81) than among the children in the other two groups (p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounders, Aboriginal children were less likely than white children to receive a transplant from a living donor (hazard ratio [HR] 0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21–0.61) or a transplant from any donor (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.40–0.74) during the study period. Interpretation: The time from start of dialysis to first kidney transplant was longer among Aboriginal children than among white children. Further evaluation is needed to determine barriers to transplantation among Aboriginal children. PMID:21609989

Samuel, Susan M.; Foster, Bethany J.; Tonelli, Marcello A.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Soo, Andrea; Alexander, R. Todd; Crowshoe, Lynden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.

2011-01-01

117

Planning without facts: Ontario's Aboriginal health information challenge.  

PubMed

The majority of First Nations, Metis, and Inuit people living in the Canadian province of Ontario have less access to quality health care than the population as a whole. Yet improving the situation is hampered by the lack of an information system that documents fundamental facts about Aboriginal people's health status and services utilization. Without a means to collect such data, these knowledge deficits will persist, making the planning and provision of culturally appropriate services impossible. The Ontario Health Quality Council commissioned a study to (1) review data collection systems in other Canadian jurisdictions and (2) determine what Ontario needs in order to have a comprehensive Aboriginal health information system. The study involved a review of 177 policy and technical documents and interviews with 20 key informants in Ontario, as well as Canada's other provinces and territories. Results showed that the capacity to document Aboriginal peoples' health and service utilization varies significantly, depending on existing provincial/territorial health data sets and the ability to cross-link health data using unique identifiers. Some jurisdictions can locate Aboriginal data using health cards, health benefits payment information, or vital statistics identifiers; others rely on linkages using federal or provincial Aboriginal registry and membership lists. All have the capability to conduct geographical analyses to identify health and service utilization for communities or regions that have significant Aboriginal populations. To improve health information in Ontario, Aboriginal people's collective entitlements to information about their communities must be recognized. The authors outline implications of a set of principles that Canada's First Nations have adopted, commonly referred to as OCAP (Ownership, Control, Access, and Possession), on the collection, storage, use, and interpretation of health data. Only through negotiation with Aboriginal peoples can health information systems be established that meet their needs, as well as those of decision-makers and care providers. PMID:19437263

Minore, Bruce; Katt, Mae; Hill, Mary Ellen

2009-01-01

118

Palatal rugae patterns in Australian aborigines and Caucasians.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether rugae patterns change with age and to compare the number and pattern of rugae in Australian Aborigines with those of Caucasians. For the longitudinal part of the study, serial dental casts of ten Aborigines, from 6 to 20 years of age, were examined and rugae patterns were recorded. To enable comparisons to be made between different ethnic groups an additional 100 dental casts of Australian Aborigines and 200 casts of caucasians, ranging in age from 13 to 17 years, were examined. Characteristics observed were number, length, shape, direction and unification of rugae. The length of rugae increased significantly with age but the total number of rugae remained constant. Thirty-two per cent of rugae showed changes in shape, while 28 per cent displayed a change in orientation. In contrast to studies suggesting that rugae move forward with age, the majority of Aboriginal rugae that changed direction moved posteriorly. Changes in rugae patterns have been assumed to result from palatal growth but alterations in pattern were observed in the Aboriginal sample even after palatal growth had ceased. The mean number of primary rugae in Aborigines was higher than in Caucasians, although more primary rugae in Caucasians exceeded 10 mm in length than in Aborigines. The most common shapes in both ethnic groups were wavy and curved forms, whereas straight and circular types were least common. There was a statistically significant association between rugae forms and ethnicity, straight forms being more common in Caucasians whereas wavy forms were more common Aborigines. PMID:9153843

Kapali, S; Townsend, G; Richards, L; Parish, T

1997-04-01

119

Grannies, elders, and friends: aging aboriginal women in toronto.  

PubMed

Based on a research project in Toronto, Canada, this article highlights the strengths and resiliency of 12 female Aboriginal Elders and seniors as they age together. For these women, being actively involved in their families and the Aboriginal community gives them a solid grounding in who they are, what their roles are and how they contribute to the whole. Of particular significance is the support and friendship the women offer each other through their commonalities, activities, and sense of humor. PMID:25026198

Baskin, Cyndy; Davey, Caitlin J

2015-01-01

120

Prenatal care through the eyes of Canadian Aboriginal women.  

PubMed

The Aboriginal Prenatal Wellness Program (APWP) in Canada represents a culturally safe approach to prenatal care. By understanding the history of colonization and residential schools and how this history has contributed to health disparities, a multidisciplinary team provides culturally competent and integrated prenatal care to Aboriginal women and their families. This article describes the APWP and discusses how increased participation in health care by historically marginalized populations can lead to better maternal and neonatal health outcomes. PMID:24548495

Di Lallo, Sherri

2014-01-01

121

Engaging with holism in Australian Aboriginal health policy – a review  

PubMed Central

Background The ideal concept of Aboriginal holistic health is centrally placed in Australian Aboriginal health policies and strategies. Its effective uptake promises, as advocates suggest, reorienting the complex Australian health system to enable health improvements. However, continual reminders assail us that Aboriginal health is shocking, appalling, disastrous, disgraceful and damning. Could incapacity to engage effectively with the concept undermine health system improvements? The aim of this review of Australian literature was to identify the range of meanings attached to Aboriginal holistic health and engage with their implications for the health system. Results In terms of literature synthesis I found that policy makers cannot rely on this approach to provide coherent arguments for meaningful engagement with the concept because authors in general: are uncritical and un-reflexive in the use and interpretation of the concept; often provide no reference for their understandings; tend to alter the concept's definition and constituent elements without justification; ignore the wide range of mainstream literature about holism and health; and fail to acknowledge and examine the range of Aboriginal concepts of health. I used the ten themes from this literature to highlight implications for the health system, and found that a most profound contradiction exists in the acceptance of the English language concept 'holistic' as immutably Aboriginal. Additionally, a range of contradictions and mixed messages within the themes challenge the validity of the concept. Significantly, with the boundary of the concept constructed as diffuse and ethereal, the diverse and uncritical literature, and mixed thematic meanings, it is possible to justify any claim about the health system as holistic. Conclusion It seems not so much incapacity to engage, but incapacity to coherently articulate Aboriginal concepts of health, which prevents advisory bodies such as the National Indigenous Council to imbue whole-of-government approaches in accordance with Aboriginal values. PMID:16014165

Lutschini, Mark

2005-01-01

122

Oral Health of Aboriginal Preschool Children in Northern Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aboriginal preschool children across Canada are at increased risk for Early Childhood Caries (ECC) when com- pared with their non-Aboriginal age cohorts. Current research indicates that dental public health programs fail to prevent ECC because intervention often arrives too late. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of the dental hygiene-coordinated pre- natal nutrition program, delivered by community-based nutrition educators on

Herenia P. Lawrence; Marilyn Romanetz; Lynn Rutherford; Lynn Cappel; Darlene Binguis; James B. Rogers

2004-01-01

123

Review article: The Aboriginal experience: A problem of interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raymond Evans, Kay Saunders and Kathryn Cronin, RACE RELATIONS IN COLONIAL QUEENSLAND: A HISTORY OF EXCLUSION, EXPLOITATION AND EXTERMINATION, St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 1988 (fp.1975), 450 pp., $26.95.Henry Reynolds, WITH THE WHITE PEOPLE: THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF ABORIGINES IN THE EXPLOITATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF AUSTRALIA, Ringwood: Penguin Books, 1990, 288 pp., $16.99.Jeff Collmann, FRINGE?DWELLERS AND WELFARE: THE ABORIGINAL

Gillian Cowlishaw

1992-01-01

124

Helicobacter pylori infection in Canadian and related Arctic Aboriginal populations  

PubMed Central

In 2006, the Canadian Helicobacter Study Group identified Aboriginal communities among Canadian population groups most at risk of Helicobacter pylori-associated disease. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize what is known about the H pylori-associated disease burden in Canadian and related Arctic Aboriginal populations to identify gaps in knowledge. Six health literature databases were systematically searched to identify reports on H pylori prevalence in Canadian population groups, or any topic related to H pylori in Canadian Aboriginals, Alaska Natives or Aboriginals of other Arctic regions. Identified reports were organized by subtopic and summarized in narrative form. Key data from studies of H pylori prevalence in defined populations were summarized in tabular form. A few Arctic Aboriginal communities were represented in the literature: two Canadian Inuit; one Canadian First Nation; two Greenland Inuit; one Russian Chutkotka Native; and several Alaska Native studies. These studies uniformly showed elevated H pylori prevalence; a few studies also showed elevated occurrence of H pylori-related diseases and high rates of treatment failure. Based on the evidence, it would be warranted for clinicians to relax the criteria for investigating H pylori and related diseases in patients from Arctic Aboriginal communities, and to pursue post-therapy confirmation of eradication. Additional community-based research is needed to develop public health policies for reducing H pylori-associated health risks in such communities. PMID:18354758

Goodman, Karen J; Jacobson, Kevan; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen

2008-01-01

125

Owning solutions: a collaborative model to improve quality in hospital care for Aboriginal Australians.  

PubMed

Well-documented health disparities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter referred to as Aboriginal) and non-Aboriginal Australians are underpinned by complex historical and social factors. The effects of colonisation including racism continue to impact negatively on Aboriginal health outcomes, despite being under-recognised and under-reported. Many Aboriginal people find hospitals unwelcoming and are reluctant to attend for diagnosis and treatment, particularly with few Aboriginal health professionals employed on these facilities. In this paper, scientific literature and reports on Aboriginal health-care, methodology and cross-cultural education are reviewed to inform a collaborative model of hospital-based organisational change. The paper proposes a collaborative model of care to improve health service delivery by building capacity in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal personnel by recruiting more Aboriginal health professionals, increasing knowledge and skills to establish good relationships between non-Aboriginal care providers and Aboriginal patients and their families, delivering quality care that is respectful of culture and improving Aboriginal health outcomes. A key element of model design, implementation and evaluation is critical reflection on barriers and facilitators to providing respectful and culturally safe quality care at systemic, interpersonal and patient/family-centred levels. Nurses are central to addressing the current state of inequity and are pivotal change agents within the proposed model. PMID:22530862

Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Thompson, Sandra C; Davidson, Patricia M; Bessarab, Dawn; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M

2012-06-01

126

Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in nine aboriginal groups of Taiwan: implications for the population history of aboriginal Taiwanese.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms in the D-loop region and the intergenic COII/tRNA(Lys) 9-bp deletion were examined in 180 individuals from all nine aboriginal Taiwanese groups: Atayal, Saisiat, Bunun, Tsou, Rukai, Paiwan, Ami, Puyuma, and Yami. A comparison of 563-bp sequences showed that there were 61 different sequence types, of which 42 types were specific to respective aboriginal groups. D-loop sequence variation and phylogenetic analysis enabled the 180 aboriginal lineages to be classified into eight monophyletic clusters (designated C1-C8). Phylogeographic analysis revealed that two (C2 and C4) of the eight clusters were new characteristic clusters of aboriginal Taiwanese and accounted for 8.3% and 13.9% of the aboriginal lineages, respectively. From the estimated coalescent times for the two unique clusters, the mtDNA lineages leading to such clusters were inferred to have been introduced into Taiwan approximately 11,000-26,000 years ago, suggesting ancient immigrations of the two mtDNA lineages. Genetic distances, based on net nucleotide diversities between populations, revealed three distinct clusters that were comprised of northern mountain (Atayal and Saisiat), southern mountain (Rukai and Paiwan), and middle mountain/east coast (Bunun, Tsou, Ami, Puyuma, and Yami) groups, respectively. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of 16 human populations (including six other Asian populations and one African population) confirmed that the three clusters for aboriginal Taiwanese had remained largely intact. Each of the clusters (north, south, and middle-east coast) was characterized by a high frequency of a particular lineage (C4, C2, and 9-bp deletion, respectively). This may result from random genetic drift among the aboriginal groups after a single introduction of all the mtDNA lineages into Taiwan, but another plausible explanation is that at least three genetically distinct ancestral populations have contributed to the maternal gene pool of aboriginal Taiwanese. PMID:12687351

Tajima, Atsushi; Sun, Cheih-Shan; Pan, I-Hung; Ishida, Takafumi; Saitou, Naruya; Horai, Satoshi

2003-07-01

127

An Approach to Evaluating Research Developed by Five Aboriginal Health Workers Currently Studying at Batchelor College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the principles of Both Ways (incorporating cross-cultural perspectives), five Aboriginal health workers developed evaluation guidelines for research on Aboriginal populations. The guidelines address whether and how the perspectives of the population are integrated into the research. (SK)

Grootjans, John; Spiers, Michele

1996-01-01

128

Inadequacies in antiretroviral therapy use among Aboriginal and other Canadian populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook this study to provide a profile of Aboriginal people initiating antiretroviral therapy and their response to treatment. Aboriginal peoples were identified through self-report. Baseline socio-demographics and risk factors were compared between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants as were baseline factors associated with two consecutive plasma viral load measures below 500 copies\\/ml using contingency table analysis. Multivariate survival analysis of

C. L. Miller; P. M. Spittal; E. Wood; K. Chan; M. T. Schechter; J. S. G. Montaner; R. S. Hogg

2006-01-01

129

Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies: Catalogue of Tape Archive, No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The object of this catalogue is to make available basic information on the tape archive of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies (Canberra, Australia). The collection consists mainly of tape recordings of Australian aboriginal languages and music. Other tapes contain descriptions of aboriginal customs, myths of the various tribes told in…

Jones, Audrey M.

130

A Social History of the Manitoba Metis. The Development and Loss of Aboriginal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of aboriginal rights has been interpreted in various ways. Too often the general public does not understand fully what is meant by aboriginal rights. This topic has been debated in Parliament since Confederation and the general attitude of the news media has been to overlook it as unimportant. By definition, an aboriginal right is what…

Pelletier, Emile

131

Building Cultural Bridges with Aboriginal Learners and Their "Classmates" for Transformative Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians is the most significant social policy challenge facing Canada (Richards 2008). This gap is particularly evident in the science fields. Educational institutions are still regarded as mechanisms of colonization by many Aboriginal people. Their "foreign" Eurocentric (or Western)…

Hatcher, Annamarie

2012-01-01

132

The Process of Coping with Changes: A Study of Learning Experiences for the Aboriginal Nursing Freshmen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Given the increasing presence of aborigines in Taiwan higher education, especially in nursing institutes, the retention and adaptation of aboriginal students is a critical issue for research. Understanding the adjustment and transformation process of aboriginal nursing freshmen is very important for improving their learning, but very…

Liu, Ruo Lan

2012-01-01

133

Intellectual Property and Aboriginal People: A Working Paper = Propriete intellectuelle et Autochtones: Document de travail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in English and French, this paper outlines current Canadian intellectual property legislation as it relates to Aboriginal people in Canada, and provides a general review of the implications and limitations of this legislation for protecting the traditional knowledge of Aboriginal people. An initial discussion of Aboriginal perspectives…

Brascoupe, Simon; Endemann, Karin

134

A Survey of the Literature on Aboriginal Language Learning and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature survey was conducted to provide information on Aboriginal language learning and teaching in Alberta. Specifically, it provides an overview of the current literature relating to: the language-to-culture connection, aboriginal language pedagogy and instructional practices, and parental and community involvement. The Aboriginal

Ottmann, Jacqueline; Abel, Jennifer; Flynn, Darin; Bird, Stan

2007-01-01

135

A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

2010-01-01

136

Keeping the Seventh Fire: Developing an Undergraduate Degree Program for Aboriginal Adult Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brock University (Ontario); an Ontario television station; and the Iroquois, Ojibwa, and Metis Nations are collaborating on the development of an Aboriginal adult education degree program. The clan system was modified for use as a planning tool, elders and other Aboriginal educators were included, and Aboriginal learning styles and perspectives…

Kompf, Michael; Hodson, John

2000-01-01

137

In search of a Healing Place: Aboriginal women in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on general health service delivery in urban areas of Canada shows that Aboriginal people face formidable barriers in accessing culturally appropriate and timely care. Over the past decade, Urban Aboriginal Health Centres (UAHCs) have emerged to address the unmet health concerns of Aboriginal people living in metropolitan areas of the country. The purpose of this research was to address

Cecilia Benoit; Dena Carroll; Munaza Chaudhry

2003-01-01

138

Health and Quality of Life of Aboriginal Residential School Survivors, Bella Coola Valley, 2001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to make comparisons between Aboriginal residential school survivors' perceptions of health status and overall quality of life, and Aboriginal non-residential school attendees, as well as between non-Aboriginals. Data were obtained from thirty-three questions derived from the 2001 Determinants of Health and Quality of…

Barton, Sylvia S.; Thommasen, Harvey V.; Tallio, Bill; Zhang, William; Michalos, Alex C.

2005-01-01

139

Late Quaternary Vegetation History and Paleoclimate of the U.S.A.Mexico Borderlands Region From Two New Packrat Midden Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new packrat midden (Neotoma spp.) chronologies reveal glacial to interglacial changes in vegetation and climate in the Playas and San Simon Valleys in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. The Borderlands, where the states of Arizona and New Mexico intersect with each other and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora, are characterized by several northwest-southeast trending and tilted fault-block ranges separated

C. A. Holmgren; M. Penalba; K. Aasen Rylander; J. L. Betancourt

2003-01-01

140

Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

2010-04-01

141

Rodent middens, a new method for Quaternary research in arid zones of South America [Paleomadrigueras de roedores, un nuevo me??todo para el estudio del Cuaternario en zonas a??ridas de Sudame??rica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In arid and semi-arid regions of South America, historical evidence for climate and vegetation change is scarce despite its importance for determining reference conditions and rates of natural variability in areas susceptible to modern desertification. Normal lines of evidence, such as pollen stratigraphies from lakes, are either rare or unobtainable in deserts; studies of late Quaternary vegetation history are few and generally inconclusive. This gap in knowledge may be corrected with discovery and development of fossil rodent middens in rocky environments throughout arid South America. These middens, mostly the work of Lagidium, Phyllotis, Abrocoma and Octodontomys, are rich in readily identifiable plant macrofossils, cuticles and pollen, as well as vertebrate and insect remains. In the North American deserts, more than 2,500 woodrat (Neotoma) middens analyzed since 1960 have yielded a detailed history of environmental change during the past 40,000 years. Preliminary work in the pre-puna, Monte and Patagonian Deserts of western Argentina, the Atacama Desert of northern Chile/southern Peru, the Mediterranean matorral of central Chile, and the Puna of the Andean altiplano suggest a similar potential for rodent middens in South America. Here we borrow from the North American experience to synthesize methodologies and approaches, summarize preliminary work, and explore the potential of rodent midden research in South America.

Betancourt, J.L.; Saavedra, B.

2002-01-01

142

Inequalities in ventilation tube insertion procedures between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in New South Wales, Australia: a data linkage study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Australian Aboriginal children experience earlier, more frequent and more severe otitis media, particularly in remote communities, than non-Aboriginal children. Insertion of ventilation tubes is the main surgical procedure for otitis media. Our aim was to quantify inequalities in ventilation tube insertion (VTI) procedures between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children, and to explore the influence of birth characteristics, socioeconomic background and geographical remoteness on this inequality. Design Retrospective cohort study using linked hospital and mortality data from July 2000 to December 2008. Setting and participants A whole-of-population cohort of 653?550 children (16?831 Aboriginal and 636?719 non-Aboriginal) born in a New South Wales hospital between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2007 was included in the analysis. Outcome measure First VTI procedure. Results VTI rates were lower in Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal children (incidence rate (IR), 4.3/1000 person-years; 95% CI 3.8 to 4.8 vs IR 5.8/1000 person-years; 95% CI 5.7 to 5.8). Overall, Aboriginal children were 28% less likely than non-Aboriginal children to have ventilation tubes inserted (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted rate ratios (RRs) 0.72; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.80). After adjusting additionally for geographical remoteness, Aboriginal children were 19% less likely to have ventilation tubes inserted (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.91). After adjusting separately for private patient/health insurance status and area socioeconomic status, there was no significant difference (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.08 and RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.04, respectively). In the fully adjusted model, there were no significant differences in VTI rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children (RR 1.06; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.19). Conclusions Despite a much higher prevalence of otitis media, Aboriginal children were less likely to receive VTI procedures than their non-Aboriginal counterparts; this inequality was largely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and geographical remoteness. PMID:24285631

Falster, Kathleen; Randall, Deborah; Banks, Emily; Eades, Sandra; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Reath, Jennifer; Jorm, Louisa

2013-01-01

143

Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (?18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and kitchen middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (?18Oc) values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of ?18Ow values occurring during the years 2007 to 2010. Results show that ?18Ow values were not recorded at very low salinities (< ~19), because the mussels appear to cease growing. This implies that M. edulis ?18Oc values are suitable in reconstructing past meltwater amounts in most cases, but care has to be taken that shells are collected not too close to a glacier, but rather in the mid region or mouth of the fjord. The focus of future research will expand on the geographical and temporal range of the shell measurements by sampling mussels in other fjords in Greenland along a south-north gradient, and by sampling shells from raised shorelines and kitchen middens from prehistoric settlements in Greenland.

Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, M. E.; Mortensen, J.; Rysgaard, S.; Als, T. D.; Wanamaker, A. D., Jr.

2012-09-01

144

Planning Without Facts: Ontario's Aboriginal Health Information Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit people living in the Canadian province of Ontario have less access to quality health care than the population as a whole. Yet improving the situation is hampered by the lack of an information system that documents fundamental facts about Aboriginal people's health status and services utilization. Without a means to collect such

Bruce Minore; Mae Katt; Mary Ellen Hill

2009-01-01

145

Healing history? Aboriginal healing, historical trauma, and personal responsibility.  

PubMed

What can an exploration of contemporary Aboriginal healing programs such as those offered in Canadian prisons and urban clinics tell us about the importance of history in understanding social and psychological pathology, and more significantly the salience of the concept of "historical trauma"? The form of Aboriginal "healing" that has emerged in recent decades to become dominant in many parts of the country is itself a reflection of historical processes and efforts to ameliorate the consequences of what is today often termed "historical trauma." In other words, contemporary notions of "healing" and the social, cultural, medical, and psychological disruption and distress caused by colonialism and captured in the term "historical trauma" have coevolved in an interdependent manner. I also argue that there is a tension between the attribution of this distress to both specific (e.g., residential schools) and generalized (e.g., colonialism) historical factors, as evident in the "historical trauma" concept, and the prevailing emphasis in many healing programs to encourage the individual to take personal responsibility for their situation and avoid attributing blame to other factors. I conclude that "historical trauma" represents an idiom of distress that captures a variety of historical and contemporary phenomena and which provides a language for expressing distress that is gaining currency, at least among scholars, and that the contemporary Aboriginal healing movement represents an effort to deal with the absence or failure of both "traditional" Aboriginal healing and government-sponsored medical and psychological services to adequately deal with this distress of colonialism. PMID:23788570

Waldram, James B

2013-06-20

146

Marriage networks among Australian Aboriginal populations Michael HOUSEMAN (CNRS, Paris)  

E-print Network

Marriage networks among Australian Aboriginal populations Michael HOUSEMAN (CNRS, Paris) Pre intervene in the orientation of marriage choices. However, in most places, most of the time kinship and marriage themselves. In short, as a general rule, most people marry people with whom some sort

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

147

Marginality, Stress and Ethnic Identification in an Acculturated Aboriginal Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological changes which result from culture contact and social change have been described for many years within a number of theoretical frameworks, among which is the theory of Marginal Man: Persons living in an acculturated Aboriginal (Australian) community were interviewed in an attempt to comprehend the relations among a number of scaled variables involved in this and other theoretical approaches.

J. W. Berry

1970-01-01

148

Experiences of Beginning Aboriginal Teachers in Band-Controlled Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compelling evidence points to the need for higher education, and especially teacher education, to become better informed about the concerns of Aboriginal peoples and to be more responsive to their needs. With this focus in mind, we had conversations with 30 beginning First Nations teachers, graduates of a teacher education program in Saskatchewan,…

Wimmer, Randolph; Legare, Louise; Arcand, Yvette; Cottrell, Michael

2009-01-01

149

[Study on healing art among the aboriginals of Taiwan].  

PubMed

The aboriginals of Taiwan who settled the island prior to the Han nationally can be divided into two groups, sinified plain people and less sinified mountain dwellers. The mountain dwellers fall into different groups; the Atayal, Saisiat, Bunun, Tsou, Rukai, Paiwan, Puyuma, Ami, and Yami. Before modern medicine penetrated the lives of the aboriginal, disease was treated by sorcery or by empirically applied herbal medicines. We visited various townships in Taiwan, including Chenggong, Daren, Haiduan, Puyuma, Changbin, and Yanping of Taidong County, Taidong City, and the offshore island of Lanyu; Mudan, Pindong County; and Fuxing, Taoyiuan County. We thereby covered the Ami, Paiwan,, Bunun, Puyuma, Yami, and Atayal groups. Although the aboriginals of Taiwan belong to the Malayo-Poly-nesian cultural system, there are nevertheless major differences among them. The aboriginals of Taiwan believe disease to be a punishment of the gods or the malicious interference of evil spirits. The various groups have distinct shamanistic rituals. This paper discusses the practices of sorcery in the Paiway, bunun, and describes the herbal remedies used by them. PMID:11615230

Ha, H; Gao, T

1994-01-01

150

Researching Remote Aboriginal Children's Services: It's All about Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies problems, issues and insights through critical reflection on the rules, written and unwritten, which encroach on the research process in the "Both Ways" project. The project investigates the development and sustainability of remote Aboriginal children's services in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Children's…

Fasoli, Lyn; James, Ranu

2007-01-01

151

Rekindling Warm Embers: Teaching Aboriginal Languages in the Tertiary Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the teaching of Aboriginal languages in the tertiary sector of Australia, looking at the stronger languages taught in the university sector versus those languages under revival that tend to be taught in the TAFE sector. The paper summarises the status of courses offered state by state, and sets the scene with some historical…

Gale, Mary-Anne

2011-01-01

152

Understanding Race and Racism in Nursing: Insights from Aboriginal Nurses  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Indigenous Peoples are underrepresented in the health professions. This paper examines indigenous identity and the quality and nature of nursing work-life. The knowledge generated should enhance strategies to increase representation of indigenous peoples in nursing to reduce health inequities. Design. Community-based participatory research employing Grounded Theory as the method was the design for this study. Theoretical sampling and constant comparison guided the data collection and analysis, and a number of validation strategies including member checks were employed to ensure rigor of the research process. Sample. Twenty-two Aboriginal nurses in Atlantic Canada. Findings. Six major themes emerged from the study: Cultural Context of Work-life, Becoming a Nurse, Navigating Nursing, Race Racism and Nursing, Socio-Political Context of Aboriginal Nursing, and Way Forward. Race and racism in nursing and related subthemes are the focus of this paper. Implications. The experiences of Aboriginal nurses as described in this paper illuminate the need to understand the interplay of race and racism in the health care system. Our paper concludes with Aboriginal nurses' suggestions for systemic change at various levels. PMID:22778991

Vukic, Adele; Jesty, Charlotte; Mathews, Sr. Veronica; Etowa, Josephine

2012-01-01

153

Iodine content in urine samples among Malays and aborigines.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to compare the urinary iodine concentrations in populations from Pahang, Central Malaysia, with those in the capital city Kuala Lumpur, and to compare those of Malays from villages at Batu Talam, Batu Malim, FELDA Sungai Koyan and Hulu Sungai with neighboring aboriginal settlements at Lanai and Buntu. Two hundred and forty urine samples were collected randomly among the population (male 1 1 1 and female 129). The urinary iodine concentrations, measured by the ashing method, among Malays were as follows: Batu Talam 1.1-7.6 micrograms/dl, Batu Malim 1.4-6.6 micrograms/dl, FELDA Sungai Koyan 0.5-6.9 micrograms/dl and Hulu Sungai 0.6-9.9 micrograms/dl. Among aborigines, the urinary iodine levels were 0.1-2.9 micrograms/dl in Lanai and 1.7-6.5 micrograms/dl in Buntu. There was a significant difference in the levels of urinary iodine with regard to gender, but not regarding age. The aborigines had significantly lower iodine levels than Malays (P < 0.001). This difference was also significant with regard to location. The urinary iodine content in Kuala Lumpur was the highest and that in the aboriginal Lanai village was the lowest. Thus, the study showed that the levels of iodine in the urine were influenced by ethnicity and geographic location. PMID:7709757

Ali, O; Muda, K; Khalid, B

1994-12-01

154

Aboriginal Education in Canada: A Plea for Integration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is an appeal to First Nations leaders in Canada to promote educational integration--a mixing of ideas in which non-Aboriginal people are taught those elements of Native culture and philosophy that support a reverence for the Earth and all living things. The benefits of such an undertaking cannot be overemphasized since the very existence…

Friesen, John W.; Friesen, Virginia Lyons

155

Bridging into Small Business: A Program for Aboriginal People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-instructional kit is part of an entry-level training program that has been designed to support Aboriginal people in Australia in developing a business proposal and the skills required to achieve success. The manual, "Starting Your Own Small Business," includes information and activities that provide a thorough examination of the planning…

Kaufmann, Jill

156

Six Nations Polytechnic Aboriginal Teacher Education Program (SNP ATEP)  

E-print Network

Six Nations Polytechnic Aboriginal Teacher Education Program (SNP ATEP) Interim Practicum Report The Interim Report is intended to assist the Teacher Candidate and Associate Teacher in making judgments about demonstrated levels of teaching proficiency. Each Interim Report should be based on reasonable expectations

Ellis, Randy

157

Seven Generations Education Institute Aboriginal Teacher Education Program (SGEI ATEP)  

E-print Network

on reasonable expectations for a Teacher Candidate at this particular point in his/her two-year ATE programSeven Generations Education Institute Aboriginal Teacher Education Program (SGEI ATEP) Interim Practicum Report The Interim Report is intended to assist the Teacher Candidate and Associate Teacher

Ellis, Randy

158

Manitoulin-North Shore Aboriginal Teacher Education Program (MNS ATEP)  

E-print Network

Manitoulin-North Shore Aboriginal Teacher Education Program (MNS ATEP) Interim Practicum Report The Interim Report is intended to assist the Teacher Candidate and Associate Teacher in making judgments about demonstrated levels of teaching proficiency. Each Interim Report should be based on reasonable expectations

Ellis, Randy

159

Olfactory function in Australian aboriginal children and chronic otitis media.  

PubMed

Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), a severe form of middle ear infection, affects most Australian Aboriginal children with up to 50% in some communities suffering hearing loss as a consequence. To date, there is no information on whether repeated exposure to the pathogens that characterize CSOM and that are present in the upper respiratory airway affect olfactory function. Accordingly, this study aimed to determine whether 1) there was a high prevalence of olfactory loss in Aboriginal children and 2) hearing loss is a predictor of olfactory loss. Two hundred and sixty one 9- to 12-year-old Aboriginal children from 16 rural communities reported to have high prevalences of CSOM and hearing loss were assessed for olfactory loss using a 16-odor identification test and hearing loss. One child was found to be anosmic, 4 were slightly hyposmic, and 42 had hearing loss. No relationship was found between olfactory loss and hearing loss. The test-retest reliability of the 16-odor identification test was 0.98. It was concluded that CSOM does not appear to affect olfactory function in the long term and that hearing loss in Aboriginal children is not a predictor of olfactory loss. PMID:18463088

Armstrong, Jessica E; Laing, David G; Wilkes, Fiona J; Laing, Olga N

2008-07-01

160

Community Guide to Evaluating Aboriginal Healing Foundation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF), based in Ottawa (Ontario), works with Canada Native communities to reduce incidents of physical and sexual abuse, children in care, suicide, and incarceration among residential school survivors and their families. This guide has been prepared to help communities evaluate their AHF-funded activities in the…

Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

161

An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

2005-01-01

162

Different shells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Snails can live in many different shells. The shells can be large or small, depending on the size of the snail and what kind it is. The shell can also be of a variety of colors. Other animals can also live in shells.

N/A N/A (None; )

2007-08-22

163

Taiwanese aborigines: genetic heterogeneity and paternal contribution to Oceania.  

PubMed

In the present study, for the first time, 293 Taiwanese aboriginal males from all nine major tribes (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Rukai, Paiwan, Saisat, Puyuma, Tsou, Yami) were genotyped with 17 YSTR loci in a attend to reveal migrational patterns connected with the Austronesian expansion. We investigate the paternal genetic relationships of these Taiwanese aborigines to 42 Asia-Pacific reference populations, geographically selected to reflect various locations within the Austronesian domain. The Tsou and Puyuma tribes exhibit the lowest (0.1851) and the highest (0.5453) average total genetic diversity, respectively. Further, the fraction of unique haplotypes is also relatively high in the Puyuma (86.7%) and low in Tsou (33.3%) suggesting different demographic histories. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed several notable findings: 1) the Taiwan indigenous populations are highly diverse. In fact, the level of inter-population heterogeneity displayed by the Taiwanese aboriginal populations is close to that exhibited among all 51 Asia-Pacific populations examined; 2) the asymmetrical contribution of the Taiwanese aborigines to the Oceanic groups. Ami, Bunun and Saisiyat tribes exhibit the strongest paternal links to the Solomon and Polynesian island communities, whereas most of the remaining Taiwanese aboriginal groups are more genetically distant to these Oceanic inhabitants; 3) the present YSTR analyses does not reveal a strong paternal affinity of the nine Taiwanese tribes to their continental Asian neighbors. Overall, our current findings suggest that, perhaps, only a few of the tribes were involved in the migration out of Taiwan. PMID:24613753

Zeng, Zhaoshu; Rowold, Diane J; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Regueiro, Maria; Li, Li; Zhong, Mingxia; Herrera, Rene J

2014-06-01

164

Understanding the Role of Healing in Aboriginal Communities. Corrections. Aboriginal Peoples Collection = Comprendre le role de la guerison dans les collectivites autochtones. Affaires correctionnelles. Collection sur les autochtones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in English and French, this report presents views of Canadian Aboriginal community members about developing healthy communities. In-depth interviews were conducted with elders, youth, parents, political leaders, victims, offenders, and government employees in five Aboriginal communities, and telephone and mail surveys were conducted in…

Krawll, Marcia B.

165

Biogeographic implications of a packrat midden sequence from the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico*1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen packrat ( Neotoma spp.) and two porcupine ( Erethizon dorsatum) middens from 1555 to 1690 m elevation from the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, provide an 18,000-yr vegetation record in the northern Chiuahuan Desert. The vegetation sequence is a mesic, Wisconsin fullglacial (18,000-16,000 yr B.P.) pinyon-juniper-oak woodland; a xeric, early Holocene (ca. 11,000-8000 yr B.P.) juniper-oak woodland; a middle Holocene (ca. 8000-4000 yr B.P.) desert-grassland; and a late Holocene (ca. 4000 yr B.P. to present) Chihuahuan desertscrub. The frequency of spring freezes and summer droughts in the late Wisconsin probably set the northern limits of Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma at about 34°N, or 6° south of today's limit. Rising summer tempratures in the early Holocene eliminated pinyon and other mesic woodland plants from the desert lowlands and allowed the woodland to move upslope. At this time pinyon-juniper woodland and pine forest dominated by Pinus ponderosa probably began their spectacular Holocene expansions to the north. Continued warming in the middle Holocene led to very warm summers with strong monsoons, relatively dry, cold winters, and widespread desert-grasslands. Desertscrub communities in the northern Chihuahuan Desert did not develop until the late Holocene when the biseasonal rainfall shifted slightly back toward the winter, catastrophic winter freezes decreased, and droughts in all seasons increased. The creosote bush desertscrub corridor across the Continental Divide between the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts was probably connected for the first time since the last interglaciation.

Van Devender, Thomas R.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Wimberly, Mark

1984-11-01

166

On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the role and nature of eclipses, comets, meteors, impact events, and certain variable stars. I also test the hypothesis that certain types of stone arrangements have preferred orientations that probably relate to astronomical phenomena. This research shows that Aboriginal astronomical traditions explain the motions of celestial bodies and the relationship between events in the sky and events on Earth. I explore how Aboriginal people perceived and made use of particular astronomical phenomena, such as meteors and comets, and show that Aboriginal people made careful observations of the motions of celestial bodies. I provide evidence that Aboriginal people noticed the change in brightness of particular stars, described the kinematics of eclipses, explained how lunar phases are related to ocean tides, and acknowledged the relationship between meteors, meteorites, impact events, and impact craters. I then show that linear stone arrangements in New South Wales have a preferred orientation to the cardinal points and explore astronomical reasons for this. In the Appendix, I include biographical details of William Edward Stanbridge, one of the first people to write in depth about Aboriginal astronomical traditions, which were compiled from historic records.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2011-12-01

167

The community network: an Aboriginal community football club bringing people together.  

PubMed

There are few empirical studies about the role of Aboriginal sporting organisations in promoting wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to understand the impact of an Aboriginal community sporting team and its environment on the social, emotional and physical wellbeing of young Aboriginal men, and to identify barriers and motivators for participation. A literature review of the impact of sport on the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal participants was conducted. This informed a qualitative study design with a grounded theory approach. Four semistructured interviews and three focus groups were completed with nine current players and five past players of the Fitzroy Stars Football Club to collect data about the social, emotional and physical wellbeing impact of an Aboriginal football team on its Aboriginal players. Results of the interviews were consistent with the literature, with common concepts emerging around community connection, cultural values and identity, health, values, racism and discrimination. However, the interviews provided further detail around the significance of cultural values and community connection for Aboriginal people. The complex nature of social connections and the strength of Aboriginal community networks in sports settings were also evident. Social reasons were just as important as individual health reasons for participation. Social and community connection is an important mechanism for maintaining and strengthening cultural values and identity. Barriers and motivators for participation in Aboriginal sports teams can be complex and interrelated. Aboriginal sports teams have the potential to have a profound impact on the health of Aboriginal people, especially its players, by fostering a safe and culturally strengthening environment and encompassing a significant positive social hub for the Aboriginal community. PMID:25103025

Thorpe, Alister; Anders, Wendy; Rowley, Kevin

2014-10-01

168

From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.  

PubMed

More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM. PMID:25291039

Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

2014-01-01

169

Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n?=?17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal society was an overarching challenge to quitting. Conclusions Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking that include personal, social, cultural and environmental factors. Multidimensional smoking cessation programs are needed that reduce the stress and burden for Aboriginal Health Workers; provide access to culturally relevant quitting resources; and address the prevailing normalisation of smoking in the family, workplace and community. PMID:22621767

2012-01-01

170

Public policy and aboriginal peoples in Canada: taking a life-course perspective.  

PubMed

The health and social conditions of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples in Canada remain important policy concerns. The life course has been proposed by some as a framework for analysis that could assist in the development of policies that would improve the economic and social inclusion of Aboriginal peoples. In this paper we support the goal of applying a life-course perspective to policies related to Aboriginal peoples but suggest that the framework needs to consider the unique relationship between Aboriginal peoples and public policies. We provide some illustrations using data from the 2001 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. PMID:21751484

Cooke, Martin; McWhirter, Jennifer

2011-01-01

171

Broken heart stories: understanding Aboriginal women's cardiac problems.  

PubMed

Many Aboriginal communities call heart problems, and in particular cardiovascular disease, "White man's sickness." At the same time, Aboriginal women present with some of the highest rates of this disease. Against this backdrop, we explored how women with cardiac problems understand their heart health and used narrative-discursive methods to analyze interviews conducted with women from two First Nations in North America. The women told stories that were riddled with contradictions, unfolding a complicated personal and cultural reality of living with cardiovascular disease. In many stories, heart disease was described as resulting from a "community imbalance" in the wake of colonialism whereby the women had to take over the traditional roles of men. Their ideas of heart disease risk and healing flowed from this understanding. They derived a sense of strength, however, from their ability to undertake both gender roles. Based on our findings, we provide some recommendations for cardiac care. PMID:24172021

Medved, Maria I; Brockmeier, Jens; Morach, Judy; Chartier-Courchene, Lori

2013-12-01

172

Genetic research and aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.  

PubMed

While human genetic research promises to deliver a range of health benefits to the population, genetic research that takes place in Indigenous communities has proven controversial. Indigenous peoples have raised concerns, including a lack of benefit to their communities, a diversion of attention and resources from non-genetic causes of health disparities and racism in health care, a reinforcement of "victim-blaming" approaches to health inequalities, and possible misuse of blood and tissue samples. Drawing on the international literature, this article reviews the ethical issues relevant to genetic research in Indigenous populations and considers how some of these have been negotiated in a genomic research project currently under way in a remote Aboriginal community. We consider how the different levels of Indigenous research governance operating in Australia impacted on the research project and discuss whether specific guidelines for the conduct of genetic research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are warranted. PMID:23188401

Kowal, Emma; Pearson, Glenn; Peacock, Chris S; Jamieson, Sarra E; Blackwell, Jenefer M

2012-12-01

173

Extinct No More: Discourses on Tasmanian Aboriginal Heritage  

E-print Network

decade, quickly adapting to British military strategies and technologies, but their numbers were ultimately too few to hold out against colonists and soldiers. Elder (2000, 31) states that “the British, with a malicious and arrogant sense of their own... the Tasmanian Aboriginal community became politically active, gaining recognition of their survival, claiming and obtaining the right of control over some artifacts, and eventually regaining some land. However, as Reynolds (1995, 194) points out, “when...

Price, William

2014-05-31

174

Carbonic anhydrase-I polymorphism in a Philippine aboriginal population.  

PubMed Central

Polymorphism of carbonic anhydrase-I (CA1) was found by electrophoresis in an aboriginal group of Mindanao, Philippines, with a remarkably high frequency of variant types. The frequency of the variant allele was estimated at .256. The variant isozyme designated CA1 3Negrito (CA1 3N) is electrophoretically indistinguishable from the "Guam" variant and may be regarded as a potential anthropological marker in the Western Pacific. Images Fig. 1 PMID:117701

Omoto, K

1979-01-01

175

The maternal aborigine colonization of La Palma (Canary Islands)  

PubMed Central

Teeth from 38 aboriginal remains of La Palma (Canary Islands) were analyzed for external and endogenous mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and for diagnostic coding positions. Informative sequences were obtained from 30 individuals (78.9%). The majority of lineages (93%) were from West Eurasian origin, being the rest (7%) from sub-Saharan African ascription. The bulk of the aboriginal haplotypes had exact matches in North Africa (70%). However, the indigenous Canarian sub-type U6b1, also detected in La Palma, has not yet been found in North Africa, the cradle of the U6 expansion. The most abundant H1 clade in La Palma, defined by transition 16260, is also very rare in North Africa. This means that the exact region from which the ancestors of the Canarian aborigines came has not yet been sampled or that they have been replaced by later human migrations. The high gene diversity found in La Palma (95.2±2.3), which is one of the farthest islands from the African continent, is of the same level than the previously found in the central island of Tenerife (92.4±2.8). This is against the supposition that the islands were colonized from the continent by island hopping and posterior isolation. On the other hand, the great similarity found between the aboriginal populations of La Palma and Tenerife is against the idea of an island-by-island independent maritime colonization without secondary contacts. Our data better fit to an island model with frequent migrations between islands. PMID:19337312

Fregel, Rosa; Pestano, Jose; Arnay, Matilde; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, Jose M; González, Ana M

2009-01-01

176

Aboriginal birth cohort (ABC): a prospective cohort study of early life determinants of adiposity and associated risk factors among Aboriginal people in Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal people living in Canada have a high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To better understand the pre and postnatal influences on the development of adiposity and related cardio-metabolic factors in adult Aboriginal people, we will recruit and follow prospectively Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their children – the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study. Methods/design We aim to recruit 300 Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their newborns from the Six Nations Reserve, and follow them prospectively to age 3 years. Key details of environment and health including maternal nutrition, glucose tolerance, physical activity, and weight gain will be collected. At birth, cord blood and placenta samples will be collected, as well as newborn anthropometric measurements. Mothers and offspring will be followed annually with serial measurements of diet and physical activity, growth trajectory, and adiposity. Discussion There is an urgent need to understand maternal and child factors that underlie the early development of adiposity and type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal people. The information generated from this cohort will assist the Six Nations community in developing interventions to prevent early adiposity in Aboriginal children. PMID:23800270

2013-01-01

177

[Leading causes of death in the aborigines in Taiwan].  

PubMed

Leading causes of death were analyzed among Aboriginal tribes in Taiwan in the decades of 1971-80 and 1981-90. Sex and tribe specific standardized mortality ratios were calculated from death certificate data and compared with the number of expected deaths derived from the mortality of the total population in Taiwan. In all, 35,221 cases of death in Aborigines were contrasted with 1,695,479 cases of death in the total population in Taiwan. Generally speaking during the two decades the SMR increased considerably suggesting more attention should be paid to the aborigines. Mortality due to accidents was statistically significantly higher than expected among Atayal, Bunun, Paiwan and Rukai men and among Atayal, Bunun and Paiwan women, as was mortality from tuberculosis among Atayal, Bunun, Paiwan and Rukai men and women, mortality due to liver cirrhosis as well as pneumonia among the Atayal, Bunun and Paiwan men and women, mortality from suicide among Atayal, Bunun, and Paiwan men, and among Atayal and Bunun women, mortality due to cancer among Bunun and Paiwan men and women, and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases among Atayal, Bunun and Paiwan men in 1981-90 decade. The SMR for ill-defined conditions was on average twice as high as expected; but among the Yami tribe in particular it was elevated 12 fold, indicating insufficient medical care. Factors relating to the cause of increased deaths need to be further studied. PMID:8089871

Ko, Y C; Hsieh, S F

1994-07-01

178

Late Quaternary Vegetation History and Paleoclimate of the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands Region From Two New Packrat Midden Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new packrat midden (Neotoma spp.) chronologies reveal glacial to interglacial changes in vegetation and climate in the Playas and San Simon Valleys in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. The Borderlands, where the states of Arizona and New Mexico intersect with each other and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora, are characterized by several northwest-southeast trending and tilted fault-block ranges separated by closed topographic basins. These basins now contain ephemeral playas, but held pluvial lakes (Animas, Cloverdale, Cochise, Goodsight, Hachita, Palomas, Playas) during the Pleistocene and lesser lakes sporadically in the Holocene. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from middens indicate vegetation along pluvial lake margins consisted of open pinyon-juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis and a rich understory of C4 annuals and grasses. Although both lake and pinyon-juniper expansion across the lowlands have been attributed to greater winter precipitation, the summer-flowering understory, characteristic of modern desert grassland in the Borderlands, indicates at least moderate summer precipitation during the late glacial. The U.S.A.-Borderlands may have been the only area in the western half of the coterminous United States to "green-up" in July and August, and may have offered seasonal refuge from the dry fire season to the north. Late glacial summer precipitation in the Borderlands may explain the concentration of megafauna and paleoindian sites dating from this period in the area. A transition to a warmer, drier climate is inferred from the extirpation of Pinus edulis from the lowlands of the Playas and San Simon Valleys by 10,300 14C yr B.P. The disappearance of pinyon and change to more xeric oak-juniper communities is contemporaneous with other midden sites in the northern Chihuahuan Desert and may have occurred abruptly during the "Clovis-aged Drought" when the water table at nearby Murray Springs dropped to unusually low levels just before 10,900 14C yr B.P. Few middens in our series dated from the middle Holocene (8000 - 4000 14C yr B.P.), a period during which middens are scarce across the Southwest. The gap was previously attributed to hydrologic drought during the middle Holocene and declines in woody perennials and packrat populations. However, beach ridge and lacustrine deposits from Laguna El Fresnal and Laguna Santa Maria indicate wetter than present conditions in the Borderlands during the middle Holocene. The late Holocene is marked by the arrival of Chihuahuan Desert scrub elements and few departures. Desertscrub elements begin to appear by about 4000 14C yr B.P., marking the transition to present-day vegetation. Larrea tridentata and Fouquieria splendens, two of the dominant desert species present at the sites today; both appear later than in surrounding areas.

Holmgren, C. A.; Penalba, M.; Aasen Rylander, K.; Betancourt, J. L.

2003-12-01

179

Incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal children and young adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Although Aboriginal adults have a higher risk of end-stage renal disease than non-Aboriginal adults, the incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal children and young adults are not well described. Methods: We calculated age- and sex-specific incidences of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal people less than 22 years of age using data from a national organ failure registry. Incidence rate ratios were used to compare rates between Aboriginal and white Canadians. To contrast causes of end-stage renal disease by ethnicity and age, we calculated the odds of congenital diseases, glomerulonephritis and diabetes for Aboriginal people and compared them with those for white people in the following age strata: 0 to less than 22 years, 22 to less than 40 years, 40 to less than 60 years and older than 60 years. Results: Incidence rate ratios of end-stage renal disease for Aboriginal children and young adults (age < 22 yr, v. white people) were 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40–2.38) for boys and 3.24 (95% CI 2.60–4.05) for girls. Compared with white people, congenital diseases were less common among Aboriginal people aged less than 22 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, 95% CI 0.36–0.86), and glomerulonephritis was more common (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.55–3.07). An excess of glomerulonephritis, but not diabetes, was seen among Aboriginal people aged 22 to less than 40 years. The converse was true (higher risk of diabetes, lower risk of glomerulonephritis) among Aboriginal people aged 40 years and older. Interpretation: The incidence of end-stage renal disease is higher among Aboriginal children and young adults than among white children and young adults. This higher incidence may be driven by an increased risk of glomerulonephritis in this population. PMID:22927509

Samuel, Susan M.; Foster, Bethany J.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Crowshoe, Lynden; Alexander, R. Todd; Soo, Andrea; Tonelli, Marcello A.

2012-01-01

180

Cardiovascular risk among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal smoking male prisoners: inequalities compared to the wider community  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) were collected as part of a randomised controlled trial of a multi-component intervention to reduce smoking among male prisoners. Cross-sectional baseline data on CVRF were compared among smoking male prisoners and males of similar age in the general population. Methods 425 smoking prisoners were recruited (n = 407 in New South Wales; 18 in Queensland), including 15% of Aboriginal descent (mean age 33 years; median sentence length 3.6 years). We measured CVRF such as smoking, physical activity, blood pressure, risky alcohol use, symptoms of depression, and low socioeconomic status. Results We found that 39% of prisoners had 3+ CVRF, compared to 10% in a general community sample of most disadvantaged men of a similar age. Significantly more Aboriginal prisoners had 3+ CVRF than non-Aboriginal prisoners (55% vs 36%, p < 0.01) and were twice as likely to have 4+ CVRF (27% vs 12%). In addition to all prisoners in this study being a current smoker (with 70% smoking 20+ cigarettes per day), the prevalence of other CVRF was very high: insufficient physical activity (23%); hypertension (4%), risky drinking (52%), symptoms of depression (14%) and low socioeconomic status (SES) (44%). Aboriginal prisoners had higher levels of risky alcohol use, symptoms of depression, and were more likely to be of low SES. Conclusion Prisoners are at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease compared to even the most disadvantaged in their community and should be the focus of specific public health interventions. Trial Registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN#12606000229572. PMID:21985524

2011-01-01

181

Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

2013-01-01

182

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, Volume 14, Number 2 (July, 2011): in press Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy  

E-print Network

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, Volume 14, Number 2 (July, 2011): in press 1 Eclipses explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing

Norris, Ray

183

Reflective Teaching Practice in a Darug Classroom: How Teachers Can Build Relationships with an Aboriginal Community outside the School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project has been developed on Darug country, Sydney to examine how pre-service and beginning teachers can work with Aboriginal people in their local urban community. These teachers often want to know how to approach an Aboriginal "community", how they can ask Aboriginal people for information in order to include it in their teaching, and how…

Harrison, Neil; Murray, Belinda

2012-01-01

184

Using "Slowmation" for Animated Storytelling to Represent Non-Aboriginal Preservice Teachers' Awareness of "Relatedness to Country"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a group (N=15) of final year non-Aboriginal preservice teachers participated in an elective subject that aimed to raise their awareness about Aboriginal ways of knowing. A vital aspect of the course was developing the preservice teachers' awareness of "relatedness to country" which is a key belief for Aboriginal people. The…

McKnight, Anthony; Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy

2011-01-01

185

Enough Bad News! Remote Social Health & Aboriginal Action in a Harsh Environment--Coober Pedy in South Australia's "Outback."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the complexities of health care in Coober Pedy (South Australia) and the nearby Umoona Aboriginal community, and highlights the vital role of Aboriginal health workers in the implementation of primary health care principles. The Aboriginal population in this "outback" area is characterized by considerable economic problems,…

Brice, G.; And Others

186

Aboriginal Female Children in Kanyashrams of Orissa, India: A Critical Assessment of the Processes of Educational Institutionalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In India, the Constitution now includes special educational safeguards for aboriginals (Mohanty, 2003). Aboriginal communities, commonly denoted as "tribal," constitute roughly 8 percent of the total Indian population. In 1960, the Scheduled Area and Scheduled Tribes Commission was established with the aim of integrating the aboriginal people into…

Behera, Deepak Kumar; Nath, Nibedita

2005-01-01

187

Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians’ perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers’ (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs’ views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). Methods A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006 - September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. Results CSPs’ lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients’ limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient–provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people’s distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff, providing appropriate cultural training for CSPs, cancer education for Aboriginal stakeholders, continuity of care, avoiding use of medical jargon, accommodating patients’ psychosocial and logistical needs, and in-service coordination. Conclusion Individual CSPs identified challenges in cross-cultural communication and their willingness to accommodate culture-specific needs within the wider health care system including better communication with Aboriginal patients. However, participants’ comments indicated a lack of concerted effort at the system level to address Aboriginal disadvantage in cancer outcomes. PMID:24188503

2013-01-01

188

Development of Oral Health Training for Rural and Remote Aboriginal Health Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A culturally appropriate oral health training course tailored to the needs of rural Aboriginal health workers was developed in Western Australia. The course is taught in three modules ranging from introductory material to comprehensive practical and theoretical knowledge of basic dental health care. The program encourages Aboriginal health workers…

Pacza, Tom; Steele, Lesley; Tennant, Marc

2001-01-01

189

Leveraging Aboriginal Tourism Legacy Benefits from the 2010 Olympics: A Case  

E-print Network

Leveraging Aboriginal Tourism Legacy Benefits from the 2010 Olympics: A Case Study of Whistler: Master of Resource Management (Planning) Report No. : 606 Title of Project: Leveraging Aboriginal Tourism-established, and also signaled that the power the First Nations will likely increase with respect to local and tourism

190

Creating Inclusive Space for Aboriginal Scholars and Scholarship in the Academy: Implications for Employment Equity Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many Canadian universities report an under-representation of Aboriginal scholars in their professoriate. Employment equity policy seeks to redress the under-representation of marginalized groups in the Canadian workforce, including Aboriginal peoples. This article presents the findings of a case study which sought to examine, from the perspective…

Roland, Karen A.

2011-01-01

191

Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

2012-01-01

192

An examination of stress among Aboriginal women and men with diabetes in Manitoba, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a series of focus groups were conducted to gain an understanding of the nature of stress among Canadian Aboriginal women and men living with diabetes. Specifically, attention was given to the meanings Aboriginal peoples with diabetes attach to their lived experiences of stress, and the major sources or causes of stress in their lives. The key common

Yoshi Iwasaki; Judith Bartlett; John O'neil

2004-01-01

193

An Overview of the Development of Aboriginal Early Childhood Services in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the guise of equality, citizenship, integration, and policy change, the door has opened to allow the development of Aboriginal early childhood services in Canada. Recognition of the need for early childhood services specific to Aboriginal people did not become prominent until the mid-1980s. A decade later, services came into being. Little time…

Greenwood, Margo

194

Community as Teacher Model: Health Profession Students Learn Cultural Safety from an Aboriginal Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…

Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela

2013-01-01

195

Cultural Conceptualisations in English Words: A Study of Aboriginal Children in Perth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored conceptualisations that two groups of Aboriginal and Anglo-Australian students attending metropolitan schools in Western Australia instantiate through the use of English words. At the time of the study, many educators believed that both these groups of students spoke the same dialect. A group of 30 Aboriginal primary school…

Sharifian, Farzad

2005-01-01

196

Educating Inner-City Aboriginal Students: The Significance of Culturally Appropriate Instruction and Parental Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case study that describes how poverty affects inner-city Aboriginal youth in a Canadian elementary school. Describes the school and shows how culturally appropriate instruction and parental involvement are used to educate Aboriginal children. Discusses the findings in detail. Calls for government support in combating poverty. (CMK)

Smith, Douglas

1999-01-01

197

Romanticism, aboriginality and national identity: The poetry and prose of Mary Gilmore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of Aborigines in Mary Gilmore's development of an Australian national identity based on the interrelations between natural environment, prominent historical figures, pre?industrial narratives and motifs associated with the settler frontier, Anzac and a distinctive literature and art. She romanticised the early settlers and held ideas inspired by Christianity. Gilmore called for the appropriation of Aboriginal

Kosmas Tsokhas

1998-01-01

198

Pathways to Equality: Hearings on Access to Public Education for Aboriginal People. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal people are not benefiting from the British Columbia school system, as evidenced by their poor performance on basic skills tests, overrepresentation in special education, and low high school completion rates. The British Columbia Human Rights Commission feels that Aboriginal students do not receive an equal education. Through research,…

British Columbia Human Rights Commission, Vancouver.

199

The Early Childhood Education of Aboriginal Australians: A Review of Six Action-Research Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book describes the setting, objectives, program, evaluation and achievement of six innovative action-research early childhood education projects for Aboriginal Australian children, traces various previous attempts to provide education, and provides an historical background of the estimated 140,000 Aboriginal people who make up 1% of…

Teasdale, G. R.; Whitelaw, A. J.

200

Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.  

PubMed

Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities. PMID:25265360

Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

2014-10-01

201

Examining Disproportionality in School Discipline for Aboriginal Students in Schools Implementing PBIS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the extent to which students with Aboriginal status receive disproportionate rates of office discipline referrals (ODRs) and more severe administrative consequences relative to students without Aboriginal status. The participants were 1,750 students in five rural British Columbia and Alberta…

Greflund, Sara; McIntosh, Kent; Mercer, Sterett H.; May, Seth L.

2014-01-01

202

Literacy: A Critical Element in the Survival of Aboriginal Languages. Chapter 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six Aboriginal languages have been designated as official languages of the Northwest Territories (Canada) along with English and French. However, more than legislation is needed to support efforts to reclaim Aboriginal languages and culture. Both missionary schools and federally administered public schools (1940s-60s) disrupted the transmission of…

Fogwill, Lynn

203

Treatment of chronic hepatitis C in a Canadian Aboriginal population: Results from the PRAIRIE study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The Aboriginal population of Canada is at increased risk of exposure to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Previous data indicate that spontaneous clearance of HCV occurs more often in Aboriginals than Caucasians. Whether this enhanced response extends to antiviral therapy for chronic HCV remains to be determined. OBJECTIVES: To document and compare the biochemical and virological responses to antiviral therapy in HCV-infected Canadian Aboriginals and Caucasians. METHODS: A total of 101 treatment-naive adult patients (46 Aboriginal, 55 Caucasian) with chronic HCV genotype 1 infections were prospectively treated with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin and followed as per national guidelines. RESULTS: Aboriginals had higher HCV-RNA loads at baseline (6.42log10 versus 5.98log10; P<0.03). Although normalization of serum aminotransferase levels, decreases in viral loads, and rapid, early and end-of-treatment virological responses were similar in the two cohorts, sustained virological responses were significantly lower in Aboriginals (35% versus 55%; P=0.047). Premature discontinuation of treatment and/or loss of patients to follow-up was common (Aboriginals 37%, Caucasians 27%). Treatment-related side effects were similar in the two cohorts. CONCLUSION: Despite higher rates of spontaneous HCV clearance, the response to antiviral therapy was similar, if not lower, in Aboriginals compared with Caucasians with chronic HCV genotype 1 infections. Compliance with treatment is an issue that needs to be addressed in the management of these patients. PMID:24340315

Minuk, Gerald Yosel; O’Brien, Meaghan; Hawkins, Kim; Emokpare, Didi; McHattie, James; Harris, Paul; Worobetz, Lawrence; Doucette, Karen; Kaita, Kelly; Wong, Stephen; Pinette, Gilles; Uhanova, Julia

2013-01-01

204

Culturally Competent Evaluation for Aboriginal Communities: A Review of the Empirical Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize the current empirical literature on cross-cultural evaluation in Aboriginal communities, and to begin to address the recognized lack of critically engaged discussion about research on culturally competent evaluation. The term "Aboriginal" in this document refers to First Nations, Inuit and…

Chouinard, Jill A.; Cousins, J. Bradley

2007-01-01

205

Prevalence and risk factors of asthma in off-reserve Aboriginal children and adults in Canada.  

PubMed

Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation. PMID:23248805

Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Beach, Jeremy; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

2012-01-01

206

A socioecological framework to understand weight-related issues in Aboriginal children in Canada.  

PubMed

Obesity prevention efforts in Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, or Inuit) communities in Canada should focus predominantly on children given their demographic significance and the accelerated time course of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Aboriginal population. A socioecological model to address childhood obesity in Aboriginal populations would focus on the numerous environments at different times in childhood that influence weight status, including prenatal, sociocultural, family, and community environments. Importantly, for Aboriginal children, obesity interventions need to also be situated within the context of a history of colonization and inequities in the social determinants of health. This review therefore advocates for the inclusion of a historical perspective and a life-course approach to obesity prevention in Aboriginal children in addition to developing interventions around the socioecological framework. We emphasize that childhood obesity prevention efforts should focus on promoting maternal health behaviours before and during pregnancy, and on breastfeeding and good infant and child nutrition in the postpartum and early childhood development periods. Ameliorating food insecurity by focusing on improving the sociodemographic risk factors for it, such as increasing income and educational attainment, are essential. More research is required to understand and measure obesogenic Aboriginal environments, to examine how altering specific environments modifies the foods that children eat and the activities that they do, and to examine how restoring and rebuilding cultural continuity in Aboriginal communities modifies the many determinants of obesity. This research needs to be done with the full participation of Aboriginal communities as partners in the research. PMID:22269027

Willows, Noreen D; Hanley, Anthony J G; Delormier, Treena

2012-02-01

207

Running head: TB among Aboriginal Populations in Canada: The Role of Health Care Professionals 1  

E-print Network

Professionals 2 Abstract [See APA Tip #5] The persistent presence of infectious and increasingly non-infectious disease which is far more common in the Aboriginal population than the Canadian born non Aboriginal mummies dates back to 2400 BCE. TB is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium Mycobacterium

Peak, Derek

208

Aboriginal Use of Non-Timber Forest Products in Northw estern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboriginal peoples in northwestern North America hav e traditionally used hundreds of different forest plants for food, materials and medicines. Plant products have also been economically important as trading goods. Today there are excellent prospects for aboriginal people to participate in the harvesting and marketing of non-timber forest products, but there are serious issues of access to and control of

Nancy J. Turner; Wendy Cocksedge

2001-01-01

209

Cultural mismatch and the education of Aboriginal youths: the interplay of cultural identities and teacher ratings.  

PubMed

In response to the enduring "deficit" approach to the educational attainment of Aboriginal students in North America, we hypothesized that academic underperformance is related to a cultural mismatch between Aboriginal students' cultural background, which emphasizes connectedness and interdependence, and the mainstream White model of education, which focuses on independence and assertiveness. The participants included virtually all the secondary students (N = 115) in the Naskapi community of Kawawachikamach, Quebec, Canada. We obtained self-reports of identification with Aboriginal and White culture, teacher reports of assertiveness, and official grades. We found that high identification with either Aboriginal or White culture was related to higher grades, regardless of whether the students were perceived as assertive by their teacher. Conversely, at low levels of cultural identification toward Aboriginal or White culture, being perceived as low in assertiveness by one's teacher predicted lower grades. This suggests that both high cultural identification and assertiveness can contribute to enhancing the educational outcomes of Aboriginal students, but that Aboriginal students with low levels of both cultural identification and assertiveness are at particular risk as they are mismatched with the culture of mainstream schools and do not benefit from the protective effects of identity. The relationships among identity, cultural values, and academic performance point to the need to reject the notion of an inherent deficit in education among Aboriginal youths in favor of a different framework in which success can be attained when alternative ways of being are fostered and nurtured in schools. PMID:22731254

Fryberg, Stephanie A; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Flores, Heidi; Ponizovskiy, Vladimir; Ranney, John D; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Russo, Natalie; Burack, Jacob A

2013-01-01

210

Living Alongside: Teacher Educator Experiences Working in a Community-Based Aboriginal Teacher Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal education in Canada needs to shift away from the assimilative model to a model of culturally responsive pedagogy. Teacher education programs that serve Aboriginal teachers have an important role to play in developing an education system that both meets mainstream and Indigenous criteria for success. This paper examines the experiences…

Kitchen, Julian; Hodson, John

2013-01-01

211

Cultural Mismatch and the Education of Aboriginal Youths: The Interplay of Cultural Identities and Teacher Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the enduring "deficit" approach to the educational attainment of Aboriginal students in North America, we hypothesized that academic underperformance is related to a cultural mismatch between Aboriginal students' cultural background, which emphasizes connectedness and interdependence, and the mainstream White model of education,…

Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Flores, Heidi; Ponizovskiy, Vladimir; Ranney, John D.; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Russo, Natalie; Burack, Jacob A.

2013-01-01

212

Didgeridoo Playing and Singing to Support Asthma Management in Aboriginal Australians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…

Eley, Robert; Gorman, Don

2010-01-01

213

Can We Educate and Train Aboriginal Leaders within Our Tertiary Education Systems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of Aboriginal leadership often results in debate. The fundamental question raised is if Australian Aboriginal people are equal members of a pluralistic society that is based on co-operation and consensuses then how can you have a leader? Consequently who determines leadership or is a leader someone that in effect is more equal than…

Foley, Dennis

2010-01-01

214

Growing up our way: the first year of life in remote Aboriginal Australia.  

PubMed

In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities. PMID:22218266

Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta

2012-06-01

215

Anthropometric measurements of Australian Aboriginal adults living in remote areas: comparison with nationally representative findings.  

PubMed

To compare body size measurements in Australian Aboriginals living in three remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia with those of the general Australian population. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences and derivative values of body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHT), and waist-weight ratios (WWT) of adult Aboriginal volunteers (n = 814), aged 25 to 74 years were compared with participants in the nationally representative 'AusDiab' survey (n = 10,434). The Aboriginal body habitus profiles differed considerably from the Australian profile. When compared to Australian females, Aboriginal females were taller and had lower hip circumference but had higher WC, WHR, WHT, and WWT (P < 0.01 for all). When compared with their Australian counterparts, Aboriginal males were shorter, had lower body weight, WC, hip circumference, BMI, and WHT but had higher WHR and WWT (P < 0.001 for all). Significantly more Aboriginal females were classified as overweight and or obese using cutoffs defined by WC and by WHR than by BMI. Aboriginal males were less often overweight and/or obese by BMI than their counterparts, but were significantly more often overweight or obese by WHR. There were significant variations in body size profiles between Aboriginal communities. However, the theme of excess waist measurements relative to their weight was uniform. Aboriginal people had preferential central fat deposition in relation to their overall weight. BMI significantly underestimated overweight and obesity as assessed by waist measurements among Aboriginals. This relationship of preferential central fat deposition to the current epidemic of chronic diseases needs to be explored further. PMID:18203125

Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang; Briganti, Esther; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Chadban, Steven; Shaw, Jonathan

2008-01-01

216

Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal sexually transmitted infections and blood borne virus notification rates in Western Australia: using linked data to improve estimates  

PubMed Central

Background National notification data for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and blood borne viruses (BBVs) continue to have a high proportion of missing data on Indigenous status, potentially biasing estimates of notification rates by Aboriginality. We evaluated the use of data linkage to improve the accuracy of estimated notification rates for STIs and BBVs in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups in Western Australia. Methods STI and BBV case notifications in Western Australia received in 2010 were linked with administrative health data collections in Western Australia to obtain additional data on Indigenous status. STI and BBV notification rates based on the pre- and post-linkage data among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups were compared. Results Data linkage decreased the proportion of notifications with unknown Indigenous status by 74% from 10.2% to 2.7%. There was no significant difference in disease-specific age-adjusted notification rate ratio estimates based on pre-linkage data and post-linkage data for Aboriginal people compared with non-Aboriginal people. Conclusion Our findings suggest that reported STI and BBV disease-specific age-adjusted notification rates for 2010 in Western Australia are unlikely to be significantly biased by excluding notifications with unknown Indigenous status. This finding is likely to be dependent on recent improvements in the reporting of Indigenous status in notification data in Western Australia. Cost-effective and systematic solutions, including the better use of existing data linkage resources, are required to facilitate continued improvement in the completeness of reporting and accuracy of estimates for notifiable STIs and BBVs in Australia by Aboriginality. PMID:23621957

2013-01-01

217

HIV testing experiences of Aboriginal youth in Canada: service implications.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explore HIV testing experiences and service views of Canadian Aboriginal youth in order to provide information for HIV testing services. An exploratory, mixed-method, community-based research design was used for this study. Findings reported here are from 210 survey participants who had experienced an HIV test. Youth were recruited through 11 Aboriginal organizations across Canada, including AIDS service organizations, health centers, community organizations, and friendship centers. Youth who had tested for HIV ranged in age from 15 to 30 years of age (20% were <20), and came from First Nations (75%), Metis (14%), and Inuit (9%) backgrounds. Participants lived in all provinces and one territory. Over half (62%) were female. While the majority of survey respondents indicated at their last HIV test they had been treated with care (80%), respect (77%), or kindness (76%), some reported being treated with hostility (19%), fear (12%), discrimination (11%), avoidance (10%), or being treated in a bored way (15%). When asked about information they had received, 28% of survey respondents could not remember; 23% said they were not given any information, and 24% said their questions were not answered. Emotional reactions to testing ranged from anxiety/apprehension (64% of survey respondents) to being "calm" (19%). When asked for suggestions to improve testing services, participants indicated emotional support, compassion, professional yet personable services, and personalized HIV information were important. Study results suggest that to facilitate HIV testing for Aboriginal youth, testing services and counseling must be respectful, compassionate, non-judgmental, and culturally responsive in order to provide emotional support and HIV information that is meaningful and memorable. PMID:20635240

Worthington, Catherine; Jackson, Randy; Mill, Judy; Prentice, Tracey; Myers, Ted; Sommerfeldt, Susan

2010-10-01

218

Songlines and navigation in Wardaman and other Australian Aboriginal cultures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the songlines and navigation of the Wardaman people, and place them in context by comparing them with corresponding practices in other Aboriginal Australian language groups, using previously-unpublished information and also information drawn from the literature. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, enabling the transmission of oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. In many cases, songlines on the Earth are mirrored by songlines in the sky, enabling the sky to be used as a navigational tool, both by using it as a compass and by using it as a mnemonic.

Norris, Ray P.; Harney, Bill Yidumdum

2014-07-01

219

Risk indicators for depressed mood in youth: Limited association with Aboriginal cultural status  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION There have been too few studies on urban Aboriginal youth to permit inferences about depressed mood in this subgroup. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether Aboriginal cultural status is independently associated with moderate or severe depressed mood in youth after controlling for other covariates, including socioeconomic status. METHODS Every student between grades 5 and 8 in the city of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, was asked to complete a questionnaire in February of 2007. Depressed mood was measured with a 12-question depression scale derivative of the 20-question Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. RESULTS Four thousand ninety-three youth participated in the school health survey. For Aboriginal youth, the prevalence rate of moderate or severe depressed mood was 21.6% in comparison with 8.9% for Caucasian youth (rate ratio 2.43; 95% CI 1.92 to 3.08). Aboriginal cultural status was not associated with depressed mood after adjustment for other covariates in the final multivariate model (OR 1.132; 95% CI 0.682 to 1.881). Parental educational status and sex were confounders to the association between Aboriginal cultural status and depressed mood. CONCLUSIONS The recognition that Aboriginal cultural status is not independently associated with moderate or severe depressed mood in youth after full multivariate adjustment allows policy makers to acknowledge that mental health disparity prevention is possible because the determinants of health (ie, education) are modifiable (in comparison with Aboriginal cultural status). PMID:19337594

Lemstra, Mark; Neudorf, Cory; Mackenbach, Johan; D’Arcy, Carl; Scott, Christina; Kershaw, Tanis; Nannapaneni, Ushasri

2008-01-01

220

Exploring the expression of depression and distress in aboriginal men in central Australia: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression, experience, manifestations and consequences of emotional distress and depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia. Methods Utilizing a grounded theory approach, in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 theoretically sampled young, middle aged and senior Aboriginal men and traditional healers. Analysis was conducted by a single investigator using constant comparison methods. Results Depressive symptoms were common and identifiable, and largely consistent with symptom profiles seen in non-Aboriginal groups. For Aboriginal men, depression was expressed and understood as primarily related to weakness or injury of the spirit, with a lack of reference to hopelessness and specific somatic complaints. The primary contributors to depression related to the loss of connection to social and cultural features of Aboriginal life, cumulative stress and marginalisation. Conclusions Depression and depressive symptomatology clearly exists in Aboriginal men, however its determinants and expression differ from mainstream populations. Emotions were understood within the construction of spirit, Kurunpa, which was vulnerable to repetitive and powerful negative social forces, loss, and stress across the life course, and served to frame the physical and emotional experience and expression of depression. PMID:22853622

2012-01-01

221

Not just bricks and mortar: planning hospital cancer services for Aboriginal people  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals. Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews explored participants' beliefs about cancer and experiences of cancer care and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Information from interviews relevant to hospital services including and building design was extracted. Findings Relationships and respect emerged as crucial considerations of participants although many aspects of the hospital environment were seen as influencing the delivery of care. Five themes describing concerns about the hospital environment emerged: (i) being alone and lost in a big, alien and inflexible system; (ii) failure of open communication, delays and inefficiency in the system; (iii) practicalities: costs, transportation, community and family responsibilities; (iv) the need for Aboriginal support persons; and (v) connection to the community. Conclusions Design considerations and were identified but more important than the building itself was the critical need to build trust in health services. Promotion of cultural safety, support for Aboriginal family structures and respecting the importance of place and community to Aboriginal patients are crucial in improving cancer outcomes. PMID:21401923

2011-01-01

222

Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children  

PubMed Central

In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many women, substance abuse offers a means of coping with trauma, such as childhood abuse, partner violence, and, for Aboriginal women, the intergenerational effects of colonization. In this paper, we review treatment issues for Aboriginal mothers with substance use problems and their children. We discuss gender-specific issues in substance abuse, the need for women-specific treatment, the impact of substance abuse on children and parenting, the additional risks for Aboriginal women and children, and the need for integrated programs (those that integrate pregnancy-, parenting-, and child-related services with women-specific addiction treatment). We describe New Choices as an example of an integrated program, review research on existing treatment for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues, and describe Sheway as a promising integrated program for Aboriginal women with substance abuse issues and their young children. There are few treatment programs specifically for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues and their children and very little research on their effectiveness. Based on our review of existing evidence, we offer recommendations for future research and practice. PMID:24976814

Niccols, Allison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

2014-01-01

223

Research with Aboriginal peoples: authentic relationships as a precursor to ethical research.  

PubMed

Recent ethics guidelines and policies are changing the way health research is understood, governed, and practiced among Aboriginal communities in Canada. This provides a unique opportunity to examine the meanings and uses of such guidelines by Aboriginal communities themselves. This qualitative study, conducted in Labrador, Canada, with the Innu, Inuit, and Inuit-Metis, examined how communities and researchers collaborate in a co-learning environment whereby mutual interests and agendas are discussed and enacted throughout the entire research process-a process referred to an authentic research relationship. The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: (1) Why are authentic research relationships important? (2) What is authenticity in research? (3) How do we achieve authenticity in research with Aboriginal peoples? This shift to more wholistic methodologies can be used in various contexts in Canada and internationally. This is the first study by an Aboriginal person to examine the perspectives of Aboriginal people, in an Aboriginal context, using Aboriginal methodologies. PMID:21133783

Bull, Julie R

2010-12-01

224

Nitrogen stable isotopes in the shell of Mercenaria mercenaria trace wastewater inputs from watersheds to estuarine ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the usefulness of del15N values in the organic matrix of whole shells from Mercenaria mercenaria as tracers of anthropogenic nitrogen inputs to coastal ecosystems. del15N values in shell from transplanted and native clams reflected %-wastewater contribution to estuaries, but were 2.3-2.5 permil lighter than del15N values in soft tissues. Low and high stringency acidification methods were tested to define parameters for reliable del15N determination in shell. Accuracy of del15N values depended on recovering a sufficient quantity of organic N from shell (approx. 70 ?g) and was not altered by acidification methods. Reliable del15N values were obtained with as little as 80 mg of shell and100 ?l of acid. When analyzed in individual shell growth bands in native adults, del15N values followed changes in N sources to coastal ecosystems across years. Results suggest del15N values in shell recorded spatial and temporal changes in N sources, showing an offset from soft tissues likely due to differences in N assimilation among tissues. This approach may be applied (in living bivalves or ancient middens) to trace N entry to coastal systems by allowing biogeochemical and biological data to be aligned for greater spatial and temporal accuracy.

Carmichael, R.; Hattenrath, T.; Valiela, I.; Michener, R.

2009-04-01

225

Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use among Aboriginal youth living off-reserve: results from the Youth Smoking Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the high prevalence of smoking among Aboriginal youth, there is a paucity of research related to tobacco use and other risk behaviours among Aboriginal youth living off-reserve in Canada. We used data from the national Youth Smoking Survey to characterize non-traditional tobacco use, exposure to second-hand smoke, and alcohol and drug use among Aboriginal youth living off-reserve. We examined whether these youth were at increased health risk compared with non-Aboriginal youth. Methods We examined cigarette smoking behaviour, use of other tobacco products, use of alcohol and other drugs, and exposure to second-hand smoke among 2620 Aboriginal youth living off-reserve and 26 223 non-Aboriginal youth in grades 9 to 12 who participated in the 2008/09 Youth Smoking Survey. Results The prevalence of current smoking among the Aboriginal youth was more than double that among non-Aboriginal youth (24.9% v. 10.4%). Aboriginal youth also had a higher prevalence of regular exposure to second-hand smoke at home (37.3% v. 19.7%) and in cars (51.0% v. 30.3%). Aboriginal youth were more likely than non-Aboriginal youth to be current smokers, to be regularly exposed to second-hand smoke, to have tried marijuana and other illicit drugs, and to engage in binge drinking. They were less likely than non-Aboriginal youth to have tried to quit smoking. Interpretation Current national estimates of smoking, and alcohol and illicit drug use among youth underestimate the prevalence of these behaviours among Aboriginal youth living off-reserve. Our findings highlight the need for culturally appropriate prevention and cessation policies and programs for this at-risk population. PMID:21555383

Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Burkhalter, Robin

2011-01-01

226

Snail Shell  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Plant seems to be a Heliotropum sp. Huge snail shells litter the wetland around Asuncion Bay. Near 25°15’49’’S, 57°37’47’’W. La plantita detrás del caracol parece ser un Heliotropium sp., Boraginaceae....

227

A systematic review of community interventions to improve Aboriginal child passenger safety.  

PubMed

We evaluated evidence of community interventions to improve Aboriginal child passenger safety (CPS) in terms of its scientific merit and cultural relevance. We included studies if they reported interventions to improve CPS in Aboriginal communities, compared at least pre- and postintervention conditions, and evaluated rates and severity of child passenger injuries, child restraint use, or knowledge of CPS. We also appraised quality and cultural relevance of studies. Study quality was associated with community participation and cultural relevance. Strong evidence showed that multicomponent interventions tailored to each community improves CPS. Interventions in Aboriginal communities should incorporate Aboriginal views of health, involve the community, and be multicomponent and tailored to the community's circumstances and culture. PMID:24754652

Ishikawa, Takuro; Oudie, Eugenia; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian

2014-06-01

228

Experimental Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, Jun 2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This product contains final experimental estimates of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous), non-Indigenous and total populations of Australia at 30 June 2006, for various geographies.

Statistics, Australian B.

229

Change in aboriginal childhood morbidity and mortality in Bourke 1971-84.  

PubMed

In the early 1970s, the Aboriginal community of Bourke attempted to improve its socioeconomic and health status through a number of community development activities. As a result, markers of nutrition in early childhood, housing conditions and access to health care all improved, in spite of a deterioration in employment opportunities and adult health. Coincidentally, most markers of the health of Aboriginal children in Bourke improved over the period 1971-84. In particular, Aboriginal child admissions due to gastroenteritis, eye and ear infections and accidents, and the community prevalence of trachoma, middle ear disease and pneumonia among Aboriginal children, decreased. Skin infections were an exception to this general picture, becoming more prevalent over the period. PMID:2361071

Harris, M F; Kamien, M

1990-04-01

230

WGN, the Journal of the IMO 38:3 (2010) 87 Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings  

E-print Network

of the influence of meteoritic phenomena and material (in- cluding comets, meteors, meteorites, tektites, and cos (Australian tektites) in Aboriginal cultures, while Bevan & Bindon (1996) were the first to address

Norris, Ray

231

Markers of Access to and Quality of Primary Care for Aboriginal People in Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We evaluated primary care accessibility and quality for Ontario’s aboriginal population. Methods. We compared a defined aboriginal cohort with nonaboriginal populations with analogous geographic isolation and low socioeconomic status. We determined rates of hospitalization for the following indicators of adequacy of primary care: ambulatory care–sensitive (ACS) conditions and utilization of referral care–sensitive (RCS) procedures from administrative databases. Results. ACS hospitalization rates, relative to the general population, were 2.54, 1.50, and 1.14 for the aboriginal population, the geographic control populations, and the socioeconomic control populations, respectively. The relative RCS procedure utilization rates were 0.64, 0.91, and 1.00, respectively. Conclusions. The increased ACS hospitalization rate and reduced RCS procedure utilization rate suggest that northern Ontario’s aboriginal residents have insufficient or ineffective primary care. PMID:12721147

Shah, Baiju R.; Gunraj, Nadia; Hux, Janet E.

2003-01-01

232

Health inequities experienced by Aboriginal children with respiratory conditions and their parents.  

PubMed

Asthma and allergies are common conditions among Aboriginal children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to assess the health and health-care inequities experienced by affected children and by their parents. Aboriginal research assistants conducted individual interviews with 46 Aboriginal children and adolescents who had asthma and/or allergies (26 First Nations, 19 Métis, 1 Inuit) and 51 parents or guardians of these children and adolescents. Followup group interviews were conducted with 16 adolescents and 25 parents/ guardians. Participants reported inadequate educational resources, environmental vulnerability, social and cultural pressures, exclusion, isolation, stigma, blame, and major support deficits. They also described barriers to health-service access, inadequate health care, disrespectful treatment and discrimination by health-care providers, and deficient health insurance. These children, adolescents, and parents recommended the establishment of culturally appropriate support and education programs delivered by Aboriginal peers and health professionals. PMID:24236369

Stewart, Miriam; King, Malcolm; Blood, Roxanne; Letourneau, Nicole; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Anderson, Sharon; Bearskin, Lisa Bourque

2013-09-01

233

Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented to improve communication on all levels and reduce systemic barriers operating within the health system. PMID:23497140

2013-01-01

234

Insights on end-of-life ceremonial practices of Australian Aboriginal peoples.  

PubMed

The ceremonies surrounding death are extremely important to Aboriginal peoples and take precedence over all other activities. This article presents research findings on Aboriginal mortuary ceremonies in the hope that it will be useful for non-indigenous nurses working with Aboriginal peoples. A qualitative research methodology was used, whereby data were collected by conducting 72 open-ended interviews with patients, carers, Aboriginal health care workers, health care workers and interpreters in four geographical areas in the Northern Territory. A descriptive phenomenological approach was taken to the recording and analysis of the data. The findings reveal that traditional practices including the smoking ceremony (a spiritual ritual conducted in the deceased's living space with the rationale of driving the deceased's spirit away), painting ochre on all living spaces inhabited by the deceased, or alternatively of putting up "flags" (which is considered to drive away the deceased's spirit and also to notify to the community that this is the house of a deceased) and the death ceremony (which includes practices such as keeping the deceased's body in the home, painting the bodies of the mourners and bringing kinship communities together to share food, song and dance) are of great significance in many Aboriginal cultures. It is the authors' hope and expectation that an understanding of these rituals, and their significance for different cultural groups, will assist nurses by increasing their knowledge of Aboriginal cultural and ceremonial practices associated with caring for the deceased and so aid their important work in this area. PMID:19112922

McGrath, Pam; Phillips, Emma

2008-01-01

235

Naturally Acquired Antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae Type a in Aboriginal Adults, Canada  

PubMed Central

In the post-Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine era that began in the 1980's, H. influenzae type a (Hia) emerged as a prominent cause of invasive disease in North American Aboriginal populations. To test whether a lack of naturally acquired antibodies may underlie increased rates of invasive Hia disease, we compared serum bactericidal activity against Hia and Hib and IgG and IgM against capsular polysaccharide between Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal healthy and immunocompromised adults. Both healthy and immunocompromised Aboriginal adults exhibited significantly higher bactericidal antibody titers against Hia than did non-Aboriginal adults (p = 0.042 and 0.045 respectively), with no difference in functional antibody activity against Hib. IgM concentrations against Hia were higher than IgG in most study groups; the inverse was true for antibody concentrations against Hib. Our results indicate that Aboriginal adults possess substantial serum bactericidal activity against Hia that is mostly due to IgM antibodies. The presence of sustained IgM against Hia suggests recent Hia exposure. PMID:25626129

Nix, Eli B.; Williams, Kylie; Cox, Andrew D.; St. Michael, Frank; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Schmidt, Daniel S.; McCready, William G.

2015-01-01

236

Exploring the effects of psychosocial and acculturation factors on drinking behavior among aboriginal adolescents in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of psychosocial and acculturation factors on drinking behavior among Taiwanese aboriginal teenagers. Stratified random sampling was used to select six of the 19 aboriginal schools in Taipei, Pingtung, Hualien, and Taitung counties. A total of 495 student subjects were enrolled in the study, including 290 boys and 205 girls, with classification by tribe of 206 Amis, 97 Atayal, 94 Paiwan, 47 Bunun, 19 Rukai, 15 Yami, 10 Puyuma, two Saisiyat, one Tsou, and four unknown. The analysis indicated that the psychosocial and acculturation factors that directly influenced drinking behaviors of aboriginal teenagers were: self-efficacy, drinking behaviors of parents, peer alcohol use, social assimilation, social attitude, and territorial attitude. In this model, peer alcohol use had the most prominent impact on drinking behavior among aboriginal teenagers. The findings suggest that parents' behaviors play a significant role in the development of problematic drinking behavior in the aboriginal teenager through observation and imitation, and also that self-efficacy and the level of acculturation influences drinking behavior in aboriginal teenagers. PMID:15482574

Yeh, Mei-Yu

2004-10-01

237

[Oxidation of sulfur-containing substrates by aboriginal and experimentally designed microbial communities].  

PubMed

Aboriginal and experimental (constructed of pure microbial cultures) communities of acidophilic chemolithotrophs have been studied. The oxidation of elemental sulfur, sodium thiosulfate, and potassium tetrathionate as sole sources of energy has been monitored. The oxidation rate of the experimental community is higher as compared to the aboriginal community isolated from a flotation concentrate of pyrrhotine-containing pyrite-arsenopyrite gold-arsenic sulfide ore. The degree of oxidation of the mentioned S substrates amounts to 17.91, 68.30, and 93.94% for the experimental microbial community and to 10.71, 56.03, and 79.50% for the aboriginal community, respectively. The degree of oxidation of sulfur sulfide forms in the ore flotation concentrate is 59.15% by the aboriginal microbial community and 49.40% by the experimental microbial community. Despite a higher rate of oxidation of S substrates as a sole source of energy by the experimental microbial community, the aboriginal community oxidizes S substrates at a higher rate in the flotation concentrate of pyrrhotine-containing pyrite-arsenopyrite gold-arsenic sulfide ore, from which it was isolated. Bacterial-chemical oxidation of the flotation concentrate by the aboriginal microbial community allows for the extraction of an additional 32.3% of gold from sulfide minerals, which is by 5.7% larger compared to the yield obtained by the experimental microbial community. PMID:23330391

Pivovarova, T A; Bulaev, A G; Roshchupko, P V; Bely?, A V; Kondrat'eva, T F

2012-01-01

238

Use of participatory research and photo-voice to support urban Aboriginal healthy eating.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to work collaboratively with an urban Aboriginal community to understand meanings of food and food insecurity and strengthen responses to this issue. The project took place at the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative in Geelong, South Eastern Australia in 2009-2010. Photo-voice research methods were used to explore meanings of food and food insecurity. This identified that food selections were influenced by family harmony, collectivism and satiation of hunger with cheap high carbohydrate and fat foods. People were also proud of their hunter-gatherer heritage and saw the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative as leaders in healthy food provision. Action research cycles were used to develop responses including plates depicting healthy food portions, social cooking opportunities, development of a cooking television series and a specialised cook-book. The partnership required researchers to listen carefully to respond to needs of the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative, and this meant adapting research plans to suit the local environment and community partner needs. There is potential for Aboriginal organisations to provide further leadership for healthy eating and food security through workplace food policies and partnerships with food security agencies. Use of Aboriginal nutrition knowledge to provide nutrition education may be useful in health promotion approaches. PMID:22390223

Adams, Karen; Burns, Cate; Liebzeit, Anna; Ryschka, Jodie; Thorpe, Sharon; Browne, Jennifer

2012-09-01

239

Aboriginal hunting buffers climate-driven fire-size variability in Australia’s spinifex grasslands  

PubMed Central

Across diverse ecosystems, greater climatic variability tends to increase wildfire size, particularly in Australia, where alternating wet–dry cycles increase vegetation growth, only to leave a dry overgrown landscape highly susceptible to fire spread. Aboriginal Australian hunting fires have been hypothesized to buffer such variability, mitigating mortality on small-mammal populations, which have suffered declines and extinctions in the arid zone coincident with Aboriginal depopulation. We test the hypothesis that the relationship between climate and fire size is buffered through the maintenance of an anthropogenic, fine-grained fire regime by comparing the effect of climatic variability on landscapes dominated by Martu Aboriginal hunting fires with those dominated by lightning fires. We show that Aboriginal fires are smaller, more tightly clustered, and remain small even when climate variation causes huge fires in the lightning region. As these effects likely benefit threatened small-mammal species, Aboriginal hunters should be considered trophic facilitators, and policies aimed at reducing the risk of large fires should promote land-management strategies consistent with Aboriginal burning regimes. PMID:22689979

Bliege Bird, Rebecca; Codding, Brian F.; Kauhanen, Peter G.

2012-01-01

240

Genitourinary tract infections in pregnancy and low birth weight: case-control study in Australian aboriginal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the association between genital and urinary tract infections in pregnant Aboriginal women and low birth weight. DESIGN--Retrospective case-control study controlling for potential confounding variables. SETTING--Western Australia from 1985 to 1987. SUBJECTS--All Aboriginal women (n = 269) who had given birth to singleton infants weighing 2250 g or less (cases), and 269 randomly selected Aboriginal women who had given

R Schultz; A W Read; J A Straton; F J Stanley; P Morich

1991-01-01

241

Biomes of western North America at 18,000, 6000 and 0 14C yr BP reconstructed from pollen and packrat midden data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new compilation of pollen and packrat midden data from western North America provides a refined reconstruction of the composition and distribution of biomes in western North America for today and for 6000 and 18,000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP). Modern biomes in western North America are adequately portrayed by pollen assemblages from lakes and bogs. Forest biomes in western North America share many taxa in their pollen spectra and it can be difficult to discriminate among these biomes. Plant macrofossils from packrat middens provide reliable identification of modern biomes from arid and semiarid regions, and this may also be true in similar environments in other parts of the world. However, a weighting factor for trees and shrubs must be used to reliably reconstruct modern biomes from plant macrofossils. A new biome, open conifer woodland, which includes eurythermic conifers and steppe plants, was defined to categorize much of the current and past vegetation of the semiarid interior of western North America. At 6000 14C yr BP, the forest biomes of the coastal Pacific North-west and the desert biomes of the South-west were in near-modern positions. Biomes in the interior Pacific North-west differed from those of today in that taiga prevailed in modern cool/cold mixed forests. Steppe was present in areas occupied today by open conifer woodland in the northern Great Basin, while in the central and southern Rocky Mountains forests grew where steppe grows today. During the mid-Holocene, cool conifer forests were expanded in the Rocky Mountains (relative to today) but contracted in the Sierra Nevada. These differences from the forests of today imply different climatic histories in these two regions between 6000 14C yr BP and today. At 18,000 14C yr BP, deserts were absent from the South-west and the coverage of open conifer woodland was greatly expanded relative to today. Steppe and tundra were present in much of the region now covered by forests in the Pacific North-west.

Thompson, R.S.; Anderson, K.H.

2000-01-01

242

Aboriginal Taiwanese hepatitis B carriers have more favorable viral factors than Han Chinese carriers.  

PubMed

Several viral factors are associated with disease progression in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. Compared with Taiwanese Han Chinese, Taiwanese aborigines have a higher prevalence of chronic HBV infection and a higher standardized mortality rate of chronic liver diseases but a lower standardized mortality rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to investigate whether aboriginal Taiwanese HBV carriers have more favorable viral factors which reduce the risk for HCC than Han Chinese carriers. Blood samples from 3,488 HBV carriers (1,527 aborigines and 1,961 Han Chinese) were assayed for aminotransferases, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBV DNA, and HBV genotype. Aboriginal HBV carriers had a lower HBeAg-positive rate (5.3% vs. 10.2%, P??2,000?IU/ml (27.4% vs. 36.7%, P?aboriginal carriers (92.7%) was significantly higher than that in Han Chinese carriers (72.7%) in all age groups (P?aboriginal Taiwanese HBV carriers have more favorable viral factors than Han Chinese carriers, which may be partly responsible for the lower standardized mortality rate of HCC in Taiwanese aborigines. PMID:21678436

Nien, Hsiao-Ching; Sheu, Jin-Chuan; Kao, Jia-Horng; Chou, Huei-Chi; Su, Chien-Wen; Chen, Chien-Hung

2011-08-01

243

Mental health and Victorian Aboriginal people: what can data mining tell us?  

PubMed

Nationally, Aboriginal people experience high levels of psychological distress, primarily due to trauma from colonisation. In Victoria, Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) provide many services to support mental health. The aim of the present study was to improve understanding about Victorian Aboriginal people and mental health service patterns. We located four mental health administrative datasets to analyse descriptively, including Practice Health Atlas, Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Service (AODTS), Kids Helpline and Close The Gap Pharmaceutical Scheme data. A large proportion of the local Aboriginal population (70%) were regular ACCHO clients; of these, 21% had a mental health diagnosis and, of these, 23% had a Medicare Mental Health Care Plan (MHCP). There were higher rates of Medicare MHCP completion rates where general practitioners (GPs) had mental health training and the local Area Mental Health Service had a Koori Mental Health Liaison Officer. There was an over-representation of AODTS episodes, and referrals for these episodes were more likely to come through community, corrections and justice services than for non-Aboriginal people. Aboriginal episodes were less likely to have been referred by a GP or police and less likely to have been referrals to community-based or home-based treatment. There was an over-representation of Victorian Aboriginal calls to Kids Helpline, and these were frequently for suicide and self-harm reasons. We recommend primary care mental health programs include quality audits, GP training, non-pharmaceutical options and partnerships. Access to appropriate AODTS is needed, particularly given links to high incarcerations rates. To ensure access to mental health services, improved understanding of mental health service participation and outcomes, including suicide prevention services for young people, is needed. PMID:25053190

Adams, Karen; Halacas, Chris; Cincotta, Marion; Pesich, Corina

2014-10-01

244

Lifetime risk of developing coronary heart disease in Aboriginal Australians: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Lifetime risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important yardstick by which policy makers, clinicians and the general public can assess and promote the awareness and prevention of CHD. The lifetime risk in Aboriginal people is not known. Using a cohort with up to 20?years of follow-up, we estimated the lifetime risk of CHD in Aboriginal people. Design A cohort study. Setting A remote Aboriginal region. Participants 1115 Aboriginal people from one remote tribal group who were free from CHD at baseline were followed for up to 20?years. Main outcome measures During the follow-up period, new CHD incident cases were identified through hospital and death records. We estimated the lifetime risks of CHD with and without adjusting for the presence of competing risk of death from non-CHD causes. Results Participants were followed up for 17?126 person-years, during which 185 developed CHD and 144 died from non-CHD causes. The average age at which the first CHD event occurred was 48?years for men and 49?years for women. The risk of developing CHD increased with age until 60?years and then decreased with age. Lifetime cumulative risk without adjusting for competing risk was 70.7% for men and 63.8% for women. Adjusting for the presence of competing risk of death from non-CHD causes, the lifetime risk of CHD was 52.6% for men and 49.2% for women. Conclusions Lifetime risk of CHD is as high as one in two in both Aboriginal men and women. The average age of having first CHD events was under 50?years, much younger than that reported in non-Aboriginal populations. Our data provide useful knowledge for health education, screening and prevention of CHD in Aboriginal people. PMID:23370013

Wang, Zhiqiang; Hoy, Wendy E

2013-01-01

245

‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life’: Aboriginal people's experience of haemodialysis in rural Australia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Australian Aboriginal people have at least eight times the incidence of end-stage kidney disease, requiring dialysis, as the non-Aboriginal population. Provision of health services to rural Aboriginal people with renal disease is challenging due to barriers to access and cultural differences. We aimed to describe the experiences of Aboriginal people receiving haemodialysis in rural Australia, to inform strategies for improving renal services. Design A qualitative design incorporating: Indigenist research methodology and Community Based Participatory Research principles. In-depth interviews used a ‘yarning’ and storytelling approach. Thematic analysis was undertaken and verified by an Aboriginal Community Reference Group. Setting A health district in rural New South Wales, Australia. Participants Snowball sampling recruited 18 Aboriginal haemodialysis recipients. Results Six themes emerged which described the patient journey: ‘The biggest shock of me life,’ expressed the shock of diagnosis and starting the dialysis; ‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life,’ explained how positive attitudes to treatment develop; ‘Family is everything’, described the motivation and support to continue dialysis; ‘If I had one of them nurses at home to help me’, depicted acute hospital settings as culturally unsafe; ‘Don't use them big jawbreakers’, urged service providers to use simple language and cultural awareness; ‘Stop ‘em following us onto the machine’, emphasised the desire for education for the younger generations about preventing kidney disease. An Aboriginal interpretation of this experience, linked to the analysis, was depicted in the form of an Aboriginal painting. Conclusions Family enables Aboriginal people to endure haemodialysis. Patients believe that priorities for improving services include family-centred and culturally accommodating healthcare systems; and improving access to early screening of kidney disease. Inclusion of Aboriginal patients in cultural education for renal staff is recommended. Providing opportunities for patients to educate young Aboriginal people about kidney disease prevention may be highly effective and empowering. PMID:25231493

Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

2014-01-01

246

Aboriginal Self-Determination in Australia: The Effects of Minority-Majority Frames and Target Universalism on Majority Collective Guilt and Compensation Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of Aboriginal-Anglo Australian relations, we tested the effect of framing (multiculturalism versus separatism) and majority group members' social values (universalism) on the persuasiveness of Aboriginal group rhetoric, majority collective guilt, attitudes toward compensation, and reparations for Aboriginals. As predicted, Anglo…

Reid, Scott A.; Gunter, Helen N.; Smith, Joanne R.

2005-01-01

247

The Aboriginal Motif in Children's Literature. Proceedings of a National Seminar Held at the University of Tasmania Tasmania, Australia, September 25-27, 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This seminar on the Aboriginal motif in children's literature was opened by critic Walter McVitty with a paper entitled "The Presentation of Australian Aborigines and Their Culture in Children's Literature: A Brief Overview." In "Some Thoughts on the Aborigine as Presented in Children's Literature," Queensland author Bill Scott stressed the need…

Herr, Twila A. J., Ed.

248

Vibration of Shells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vibrational characteristics and mechanical properties of shell structures are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) fundamental equations of thin shell theory, (2) characteristics of thin circular cylindrical shells, (3) complicating effects in circular cylindrical shells, (4) noncircular cylindrical shell properties, (5) characteristics of spherical shells, and (6) solution of three-dimensional equations of motion for cylinders.

Leissa, A. W.

1973-01-01

249

Building Atoms Shell by Shell.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an atom-building activity where students construct three-dimensional models of atoms using a styrofoam ball as the nucleus and pom-poms, gum drops, minimarshmallows, or other small items of two different colors to represent protons and neutrons attached. Rings of various sizes with pom-poms attached represent electron shells and…

Sussman, Beverly

1993-01-01

250

Lead Deposition in the Shell of the Bivalve, Mya arenaria: an Indicator of Dissolved Lead in Seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strong correlation is observed between the lead content of the shell of the bivalve, Mya arenaria, and dissolved Pb in the seawater in which it grows. Three intertidal sites populated with Mya were selected for study and monitored at least once per month for dissolved Pb during 1988 and 1989. Organisms were collected at the end of the growing season of each year and the most recent annual growth increment was analysed for Pb. A comparison of lead concentrations in shells to seasonally averaged dissolved Pb determined at each of these sites yields a linear relationship described by: Pb shell(nmol g -1) = (9·99 ± 1·18)Pb water(nmol kg -1)-0·05 r = 0·97 Lead in the shell of Mya is concentrated by a factor of 10000 relative to seawater making it a sensitive indicator for ambient Pb concentrations. The Pb content of shells excavated from middens left by Indians inhabiting the Boston Harbor islands and radio-carbon dated to be 1600 years old, suggest that pre-industrial dissolved Pb concentrations in Boston Harbor were 24 ± 8 pmol kg -1. Present day concentrations are 25-50 times higher.

Pitts, Leonard C.; Wallace, Gordon T.

1994-07-01

251

Epidemiology of severe trauma among status Aboriginal Canadians: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Canadians are considered to be at increased risk of major trauma. However, population-based studies characterizing the distribution, determinants and outcomes of major trauma in this group are lacking. We sought to measure the impact of ethnicity, as reflected by Aboriginal status, on the incidence of severe trauma and to broadly define the epidemiologic characteristics of severe trauma among status Aboriginal Canadians in a large health region. Methods This population-based, observational study involves all adults (people ? 16 years) resident in the Calgary Health Region between Apr. 1, 1999, and Mar. 31, 2002. Stratification of the population into status Aboriginal Canadians and the reference population was performed by Alberta Health and Wellness using an alternate premium arrangement field within the personal health care number. Injury incidence was determined by identifying all injuries with severity scores of 12 or greater in the Alberta Trauma Registry, regional corporate data and the Office of the Medical Examiner. Results Aboriginal Canadians were at much higher risk than the reference population in the Calgary Health Region of sustaining severe trauma (257.2 v. 68.8 per 100 000; relative risk [RR] 3.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0–4.6). Aboriginal Canadians were found to be at significantly increased risk of injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes (RR 4.8, 95% CI 3.5–6.5), assault (RR 11.1, 95% CI 6.2–18.6) and traumatic suicide (RR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4–6.1). A trend toward higher median injury severity scores was observed among Aboriginal Canadians (21 v. 18, p = 0.09). Although the case-fatality rate among Aboriginal Canadians was less than half that in the reference population (14/93 [15%] v. 531/1686 [31%], p < 0.0001), population mortality was almost 2 times greater (RR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.0–3.0, p = 0.046). Interpretation Severe trauma disproportionately affects Aboriginal Canadians. PMID:15824405

Karmali, Shahzeer; Laupland, Kevin; Harrop, A. Robert; Findlay, Christi; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Winston, Brent; Kortbeek, John; Crowshoe, Lindsay; Hameed, Morad

2005-01-01

252

Correlation of Clinical Trachoma and Infection in Aboriginal Communities  

PubMed Central

Background Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness due to conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. The presence of active trachoma and evidence of infection are poorly correlated and a strong immunologically-mediated inflammatory response means that clinical signs last much longer than infection. This population-based study in five Aboriginal communities endemic for trachoma in northern Australia compared a fine grading of clinical trachoma with diagnostic positivity and organism load. Methods A consensus fine grading of trachoma, based on clinical assessment and photograding, was compared to PCR, a lipopolysacharide (LPS)-based point-of-care (POC) and a 16S RNA-based nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Organism load was measured in PCR positive samples. Results A total of 1282 residents, or 85.2% of the study population, was examined. Taking the findings of both eyes, the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1–9 years was 25.1% (96/383) of whom 13 (13.7%) were PCR positive on the left eye. When clinical data were limited to the left eye as this was tested for PCR, the prevalence of TF decreased to 21.4% (82/383). The 301 TF negative children, 13 (4.3%) were PCR positive. The fine grading of active trachoma strongly correlated with organism load and disease severity (rs?=?0.498, P?=?0.0004). Overall, 53% of clinical activity (TF1 or TF2) and 59% of PCR positivity was found in those with disease scores less than the WHO simplified grade of TF. Conclusion Detailed studies of the pathogenesis, distribution and natural history of trachoma should use finer grading schemes for the more precise identification of clinical status. In low prevalence areas, the LPS-based POC test lacks the sensitivity to detect active ocular infection and nucleic acid amplification tests such as PCR or the 16S-RNA based NAAT performed better. Trachoma in the Aboriginal communities requires specific control measures. PMID:21423648

Michel, Claude-Edouard C.; Roper, Katrina G.; Divena, Magda A.; Lee, Helen H.; Taylor, Hugh R.

2011-01-01

253

Comparison of late HIV diagnosis as a marker of care for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal people living with HIV in Ontario  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Studies have found that Aboriginal people living with HIV/AIDS (APHAs) are more likely than non-APHAs to receive suboptimal HIV care, yet achieve similar clinical outcomes with proper care. OBJECTIVE: To compare the proportions of individuals diagnosed late with HIV between APHAs and non-APHAs within the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study (OCS). METHODS: The analysis included OCS participants who completed the baseline visit by November 2009. Two definitions of the outcome of late HIV diagnosis were used: the proportion of participants with an AIDS-defining illness (ADI) before or within three months of HIV diagnosis; and the proportion of participants with a CD4+ count <200 cells/mL at diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between Aboriginal ethnicity and late HIV diagnosis. RESULTS: APHAs were more likely to be female and have lower income, education and employment. No statistically significant differences were noted in the proportions receiving a late HIV diagnosis defined by ADI (Aboriginal 5.2% versus non-Aboriginal 6.3%; P=0.40). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between Aboriginal ethnicity and late HIV diagnosis defined by CD4+ count after adjusting for age and HIV risk factor (OR 1.55; P=0.04). DISCUSSION: APHAs were more likely to have a CD4+ count <200 cells/mL at diagnosis but had similar clinical outcomes from late diagnosis when defined by ADI. However, differences may be underestimated due to recruitment limitations and selection bias. CONCLUSION: Additional work is needed to address the socioeconomic and health care needs of APHAs. PMID:24294285

Jaworsky, Denise; Monette, LaVerne; Raboud, Janet; O’Brien-Teengs, Doe; Diong, Christina; Blitz, Sandra; Rourke, Sean B; Loutfy, Mona R

2012-01-01

254

Real Stories, Extraordinary People: Preliminary Findings from an Aboriginal Community-Controlled Cultural Immersion Program for Local Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on effective strategies for developing the cultural competence of teachers involved in Aboriginal education and presents the preliminary findings of a review into the Connecting to Country Program (CTC), a joint venture of the NSW Aboriginal Education Consultative Group (AECG) and the NSW Department of Education and Communities…

Burgess, Cathie; Cavanagh, Pat

2012-01-01

255

The potential influence of KIR cluster profiles on disease patterns of Canadian Aboriginals and other indigenous peoples of the Americas  

PubMed Central

Genetic differences in immune regulators influence disease resistance and susceptibility patterns. There are major health discrepancies in immune-mediated diseases between Caucasians and Canadian Aboriginal people, as well as with other indigenous people of the Americas. Environmental factors offer a limited explanation as Aboriginal people also demonstrate a rare resistance to chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are known modulators of viral responses and autoimmune diseases. The possibility that variation in KIR cluster profiles contribute to the health outcomes of Aboriginal people was evaluated with Canadian Caucasian (n=93, population controls) and Aboriginal (n=86) individuals. Relative to Caucasians, the Aboriginal KIR cluster displayed a greater immune activating phenotype associated with genes of the B haplotype situated within the telomeric region. In conjunction, there was a decrease in the genes of the B haplotype from the centromeric region. Caucasian and Aboriginal cohorts further demonstrated distinct genotype and haplotype relationships enforcing the disconnect between the B haplotype centromeric and telomeric regions within the Aboriginal population. Moreover, Caucasian KIR cluster patterns reflected studies of Caucasians globally, as well as Asians. In contrast, the unique pattern of the Canadian Aboriginal cohort mirrored the phenotype of other indigenous peoples of the Americas, but not that of Caucasians or Asians. Taken together, these data suggest that historically indigenous peoples of the Americas were subject to immune selection processes that could be influencing the current disease resistance and susceptibility patterns of their descendents. PMID:21731058

Rempel, Julia D; Hawkins, Kim; Lande, Erin; Nickerson, Peter

2011-01-01

256

Aboriginal Bark Painting: Learning about the Beliefs of Others Is Important for Developing an Appreciation of Other Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes one classroom's experience engaging in a lesson on aboriginal painting. Aboriginal painting has a particular allure to middle school students. As this age group crosses the threshold from concrete knowing to conceptual understanding, they are ready to re-frame their perspective of the artist's intent. Learning…

Graziano, Jane

2004-01-01

257

Barriers to Equal Education for Aboriginal Learners: A Review of the Literature. A BC Human Rights Commission Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is a fundamental right of all people but, for the Canadian Aboriginal community it is particularly critical for overcoming historical disadvantages. This document reports on a review of barriers to equal education for Aboriginal people. Key barriers to educational equity include issues of control, keepers of knowledge (teachers versus…

Mattson, Linda; Caffrey, Lee

258

Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

2001-01-01

259

Aboriginal Business Capacity Building Programs in the Central Interior of British Columbia: A Collaborative Project between the University and Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal communities in Canada are typically marginalized, have very low employment participation rates, and have limited economic infrastructure. The downturn in global economies further marginalized these communities. The University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC) Continuing Studies department piloted an Aboriginal and Small Business…

Kunkel, Titi; Schorcht, Blanca; Brazzoni, Randall

2011-01-01

260

Economic Performance of Off-Reserve Aboriginal Canadians: A Study of Groups at Risk of Social Exclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal people have already been identified as belonging to those groups of people who are most at risk of experiencing social exclusion in Canada. This document does not seek to compare Aboriginal people with the rest of the Canadian population but rather with the members of other high risk groups. Specifically, it examines, from a…

Fleury, Dominique

2002-01-01

261

Developing an Exploratory Framework Linking Australian Aboriginal Peoples’ Connection to Country and Concepts of Wellbeing  

PubMed Central

Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Country) and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships) and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism) factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples’ health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples’ wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples’ health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation. PMID:23435590

Kingsley, Jonathan; Townsend, Mardie; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Bolam, Bruce

2013-01-01

262

'Talk, talk, cry, laugh': learning, healing and building an Aboriginal workforce to address family violence.  

PubMed

Sexual abuse and family violence are widespread and under-reported phenomena for which Aboriginal victims face even greater barriers to asking for and receiving assistance than do others in the community. There is a need for strategies to address abuse without disempowering and alienating Aboriginal people. A program developed by the New South Wales Health Education Centre Against Violence is addressing this issue at the same time as contributing towards a strengthened Aboriginal health workforce. The training program which is a 1-year qualification course has grown from a 52% rate of graduation in its first 6 years to 92%. Three practices in the classroom have contributed to this success. These are: (i) recognition of the emotional impact of the training and its links to participants own histories; (ii) providing space to address participants negative prior educational experiences; and (iii) further developing content on the recent sociopolitical history of Aboriginal people. These practices have strengthened this successful course, which is building a skilled workforce to provide accessible, culturally sensitive services for Aboriginal people experiencing abuse. PMID:23237329

Lauw, Marlene L; Spangaro, Jo; Herring, Sigrid; McNamara, Lorna D

2013-02-01

263

Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.  

PubMed

Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. PMID:24161085

Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

2013-11-01

264

Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and stable isotopes in modern and Holocene Protothaca staminea shells from a northern California coastal upwelling region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study explores the potential of intertidal Protothaca staminea shells as high-resolution geochemical archives of environmental change in a coastal upwelling region. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were analyzed by excimer laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at sub-weekly temporal resolution in shells growing ???1 mm per month. Growth patterns of a modern P. staminea shell from Humboldt Bay, California, collected in December 1999 made it possible to infer a lifespan from 1993 to 1998. Growth hiatuses in the shell may have excluded records of extreme events. Mg/Ca ratios appeared to be partly controlled by water temperature; the correlation coefficient between temperature and Mg/Ca was r = 0.71 in one of four growth increments. Significant year-to-year differences in the sensitivity of Mg/Ca to temperature in P. staminea could not be explained, however. Sr/Ca ratios appeared to be more closely related to shell growth rate. Oxygen isotopes, measured at 2-week temporal resolution in the same shell, did not show a clear relation to local temperature in summer, possibly because temperatures were higher and less variable at the King Salmon mudflat, where the shell was collected, than in the main channel of Humboldt Bay, where water properties were monitored. Negative shell ??13C values (<-0.5???) marked spring and summer coastal upwelling events. The Mg contents of P. staminea midden shells dated to ???3 ka and ???9 ka were significantly lower than in the modern shell. This may have resulted from degradation of a Mg-rich shell organic matrix and precluded quantitative interpretation of the older high-resolution records. Elevated ??13C values in the ???3 ka shell suggested that the individual grew in highly productive or stratified environment, such as a shallow coastal embayment or lagoon. Copyright ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

Takesue, R.K.; VanGeen, A.

2004-01-01

265

The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n?=?18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n?=?29). An overarching theme of avoiding the “costly” crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system. PMID:25056441

Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

2015-01-01

266

Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by???90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who are developing mental illnesses or are in a mental health crisis. PMID:24467923

2014-01-01

267

The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: A qualitative study.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n?=?18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n?=?29). An overarching theme of avoiding the "costly" crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system. PMID:25056441

Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

2015-01-01

268

Aboriginal astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia. Part 1: Nyeeruna and 'The Orion Story'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE recorded the daily lives, lore and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as 'The Orion Story', stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of 'The Orion Story', including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

2014-07-01

269

Aboriginal Astronomical Traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 1: Nyeeruna and the Orion Story  

E-print Network

Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE (1859-1951) recorded the daily lives, lore, and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as "The Orion Story", stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of "The Orion Story", including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

Leaman, Trevor M

2014-01-01

270

Influences of indigenous language on spatial frames of reference in Aboriginal English  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.

Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

2014-06-01

271

Couples Counseling for Aboriginal Clients Following Intimate Partner Violence: Service Providers' Perceptions of Risk.  

PubMed

Interventions for family violence in Aboriginal communities should take a culture-based approach and focus on healing for the whole family. The purpose of this research was to identify risk issues from the perspective of service providers for couples counseling with Aboriginal clients following intimate partner violence. A total of 25 service providers participated in over the phone interviews concerning risk with Aboriginal men in couple counseling. Five concepts emerged including (a) collaterals, (b) commitment to change, (c) violence, (d) mind-set, and (e) mental health. It was concluded that culturally competent interventions should involve the entire community and have a restorative approach. The concepts were compared and contrasted with the available literature. PMID:25274747

Riel, Elissa; Languedoc, Sue; Brown, Jason; Gerrits, Julie

2014-10-01

272

The CIET Aboriginal Youth Resilience Studies: 14 Years of Capacity Building and Methods Development in Canada  

PubMed Central

CIET started supporting Canadian Aboriginal community-based researchers of resilience in 1995. An evolving approach to Aboriginal resilience used a combination of standard instruments and questionnaires of local design. Over the years, CIET measured personal assets like sense of coherence, spirituality, knowledge, pride in one’s heritage, mastery or self-efficacy, self-esteem, low levels of distress, involvement in traditional ways and activities, church attendance. Other indicators reflected the social dimension of resilience: feeling supported; parental care and support; parental monitoring, attitudes, and example; peer support; and support from the wider community. Pride in one’s heritage, self-esteem, low distress, and mastery were measurable personal assets of resilient Aboriginal youth in a variety of cultures and circumstances. Early efforts to link resilience with specific features of culture or spirituality did not meet with success — largely reflecting failure to ask the right questions. Parental care and support, parental monitoring, parental attitudes, and parental example clearly supported the resilient Aboriginal youth in most settings. But peers are an even stronger influence, critical in relation to different types of behaviour from smoking to drinking to substance abuse to violence, unsafe sex, and suicidal tendencies. More generally, having someone to confide in, to count on in times of crisis, someone to give advice and someone who makes one feel cared for are important factors in youth resilience and something that communities can help to provide even where the family is not the support it should be and where peers are more of a hindrance than a help. CIET currently supports three resilience research projects involving Aboriginal youth in Canada: suicide prevention, reduction of HIV risk, and reduction of domestic violence. The latest resilience measurement tools include enculturation and revised approaches to Aboriginal spirituality. PMID:20862230

Andersson, Neil

2010-01-01

273

An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present evidence that the Boorong Aboriginal people of northwestern Victoria observed the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae in the nineteenth century and incorporated this event into their oral traditions. We identify this star, as well as others not specifically identified by name, using descriptive material presented in the 1858 paper by William Edward Stanbridge in conjunction with early southern star catalogues. This identification of a transient astronomical event supports the assertion that Aboriginal oral traditions are dynamic and evolving, and not static. This is the only definitive indigenous record of Eta Carinae's outburst identified in the literature to date.

Hamacher, Duane W.; Frew, David J.

2010-11-01

274

Innovations on a shoestring: a study of a collaborative community-based Aboriginal mental health service model in rural Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Collaborative, culturally safe services that integrate clinical approaches with traditional Aboriginal healing have been hailed as promising approaches to ameliorate the high rates of mental health problems in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Overcoming significant financial and human resources barriers, a mental health team in northern Ontario is beginning to realize this ideal. We studied the strategies, strengths and challenges related to collaborative Aboriginal mental health care. Methods A participatory action research approach was employed to evaluate the Knaw Chi Ge Win services and their place in the broader mental health system. Qualitative methods were used as the primary source of data collection and included document review, ethnographic interviews with 15 providers and 23 clients; and 3 focus groups with community workers and managers. Results The Knaw Chi Ge Win model is an innovative, community-based Aboriginal mental health care model that has led to various improvements in care in a challenging rural, high needs environment. Formal opportunities to share information, shared protocols and ongoing education support this model of collaborative care. Positive outcomes associated with this model include improved quality of care, cultural safety, and integration of traditional Aboriginal healing with clinical approaches. Ongoing challenges include chronic lack of resources, health information and the still cursory understanding of Aboriginal healing and outcomes. Conclusions This model can serve to inform collaborative care in other rural and Indigenous mental health systems. Further research into traditional Aboriginal approaches to mental health is needed to continue advances in collaborative practice in a clinical setting. PMID:20017919

2009-01-01

275

Beyond policy and planning to practice: getting sexual health on the agenda in Aboriginal communities in Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous Australians have significantly poorer status on a large range of health, educational and socioeconomic measures and successive Australian governments at state and federal level have committed to redressing these disparities. Despite this, improvements in Aboriginal health status have been modest, and Australia has much greater disparities in the health of its Indigenous people compared to countries that share a history characterised by colonisation and the dispossession of indigenous populations such as New Zealand, Canada and the United States of America. Efforts at policy and planning must ultimately be translated into practical strategies. This article outlines an approach that was effective in Western Australia in increasing the engagement and concern of Aboriginal people about high rates of sexually transmissible infections and sexual health issues. Many aspects of the approach are relevant for other health issues. Results The complexity of Indigenous sexual health necessitates inter-agency and cross-governmental collaboration, in addition to Aboriginal leadership, accurate data, and community support. A recent approach covering all these areas is described. This has resulted in Aboriginal sexual health being more actively discussed within Aboriginal health settings than it once was and additional resources for Indigenous sexual health being available, with better communication and partnership across different health service providers and sectors. The valuable lessons in capacity building, collaboration and community engagement are readily transferable to other health issues, and may be useful for other health professionals working in the challenging area of Aboriginal health. Conclusion Health service planners and providers grapple with achieving Aboriginal ownership and leadership regarding their particular health issue, despite sincere concern and commitment to addressing Aboriginal health issues. This highlights the need to secure genuine Aboriginal engagement. Building capacity that enables Indigenous people and communities to fulfill their own goals is a long-term strategy and requires sustained commitment, but we argue is a prerequisite for better Indigenous health outcomes. PMID:18485244

Thompson, Sandra C; Greville, Heath S; Param, Rani

2008-01-01

276

Adolescent Career Development in Urban-Residing Aboriginal Families in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand how urban-residing Aboriginal adolescent-parent dyads (n = 11) jointly constructed and acted on goals and strategies with their social supports (n = 17) to facilitate the adolescents' career development. A modified protocol following the qualitative action-project method was used. A discrete joint…

Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.; Stevens, Alison; Spence, Wayne; Deyell, Stewart; Easterbrook, Adam; Brokenleg, Martin

2011-01-01

277

Our plants, our land: bridging aboriginal generations through cross-cultural plant workshops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in subsistence practices have negatively affected the social and economic structure of aboriginal communities across the Arctic. This has resulted in fewer opportunities for the transmission of traditional knowledge (TK). This article provides two case studies of how researchers can assist northern communities in TK transmission and provide a venue for science and TK to meet, thereby fostering a

Alain Cuerrier; Ashleigh Downing; Jill Johnstone; Luise Hermanutz; Laura Siegwart Collier

2012-01-01

278

Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies; Catalogue of Tape Archive No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Entries in this aboriginal studies catalogue are listed under language/tribe and subject indexes, and include linguistic studies, myths and stories, songs and dances, songs and music, and speech. Language/tribe headings are from the Institute's Preliminary Tribal Index. Summaries are brief, but in most cases, additional information is available…

Australian Inst. of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.

279

Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies Catalogue of Tape Archive No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aboriginal studies listed in this catalogue are indexed according to language/tribe and subject (linguistic studies, myths and stories, songs and dances, dongs and music, and speech). Entries are listed alphabetically under the depositor's name. Language/tribe headings are from the Institute's Preliminary Tribal Index. Summaries are brief but…

Australian Inst. of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.

280

Assets for Employment in Aboriginal Community-Based Human Services Agencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to explore the prior educational and employment experiences of staff members in urban Aboriginal human services agencies. A total of 44 individuals employed by one of three community sites within one Canadian inner city generated 85 unique responses to the question: "What were your employment and education…

Brown, Jason; Fraehlich, Cheryl

2012-01-01

281

Aboriginal principles for sustainable development as told in traditional law stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development has become an arena where people bring already existing political and philosophical outlooks to a debate characterized by fundamental dichotomies. This paper presents an analysis of ten Australian Aboriginal law stories to derive a range of principles for how the Nhunggabarra people of Australia sustained their society against three such dichotomies: holism versus fragmentation, 'strong' versus 'weak' SD

Karl-Erik Sveiby

2009-01-01

282

HIV vaccine acceptability and culturally appropriate dissemination among sexually diverse Aboriginal peoples in Canada.  

PubMed

This study explored HIV vaccine acceptability and strategies for culturally appropriate dissemination among sexually diverse Aboriginal peoples in Canada, among those at highest HIV risk. We conducted four focus groups (n=23) with Aboriginal male (1) and female (1) service users, peer educators (1) and service providers (1) in Ontario, Canada. Transcripts were analysed with narrative thematic techniques from grounded theory, using NVivo. Participants' mean age was 37 years; about half (52%) were female, half (48%) Two-spirit or lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB)-identified, 48% had a high-school education or less and 57% were unemployed. Vaccine uptake was motivated by community survival; however, negative HIV vaccine perceptions, historically based mistrust of government and healthcare institutions, perceived conflict between western and traditional medicine, sexual prejudice and AIDS stigma within and outside of Aboriginal communities, and vaccine cost may present formidable obstacles to HIV vaccine acceptability. Culturally appropriate processes of engagement emerged on individual levels (i.e., respect for self-determination, explanations in Native languages, use of modelling and traditional healing concepts) and community levels (i.e., leadership by Aboriginal HIV advocates and political representatives, identification of gatekeepers, and procuring Elders' endorsements). Building on cultural strengths and acknowledging the history and context of mistrust and social exclusion are fundamental to effective HIV vaccine dissemination. PMID:21390966

Newman, P A; Woodford, M R; Logie, C

2012-01-01

283

If Reindeer Could Fly: Dreams and Real Solutions for Aboriginal Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the real solutions to the problems of Aboriginal children in Canada that seem so numerous--impacts of residential school, poverty, poor housing, racism, and over-representation in child welfare care. These are complex issues, but the author has come to believe that the most promising responses, at least in…

Blackstock, Cindy

2007-01-01

284

Building on Conceptual Interpretations of Aboriginal Literacy in Anishinaabe Research: A Turtle Shaker Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article comes out of the larger context of my doctoral dissertation where I investigated my experiences as an academic who attempts to remain true to Indigenous Knowledge (IK) traditions while working within a Western European intellectual setting. In this current paper, I combine the conceptual frameworks of Aboriginal literacy and…

Debassige, Brent

2013-01-01

285

"Friendly Racism" and White Guilt: Midwifery Students' Engagement with Aboriginal Content in Their Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2011, all first year students in a health sciences faculty at a university in Western Australia complete a compulsory (half) Unit titled Indigenous Cultures and Health. The Unit introduces students to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, diversity, cultural protocols, social structures, patterns of communication, contemporary…

Thackrah, Rosalie D.; Thompson, Sandra C.

2013-01-01

286

The Role of Agency in Determining and Enacting the Professional Identities of Early Career Aboriginal Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the role of agency in early career Aboriginal teachers expressions of their professional identity. It argues that in the context of teaching, opportunities to exercise personal agency are critical to the development and maintenance of a "healthy" professional identity, particularly for those traditionally disempowered…

Burgess, Cathie

2012-01-01

287

WHO DECIDES? - DETERMINING THE WOMEN'S HEALTH RESEARCH AGENDA FOR ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER COMMUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reflects on the issue of who determines the women's health research agenda and is based on my experiences while working as a female general practitioner in remote communities with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The higher birth rates in these communities mask subfertility or infertility. In many of these communities there are high rates of sexually transmitted

Beres Joyner

288

Traditional Diet and Food Preferences of Australian Aboriginal Hunter-Gatherers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until European settlement of Australia 200 years ago, Aborigines lived as nomadic hunter-gatherers all over the continent under widely varying geographic and climatic conditions. Successful survival depended on a comprehensive knowledge of the flora and fauna of their territory. Available data suggest that they were physically fit and lean, and consumed a varied diet in which animal foods were a

Kerin O'Dea

1991-01-01

289

Influences of Indigenous Language on Spatial Frames of Reference in Aboriginal English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as "in front" and "behind." Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian…

Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

2014-01-01

290

Professional Pathways of Aboriginal Early Childhood Teachers: Intersections of Community, Indigeneity, and Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little information is available about the employment trajectories of Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander peoples pursuing university professional qualifications. This article describes a context in which cultural space, issues of identity, pragmatics of employment, family and community and a bureaucratic regulatory environment intersect to…

Fleet, Alma; Wechmann, Kerrie; Whitworth, Ryan

2012-01-01

291

Masculinity, ‘race’, and family in the colonies: protecting Aborigines in the early nineteenth century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of British imperial society in the early nineteenth century was characterised by a reformulated sensibility of manliness and family. Integral to this sensibility was the notion of men's responsibility for dependants. However, the story of Charles Wightman Sievwright, appointed as Assistant Protector of Aborigines in colonial New South Wales, serves to demonstrate that a man's duty of care for

Alan Lester; Fae Dussart

2009-01-01

292

The Development of Cross-Cultural Relations with a Canadian Aboriginal Community through Sport Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is…

Schinke, Robert J.; Hanrahan, Stephanie J.; Eys, Mark A.; Blodgett, Amy; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen Douglas; Pheasant, Chris; Enosse, Lawrence

2008-01-01

293

An Analysis of Ontario Aboriginal Education Policy: Critical and Interpretive Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an historical and contemporary interpretation of the developmental influences that have led to the Ontario Ministry of Education's recent focus on Aboriginal educational policy in Ontario, Canada. It offers an interpretive and critical perspective on the rhetorical constructions, assumptions, and value-orientations implicit in…

Cherubini, Lorenzo

2010-01-01

294

Teaching for Equity? What Teachers Say about Their Work in Aboriginal Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policies to ensure education equity and programs to foster educational advancement among Aboriginal people have been in place for several years in most Canadian jurisdictions. Despite of the successes brought about by these policies, questions about just how much has been accomplished, and how best to secure desired results, remain matters of…

Wotherspoon, Terry

2007-01-01

295

Self-Reported Smoking Behavior and Attitudes in Aboriginal Treatment Centers across Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 246 clients aged 11-63 from 15 Aboriginal addiction-treatment centers across Canada examined nicotine-related behavior and attitudes and other addictive behaviors. Over three-quarters of respondents were smokers. Males and females differed in reasons for beginning and quitting smoking. Data tables detail client characteristics, drug…

Coleman, Heather; Greyeyes, Deanna

1999-01-01

296

Maintaining the Illusion of Democracy: Policy-Making and Aboriginal Education in Canada, 1946-1948  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the 1949 recommendations of the Joint Committee of the Senate and House of Commons (SJC), the Canadian government shifted away from a policy of segregated to integrated schooling for Aboriginal children. This paper examines the minutes and proceedings of the SJC. Fewer than 10% of the briefs presented to the SJC called for integration…

Raptis, Helen; Bowker, Samantha

2010-01-01

297

Teachers Make a Difference to the Study of Aboriginal Music in NSW  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australian Indigenous music and culture are in the foreground when Australia celebrates itself in international contexts but their inclusion in the school curriculum is sporadic. In New South Wales (NSW), high school music teachers are responsible for educating students about Aboriginal music(s) and culture(s) within a mandatory focus on…

Power, Anne; Bradley, Margaret

2011-01-01

298

Wounds to the Soul: The Experiences of Aboriginal Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the clinical and research literature on the consequences and treatment of sexual abuse assumes relative homogeneity in the abuse experience. Little differentiation is acknowledged on the basis of race, ethnicity, or class, despite the known salience of these variables in the construction and interpretation of human experience. A phenomenological examination of the experiences of six adult aboriginal women

MAUREEN MCEVOY; JUDITH DANILUK

1995-01-01

299

Aboriginal and Islander Grammars: Collected Papers. Work Papers of SIL-AAB, Series A, Volume 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six papers on Australian Aboriginal and Islander grammars include: "Repetition of Tiwi at Clause Level" (Marie P. Godfrey); "Iwaidja Verbal Clauses" (Noreen Pym); "Murinbata Noun Clauses" (Chester S. Street); "Clauses in Kala Lagaw Ya" (Rod Kennedy); "Kalaw Kawaw Verbs" (Rod Kennedy); and "Kalaw Kawaw Verbs: Speaker Perspective and Tense, Mood,…

Ray, S., Ed.

300

‘This isn't a Black Issue’: Homophily and Diversity in Aboriginal Activism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines homophily and networking within Aboriginal activism in Townsville, North Queensland, Australia, focusing on the daily demonstrations held outside the manslaughter trial of Police Officer Senior-Sergeant Chris Hurley. At this trial, I witnessed a concerted effort by movement activists to avoid homophily (the principle that people who share certain characteristics will interact more often and more closely with

Theresa Petray

2010-01-01

301

Further Applications of Linguistics to Australian Aboriginal Contexts. Occasional Papers Number 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These papers represent applications of linguistics in Australian Aboriginal contexts, not only from a language viewpoint, but encompassing the interactions of language, society, politics, and culture. They include: "Loanwords: Ours or Theirs?" (Velma J. Leeding); "We Spell It 'Gooniyandi'" (David Street and Topsy Chestnut); "An Orthography Chosen…

McKay, G. R., Ed.; Sommer, B. A., Ed.

302

Aboriginal Environmental Wisdom, Stewardship, and Sustainability: Lessons from the Walpole Island First Nations, Ontario, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generally speaking, environmental education teaching, research, and practice have been informed by the traditions of western, Euro-centric culture. In this context indigenous perspectives are often marginalized, maligned, and perceived to be unscientific and therefore inferior. This essay adds to the growing body of literature exploring aboriginal

Beckford, Clinton L.; Jacobs, Clint; Williams, Naomi; Nahdee, Russell

2010-01-01

303

Aboriginal Community-Level Predictors of Injury-Related Hospitalizations in British Columbia, Canada.  

PubMed

Population-level statistics indicating disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations disguise considerable community-level heterogeneity. Using an ecological approach, we analyzed linked data from British Columbia's (BC) universal health care insurance plan, worker compensation, vital statistics, and census databases to identify community-level risk markers for hospitalization due to injury among the Aboriginal population of BC, Canada. Community standardized relative risks (SRR) of injury hospitalization relative to the total population of BC ranged from 0.24 to 9.35. Variables associated with increased SRRs included the following: higher proportions of crowded housing, housing in poor condition, participating in industries with greater risk of a work injury claim, being more remote, and at higher latitude. Higher income and more high school graduates were protective. In the best-fitting multivariable model, variables independently associated with SRR were proportion of the population with a high school certificate (RR?=?0.89 per unit standard deviation change, 95 % confidence interval 0.83 to 0.94), and remoteness index (RR?=?1.06, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.11). Results confirm profound diversity in Aboriginal communities across BC. SRRs of injury hospitalization increased as proportion of high school graduates dropped and remoteness increased. Promoting the educational attainment of community members should be an important focus of initiatives to improve health. PMID:25023135

Brussoni, Mariana; Jin, Andrew; George, M Anne; Lalonde, Chris E

2014-07-16

304

The Learning Circle: A New Model of BSW Education for Alberta's Rural, Remote, and Aboriginal Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998, a consortium including the University of Calgary (Alberta) and representatives from social service agencies and Native organizations developed a Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) model for delivery in rural, remote, and Aboriginal communities. The model called for innovative course content that was culturally and geographically relevant to…

Zapf, M. K.; Bastien, B.; Bodor, R.; Carriere, J.; Pelech, W.

305

ACTION CANADA PAPERS on Labrador Mining, Aboriginal Governance and Muskrat Falls  

E-print Network

ACTION CANADA PAPERS on Labrador Mining, Aboriginal Governance and Muskrat Falls Dr. Keith Storey, Dr. Larry Felt, and David Vardy November 2011 #12;#12;Preface to the Action Canada Report. The papers were drafted at the request of Action Canada, a non-profit organization

deYoung, Brad

306

Researching Aboriginal health: experience from a study of urban young people's health and well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

European colonisation had a devastating effect on the health and well-being of indigenous people in Australia. The history of Aboriginal health research has reflected the history of colonisation; research has understandably been viewed with distrust. The need for accurate statistics and improved understanding of health problems is clear, but obtaining them is not easy. In this paper we describe the

Wendy Holmes; Paul Stewart; Anne Garrow; Ian Anderson; Lisa Thorpe

2002-01-01

307

Educational Failure or Success: Aboriginal Children's Non-Standard English Utterances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the Australian education system, Aboriginal students' use of non-standard English features is often viewed simplistically as evidence of non-attainment of literacy and oral-English milestones. One reason for this is the widespread use of assessment tools which fail to differentiate between native-English speakers and students who are…

Dixon, Sally

2013-01-01

308

Old medium, new design : in search of alternative aesthetics of Taiwanese aboriginal woven textiles in theatrical costume designs   

E-print Network

The main purpose of this practice-led research is to explore the relevance of present day Taiwanese aboriginal weavers’ work to contemporary society and how it might be integrated into today’s production processes, and ...

Chen, Wan-Lee

2012-06-27

309

The Protective Role of Optimism and Self-esteem on Depressive Symptom Pathways Among Canadian Aboriginal Youth.  

PubMed

Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk for depression and substance use problems. Increasingly, developmental theories have shifted from focusing on vulnerabilities to protective factors for adolescent depression. In particular, theories emphasizing protective factors are relevant when understanding the mental health of Aboriginal youth. However, it is unclear which factors protect against depressive symptomatology among Aboriginal adolescents to promote optimal development. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, the present study had three main objectives. First, we aimed to model the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using a sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth from a national Canadian dataset (ages 12-23). Second, we sought to examine the relationship between alcohol use behaviors, self-esteem, optimism, and the trajectories of depressive symptoms. Lastly, we investigated whether self-esteem and optimism mediated the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Gender differences were also examined within each of the study objectives. A sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth (N = 283; 48.3 % male) was selected from cycles 4-7 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Heavy drinking was a risk factor for depressive symptoms, while self-esteem and optimism were key protective factors for depressive symptoms among early adolescent Aboriginal youth. Further, the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms among Canadian Aboriginal youth differed for boys and girls once accounting for risk and protective factors. Thus, it is valuable to integrate the protective role of self-esteem and optimism into developmental theories of depression and mental health intervention programs for early adolescent Aboriginal youth. PMID:24045879

Ames, Megan E; Rawana, Jennine S; Gentile, Petrice; Morgan, Ashley S

2015-01-01

310

High prevalence of HIV infection among homeless and street-involved Aboriginal youth in a Canadian setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboriginal people experience a disproportionate burden of HIV infection among the adult population in Canada; however, less is known regarding the prevalence and characteristics of HIV positivity among drug-using and street-involved Aboriginal youth. We examined HIV seroprevalence and risk factors among a cohort of 529 street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. At baseline, 15 (2.8%) were HIV positive, of whom 7

Brandon DL Marshall; Thomas Kerr; Chris Livingstone; Kathy Li; Julio SG Montaner; Evan Wood

2008-01-01

311

The Ilgarijiri Project: A collaboration between Aboriginal communities and radio astronomers in the Murchison Region of Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international radio astronomy initiative known as the Square Kilometre Array is a cutting-edge science project, aimed atdramatically expanding our vision and understanding of the Universe. The $2billion+ international project is being shared between Southern Africa and Australia. The Australian component, centred in the Murchison region of Western Australia, is based upon collaboration with Aboriginal communities. A collaborative project called "Ilgarijiri- Things Belonging to the Sky" shared scientific and Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky. Through a series of collaborative meetings and knowledge sharing, the Ilgarijiri project developed and showcased Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky, via an international touring Aboriginal art exhibition, in Australia, South Africa, the USA and Europe. The Aboriginal art exhibition presents Aboriginal stories relating to the night sky, which prominently feature the 'Seven Sisters' and the 'Emu', as well as the collaborative experience with radio astronomers. The success of the Ilgarijiri collaborative project is based upon several principles, which can help to inform and guide future cultural collaborative projects.

Goldsmith, John

2014-07-01

312

Isolation and prominent aboriginal maternal legacy in the present-day population of La Gomera (Canary Islands).  

PubMed

The present-day population structure of La Gomera is outstanding in its high aboriginal heritage, the greatest in the Canary Islands. This was earlier confirmed by both mitochondrial DNA and autosomal analyses, although genetic drift due to the fifteenth century European colonization could not be excluded as the main factor responsible. The present mtDNA study of aboriginal remains and extant samples from the six municipal districts of the island indeed demonstrates that the pre-Hispanic colonization of La Gomera by North African people involved a strong founder event, shown by the high frequency of the indigenous Canarian U6b1a lineage in the aboriginal samples (65%). This value is even greater than that observed in the extant population (44%), which in turn is the highest of all the seven Canary Islands. In contrast to previous results obtained for the aboriginal populations of Tenerife and La Palma, haplogroups related to secondary waves of migration were not detected in La Gomera aborigines, indicating that isolation also had an important role in shaping the current population. The rugged relief of La Gomera divided into several distinct valleys probably promoted subsequent aboriginal intra-insular differentiation that has continued after the European colonization, as seen in the present-day population structure observed on the island.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.251. PMID:25407001

Fregel, Rosa; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, José M; Hernández, Juan C; Gámez, Alejandro; Pestano, Jose J; Arnay, Matilde; González, Ana M

2014-11-19

313

Gender Differences in HIV and Hepatitis C Related Vulnerabilities Among Aboriginal Young People Who Use Street Drugs in Two Canadian Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Vulnerability to HIV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection for indigenous populations worldwide must be contextualized in experiences of current and past trauma. Aboriginal women entrenched in poverty face further gender-specific harms which place them at increased risk for HIV infection.Methods: This study was cross-sectional and based on a community-based sample of Aboriginal young people (Métis, Aboriginal, First Nations,

Azar Mehrabadi; Katharina Paterson; Margo Pearce; Sheetal Patel; Kevin J. P. Craib; Akm Moniruzzaman; Martin T. Schechter; Patricia M. Spittal

2008-01-01

314

Tailoring a response to youth binge drinking in an Aboriginal Australian community: a grounded theory study  

PubMed Central

Background While Aboriginal Australian health providers prioritise identification of local community health needs and strategies, they do not always have the opportunity to access or interpret evidence-based literature to inform health improvement innovations. Research partnerships are therefore important when designing or modifying Aboriginal Australian health improvement initiatives and their evaluation. However, there are few models that outline the pragmatic steps by which research partners negotiate to develop, implement and evaluate community-based initiatives. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical model of the tailoring of health improvement initiatives by Aboriginal community-based service providers and partner university researchers. It draws from the case of the Beat da Binge community-initiated youth binge drinking harm reduction project in Yarrabah. Methods A theoretical model was developed using the constructivist grounded theory methods of concurrent sampling, data collection and analysis. Data was obtained from the recordings of reflective Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) processes with Aboriginal community partners and young people, and university researchers. CBPR data was supplemented with interviews with theoretically sampled project participants. The transcripts of CBPR recordings and interviews were imported into NVIVO and coded to identify categories and theoretical constructs. The identified categories were then developed into higher order concepts and the relationships between concepts identified until the central purpose of those involved in the project and the core process that facilitated that purpose were identified. Results The tailored alcohol harm reduction project resulted in clarification of the underlying local determinants of binge drinking, and a shift in the project design from a social marketing awareness campaign (based on short-term events) to a more robust advocacy for youth mentoring into education, employment and training. The community-based process undertaken by the research partnership to tailor the design, implementation and evaluation of the project was theorised as a model incorporating four overlapping stages of negotiating knowledges and meanings to tailor a community response. Conclusions The theoretical model can be applied in spaces where local Aboriginal and scientific knowledges meet to support the tailored design, implementation and evaluation of other health improvement projects, particularly those that originate from Aboriginal communities themselves. PMID:23919727

2013-01-01

315

Resilience, an Evolving Concept: A Review of Literature Relevant to Aboriginal Research  

PubMed Central

Resilience has been most frequently defined as positive adaptation despite adversity. Over the past 40 years, resilience research has gone through several stages. From an initial focus on the invulnerable or invincible child, psychologists began to recognize that much of what seems to promote resilience originates outside of the individual. This led to a search for resilience factors at the individual, family, community — and, most recently, cultural — levels. In addition to the effects that community and culture have on resilience in individuals, there is growing interest in resilience as a feature of entire communities and cultural groups. Contemporary researchers have found that resilience factors vary in different risk contexts and this has contributed to the notion that resilience is a process. In order to characterize the resilience process in a particular context, it is necessary to identify and measure the risk involved and, in this regard, perceived discrimination and historical trauma are part of the context in many Aboriginal communities. Researchers also seek to understand how particular protective factors interact with risk factors and with other protective factors to support relative resistance. For this purpose they have developed resilience models of three main types: “compensatory,” “protective,” and “challenge” models. Two additional concepts are resilient reintegration, in which a confrontation with adversity leads individuals to a new level of growth, and the notion endorsed by some Aboriginal educators that resilience is an innate quality that needs only to be properly awakened. The review suggests five areas for future research with an emphasis on youth: 1) studies to improve understanding of what makes some Aboriginal youth respond positively to risk and adversity and others not; 2) case studies providing empirical confirmation of the theory of resilient reintegration among Aboriginal youth; 3) more comparative studies on the role of culture as a resource for resilience; 4) studies to improve understanding of how Aboriginal youth, especially urban youth, who do not live in self-governed communities with strong cultural continuity can be helped to become, or remain, resilient; and 5) greater involvement of Aboriginal researchers who can bring a nonlinear world view to resilience research. PMID:20963184

Fleming, John; Ledogar, Robert J.

2010-01-01

316

From (b)edouin to (a)borigine: the myth of the desert noble savage.  

PubMed

This article examines the myth of the supposed superiority of the desert noble savage over civilized man. With the Bedouin of Arabia and the Aborigines of Australia as its two prime examples, the article argues that two versions of this myth can be traced: one in which the desert noble savage is valorized due to his valour, physical prowess and martial skill (Bedouin); and another, later version, where the desert noble savage is valorized as a pacifist, an ecologist and a mythmaker/storyteller (Aborigines). The article concludes by examining the way in which this turn from one type of desert noble savage to another reflects the manner in which western modernity has shifted its values from Cartesian dualities and Enlightenment rationalism to that of networks, potentialities, ecology and myth. PMID:19886291

Graulund, Rune

2009-01-01

317

Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian\\u000a Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional\\u000a healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their

Subramanyam Ragupathy; Newmaster G Steven; Murugesan Maruthakkutti; Balasubramaniam Velusamy; Muneer M Ul-Huda

2008-01-01

318

Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among\\u000a pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance\\u000a abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many\\u000a women, substance abuse

Alison Niccols; Colleen Anne Dell; Sharon Clarke

2010-01-01

319

Towards, wellbeing : Creative inquiries into an experiential arts-based healing practice in Aboriginal contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project is located in the context of Aboriginal health and education, and in particular, emotional and social wellbeing, recognising the critical need for effective mental health services and resilient, well-trained workers in the field of mental health.\\u000aMental health is understood to include a broad spectrum of conditions with extreme and chronic mental illness at one end and

Judith Christian Miller

2008-01-01

320

Distribution of intestinal parasitic infections amongst aborigine children at Post Sungai Rual, Kelantan, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Intestinal parasitic infections are important public health problems among underprivileged communities. This study was carried out to evaluate the infection rate of intestinal parasites among aborigine children at Pos Sungai Rual, Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 111 faecal samples from aborigine children aged 4-12 years were screened for intestinal parasites by direct smear technique. Harada-Mori culture was also performed to identify hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae. The results showed that 87.4% of the children examined were positive for one or more parasites. Intestinal parasites were significantly lower in boys (78.7%) as compared to girls (93.8%). The infection occurred in very young children aged 4-6 years (80.0%) and the percentage of parasite-positive cases appeared to be significantly higher (92.9%) among the children aged 7-9 years. Trichuris trichiura was the most common parasite found in aborigine children (65.8%). Low socioeconomic status, poor environmental sanitation and poor personal hygiene are possible contributing factors that increase the rate of intestinal parasitic infections among the children. Thus, the parasitic diseases will continue to threaten the people's health especially among communities from rural areas if no appropriate actions are taken to diminish the transmission of the parasites. PMID:24522128

Hartini, Y; Geishamimi, G; Mariam, A Z; Mohamed-Kamel, A G; Hidayatul, F O; Ismarul, Y I

2013-12-01

321

Hepatitis C Virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal Peoples of North America  

PubMed Central

Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), are “broken spirit” diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases. PMID:23342378

Rempel, Julia D.; Uhanova, Julia

2012-01-01

322

Food, food choice and nutrition promotion in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.  

PubMed

Contemporary diets of Aboriginal people living in remote Australia are characterised by processed foods high in fat and sugar. Within the 'new' food system, evidence suggests many Aboriginal people understand food in their own terms but lack access to consumer information about store-purchased foods, and parents feel inadequate as role models. In a remote Australian Aboriginal community, purposive sampling identified adults who participated in semistructured interviews guided by food-based themes relating to the contemporary food system, parental guidance of children's food choice and channels through which people learn. Interpretive content analysis was used to identify salient themes. In discussions, people identified more closely with dietary qualities or patterns than nutrients, and valued a balanced, fresh diet that made them feel 'light'. People possessed basic knowledge of 'good' store foods, and wanted to increase familiarity and experience with foods in packets and cans through practical and social skills, especially cooking. Education about contemporary foods was obtained from key family role models and outside the home through community-based organisations, including school, rather than pamphlets and flip charts. Freedom of choice was a deeply held value; carers who challenged children's autonomy used strategic distraction, or sought healthier alternatives that did not wholly deny the child. Culturally safe approaches to information sharing and capacity building that contribute to the health and wellbeing of communities requires collaboration and shared responsibility between policy makers, primary healthcare agencies, wider community-based organisations and families. PMID:25053144

Colles, Susan L; Maypilama, Elaine; Brimblecombe, Julie

2014-10-01

323

Relativistic shells: Dynamics, horizons, and shell crossing  

E-print Network

We consider the dynamics of timelike spherical thin matter shells in vacuum. A general formalism for thin shells matching two arbitrary spherical spacetimes is derived, and subsequently specialized to the vacuum case. We first examine the relative motion of two dust shells by focusing on the dynamics of the exterior shell, whereby the problem is reduced to that of a single shell with different active Schwarzschild masses on each side. We then examine the dynamics of shells with non-vanishing tangential pressure $p$, and show that there are no stable--stationary, or otherwise--solutions for configurations with a strictly linear barotropic equation of state, $p=\\alpha\\sigma$, where $\\sigma$ is the proper surface energy density and $\\alpha\\in(-1,1)$. For {\\em arbitrary} equations of state, we show that, provided the weak energy condition holds, the strong energy condition is necessary and sufficient for stability. We examine in detail the formation of trapped surfaces, and show explicitly that a thin boundary layer causes the apparent horizon to evolve discontinuously. Finally, we derive an analytical (necessary and sufficient) condition for neighboring shells to cross, and compare the discrete shell model with the well-known continuous Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Tolman-Bondi dust case.

Sergio M. C. V. Goncalves

2002-12-30

324

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People  

PubMed Central

Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

Funston, Leticia

2013-01-01

325

A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648

Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M

2009-01-01

326

Does more equitable governance lead to more equitable health care? A case study based on the implementation of health reform in Aboriginal health Australia.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that providing increased voice to vulnerable or disenfranchised populations is important to improving health equity. In this paper we will examine the engagement of Aboriginal community members and community controlled organisations in local governance reforms associated with the Aboriginal Health National Partnership Agreements (AHNPA) in Australia and its impact on the uptake of health assessments. The sample included qualitative and quantitative responses from 188 people involved in regional governance in Aboriginal health. The study included data on the uptake of Aboriginal health assessments from July 2008 to December 2012. The study population was 83190 in 2008/9, 856986 in 2009/10, 88256 in 2010/11 and 90903 in 2011/12. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between organisations within forums and the regional uptake of Aboriginal health assessments. The independent variables included before and after the AHNPA, state, remoteness, level of representation from Aboriginal organisations and links between Aboriginal and mainstream organisations. The introduction of the AHNPA was associated with a shift in power from central government to regional forums. This shift has enabled Aboriginal people a much greater voice in governance. The results of the analyses show that improvements in the uptake of health assessments were associated with stronger links between Aboriginal organisations and between mainstream organisations working with Aboriginal organisations. Higher levels of community representation were also associated with improved uptake of health assessments in the AHNPA. The findings suggest that the incorporation of Aboriginal community and community controlled organisations in regional planning plays an important role in improving health equity. This study makes an important contribution to understanding the processes through which the incorporation of disadvantaged groups into governance might contribute to health equity. PMID:25103343

Kelaher, Margaret; Sabanovic, Hana; La Brooy, Camille; Lock, Mark; Lusher, Dean; Brown, Larry

2014-12-01

327

Formation of Gaseous Shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HI observations have revealed in several shell galaxies the presence of gaseous shells slightly displaced from the stellar shells radially, in the outward direction. We propose a mechanism to form this gaseous shells, based on the well-known phase-wrapping process of the companion matter in a merger, with nearly radial orbits. The mechanism relies on the existence of a clumpy interstellar matter, and on dynamical friction experienced by the companion core.

Combes, F.; Charmandaris, V.

328

In Quest of Indigeneity, Quality, and Credibility in Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education in Canada: Problematic, Contexts, and Potential Ways Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning involves conceptual frameworks embedded in worldviews and values. The overarching problematic of Aboriginal post-secondary education is complex and multifaceted. Normative and institutional forces as well as the credentialing and certification agenda of post-secondary education limit the degree to which Aboriginal education at any level…

Paquette, Jerald; Fallon, Gerald

2014-01-01

329

From School in Community to a Community-Based School: The Influence of an Aboriginal Principal on Culture-Based School Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the history and processes associated with the transformation of a northern Canadian Aboriginal school into a culture-based community school for its Metis, Inuvialuit and Gwichin citizens. In particular, the role of the principal, a local Aboriginal, as a leader in initiating and facilitating the transformative change is…

Lewthwaite, Brian

2007-01-01

330

Learning My Way. Papers from the National Conference on Adult Aboriginal Learning (Perth, Western Australia, September 1988). A Special Edition of Wikaru 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 31 papers dealing with adult aboriginal learning are divided into three sections. The keynote speakers' papers appear first in each section. Section 1, Learning Our Way, contains these papers: "The Invasion of Aboriginal Education" (Christie); "The Drover's Daughter" (Bedford); "Nyungar Women Returning to Education" (Bennell); "Learning…

Harvey, Barbara, Comp.; McGinty, Suzanne, Comp.

331

Social accountability in action: University-community collaboration in the development of an interprofessional Aboriginal health elective.  

PubMed

A survey of the health professional curriculum at the University of British Columbia revealed a need for improvements in education relating to Aboriginal health. At the same time, interprofessional education has been increasingly viewed as an essential aspect of sustainable health care reform. Interprofessional approaches to education and community practice have the potential to contribute to improvements in access to care, as well as health professional recruitment in underserved communities. While the benefits of interprofessional approaches have been identified, there are few published examples of the application of interprofessional learning and care in Aboriginal communities. This article describes the co-development by university and community partners of an accredited interprofessional, practice-based Aboriginal health course. Seed funding for this course was originally granted in November 2004 for a demonstration project led by the UBC Faculty of Medicine from a national Primary Health Care Renewal initiative focused on Social Accountability, namely "Issues of Quality and Continuing Professional Development: Maintenance of Competence" (referred to as CPDiQ project). This article presents findings from the development and implementation of this innovative course, run as a pilot during the summer of 2006 in two Aboriginal communities in British Columbia, Canada. Recommendations for integrating Aboriginal perspectives and foregrounding principles of social accountability in interprofessional health curricula are highlighted. In addition, successes and challenges are described related to garnering administrative and curricular support among the various health disciplines, interprofessional scheduling, and fostering cross-discipline understanding and communication. PMID:19005955

Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Ho, Kendall; Lauscher, Helen Novak; Liman, Yolanda; Stacy, Elizabeth; Woollard, Robert; Buote, Denise

2008-01-01

332

Aboriginal-mainstream partnerships: exploring the challenges and enhancers of a collaborative service arrangement for Aboriginal clients with substance use issues  

PubMed Central

Background Partnerships between different health services are integral to addressing the complex health needs of vulnerable populations. In Australia, partnerships between Aboriginal1 community controlled and mainstream services can extend health care options and improve the cultural safety of services. However, although government funding supports such collaborations, many factors can cause these arrangements to be tenuous, impacting the quality of health care received. Research was undertaken to explore the challenges and enhancers of a government initiated service partnership between an Aboriginal Community Controlled alcohol and drug service and three mainstream alcohol rehabilitation and support services. Methods Sixteen staff including senior managers (n=5), clinical team leaders (n=5) and counsellors (n=6) from the four services were purposively recruited and interviewed. Interviews were semi-structured and explored staff experience of the partnership including the client intake and referral process, shared client care, inter-service communication and ways of working. Results & discussion Communication issues, partner unfamiliarity, ‘mainstreaming’ of Aboriginal funding, divergent views regarding staff competencies, client referral issues, staff turnover and different ways of working emerged as issues, emphasizing the challenges of working with a population with complex issues in a persistent climate of limited resourcing. Factors enhancing the partnership included adding a richness and diversity to treatment possibilities and opportunities to explore different, more culturally appropriate ways of working. Conclusion While the literature strongly advises partnerships be suitably mature before commencing service delivery, the reality of funding cycles may require partnerships become operational before relationships are adequately consolidated. Allowing sufficient time and funding for both the operation and relational aspects of a partnership is critical, with support for partners to regularly meet and workshop arrangements. Documentation that makes clear and embeds working arrangements between partners is important to ameliorate many of the issues that can arise. Given the historical undercurrents, flexible approaches are required to focus on strengths that contribute to progress, even if incremental, rather than on weaknesses which can undermine efforts. This research offers important lessons to assist other services collaborating in post-colonial settings to offer treatment pathways for vulnerable populations. PMID:23305201

2013-01-01

333

Hopelessness and Excessive Drinking among Aboriginal Adolescents: The Mediating Roles of Depressive Symptoms and Drinking to Cope  

PubMed Central

Canadian Aboriginal youth show high rates of excessive drinking, hopelessness, and depressive symptoms. We propose that Aboriginal adolescents with higher levels of hopelessness are more susceptible to depressive symptoms, which in turn predispose them to drinking to cope—which ultimately puts them at risk for excessive drinking. Adolescent drinkers (n = 551; 52% boys; mean age = 15.9 years) from 10 Canadian schools completed a survey consisting of the substance use risk profile scale (hopelessness), the brief symptom inventory (depressive symptoms), the drinking motives questionnaire—revised (drinking to cope), and quantity, frequency, and binge measures of excessive drinking. Structural equation modeling demonstrated the excellent fit of a model linking hopelessness to excessive drinking indirectly via depressive symptoms and drinking to cope. Bootstrapping indicated that this indirect effect was significant. Both depressive symptoms and drinking to cope should be intervention targets to prevent/decrease excessive drinking among Aboriginal youth high in hopelessness. PMID:21197100

Stewart, Sherry H.; Sherry, Simon B.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Collins, Pamela; Van Wilgenburg, Hendricus

2011-01-01

334

Fluctuating shells under pressure  

PubMed Central

Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules. PMID:23150558

Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.

2012-01-01

335

General Practitioner Supervisor assessment and teaching of Registrars consulting with Aboriginal patients – is cultural competence adequately considered?  

PubMed Central

Background General Practitioner (GP) Supervisors have a key yet poorly defined role in promoting the cultural competence of GP Registrars who provide healthcare to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people during their training placements. Given the markedly poorer health of Indigenous Australians, it is important that GP training and supervision of Registrars includes assessment and teaching which address the well documented barriers to accessing health care. Methods A simulated consultation between a GP Registrar and an Aboriginal patient, which illustrated inadequacies in communication and cultural awareness, was viewed by GP Supervisors and Medical Educators during two workshops in 2012. Participants documented teaching points arising from the consultation which they would prioritise in supervision provided to the Registrar. Content analysis was performed to determine the type and detail of the planned feedback. Field notes from workshop discussions and participant evaluations were used to gain insight into participant confidence in cross cultural supervision. Results Sixty four of 75 GPs who attended the workshops participated in the research. Although all documented plans for detailed teaching on the Registrar’s generic communication and consultation skills, only 72% referred to culture or to the patient’s Aboriginality. Few GPs (8%) documented a plan to advise on national health initiatives supporting access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. A lack of Supervisor confidence in providing guidance on cross cultural consulting with Aboriginal patients was identified. Conclusions The role of GP Supervisors in promoting the cultural competence of GP Registrars consulting with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients could be strengthened. A sole focus on generic communication and consultation skills may lead to inadequate consideration of the health disparities faced by Indigenous peoples and of the need to ensure Registrars utilise health supports designed to decrease the disadvantage faced by vulnerable populations. PMID:25115609

2014-01-01

336

Worker compensation injuries among the Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: incidence, annual trends, and ecological analysis of risk markers, 1987–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population, but information is scarce regarding variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. Our project helps fill these gaps. This report focuses on workplace injuries. Methods We used BC’s universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to worker compensation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of worker compensation injury, adjusted for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We assessed annual trend by regressing SRR as a linear function of year. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with community SRR of injury by multivariable linear regression. Results During the period 1987–2010, the crude rate of worker compensation injury in BC was 146.6 per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval: 146.4 to 146.9 per 10,000). The Aboriginal rate was 115.6 per 10,000 (95% CI: 114.4 to 116.8 per 10,000) and SRR was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87 to 0.89). Among those living on reserves SRR was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.80). HSDA SRRs were highly variable, within both total and Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal males under 35 and females under 40 years of age had lower SRRs, but older Aboriginal females had higher SRRs. SRRs are declining, but more slowly for the Aboriginal population. The Aboriginal population was initially at lower risk than the total population, but parity was reached in 2006. These community characteristics independently predicted injury risk: crowded housing, proportion of population who identified as Aboriginal, and interactions between employment rate and income, occupational risk, proportion of university-educated persons, and year. Conclusions As employment rates rise, so has risk of workplace injury among the Aboriginal population. We need culturally sensitive prevention programs, targeting regions and industries where Aboriginal workers are concentrated and demographic groups that are at higher risk. PMID:25012161

2014-01-01

337

Effect of periodontal therapy on arterial structure and function among aboriginal australians: a randomized, controlled trial.  

PubMed

Observational studies and nonrandomized trials support an association between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Both diseases occur frequently in Aboriginal Australians. We hypothesized that nonsurgical periodontal therapy would improve measures of arterial function and structure that are subclinical indicators of atherosclerotic vascular disease. This parallel-group, randomized, open label clinical trial enrolled 273 Aboriginal Australians aged ?18 years with periodontitis. Intervention participants received full-mouth periodontal scaling during a single visit, whereas controls received no treatment. Prespecified primary end points measured 12-month change in carotid intima-media thickness, an indicator of arterial structure, and 3- and 12-month change in pulse wave velocity, an indicator of arterial function. ANCOVA used complete case data to evaluate treatment group differences. End points could be calculated for 169 participants with follow-up data at 3 months and 168 participants at 12 months. Intima-media thickness decreased significantly after 12 months in the intervention group (mean reduction=-0.023 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.038 to -0.008] mm) but not in the control group (mean increase=0.002 [95% CI, -0.017 to 0.022] mm). The difference in intima-media thickness change between treatment groups was statistically significant (-0.026 [95% CI, -0.048 to -0.003] mm; P=0.03). In contrast, there were no significant differences between treatment groups in pulse wave velocity at 3 months (mean difference, 0.06 [95% CI, -0.17 to 0.29] m/s; P=0.594) or 12 months (mean difference, 0.21 [95% CI, -0.01 to 0.43] m/s; P=0.062). Periodontal therapy reduced subclinical arterial thickness but not function in Aboriginal Australians with periodontal disease, suggesting periodontal disease and atherosclerosis are significantly associated. PMID:24958498

Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; O'Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Cai, Tommy Y; Anstey, Nicholas M; Sullivan, David R; Wang, Hao; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

2014-10-01

338

Prevalence and molecular studies of thalassemia in five aboriginal groups in Taiwan.  

PubMed

A total of 1,342 blood samples from five aboriginal groups in Taiwan, comprising 522 of the Ami, 246 of the Bunum, 227 of the Atayal, 214 of the Paiwan and 133 of the Yami group, were collected. A complete blood count was performed in each case. In subjects with a mean corpuscular volume < 85 fl or hemoglobin (Hb) < 12 gm% (female) or 13 gm% (male), quantitation of Hb A2 and DNA analysis of alpha- and beta-globin genes were performed. Alpha-thalassemia was diagnosed by Southern hybridization of subject's DNA to alpha-, and zeta-globin gene fragments, and to Lo probe if needed. DNA from beta-thalassemia carriers was studied by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. In the Ami, 42 (8.2%) were alpha-thalassemia 1 carriers, 42 (8.2%) were alpha-thalassemia 2 carriers, one had Hb H disease, and four (0.8%) were beta-thalassemia carriers. In the Bunun, one (0.2%) was an alpha-thalassemia 1 carrier, and two (0.4%) were alpha-thalassemia 2 carriers. In the Atayal, one (0.2%) was an alpha-thalassemia 1 carrier. In the Paiwan, seven (3.3%) were alpha-thalassemia 1 carriers, and one (0.5%) was an alpha-thalassemia 2 carrier. In the Yami, none were either alpha- or beta-thalassemia carriers. Diverse genetic origin, intragroup breeding and malarial selection may play a role in the significant differences of thalassemia prevalences both between the Chinese and the aborigines, and among different groups of aborigines. PMID:7920075

Ko, T M; Tseng, L H; Cheng, T A; Hwa, H L; Chang, Y K; Chuang, S M; Lee, T Y

1994-05-01

339

Culturally Competent Service Provision Issues Experienced By Aboriginal People Living With HIV/AIDS  

PubMed Central

Cultural identity is an important factor in how well Aboriginal people respond to HIV/AIDS prevention or, once diagnosed with HIV or AIDS, how it affects their health care. This study explores the cultural skills among service providers who see Aboriginal people living with HIV/AIDS (APHAs) and the perspectives of APHAs. The purpose is to better understand the wellness needs of APHAs and how culturally competent care affects health service access and use. Data collection included face-to-face semi-structured interviews with APHAs and focus groups/interviews with community-based and primary health professionals in five regions of Canada. Interviews and focus groups were voice-recorded, verbatim transcribed, and coded using Atlas.ti® software. Thirty-five APHAs and fifty-two service providers were reached. Two key themes were noticed: Active addictions are a major obstacle to adherence to HIV drug regimes. Half of APHA participants said addictions are a major factor. A similar portion noted intensified substance use was an initial coping strategy when diagnosed. A slightly smaller portion noted that addictions were dealt with soon after diagnosis in order to begin antiretroviral treatment. Service providers who inform, encourage, and support APHAs’ choices are viewed as “culturally competent.”Addictions and HIV must be “treated together,” reflecting a holistic worldview of Aboriginal people. Programs that integrate addiction treatment with HIV/AIDS and service providers who encourage and support APHA’s choices are viewed as “wise practice” models by both sets of study participants offering some convergence and a set of five wise practices are identified. PMID:20835301

Barlow, Kevin; Loppie, Charlotte; Jackson, Randy; Akan, Margaret; MacLean, Lynne; Reimer, Gwen

2010-01-01

340

Discovery Collection: Oyster Shells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oyster Shells is one of the AMNH Education Department's many collections of specimens and artifacts gathered the world over by explorers and scientists. In its online Discovery Collection form, Oyster Shells includes photographs of 15 specimens with classification and distribution details, an interactive key that guides you through specimen identification, an activity where students select and identify a specimen photograph using the interactive identification key and an Educator's Guide with suggestions for how to use the Oyster Shells Discovery Collection in the classroom.

Breslof, Lisa; Schiller, William

341

Maternal and environmental factors associated with infections and undernutrition in young Australian aboriginal children.  

PubMed

Forty-eight Aboriginal infants in remote communities in north-west Australia were studied monthly from birth to 2 years. Birthweight and growth were positively associated with maternal health during pregnancy, regular antenatal supervision and lack of drinking alcohol or smoking tobacco as well as with personal and family hygiene. Impaired growth was associated with families which had more expensive consumer goods such as televisions, air conditioners, video cassette recorders and cassette tape players. Most children had impaired growth or frank failure to thrive which was associated with high rates of infections, particularly of the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts, and high rates of hospitalization. PMID:1376578

Gracey, M; Sullivan, H; Burke, V; Gracey, D

1992-01-01

342

Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2) with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3). The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge translation plan has been formulated. Discussion The findings of this study will provide practitioners with an understanding of the cultural differences that affect women's dietary choices during maternity. We expect that the developed resources will be of immediate use within the women's units and will enhance counseling efforts. Wide dissemination of outputs may have a greater long term impact in the primary and secondary prevention of these high risk conditions. PMID:22152052

2011-01-01

343

Ocular manifestation of vitamin A deficiency among Orang asli (Aborigine) children in Malaysia.  

PubMed

This study determined the prevalence of ocular manifestation of vitamin A deficiency in Orang Asli (Aborigine) children. Night blindness was found in 16.0% of the children, conjunctiva xerosis in 57.3%, Bitot's spot in 2.8%, corneal xerosis in 0.5% and corneal scars in 5.6%. These findings show that history of night blindness had sensitivity, specificity and predictive value (positive) of 47.2, 98.1 and 96.2%, respectively, compared with the standard diagnosis procedure using luxometer readings. PMID:12074186

Ngah, Nor F; Moktar, Norhayati; Isa, Noor H M; Selvara, S; Yusof, Md Shahrom; Sani, Halimah A; Hasan, Zainal A A; Kadir, Rohani A

2002-01-01

344

Wurdi Youang: an Australian Aboriginal stone arrangement with possible solar indications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wurdi Youang is an egg-shaped Aboriginal stone arrangement in Victoria, Australia. Here we present a new survey of the site, and show that its major axis is aligned within a few degrees of east-west. We confirm a previous hypothesis that it contains alignments to the position on the horizon of the setting sun at the equinox and the solstices, and show that two independent sets of indicators are aligned in these directions. We show that these alignments are unlikely to have arisen by chance, and instead the builders of this stone arrangement appear to have deliberately aligned the site on astronomically significant positions.

Norris, Ray P.; Norris, Cilla; Hamacher, Duane W.; Abrahams, Reg

2013-05-01

345

The transfer and implementation of an Aboriginal Australian wellbeing program: a grounded theory study  

PubMed Central

Background The concepts and standard practices of implementation, largely originating in developed countries, cannot necessarily be simply transferred into diverse cultural contexts. There has been relative inattention in the implementation science literature paid to the implementation of interventions targeting minority Indigenous populations within developed countries. This suggests that the implementation literature may be bypassing population groups within developed countries who suffer some of the greatest disadvantage. Within the context of Aboriginal Australian health improvement, this study considers the impact of political and cultural issues by examining the transfer and implementation of the Family Wellbeing program across 56 places over a 20-year period. Methods A theoretical model of program transfer was developed using constructivist-grounded theory methods. Data were generated by conducting in-depth interviews with 18 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal research respondents who had been active in transferring the program. Data were categorised into higher order abstract concepts and the core impetus for and process of program transfer were identified. Results Organizations transferred the program by using it as a vehicle for supporting inside-out empowerment. The impetus to support inside-out empowerment referred to support for Aboriginal people's participation, responsibility for and control of their own affairs, and the associated ripple effects to family members, organizations, communities, and ultimately reconciliation with Australian society at large. Program transfer occurred through a multi-levelled process of embracing relatedness which included relatedness with self, others, and structural conditions; all three were necessary at both individual and organizational levels. Conclusions Similar to international implementation models, the model of supporting inside-out empowerment by embracing relatedness involved individuals, organizations, and interpersonal and inter-organizational networks. However, the model suggests that for minority Indigenous populations within developed countries, implementation approaches may require greater attention to the empowering nature of the intervention and its implementation, and multiple levels of relatedness by individuals and organizations with self, others, and the structural conditions. Key elements of the theoretical model provide a useful blueprint to inform the transfer of other empowerment programs to minority Indigenous and other disadvantaged populations on a case-by-case basis. PMID:24171867

2013-01-01

346

"If you don't believe it, it won't help you": use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology) and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service. PMID:20569478

2010-01-01

347

SHELL METHOD DEMO GALLERY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a gallery of animations that can be used to illustrate the shell method for computing volumes of solids of revolution. The animations are designed to be used by the instructor in a classroom setting or by students as they acquire a visual background relating to solids of revolution and the steps of the shell method.

Roberts, Lila F.

2002-02-02

348

I Learned about Shells!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through the use of nonfiction text, students will be able to share their prior knowledge and schema of shells. Students will practice gathering information from a text, help create a KEL chart through class and small group discussions, and will use the information learned to create an informative writing about shell animals.

Ryan, Kris

2012-06-26

349

Thin shell model revisited  

E-print Network

We reconsider some fundamental problems of the thin shell model. First, we point out that the "cut and paste" construction does not guarantee a well-defined manifold because there is no overlap of coordinates across the shell. When one requires that the spacetime metric across the thin shell is continuous, it also provides a way to specify the tangent space and the manifold. Other authors have shown that this specification leads to the conservation laws when shells collide. On the other hand, the well-known areal radius $r$ seems to be a perfect coordinate covering all regions of a spherically symmetric spacetime. However, we show by simple but rigorous arguments that $r$ fails to be a coordinate covering a neighborhood of the thin shell if the metric across the shell is continuous. When two spherical shells collide and merge into one, we show that it is possible that $r$ remains to be a good coordinate and the conservation laws hold. To make this happen, different spacetime regions divided by the shells must be glued in a specific way such that some constraints are satisfied. We compare our new construction with the old one by solving constraints numerically.

Sijie Gao; Xiaobao Wang

2014-12-26

350

Increased influenza-related healthcare utilization by residents of an urban aboriginal community  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Most studies describing high rates of acute respiratory illness in aboriginals have focused on rural or remote communities. Hypothesized causes include socioeconomic deprivation, limited access to healthcare, and a high prevalence of chronic disease. To assess influenza rates in an aboriginal community while accounting for healthcare access, deprivation and chronic disease prevalence, we compared rates of influenza-related outpatient and emergency-department visits in an urban Mohawk reserve (Kahnawá:ke) to rates in neighbouring regions with comparable living conditions and then restricted the analysis to a sub-population with a low chronic disease prevalence, i.e. those aged <20 years. Using medical billing claims from 1996 to 2006 we estimated age-sex standardized rate ratios. The rate in Kahnawá:ke was 58% greater than neighbouring regions and 98% greater in the analysis of those aged <20 years. Despite relatively favourable socioeconomic conditions and healthcare access, rates of influenza-related visits in Kahnawá:ke were elevated, particularly in the younger age groups. PMID:21251347

Charland, K.M.; Brownstein, J. S.; Verma, A.; Brewer, T.; Jones, S.; Gatewood Hoen, A.; Buckeridge, D. L.

2015-01-01

351

mtDNA variation of aboriginal Siberians reveals distinct genetic affinities with Native Americans  

SciTech Connect

The mtDNA variation of 411 individuals from 10 aboriginal Siberian populations was analyzed in an effort to delineate the relationships between Siberian and Native American populations. All mtDNAs were characterized by PCR amplification and restriction analysis, and a subset of them was characterized by control region sequencing. The resulting data were then compiled with previous mtDNA data from Native Americans and Asians and were used for phylogenetic analysis and sequence divergence estimations. Aboriginal Siberian populations exhibited mtDNAs from three (A, C, and D) of the four haplogroups observed in Native Americans. However, none of the Siberian populations showed mtDNAs from the fourth haplogroup, group B. The presence of group B deletion haplotypes in East Asian and Native American populations but their absence in Siberians raises the possibility that haplogroup B could represent a migratory event distinct from the one(s) which brought group A, C, and D mtDNAs to the Americas. These findings support the hypothesis that the first humans to move from Siberia to the Americas carried with them a limited number of founding mtDNAs and that the initial migration occurred between 17,000-34,000 years before present. 61 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Torroni, A.; Schurr, T.G.; Cabell, M.F.; Wallace, D.C. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Sukernik, R.I.; Starikovskaya, Y.B. (Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Crawford, M.H.; Comuzzie, A.G. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States))

1993-09-01

352

Molecular basis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in three Taiwan aboriginal tribes.  

PubMed

We have investigated glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in 220 unrelated aboriginal male subjects who belong to three different tribes (Saisiat, Ami, and Yami) in Taiwan. Our results show that the G6PD deficiency rates for Saisiat, Ami, and Yami people are 9.0% (6/67), 6.1% (6/99), and 0% (0/54), respectively. Among these deficiency cases, 4 of 6 (66.7%) Saisiat subjects have the 493 A-->G mutation and one carries the 1376 G-->T mutation, whereas, in Ami subjects, we found that four of six (66.7%) affected males have the 592 C-->T mutation and one carries the 493 A-->G mutation. These results contrast with our previous findings for Taiwan Chinese, in whom the 1376 G-->T mutation is the major mutant allele and accounts for 52.3% of the deficiency cases. This is the first report of G6PD deficiency characterized at the DNA level in Taiwan aboriginal populations. PMID:7789945

Tang, T K; Huang, W Y; Tang, C J; Hsu, M; Cheng, T A; Chen, K H

1995-06-01

353

Nonmetric tooth crown traits in the Ami tribe, Taiwan aborigines: comparisons with other east Asian populations.  

PubMed

The frequencies of occurrence of 17 tooth crown traits in the living Ami tribe, which inhabits the east coast of Taiwan, were investigated and compared with other East Asian populations based on Turner's (1987) Mongoloid dental variation theory. Principal coordinate analysis based on Smith's mean measure of divergence using frequencies of the 17 traits suggests that the Ami tribe together with the Yami tribe and the Bunun tribe is included in the sinodont group typical of the Chinese mainland and northeast Asia. In light of these results and the estimated distribution of sinodonty and sundadonty in the past and the present, we speculate that the gene flow from Chinese mainlanders to native sundadonts, who seem to have migrated northward to Taiwan, contributed significantly to the formation of the living Taiwan aboriginal groups, sinodonts. Among the aboriginal tribes of Taiwan, the Ami have characteristics intermediate between those of the Yami and the Bunun. The relative positions of these tribes in East Asian populations suggests that the extent of sinodontification and of genetic isolation is one of the causes of the intertribal variation. PMID:1398612

Manabe, Y; Rokutanda, A; Kitagawa, Y

1992-10-01

354

Diabetes mellitus in the Australian aborigines of Bourke, New South Wales.  

PubMed

294 subjects, 89% of the adult Aboriginal population of Bourke and Enngonia, New South Wales, were investigated for diabetes and IGT (impaired glucose tolerance). The prevalence of known diabetes was 9.5%, that of previously unknown diabetes 6.1% and that of IGT 2.4% (all defined according to World Health Organization criteria). A serum glucose value 2 h after 75 g of glucose was found to be an acceptable screening test but not HbA1 due to a large number of false positives. The total prevalence of diabetes (15.6%) was lower than the 19.0% described in the study of Aboriginals in Davenport [Wise et al., Med. J. Aust., 2: 1001-1006, 1970]. However, when these crude prevalences are standardized, the prevalence in Bourke and Enngonia (15.6%) is higher than that calculated for Davenport (11.2%) and higher than that found in a previous report of the Bourke population [Kamien, Med. J. Aust., Spec. Suppl., April: 38-44, 1976]. In contrast to Davenport a large proportion (67%) of diabetic subjects in Bourke were under the age of 50. This may be partly attributable to obesity which, relative to older subjects, was common in young adults in Bourke, particularly men. The consumption of alcohol in this population, though high, was not associated with abnormal glucose tolerance. PMID:3780382

Cameron, W I; Moffitt, P S; Williams, D R

1986-01-01

355

Increased influenza-related healthcare utilization by residents of an urban aboriginal community.  

PubMed

Most studies describing high rates of acute respiratory illness in aboriginals have focused on rural or remote communities. Hypothesized causes include socioeconomic deprivation, limited access to healthcare, and a high prevalence of chronic disease. To assess influenza rates in an aboriginal community while accounting for healthcare access, deprivation and chronic disease prevalence, we compared rates of influenza-related outpatient and emergency-department visits in an urban Mohawk reserve (Kahnawá:ke) to rates in neighbouring regions with comparable living conditions and then restricted the analysis to a sub-population with a low chronic disease prevalence, i.e. those aged <20 years. Using medical billing claims from 1996 to 2006 we estimated age-sex standardized rate ratios. The rate in Kahnawá:ke was 58% greater than neighbouring regions and 98% greater in the analysis of those aged <20 years. Despite relatively favourable socioeconomic conditions and healthcare access, rates of influenza-related visits in Kahnawá:ke were elevated, particularly in the younger age groups. PMID:21251347

Charland, K M; Brownstein, J S; Verma, A; Brewer, T; Jones, S; Hoen, A Gatewood; Buckeridge, D L

2011-12-01

356

Niche construction and Dreaming logic: aboriginal patch mosaic burning and varanid lizards (Varanus gouldii) in Australia  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic fire is a form of ecosystem engineering that creates greater landscape patchiness at small spatial scales: such rescaling of patch diversity through mosaic burning has been argued to be a form of niche construction, the loss of which may have precipitated the decline and extinction of many endemic species in the Western Desert of Australia. We find evidence to support this hypothesis relative to one keystone species, the sand monitor lizard (Varanus gouldii). Paradoxically, V. gouldii populations are higher where Aboriginal hunting is most intense. This effect is driven by an increase in V. gouldii densities near successional edges, which is higher in landscapes that experience extensive human burning. Over time, the positive effects of patch mosaic burning while hunting overwhelm the negative effects of predation in recently burned areas to produce overall positive impacts on lizard populations. These results offer critical insights into the maintenance of animal communities in the desert, supporting the hypothesis that the current high rate of endemic species decline among small animals may be linked to the interaction between invasive species and mid-century removal of Aboriginal niche construction through hunting and patch mosaic burning. PMID:24266036

Bird, Rebecca Bliege; Tayor, Nyalangka; Codding, Brian F.; Bird, Douglas W.

2013-01-01

357

Cohesive Elements for Shells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cohesive element for shell analysis is presented. The element can be used to simulate the initiation and growth of delaminations between stacked, non-coincident layers of shell elements. The procedure to construct the element accounts for the thickness offset by applying the kinematic relations of shell deformation to transform the stiffness and internal force of a zero-thickness cohesive element such that interfacial continuity between the layers is enforced. The procedure is demonstrated by simulating the response and failure of the Mixed Mode Bending test and a skin-stiffener debond specimen. In addition, it is shown that stacks of shell elements can be used to create effective models to predict the inplane and delamination failure modes of thick components. The results indicate that simple shell models can retain many of the necessary predictive attributes of much more complex 3D models while providing the computational efficiency that is necessary for design.

Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.; Turon, Albert

2007-01-01

358

Digital Opportunities within the Aboriginal Teacher Education Program: A Study of Preservice Teachers' Attitudes and Proficiency in Technology Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores changes that occurred in preservice teachers' thinking about the use of educational technology in a post-secondary, Aboriginal, elementary teacher education program. The research explores relationships associated with changes in preservice teachers' attitudes and perceived proficiency with technology integration. Quantitative…

Dragon, Karon; Peacock, Kim; Norton, Yvonne; Steinhauer, Evelyn; Snart, Fern; Carbonaro, Mike; Boechler, Patricia

2012-01-01

359

Cultural and Social Capital and Talent Development: A Study of a High-Ability Aboriginal Student in a Remote Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the course of a school year, a study was conducted on the cultural context, the social milieu and the personal characteristics of a high ability Aboriginal student in a remote community in Canada. Using the lenses of cultural capital, social capital and human capital, the study explores the development of the student's talent through his…

Kostenko, Karen; Merrotsy, Peter

2009-01-01

360

Enabling Voice: Perceptions of Schooling from Rural Aboriginal Youth at Risk of Entering the Juvenile Justice System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the perceptions of school experiences by male Aboriginal youth at risk of becoming in contact with the juvenile justice system are presented. These adolescent boys, from inland rural New South Wales, attend Tirkandi Inaburra Cultural and Development Centre (Tirkandi). Tirkandi is a short term residential centre designed to provide…

Edwards-Groves, Christine

2008-01-01

361

In a 1937 survey, there wasn't a single case of diabetes among Saskatchewan's aboriginal population.  

E-print Network

THE ISSUE In a 1937 survey, there wasn't a single case of diabetes among Saskatchewan's aboriginal calories sparingly, exposing them to obesity, diabetes and all the health complications that go with it AMAKING AAKINKINKINKINMAKMAKKINGKING Saskatchewan Health ResearchWith Impact Diabetes vs. Demographics

Saskatchewan, University of

362

Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of…

Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

2011-01-01

363

Exploring cross-sectional associations between common childhood illness, housing and social conditions in remote Australian Aboriginal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is limited epidemiological research that provides insight into the complex web of causative and moderating factors that links housing conditions to a variety of poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between housing conditions (with a primary focus on the functional state of infrastructure) and common childhood illness in remote Australian Aboriginal communities for the purpose of

Ross Bailie; Matthew Stevens; Elizabeth McDonald; David Brewster; Steve Guthridge

2010-01-01

364

Transitional Justice and the Task of Inclusion: A Habermasian Perspective on the Justification of Aboriginal Educational Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In February 2012, Canada's Truth and Reconciliation Commission released an interim report that detailed its findings based on extensive testimony by former students of the nation's residential school system, a system designed to forcibly assimilate aboriginal peoples. The report concludes that the state must play an active role in the…

Martin, Christopher

2014-01-01

365

Mental health of Aboriginal children and adolescents in violent school environments: protective mediators of violence and psychological/nervous disorders.  

PubMed

The effect of school violence on mental health was examined among 12,366 Aboriginal children and adolescents, primarily First Nations, Métis, and Inuit residing off reservations in the Canadian provinces and territories. Analyses were based on the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples' Survey, a postcensal national survey of Aboriginal youth aged 6-14 years. More than one-fifth of students in the sample attended schools where violence was perceived as a problem. The occurrence of psychological or nervous disorders was about 50% higher among students exposed to school violence than among other students. School violence was a significant predictor of mental health difficulties, irrespective of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Virtually the entire effect was mediated by interpersonal processes, or negative quality of parent-child and peer relationships, while the effect was not explained by cultural detachment through lack of interactions with Elders and traditional language ability/use. Results underscored school violence as a significant public health concern for Aboriginal elementary and high school students, and the need for evidence-based mental health interventions for at-risk populations. PMID:23313494

Kaspar, Violet

2013-03-01

366

Leadership, power and racism: lifeguards’ influences on Aboriginal people’s experiences at a Northern Canadian aquatic facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a Foucauldian and postcolonial lens, this case study examines the ways in which leadership styles used by lifeguards and supported by the structure, rules and regulations at a northern Canadian swimming pool influenced Aboriginal people’s experience of the facility. Participant observation, semi-structured interviews and a focus group were used to identify the ways in which Eurocentric lifeguard training, exercises

Davina D. Rousell; Audrey R. Giles

2011-01-01

367

"The Tongue of Pangcah and of Savages Are the Same": Language Ideology in a Multilingual Aboriginal Village in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines incongruent languages ideologies as they exist among parents, grandparents and community members of Taiwan's aboriginal Pangcah people. The language ideologies of the villagers function as language policy that informs their decisions in favor of transmitting or abandoning their linguistic heritage. Taking a critical perspective…

Chang, Ya-ling

2011-01-01

368

A Cross-Cultural Examination of Aboriginal and European Canadian Mothers' Beliefs regarding Proactive and Reactive Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine the maternal beliefs and practices regarding preschool children's proactive and reactive aggression, within a cross-cultural framework. Participants included 30 Aboriginal and 45 European Canadian mothers of preschoolers who provided their emotional reactions, causal attributions, socialization…

Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Sheperd, Kelly A.

2011-01-01

369

Aboriginal peoples, Parks Canada, and protected spaces: a case study in co-management at Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effectively preserving protected areas often requires good-working relationships between Aboriginal groups and government agencies. However, many of these associations have been poorly managed in the past, with some even resulting in the expulsion of indigenous peoples and the destruction of their villages. A co-management agreement may improve conditions, but this is no guarantee of success either; these are complex arrangements

Eugene Thomlinson; Geoffrey Crouch

2012-01-01

370

Reflections on the Past, Present and Future Roles of Anthropology in Aboriginal Land Councils and Native Title Representative Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feature of Australian Aboriginal anthropology over the last twenty-five years is its intense involvement in issues that have developed from the ALRA and Native Title Act (NTA). An excellent example is the detailed knowledge of land tenure systems and their transformation over time which has arisen out of land claims and native title determinations. The important policy advice that

Jeff Stead

371

Dis/Abling States, Dis/Abling Citizenship: Young Aboriginal Mothers and the Medicalization of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on data collected in group interviews with six young, urban Aboriginal mothers whose lives have included substance use and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/ Fetal Alcohol Effects (hereafter FAS/FAE) to highlight the multiple and often contradictory ways in which disability as a constituent of social relations is defined in public policy…

Salmon, Amy

2007-01-01

372

‘Choice, culture and confidence’: key findings from the 2012 having a baby in Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander survey  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the maternity care experiences of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women in Queensland, Australia and to identify areas for policy and practice improvements. Methods A culturally-tailored survey requesting both quantitative and qualitative information was completed by respondents either independently (online or in hard copy) or with the assistance of a trained peer-interviewer. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Eligible women were over 16 years of age, identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, resided in Queensland, and had a live, singleton birth between the first of July 2011 and the first of July 2012. Results 187 women of 207 respondents were included in analyses. Women reported high rates of stressful life events in pregnancy, low levels of choice in place of birth and model of care and limited options to carry out cultural practices. High levels of confidence in parenting were also reported. Women were less likely to report being treated with kindness, understanding and respect by maternity care staff than women answering a similar mainstream survey. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have additional needs to mainstream Australian women. This study identified a number of recommendations to improve services including the need to enhance the cultural competence of maternity services; increase access to continuity of midwifery care models, facilitate more choices in care, work with the strengths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, families and communities, and engage women in the design and delivery of care. PMID:24884930

2014-01-01

373

Resistance through Re-Presenting Culture: Aboriginal Student Filmmakers and a Participatory Action Research Project on Health and Wellness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on a participatory research project designed to promote student use of digital video to explore conceptions of health and wellness. We have viewed aspects of student resistance through the cultural perspectives that guide the Aboriginal education programs involved with the study. In presenting this piece, we have experimented…

Riecken, Ted; Conibear, Frank; Michel, Corrine; Lyall, John; Scott, Tish; Tanaka, Michele; Stewart, Suzanne; Riecken, Janet; Strong-Wilson, Teresa

2006-01-01

374

Testing the 14C ages and conservative behavior of dissolved 14C in a carbonate aquifer in Yucca Flat, Nevada (USA), using 36Cl from groundwater and packrat middens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrected groundwater 14C ages from the carbonate aquifer in Yucca Flat at the former Nevada Test Site (now the Nevada National Security Site), USA, were evaluated by comparing temporal variations of groundwater 36Cl/Cl estimated with these 14C ages with published records of meteoric 36Cl/Cl variations preserved in packrat middens (piles of plant fragments, fecal matter and urine). Good agreement between these records indicates that the groundwater 14C ages are reasonable and that 14C is moving with chloride without sorbing to the carbonate rock matrix or fracture coatings, despite opposing evidence from laboratory experiments. The groundwater 14C ages are consistent with other hydrologic evidence that indicates significant basin infiltration ceased 8,000 to 10,000 years ago, and that recharge to the carbonate aquifer is from paleowater draining through overlying tuff confining units along major faults. This interpretation is supported by the relative age differences as well as hydraulic head differences between the alluvial and volcanic aquifers and the carbonate aquifer. The carbonate aquifer 14C ages suggest that groundwater velocities throughout much of Yucca Flat are about 2 m/yr, consistent with the long-held conceptual model that blocking ridges of low-permeability rock hydrologically isolate the carbonate aquifer in Yucca Flat from the outlying regional carbonate flow system.

Kwicklis, Edward; Farnham, Irene

2014-09-01

375

A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries  

PubMed Central

Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6?months, followed over 2?years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30?months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808 PMID:22909327

2012-01-01

376

Social determinants and psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria: A cross-sectional population based study.  

PubMed

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts. We sought to explain this inequality, focussing on the social determinants of health. We used population-based survey data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. We defined psychological distress as a score of 22 or more on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. We used logistic regression to identify socio-demographic characteristics and social capital indicators that were associated with psychological distress. We then created multivariable models to explore the association between psychological distress and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status that incorporated all significant socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital variables, adjusting for all non-SES socio-demographic characteristics. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians (24.5%) were more than twice as likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (11.3%) to have psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval; 1.67-3.93). Controlling for SES, negative perceptions of the residential neighbourhood, lack of social support from family, social and civic distrust, and all non-SES socio-demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, household composition, and rurality), rendered the previously statistically significant inequality in the prevalence of psychological distress, between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians and their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts, insignificant at the p = 0.05 level (OR = 1.50; 0.97-2.32). Psychological distress is an important health risk factor for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults that has yet to be widely acknowledged and addressed. Addressing the underlying inequalities in SES and social capital may be the key to addressing the inequality in psychological distress. PMID:25618607

Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; McNeil, John

2015-03-01

377

Name That Shell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The way a firework shell is designed and assembled determines the shape and color of a firework display. Choose a video clip and try to identify each firework variety in this interactive activity from the NOVA Web site.

2004-01-29

378

Elastic Platonic Shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On microscopic scales, the crystallinity of flexible tethered or cross-linked membranes determines their mechanical response. We show that by controlling the type, number, and distribution of defects on a spherical elastic shell, it is possible to direct the morphology of these structures. Our numerical simulations show that by deflating a crystalline shell with defects, we can create elastic shell analogs of the classical platonic solids. These morphologies arise via a sharp buckling transition from the sphere which is strongly hysteretic in loading or unloading. We construct a minimal Landau theory for the transition using quadratic and cubic invariants of the spherical harmonic modes. Our approach suggests methods to engineer shape into soft spherical shells using a frozen defect topology.

Yong, Ee Hou; Nelson, David R.; Mahadevan, L.

2013-10-01

379

Hollow spherical shell manufacture  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.

O'Holleran, T.P.

1991-11-26

380

Hollow spherical shell manufacture  

DOEpatents

A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.

O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

1991-01-01

381

Shells and Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…

Sutley, Jane

2009-01-01

382

Morphogenesis of active shells.  

PubMed

We consider the active shell as a single-cell or epithelial sheet surface that, sharing basic properties of stretched elastic shells, is capable of active planar movement owing to recruiting of the new surface elements. As model examples of their morphogenesis, we consider the growth and differentiation of single-cell hairs (trichomes) in plants of the genus Draba, and the epiboly and formation of the dorsoventral polarity in loach. The essential feature of the active shell behavior at both cellular and supracellular levels is regular deviating from the spatially homogeneous form, which is a primary cause of originating of the active mechanical stresses inside the shell in addition to its passive stretching by the intrinsic forces. Analyzing the quantitative morphological data, we derive the equations in which the temporal self-oscillations and spatial differentiation are distinguishable only at the parametric level depending on the proportion of active to passive stresses. In contrast to the ordinary activator-inhibitor systems, the self-oscillation dynamics is principally non-local and, consequently, one-parametric, the shell surface curvature being an analog of the inhibitor, while its spatial variance being an analog of the activator of shaping. Analyzing variability and evolution of the hair cell branching, we argue that the linear ontogeny (succession of the developmental stages) is a secondary evolutionary phenomenon originating from cyclic self-organizing algorithms of the active shell shaping. PMID:22613513

Cherdantsev, Vladimir G; Grigorieva, Olga V

2012-09-01

383

[Fenetic analysis of aboriginal and introduced sable (Martes zibellina) populations in Russia].  

PubMed

Using standard and mulivariate statistic methods, an epigenetic character--foramina in fossa condyloidei inferior, FFCI--was studied in sable populations. This character was shown to be most frequent in southeastern populations of the species (Primorye and the Baikal region) while its distribution in the remaining part of the range was polyclinal. The expression of FFCI was directly associated with coat color and longitude, and inversely associated with skull size. This trend was broken by some western populations formed in the 1950s by introduction, which exhibited stable morphological differences with adjacent aboriginal sable populations. Most populations of the species exhibit differences in the manifestation of the character. Frequency of the FFCI manifestation can be used as an additional population characteristic, an associative diagnostic character that shows high discriminating capability in detecting phenogenetic relationships of intraspecific groups. PMID:11642132

Monakhov, V G

2001-09-01

384

Seroprevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei var canis antibodies among aborigines in peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

The Aborigines or Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia who are still seminomadic are known to have a close association with dogs. In this study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect anti-Sarcoptes scabiei var canis antibodies in this community as a measure of exposure to the mite. Out of 312 Orang Asli tested, 24.7% were positive for polyvalent anti-Sarcoptes antibodies. No significant difference was found between the positive rates in males (26.1%) and females (23.6%). Only 1.9% were positive for IgA and none was positive for IgE anti-Sarcoptes antibodies. Since there were very few patients with clinical manifestation of scabies, there is a possibility that continuous exposure to the dogs mite confers cross-protective immunity in the community against human scabies. PMID:9031401

Normaznah, Y; Saniah, K; Nazma, M; Mak, J W; Krishnasamy, M; Hakim, S L

1996-03-01

385

Reduction of Family Violence in Aboriginal Communities: A Systematic Review of Interventions and Approaches.  

PubMed

Many efforts to reduce family violence are documented in the published literature. We conducted a systematic review of interventions intended to prevent family violence in Aboriginal communities. We retrieved studies published up to October 2009; 506 papers included one systematic review, two randomized controlled trials, and fourteen nonrandomized studies or reviews. Two reviews discussed interventions relevant to primary prevention (reducing the risk factors for family violence), including parenting, role modelling, and active participation. More studies addressed secondary prevention (where risk factors exist, reducing outbreaks of violence) such as restriction on the trading hours for take away alcohol and home visiting programs for high risk families. Examples of tertiary prevention (preventing recurrence) include traditional healing circles and group counselling. Most studies contributed a low level of evidence. PMID:21052554

Shea, Beverley; Nahwegahbow, Amy; Andersson, Neil

2010-01-01

386

Reduction of Family Violence in Aboriginal Communities: A Systematic Review of Interventions and Approaches1  

PubMed Central

Many efforts to reduce family violence are documented in the published literature. We conducted a systematic review of interventions intended to prevent family violence in Aboriginal communities. We retrieved studies published up to October 2009; 506 papers included one systematic review, two randomized controlled trials, and fourteen nonrandomized studies or reviews. Two reviews discussed interventions relevant to primary prevention (reducing the risk factors for family violence), including parenting, role modelling, and active participation. More studies addressed secondary prevention (where risk factors exist, reducing outbreaks of violence) such as restriction on the trading hours for take away alcohol and home visiting programs for high risk families. Examples of tertiary prevention (preventing recurrence) include traditional healing circles and group counselling. Most studies contributed a low level of evidence. PMID:21052554

Shea, Beverley; Nahwegahbow, Amy; Andersson, Neil

2010-01-01

387

Natural-series radionuclides in traditional aboriginal foods in tropical northern Australia: a review.  

PubMed

This paper gives a review of available information on natural-series radionuclides in traditional Aboriginal foods of northern Australia. Research on this topic has been carried out primarily for radiological impact assessment purposes in relation to uranium mining activities in the region. Many of the studies have concentrated on providing purely concentration data or concentration ratios, although more detailed uptake studies have been undertaken for freshwater mussels, turtles, and water lilies. The most-studied radionuclides are 238U and 226Ra. However, dose estimates based on current data highlight the importance of 210Po, particularly for the natural (nonmining-related) dose. Data on uptake by terrestrial flora and fauna are scarce in comparison with aquatic organisms, and this knowledge gap will need to be addressed in relation to planning for uranium minesite rehabilitation. PMID:15004321

Martin, Paul; Ryan, Bruce

2004-02-26

388

Oocysts and high seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dogs living in remote Aboriginal communities and wild dogs in Australia.  

PubMed

Canines are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa). For horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of N. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. Canids in Australia include wild dogs and Aboriginal community dogs. Wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. Aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a family, but are free-roaming and have free access throughout the community. In this study the extent of N. caninum infection was determined in a total of 374 dogs (75 wild dogs and 299 Aboriginal community dogs) using a combination of microscopic, molecular and serological techniques. Oocysts of N. caninum were observed in the faeces of two juvenile Aboriginal community dogs (2/132; 1.5%). To estimate N. caninum prevalence, a new optimised cut-off of 18.5% inhibition for a commercial competitive ELISA was calculated using a two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis and IFAT as the gold standard resulting in equal sensitivity and specificity of 67.8%. Of the 263 dog sera tested the true prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was 27.0% (95% confidence limit: 10.3-44.1%). The association between the competitive ELISA results in dogs less than 12 month old and older dogs was significant (P=0.042). To our knowledge this is the first large scale parasitological survey of the Aboriginal community dogs and wild dogs from Australia. The high prevalence of N. caninum infection in Aboriginal community dogs illustrates that horizontal transmission of N. caninum is occurring in Australia. These results demonstrated that N. caninum in dogs is widespread, including the semi-arid to arid regions of north-western New South Wales and the Northern Territory. The populations of free-ranging dogs are likely to be important contributors to the sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum. PMID:22245069

King, Jessica S; Brown, Graeme K; Jenkins, David J; Ellis, John T; Fleming, Peter J S; Windsor, Peter A; Slapeta, Jan

2012-06-01

389

Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years  

PubMed Central

Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years. PMID:19775475

2009-01-01

390

Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India  

PubMed Central

There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we suggest that TAK such as that of the Malasars may serve toward a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability. PMID:18371206

Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Steven, Newmaster G; Maruthakkutti, Murugesan; Velusamy, Balasubramaniam; Ul-Huda, Muneer M

2008-01-01

391

Genetic analysis in a variant of limb girdle muscular dystrophy in an inbred aboriginal community  

SciTech Connect

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable inheritance patterns, age-of-onset, rates of progression and patterns of muscle involvement. To date, 4 different chromosomal assignments have been described; LGMD1 to chromosome 5q, LGMD2 to chromosome 15q, SCARMD to chromosome 13q and a fourth locus on chromosome 2p. Because of this genetic heterogeneity, only large unambiguous multiplex families which are clearly linked to a particular locus can be utilized in a genetic analysis. We now report preliminary findings in a large highly inbred aboriginal kindred with 8 probands (5 females, 3 males) from 6 nuclear families with a progressive LMD. All presented in their mid- to late teens with gait disturbances. At time of presentation all except one had both proximal as well as distal muscle involvement, facial muscle sparing, CK levels 25 to 100 times normal (3762-20,400 U/l), dystrophic muscle biopsies and normal dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoprotein expression. We have studied the segregation of highly informative microsatellite markers for FBN1, D15S132 and the gene for thrombospondin on chromosome 15q and D2S134, D2S136, D2S147, and D2S166 on chromosome 2. Linkage to chromosome 15q has been excluded and two-point lod scores are not significant as yet to either confirm or exclude linkage to chromosome 2p. However, visual inspection reveals that affected individuals are not consistently homozygous for the chromosome 2p markers as would be predicted in such an inbred population. Clinically, SCARMD is unlikely and if the locus on chromosomes 2p and 5q can also be excluded, a genome-wide search using evenly spaced microsatellites will be initiated. A second geographically distinct aboriginal kindred with a similar clinical phenotype has now also been identified.

Greenberg, C.R.; Nylen, E.G.; Halliday, W. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)] [and others

1994-09-01

392

Kidney disease in Aboriginal Australians: a perspective from the Northern Territory.  

PubMed

This article outlines the increasing awareness, service development and research in renal disease in Aboriginal people in Australia's Northern Territory, among whom the rates of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are among the highest in the world. Kidney failure and RRT dominate the intellectual landscape and consume the most professional energy, but the underlying kidney disease has recently swung into view, with increasing awareness of its connection to other chronic diseases and to health profiles and trajectories more broadly. Albuminuria is the marker of the underlying kidney disease and the best treatment target, and glomerulomegaly and focal glomerulosclerosis are the defining histologic features. Risk factors in its multideterminant genesis reflect nutritional and developmental disadvantage and inflammatory/infectious milieu, while the major putative genetic determinants still elude detection. A culture shift of "chronic disease prevention" has been catalyzed in part by the human pain, logistic problems and great costs associated with RRT. Nowadays chronic disease management is the central focus of indigenous primary care, with defined protocols for integrated testing and management of chronic diseases and with government reimbursed service items and free medicines for people in remote areas. Blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are all mitigated by good treatment, which centres on renin-angiotensin system blockade and good metabolic control. RRT incidence rates appear to be stabilizing in remote Aboriginal people, and chronic disease deaths rates are falling. However, the profound levels of disadvantage in many remote settings remain appalling, and there is still much to be done, mostly beyond the direct reach of health services. PMID:25503952

Hoy, Wendy E

2014-12-01

393

Kidney disease in Aboriginal Australians: a perspective from the Northern Territory  

PubMed Central

This article outlines the increasing awareness, service development and research in renal disease in Aboriginal people in Australia's Northern Territory, among whom the rates of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are among the highest in the world. Kidney failure and RRT dominate the intellectual landscape and consume the most professional energy, but the underlying kidney disease has recently swung into view, with increasing awareness of its connection to other chronic diseases and to health profiles and trajectories more broadly. Albuminuria is the marker of the underlying kidney disease and the best treatment target, and glomerulomegaly and focal glomerulosclerosis are the defining histologic features. Risk factors in its multideterminant genesis reflect nutritional and developmental disadvantage and inflammatory/infectious milieu, while the major putative genetic determinants still elude detection. A culture shift of “chronic disease prevention” has been catalyzed in part by the human pain, logistic problems and great costs associated with RRT. Nowadays chronic disease management is the central focus of indigenous primary care, with defined protocols for integrated testing and management of chronic diseases and with government reimbursed service items and free medicines for people in remote areas. Blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are all mitigated by good treatment, which centres on renin-angiotensin system blockade and good metabolic control. RRT incidence rates appear to be stabilizing in remote Aboriginal people, and chronic disease deaths rates are falling. However, the profound levels of disadvantage in many remote settings remain appalling, and there is still much to be done, mostly beyond the direct reach of health services. PMID:25503952

Hoy, Wendy E.

2014-01-01

394

A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health  

PubMed Central

Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous knowledge. PMID:23939388

Johnston, Leah; Doyle, Joyce; Morgan, Bec; Atkinson-Briggs, Sharon; Firebrace, Bradley; Marika, Mayatili; Reilly, Rachel; Cargo, Margaret; Riley, Therese; Rowley, Kevin

2013-01-01

395

Haemoparasites of free-roaming dogs associated with several remote Aboriginal communities in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Tick-borne haemoparasites Babesia vogeli and Anaplasma platys are common among the free-roaming canine populations associated with Aboriginal communities in Australia, whilst the prevalence of haemoplasmas, which are also suspected to be tick-borne, remained unexplored. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of haemoplasma infection in these populations, and to identify any correlation with other haemoparasites. Blood was collected from 39 dogs associated with four Aboriginal communities and screened for infection using PCR and serology. DNA was purified and PCR analyses for piroplasms, Anaplasmataceae family bacteria and haemoplasmas performed. Serum was analysed using a commercial haemoparasite ELISA. Prevalence of infection was compared between communities. Results Seventeen dogs (44%) were infected (PCR positive) with Mycoplasma haemocanis, eight (21%) with ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum’, 20 (51%) with A. platys, and 17 (44%) with B. vogeli. Two dogs were infected with a novel haemoplasma as determined by DNA amplification and sequencing. Two dogs (5%) were serologically positive for Dirofilaria immitis antigens, one (3%) was positive for Ehrlichia canis antibodies and nine (24nbsp;%) were positive for A. platys antibodies. Co-infections were frequent. Haemoplasma prevalence was highest (73%, 16/22) in Central Australia and lowest (22%, 2/9) in Western Australia (p?=?0.017). In contrast, B. vogeli prevalence was low in Central Australia (18%, 4/22) but higher (78%, 7/9) in Western Australia (p?=?0.003). Conclusions This is the first time haemoplasma infections, including a novel species, have been molecularly documented in Australian dogs. The wide regional variation in prevalence of some of the haemoparasite infections detected in this study warrants further investigation. PMID:22584120

2012-01-01

396

Optimisation Modelling to Assess Cost of Dietary Improvement in Remote Aboriginal Australia  

PubMed Central

Background The cost and dietary choices required to fulfil nutrient recommendations defined nationally, need investigation, particularly for disadvantaged populations. Objective We used optimisation modelling to examine the dietary change required to achieve nutrient requirements at minimum cost for an Aboriginal population in remote Australia, using where possible minimally-processed whole foods. Design A twelve month cross-section of population-level purchased food, food price and nutrient content data was used as the baseline. Relative amounts from 34 food group categories were varied to achieve specific energy and nutrient density goals at minimum cost while meeting model constraints intended to minimise deviation from the purchased diet. Results Simultaneous achievement of all nutrient goals was not feasible. The two most successful models (A & B) met all nutrient targets except sodium (146.2% and 148.9% of the respective target) and saturated fat (12.0% and 11.7% of energy). Model A was achieved with 3.2% lower cost than the baseline diet (which cost approximately AUD$13.01/person/day) and Model B at 7.8% lower cost but with a reduction in energy of 4.4%. Both models required very large reductions in sugar sweetened beverages (?90%) and refined cereals (?90%) and an approximate four-fold increase in vegetables, fruit, dairy foods, eggs, fish and seafood, and wholegrain cereals. Conclusion This modelling approach suggested population level dietary recommendations at minimal cost based on the baseline purchased diet. Large shifts in diet in remote Aboriginal Australian populations are needed to achieve national nutrient targets. The modeling approach used was not able to meet all nutrient targets at less than current food expenditure. PMID:24391790

Brimblecombe, Julie; Ferguson, Megan; Liberato, Selma C.; O'Dea, Kerin; Riley, Malcolm

2013-01-01

397

Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS), questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH) tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community. PMID:23134669

2012-01-01

398

Alcoholism among Taiwan aborigines defined by the Chinese Diagnostic Interview Schedule: a comparison with alcoholism among Chinese.  

PubMed

The prevalence of alcoholism was reported to be 0.1% in an aboriginal study on Taiwan using the census survey method in the 1950s. This study adopted a modified Chinese Diagnostic Interview Schedule to determine the prevalence of DSM-III-defined alcohol abuse (AA) and alcohol dependence (AD) in the Atayal, Paiwan and Yami ethnic groups of Taiwan aborigines. Stratified random sampling was used. The sample sizes of Atayal, Paiwan and Yami were 793, 656 and 106 respectively. The prevalence rates of DSM-III-defined AA and AD were 11.6%, 11.4% and 14.2%; and 9.0%, 8.1% and 6.4% respectively. No significant difference was found between the 3 ethnic groups. These prevalence figures are significantly higher than those for Chinese. In this comparative analysis, 2 distinct etiological hypotheses are proposed for the AA and the AD. PMID:2281809

Hwu, H G; Yeh, Y L; Wang, J D; Yeh, E K

1990-11-01

399

Anthropometric predictors of gestational hypertensive disorders in a remote aboriginal community: a nested case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background Australian Aboriginal women tend to have body shape and pregnancy risk profiles different from other Australian women. This study aims to examine the associations of anthropometric indices with gestational hypertensive disorders (GHD), and to determine the index that can best predict the risk of this condition occurring during pregnancy. Methods This is a nested case–control study. Baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were measured as part of a broader health screening program between 1992 and 1995 in a remote Aboriginal community. All subsequent pregnancies among the original participants were identified during 20 year follow-up period through hospital records (up to May 2012). Twenty eight women were diagnosed as having GHD, each of whom were individually matched by age at baseline with five women who were hospitalised for other pregnancy-related conditions and were free from GHD (n?=?140). The associations of the baseline anthropometric measurements with GHD were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Results The best predictor of GHD was WC (OR?=?1.8; (95% CI, 1.1-2.9) for one standard deviation increase in WC), followed by BMI with the corresponding OR?=?1.7 (95% CI, 1.1- 2.6). Other measurements, HC, WHR, and WHtR, were also positively associated with GHD, but those associations were not statistically significant. Conclusions WC and BMI prior to pregnancy are anthropometric predictors of GHD in Aboriginal women, and WC is the best predictor. These findings imply the importance of early weight control in preventing GHD in Aboriginal women. PMID:24593885

2014-01-01

400

UCP2 A55V variant is associated with obesity and related phenotypes in an aboriginal community in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Human uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3) are two mitochondrial proteins that are involved in the control of metabolism of fatty acid and possibly protect against oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to analyze genetic associations of four polymorphisms of the UCP2 and UCP3 genes with insulin, leptin concentration and obesity in Taiwan aborigines.Research methods:Four polymorphisms

T N Wang; M C Huang; H L Lin; C H Hsiang; A M J Ko; W T Chang; Y C Ko

2007-01-01

401

Sensational spherical shells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid-dynamic and capillary forces can be used to form nearly perfect, very small spherical shells when a liquid that can solidify is passed through an annular die to form an annular jet. Gravity and certain properties of even the most ideal materials, however, can cause slight asymmetries. The primary objective of the present work is the control of this shell formation process in earth laboratories rather than space microgravity, through the development of facilities and methods that minimize the deleterious effects of gravity, aerodynamic drag, and uncontrolled cooling. The spherical shells thus produced can be used in insulation, recyclable filter materials, fire retardants, explosives, heat transport slurries, shock-absorbing armor, and solid rocket motors.

Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M., Jr.; Bahrami, P. A.; Wang, T. G.

1986-01-01

402

The creation of the expected Aboriginal woman drug offender in Canada: Exploring relations between victimization, punishment, and cultural identity  

PubMed Central

This article illustrates how the Aboriginal female drug user is responded to as an expected offender based on the intersection of her gender, race, and class. Drawing on the findings of a national Canadian study documenting the lived experiences of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit female drug users, we argue that the strengthening of cultural identity can potentially disrupt this expected status at both the individual and social system levels. Within the framework of critical victimology, the challenge then becomes to translate this understanding into praxis. In response, we suggest advancing women’s agency at the individual level in the face of disempowering images and practices related to the offender, the victim, and Aboriginality. For change at the system level, we return to Christie’s notion of the need to dismantle the stereotypical construction of the Aboriginal female drug user. We illustrate both levels of change with an innovative form of knowledge sharing, which aims to evoke transformation with respect to individual and socially constructed conceptualizations of identity. PMID:24795492

Dell, Colleen Anne; Kilty, Jennifer M.

2013-01-01

403

The creation of the expected Aboriginal woman drug offender in Canada: Exploring relations between victimization, punishment, and cultural identity.  

PubMed

This article illustrates how the Aboriginal female drug user is responded to as an expected offender based on the intersection of her gender, race, and class. Drawing on the findings of a national Canadian study documenting the lived experiences of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit female drug users, we argue that the strengthening of cultural identity can potentially disrupt this expected status at both the individual and social system levels. Within the framework of critical victimology, the challenge then becomes to translate this understanding into praxis. In response, we suggest advancing women's agency at the individual level in the face of disempowering images and practices related to the offender, the victim, and Aboriginality. For change at the system level, we return to Christie's notion of the need to dismantle the stereotypical construction of the Aboriginal female drug user. We illustrate both levels of change with an innovative form of knowledge sharing, which aims to evoke transformation with respect to individual and socially constructed conceptualizations of identity. PMID:24795492

Dell, Colleen Anne; Kilty, Jennifer M

2012-06-14

404

'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.  

PubMed

Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia. PMID:25115988

Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

2015-01-01

405

Biomechanics of Turtle Shells: How Whole Shells Fail in  

E-print Network

Biomechanics of Turtle Shells: How Whole Shells Fail in Compression PAUL M. MAGWENE1 AND JOHN J of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois The turtle shell serves an obvious function--protection. The defensive value of a wellossified system of plates surrounding soft tissues

Socha, Jake

406

Implementing computerised Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks in primary care for clinical care and research: a process evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Paper-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks have promoted a preventive approach to primary care and provided data to support research at the Inala Indigenous Health Service, south-west Brisbane, Australia. Concerns about the limitations of paper-based health checks prompted us to change to a computerised system to realise potential benefits for clinical services and research capability. We describe the rationale, implementation and anticipated benefits of computerised Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks in one primary health care setting. Methods In May 2010, the Inala Indigenous Health Service commenced a project to computerise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child, adult, diabetic, and antenatal health checks. The computerised health checks were launched in September 2010 and then evaluated for staff satisfaction, research consent rate and uptake. Ethical approval for health check data to be used for research purposes was granted in December 2010. Results Three months after the September 2010 launch date, all but two health checks (378 out of 380, 99.5%) had been completed using the computerised system. Staff gave the system a median mark of 8 out of 10 (range 5-9), where 10 represented the highest level of overall satisfaction. By September 2011, 1099 child and adult health checks, 138 annual diabetic checks and 52 of the newly introduced antenatal checks had been completed. These numbers of computerised health checks are greater than for the previous year (2010) of paper-based health checks with a risk difference of 0.07 (95% confidence interval 0.05, 0.10). Additionally, two research projects based on computerised health check data were underway. Conclusions The Inala Indigenous Health Service has demonstrated that moving from paper-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks to a system using computerised health checks is feasible and can facilitate research. We expect computerised health checks will improve clinical care and continue to enable research projects using validated data, reflecting the local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community’s priorities. PMID:24053425

2013-01-01

407

Shell Creek Summers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-01-01

408

Agreement, Shells, and Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reconsiders development and licensing of agreement as a syntactic projection and argues for a productive developmental relation between agreement and the category of focus. Suggests that focus projections are initially selected by a variety of functional heads with real semantic content, then, over time decays into a simple concord shell. Upon…

Simpson, Andrew; Wu, Zoe

2002-01-01

409

Snail Shell Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three inquiry-based lessons to develop the science process skills of observation, identification, and classification. Activities use whelk eggs and snail shells as the focus of the students' inquiries. Provides a list of 19 facts about whelks and snails. (MDH)

Matthews, Catherine

1992-01-01

410

7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having any crack which is open and conspicuous for a distance of more than one-fourth the circumference of the shell, measured in the direction of the...

2013-01-01

411

7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having any crack which is open and conspicuous for a distance of more than one-fourth the circumference of the shell, measured in the direction of the...

2010-01-01

412

7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.  

...2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having any crack which is open and conspicuous for a distance of more than one-fourth the circumference of the shell, measured in the direction of the...

2014-01-01

413

7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having any crack which is open and conspicuous for a distance of more than one-fourth the circumference of the shell, measured in the direction of the...

2011-01-01

414

7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody...

2013-01-01

415

7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.  

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1 2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody...

2014-01-01

416

7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody...

2012-01-01

417

7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody...

2011-01-01

418

7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody...

2010-01-01

419

Development of the Physical Activity Interactive Recall (PAIR) for Aboriginal children  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal children in Canada are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Given that physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, prevention efforts targeting Aboriginal children include interventions to enhance physical activity involvement. These types of interventions require adequate assessment of physical activity patterns to identify determinants, detect trends, and evaluate progress towards intervention goals. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally appropriate interactive computer program to self-report physical activity for Kanien'kehá:ka (Mohawk) children that could be administered in a group setting. This was an ancillary study of the ongoing Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP). Methods During Phase I, focus groups were conducted to understand how children describe and graphically depict type, intensity and duration of physical activity. Sixty-six students (40 girls, 26 boys, mean age = 8.8 years, SD = 1.8) from four elementary schools in three eastern Canadian Kanien'kehá:ka communities participated in 15 focus groups. Children were asked to discuss and draw about physical activity. Content analysis of focus groups informed the development of a school-day and non-school-day version of the physical activity interactive recall (PAIR). In Phase II, pilot-tests were conducted in two waves with 17 and 28 children respectively to assess the content validity of PAIR. Observation, videotaping, and interviews were conducted to obtain children's feedback on PAIR content and format. Results Children's representations of activity type and activity intensity were used to compile a total of 30 different physical activity and 14 non-physical activity response choices with accompanying intensity options. Findings from the pilot tests revealed that Kanien'kehá:ka children between nine and 13 years old could answer PAIR without assistance. Content validity of PAIR was judged to be adequate. PAIR was judged to be comprehensive, acceptable, and enjoyable by the children. Conclusions Results indicate that PAIR may be acceptable to children between nine and 13 years old, with most in this age range able to complete PAIR without assistance. The flexibility of its programming makes PAIR an easily adaptable tool to accommodate diverse populations, different seasons, and changing trends in physical activity involvement. PMID:15169559

Lévesque, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon

2004-01-01

420

Recent Advances in Shell Evolution with Shell-Model Calculations  

E-print Network

Shell evolution in exotic nuclei is investigated with large-scale shell-model calculations. After presenting that the central and tensor forces produce distinctive ways of shell evolution, we show several recent results: (i) evolution of single-particle-like levels in antimony and cupper isotopes, (ii) shape coexistence in nickel isotopes understood in terms of configuration-dependent shell structure, and (iii) prediction of the evolution of the recently established $N=34$ magic number towards smaller proton numbers. In any case, large-scale shell-model calculations play indispensable roles in describing the interplay between single-particle character and correlation.

Yutaka Utsuno; Takaharu Otsuka; Yusuke Tsunoda; Noritaka Shimizu; Michio Honma; Tomoaki Togashi; Takahiro Mizusaki

2014-09-16

421

Sharing the tracks to good tucker: identifying the benefits and challenges of implementing community food programs for Aboriginal communities in Victoria.  

PubMed

Food insecurity is a significant issue in the Victorian Aboriginal population, contributing to the health disparity and reduced life expectancy. Community food programs are a strategy used to minimise individual level food insecurity, with little evidence regarding their effectiveness for Aboriginal populations. The aim of this study was to explore the role of community food programs operating for Aboriginal people in Victoria and their perceived influence on food access and nutrition. Semistructured interviews were conducted with staff (n=23) from a purposive sample of 18 community food programs across Victoria. Interviews explored the programs' operation, key benefits to the community, challenges and recommendations for setting up a successful community food program. Results were analysed using a qualitative thematic approach and revealed three main themes regarding key factors for the success of community food programs: (1) community food programs for Aboriginal people should support access to safe, affordable, nutritious food in a socially and culturally acceptable environment; (2) a community development approach is essential for program sustainability; and (3) there is a need to build the capacity of community food programs as part of a strategy to ensure sustainability. Community food programs may be an effective initiative for reducing food insecurity in the Victorian Aboriginal population. PMID:25116591

Murray, Margaret; Bonnell, Emily; Thorpe, Sharon; Browne, Jennifer; Barbour, Liza; MacDonald, Catherine; Palermo, Claire

2014-10-01

422

Engineering Bacterial Microcompartment Shells: Chimeric Shell Proteins and Chimeric Carboxysome Shells.  

PubMed

Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are self-assembling organelles composed entirely of protein. Depending on the enzymes they encapsulate, BMCs function in either inorganic carbon fixation (carboxysomes) or organic carbon utilization (metabolosomes). The hallmark feature of all BMCs is a selectively permeable shell formed by multiple paralogous proteins, each proposed to confer specific flux characteristics. Gene clusters encoding diverse BMCs are distributed broadly across bacterial phyla, providing a rich variety of building blocks with a predicted range of permeability properties. In theory, shell permeability can be engineered by modifying residues flanking the pores (symmetry axes) of hexameric shell proteins or by combining shell proteins from different types of BMCs into chimeric shells. We undertook both approaches to altering shell properties using the carboxysome as a model system. There are two types of carboxysomes, ? and ?. In both, the predominant shell protein(s) contain a single copy of the BMC domain (pfam00936), but they are significantly different in primary structure. Indeed, phylogenetic analysis shows that the two types of carboxysome shell proteins are more similar to their counterparts in metabolosomes than to each other. We solved high resolution crystal structures of the major shell proteins, CsoS1 and CcmK2, and the presumed minor shell protein CcmK4, representing both types of cyanobacterial carboxysomes and then tested the interchangeability. The in vivo study presented here confirms that both engineering pores to mimic those of other shell proteins and the construction of chimeric shells is feasible. PMID:25117559

Cai, Fei; Sutter, Markus; Bernstein, Susan L; Kinney, James N; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

2014-08-27

423

Building Co-Management as a Process: Problem Solving Through Partnerships in Aboriginal Country, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collaborative problem solving has increasingly become important in the face of the complexities in the management of resources, including protected areas. The strategy undertaken by Girringun Aboriginal Corporation in north tropical Queensland, Australia, for developing co-management demonstrates the potential for a problem solving approach involving sequential initiatives, as an alternative to the more familiar negotiated agreements for co-management. Our longitudinal case study focuses on the development of indigenous ranger units as a strategic mechanism for the involvement of traditional owners in managing their country in collaboration with government and other interested parties. This was followed by Australia's first traditional use of marine resources agreement, and development of a multi-jurisdictional, land to sea, indigenous protected area. In using a relationship building approach to develop regional scale co-management, Girringun has been strengthening its capabilities as collaborator and regional service provider, thus, bringing customary decision-making structures into play to `care for country'. From this evolving process we have identified the key components of a relationship building strategy, `the pillars of co-management'. This approach includes learning-by-doing, the building of respect and rapport, sorting out responsibilities, practical engagement, and capacity-building.

Zurba, Melanie; Ross, Helen; Izurieta, Arturo; Rist, Philip; Bock, Ellie; Berkes, Fikret

2012-06-01

424

Characterising the Smoking Status and Quit Smoking Behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers in South Australia  

PubMed Central

The study objectives were to characterise the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) in South Australia (SA), Australia; and identify the psychosocial, socio-demographic, and household smoking characteristics that distinguish smokers from quitters and never smokers. A self-reported cross-sectional survey was completed by AHWs in SA. Non-parametric statistics were used for inferential analyses. Eighty-five AHWs completed surveys representing a response rate of 63.0%. The prevalence of current smokers was 50.6%. Non-smokers (49.5%) included quitters (22.4%) and never smokers (27.1%). Smoking status did not differ by gender or geographic location. Of current smokers, 69.0% demonstrated a readiness to quit and 50.0% had made at least one quit attempt in the last 12 months. Compared to quitters and never smokers, current smokers expressed lower emotional wellbeing, and three times as many resided with another smoker. Quitters had the highest levels of perceived social support and part-time employment. A high proportion of AHWs who smoke desire, and are ready to quit. Individual, social and household factors differentiated smokers from non-smokers and quitters. Social support, and relationships and structures that favour social support, are implicated as necessary to enable AHWs who smoke to act on their desire to quit smoking. PMID:24351741

Maksimovic, Lauren; Paquet, Catherine; Daniel, Mark; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Lekkas, Peter; Cargo, Margaret

2013-01-01

425

Eating disorder features in indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian Peoples  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic conditions are well recognized problems for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a dearth of research on relevant eating disorders (EDs) such as binge eating disorder in these groups. Methods Data were obtained from interviews of 3047 (in 2005) and 3034 (in 2008) adults who were participants in a randomly selected South Australian household survey of individuals' age > 15 years. The interviewed comprised a general health survey in which ED questions were embedded. Data were weighted according to national census results and comprised key features of ED symptoms. Results In 2005 there were 94 (85 weighted) First Australian respondents, and in 2008 65 (70 weighted). Controlling for secular differences, in 2005 rates of objective binge eating and levels of weight and shape influence on self-evaluation were significantly higher in indigenous compared to non-indigenous participants, but no significant differences were found in ED features in 2008. Conclusions Whilst results on small numbers must be interpreted with caution, the main finding was consistent over the two samples. For First Australians ED symptoms are at least as frequent as for non-indigenous Australians. PMID:22439684

2012-01-01

426

Childhood disability in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a literature review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have higher rates of disability than non-Indigenous children and are considered doubly disadvantaged, yet there is very little data reflecting prevalence and service access to inform design and delivery of services. Failing to address physical, social, and psychological factors can have life-long consequences and perpetuate longstanding health disparities. Methods A narrative literature review was undertaken to identify peer reviewed literature describing factors impacting on the prevention, recognition, and access to support and management of disability in Indigenous Australian children. Results Twenty-seven peer-reviewed journal articles met inclusion criteria. The majority of articles focused on the hearing loss and learning disabilities consequent of otitis media. Few articles reported data on urban or metropolitan Indigenous populations or described interventions. Individual/community-, provider-, and systems level factors were identified as impacting on recognition and management of disability in young Indigenous children. Conclusions Given the burden of childhood disability, the limited literature retrieved is concerning as this is a barometer of activity and investment. Solutions addressing childhood disability will require collaboration between health, social and educational disciplines as well as an increased investment in prevention, identification and promotion of access. PMID:23327694

2013-01-01

427

The cultural and ecological impacts of aboriginal tourism: a case study on Taiwan's Tao tribe.  

PubMed

We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities. PMID:25089246

Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye

2014-01-01

428

Benefits of swimming pools in two remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia: intervention study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the health impact of swimming pools built with the aim of improving quality of life and reducing high rates of pyoderma and otitis media. Design Intervention study assessing prevalence of ear disease and skin infections before and at six monthly intervals after opening of swimming pools. Setting Two remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. Participants 84 boys and 78 girls aged < 17 years. Main outcome measures Changes in prevalence and severity of pyoderma and perforation of tympanic membranes with or without otorrhoea over 18 months after opening of pools. Results In community A, 61 children were seen before the pool was opened, and 41, 46, and 33 children were seen at the second, third, and fourth surveys. Equivalent figures for community B were 60, 35, 39, and 45. Prevalence of pyoderma declined significantly from 62% to 18% in community A and from 70% to 20% in community B during the 18 months after the pools opened. Over the same period, prevalence of severe pyoderma fell from 30% to 15% in community A and from 48% to 0% in community B. Prevalence of perforations of the tympanic membrane fell from 32% in both communities to 13% in community A and 18% in community B. School attendance improved in community A. Conclusion Swimming pools in remote communities were associated with reduction in prevalence of pyoderma and tympanic membrane perforations, which could result in long term benefits through reduction in chronic disease burden and improved educational and social outcomes. PMID:12933727

Lehmann, Deborah; Tennant, Mary T; Silva, Desiree T; McAullay, Daniel; Lannigan, Francis; Coates, Harvey; Stanley, Fiona J

2003-01-01

429

Birth weight and cognitive function in early adulthood: the Australian Aboriginal birth cohort study.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that in addition to genetic factors, fetal and post-natal growth influence cognition in early adulthood. However, most studies have been in developed populations, so it is unclear if the same findings would be seen in other, less developed, settings, and have used testing tools not applicable to an Australia Aboriginal population. This study investigated the relationships between cognitive function in early adulthood and birth weight and contemporary height. Simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT) and working memory (WM) were assessed using the CogState battery. A significant association was seen between birth weight and SRT in early adulthood, but not with the other two cognitive measures. Urban dwellers had significantly shorter SRT and CRT than their remote counterparts. Contemporary body mass index and maternal age were associated with CRT. Only fetal growth restriction was associated with WM, with greater WM in those with restricted growth. No associations were seen with contemporary height. These results suggest that fetal growth may be more important than the factors influencing post-natal growth in terms of cognition in early adulthood in this population, but that the associations may be inconsistent between cognitive outcomes. Further research is required to identify whether similar associations are seen in other, similar, populations and to assess why differences in cognitive outcome measures are seen. PMID:24901664

Pearce, M S; Mann, K D; Singh, G; Sayers, S M

2014-06-01

430

New Insights of Microsporidial Infection among Asymptomatic Aboriginal Population in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on microsporidial infection mostly focus on immunodeficiency or immunosuppressive individuals. Therefore, this cross-sectional study describes the prevalence and risk factors of microsporidiosis among asymptomatic individuals in Malaysia. Methods/Findings Four hundred and forty seven stool samples were collected and examined for microsporidia after staining with Gram-chromotrope Kinyoun. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 67 (15%) samples were positive for microsporidia. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher among individuals aged more than 15 years compared to those aged <15 years (OR?=?1.97, 95% CI?=?1.08, 3.62; P?=?0.028). Furthermore, logistic regression analysis confirmed that the presence of other family members infected with microsporidia (OR?=?8.45; 95% CI?=?4.30, 16.62; P<0.001) and being a consumer of raw vegetables (OR?=?2.05; 95% CI?=?1.15, 3.66; P?=?0.016) were the significant risk factors of this infection. Conclusions These findings clearly show that exposure to microsporidia is common among Aboriginal population. Further studies using molecular approach on microsporidia isolates from asymptomatic individuals is needed to determine species-specific. The risk factors associated with microsporidiosis will help in identifying more clearly the sources of the infection in the environment that pose a risk for transmission so that preventive strategies can be implemented. PMID:24014078

Shahrul Anuar, Tengku; M. Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham; Md Salleh, Fatmah; Moktar, Norhayati

2013-01-01

431

The Shell Island Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry simulation is to investigate the issues concerning the fate of the Shell Island Resort, which is in danger of being destroyed by a migrating inlet, and then debate the future of this and other oceanfront structures threatened by coastal erosion. As students engage in their investigation, they are asked to identify the social, political, and scientific issues with which different stakeholders must deal. They will place themselves into the role of one of the stakeholders. The site lists the stakeholders and provides several sources of information for each. After reviewing the resources, students will prepare a statement to decide what should be the next course of action regarding the Shell Island Resort. Students then will present statements in a debate to decide the future of the resort.

432

Thermomechanical Postbuckling of Shells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of issues involving the postbuckling of doubly-curved panels exposed to a non-uniform temperature field and subjected to a system of mechanical loads are considered in this paper. Effects played by transverse shear, initial geometric imperfections, membrane and thickness-wise temperature gradient, tangential edge constraints, linear/non-linear elastic foundation are incorporated and their implications on the non-linear response behavior of shells are discussed. Issues related with the delay of the occurrence of the snap-through buckling, alleviation of its intensity and even with its removal are addressed and remarks on conditions rendering a curved panel insensitive to initial geometric imperfections are included. Results on small vibration of shells about sub- and post-critical ranges are provided and structural modeling issues playing a non-negligible role towards a reliable prediction of the postbuckling behavior of shells under complex loading conditions are discussed. Results on non-linear response of flat reinforced panels subjected to thermomechanical loads are also presented. Finally, problems not covered by this article are briefly indicated.

Librescu, Liviu

1998-01-01

433

HST/ACS observations of shell galaxies: inner shells, shell colours and dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Shells in Elliptical Galaxies are faint, sharp-edged features, believed to provide evidence for a merger event. Accurate photometry at high spatial resolution is needed to learn on presence of inner shells, population properties of shells, and dust in shell galaxies. Aims: Learn more about the origin of shells and dust in early type galaxies. Methods: V-I colours of shells and underlying galaxies are derived, using HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data. A galaxy model is made locally in wedges and subtracted to determine shell profiles and colours. We applied Voronoi binning to our data to get smoothed colour maps of the galaxies. Comparison with N-body simulations from the literature gives more insight to the origin of the shell features. Shell positions and dust characteristics are inferred from model galaxy subtracted images. Results: The ACS images reveal shells well within the effective radius in some galaxies (at 0.24 re = 1.7 kpc in the case of NGC 5982). In some cases, strong nuclear dust patches prevent detection of inner shells. Most shells have colours which are similar to the underlying galaxy. Some inner shells are redder than the galaxy. All six shell galaxies show out of dynamical equilibrium dust features, like lanes or patches, in their central regions. Our detection rate for dust in the shell ellipticals is greater than that found from HST archive data for a sample of normal early-type galaxies, at the 95% confidence level. Conclusions: The merger model describes better the shell distributions and morphologies than the interaction model. Red shell colours are most likely due to the presence of dust and/or older stellar populations. The high prevalence and out of dynamical equilibrium morphologies of the central dust features point towards external influences being responsible for visible dust features in early type shell galaxies. Inner shells are able to manifest themselves in relatively old shell systems. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO9399 and GO9427. Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Sikkema, G.; Carter, D.; Peletier, R. F.; Balcells, M.; Del Burgo, C.; Valentijn, E. A.

2007-06-01

434

Help bring back the celebration of life: A community-based participatory study of rural Aboriginal women’s maternity experiences and outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Despite clear evidence regarding how social determinants of health and structural inequities shape health, Aboriginal women’s birth outcomes are not adequately understood as arising from the historical, economic and social circumstances of their lives. The purpose of this study was to understand rural Aboriginal women’s experiences of maternity care and factors shaping those experiences. Methods Aboriginal women from the Nuxalk, Haida and 'Namgis First Nations and academics from the University of British Columbia in nursing, medicine and counselling psychology used ethnographic methods within a participatory action research framework. We interviewed over 100 women, and involved additional community members through interviews and community meetings. Data were analyzed within each community and across communities. Results Most participants described distressing experiences during pregnancy and birthing as they grappled with diminishing local maternity care choices, racism and challenging economic circumstances. Rural Aboriginal women’s birthing experiences are shaped by the intersections among rural circumstances, the effects of historical and ongoing colonization, and concurrent efforts toward self-determination and more vibrant cultures and communities. Conclusion Women’s experiences and birth outcomes could be significantly improved if health care providers learned about and accounted for Aboriginal people’s varied encounters with historical and ongoing colonization that unequivocally shapes health and health care. Practitioners who better understand Aboriginal women’s birth outcomes in context can better care in every interaction, particularly by enhancing women’s power, choice, and control over their experiences. Efforts to improve maternity care that account for the social and historical production of health inequities are crucial. PMID:23360168

2013-01-01

435

Validation of risk assessment scales and predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a cross-sectional survey protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tobacco smoking is a very significant behavioural risk factor for the health of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, and is embedded as a social norm. With a focus on women of childbearing age, and men of similar age, this project aims to determine how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers assess smoking risks and how these assessments contribute to their intentions to quit. The findings from this pragmatic study should contribute to developing culturally targeted interventions. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional study using quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 120 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members aged 18–45?years will be recruited at community events and through an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Participants will be interviewed using a tablet computer or paper survey. The survey instrument uses modified risk behaviour scales, that is, the Risk Behaviour Diagnosis (RBD) scale and the Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) (adapted from the Risk Acceptance Ladder) to determine whether attitudes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers to health risk messages are predictors of intentions to quit smoking. The questionnaire will be assessed for face and content validity with a panel of Indigenous community members. The internal consistency of the RBD subscales and their patterns of correlation will be explored. Multivariate analyses will examine predictors of intentions to quit. This will include demographics such as age, gender, nicotine dependence, household smoking rules and perceived threat from smoking and efficacy for quitting. The two risk-assessment scales will be examined to see whether participant responses are correlated. Ethics and dissemination The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council Ethics Committee and university ethics committees approved the study. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and a community report will be disseminated by the ACCHS, and at community forums. Note about terminology We use the term Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, except where previous research has reported findings from only one group for example, Aboriginal people. Indigenous is used here to refer to Indigenous peoples in the international context, and issues, policies or systems, for example, Indigenous health, Indigenous tobacco control. PMID:24902729

Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

2014-01-01

436

A randomized controlled trial comparing sequential with triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori in an Aboriginal community in the Canadian North  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection occurs more frequently in Arctic Aboriginal settings than elsewhere in North America and Europe. Research aimed at reducing health risks from H pylori infection has been conducted in the Aboriginal community of Aklavik, Northwest Territories. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of the Canadian standard therapy with an alternative therapy for eliminating H pylori infection in Aklavik. METHODS: Treatment-naive H pylori-positive individuals were randomly assigned to a 10-day regimen (oral twice-daily doses) with rabeprazole (20 mg): standard triple therapy (proton pump inhibitor, added clarithromycin [500 mg] and amoxicillin [1 g] [PPI-CA]); sequential therapy (ST) added amoxicillin (1 g) on days 1 to 5, and metronidazole (500 mg) and clarithromycin (500 mg) on days 6 to 10. Participants with clarithromycin-resistant H pylori were randomly assigned to ST or quadruple therapy. Treatment effectiveness was estimated as per cent (95% CI) with a negative urea breath test at least 10 weeks after treatment. RESULTS: Of 104 (53 PPI-CA, 51 ST) randomized participants, 89 (49 PPI-CA, 40 ST) had post-treatment results. Per-protocol treatment effectiveness was 59% (95% CI 45% to 73%) for PPI-CA and 73% (95% CI 58% to 87%) for ST. Based on intention to treat, effectiveness was 55% (95% CI 41% to 69%) for PPI-CA and 57% (95% CI 43% to 71%) for ST. Of 77 participants (43 PPI-CA, 34 ST) with 100% adherence, effectiveness was 63% (95% CI 43% to 82%) for PPI-CA and 81% (95% CI 63% to 99%) for ST. CONCLUSIONS: While additional evidence is needed to confirm that ST is more effective for Arctic Aboriginal communities than the Canadian standard H pylori treatment, these results show standard PPI-CA treatment to be inadequate for communities such as Aklavik. PMID:24340314

Morse, Amy L; Goodman, Karen J; Munday, Rachel; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Morse, John; Keelan, Monika; Geary, Janis; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen

2013-01-01

437

Does a Retrospective Seven-day Alcohol Diary Reflect Usual Alcohol Intake for a Predominantly Disadvantaged Australian Aboriginal Population?  

PubMed

Background: Alcohol disproportionately affects socially disadvantaged groups including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Methods to assess alcohol intake for disadvantaged communities need to be able to capture variable or episodic drinking. The ability of a seven-day diary to capture typical consumption for a predominantly Aboriginal sample has not been assessed. Objective: One aim of this paper was to examine agreement between a seven-day retrospective diary and 'usual' drinking assessed by a modified version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test question 3 (AUDIT-3m; two questions). Other aims were to describe drinking patterns as reported in the seven-day diary. Method: In 2012, consecutive adults attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service completed a cross-sectional health risk survey on a touch screen laptop (n = 188). Alcohol consumption questions included the retrospective diary and AUDIT-3m. Agreement was assessed using weighted kappa analysis. Results: There was good agreement between the two measures of consumption; however, the AUDIT-3m questions identified more current drinkers. Respondents who were drinkers (54%) tended to consume large amounts per drinking occasion: almost half (46%) of diary completers reported nine or more standard drinks on at least one occasion in the last week. Conclusions: The seven-day diary did not adequately capture variability in alcohol consumption common among this sample. Although the AUDIT-3m appeared acceptable, alternative approaches to assess usual or risky alcohol consumption, such as asking about specific drinking occasions, or allowing participants to respond in non-standard drink sizes, also need to be considered for indigenous and other disadvantaged communities. PMID:25474728

Noble, Natasha; Paul, Christine; Conigrave, Katherine; Lee, Kylie; Blunden, Stephen; Turon, Heidi; Carey, Mariko; McElduff, Patrick

2014-12-01

438

Deadly Choices™ community health events: a health promotion initiative for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.  

PubMed

The present study was an evaluation of the effectiveness of Deadly Choices™ community events for improving participants' short-term knowledge of chronic disease and risk factors, and increasing community engagement with local health services. Surveys were completed directly before and after participating in health education activities (pre and post surveys, respectively) assessing knowledge of chronic diseases and risk factors at three Deadly Choices community events and four National Aboriginal and Islander Day Observance Committee (NAIDOC) events in south-east Queensland where Deadly Choices health education activities took place. An audit trail was conducted at two Deadly Choices community events in Brisbane to identify the proportion of participants who undertook a health screen at the event who then followed up for a Medicare-funded health check (MBS item 715) or other appointment at an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clinic in the local area within 2 months. Results were compared with a sample of participants who attended one Deadly Choices community event but did not complete a health screen. There were 472 community members who completed a pre and post survey. All knowledge scores significantly improved between baseline and follow up. Although based on a small sample, the audit trail results suggest individuals who participated in a health screen at the community day were approximately twice as likely to go back to a clinic to receive a full health check or have an alternative appointment compared with attendees who did not participate in a screen. Community events that include opportunities for health education and health screening are an effective strategy to improve chronic disease health literacy skills and appear to have the potential to increase community engagement with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services. PMID:25262748

Malseed, Claire; Nelson, Alison; Ware, Robert; Lacey, Ian; Lander, Keiron

2014-10-01

439

No germs on me: a social marketing campaign to promote hand-washing with soap in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.  

PubMed

A social marketing campaign promoting hand-washing with soap was implemented to reduce the high burden of infection experienced by Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Epidemiological evidence of effect and other evidence were used to identify the hygiene intervention and health promotion approach for the project. We drew on the findings of: (i) a systematic literature review to identify the intervention for which there is strong effect in similar populations and contexts; and (ii) a narrative literature review to determine our health promotion approach. This process provided practitioners with confidence and understanding so they could address a complex problem in a politically and otherwise sensitive context. PMID:21721304

McDonald, Elizabeth; Slavin, Nicola; Bailie, Ross; Schobben, Xavier

2011-03-01

440

Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells.

Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

2011-10-01

441

Shell Creek Summers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would motivate high school students to donate valuable summer vacation time to do science research?--the opportunity to make a difference! The Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group (SCWIG) was formed to identify and promote needed conservation practices within a local watershed, and turned to the high school science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality. Since 2002, for the past three summers, in this ongoing project, students collect water quality data and report their findings to the three involved community organizations.

Mark Seier

2005-04-01

442

Self-efficacy and self-rated oral health among pregnant aboriginal Australian women  

PubMed Central

Background Self-efficacy plays an important role in oral health-related behaviours. There is little known about associations between self-efficacy and subjective oral health among populations at heightened risk of dental disease. This study aimed to determine if low self-efficacy was associated with poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for confounding among a convenience sample of pregnant women. Methods We used self-reported data from 446 Australian women pregnant with an Aboriginal child (age range 14–43 years) to evaluate self-rated oral health, self-efficacy and socio-demographic, psychosocial, social cognitive and risk factors. Hierarchical entry of explanatory variables into logistic regression models estimated prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for fair or poor self-rated oral health. Results In an unadjusted model, those with low self-efficacy had 2.40 times the odds of rating their oral health as ‘fair’ or ‘poor’ (95% CI 1.54–3.74). Addition of socio-demographic factors attenuated the effect of low self-efficacy on poor self-rated oral health by 10 percent (POR 2.19, 95% CI 1.37–3.51). Addition of the psychosocial factors attenuated the odds by 17 percent (POR 2.07, 95% CI 1.28–3.36), while addition of the social cognitive variable fatalism increased the odds by 1 percent (POR 2.42, 95% CI 1.55–3.78). Inclusion of the behavioural risk factor ‘not brushing previous day’ attenuated the odds by 15 percent (POR 2.11, 95%CI 1.32–3.36). In the final model, which included all covariates, the odds were attenuated by 32 percent (POR 1.80, 95% CI 1.05, 3.08). Conclusions Low self-efficacy persisted as a risk indicator for poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for confounding among this vulnerable population. PMID:24690235

2014-01-01

443

Environmental health conditions in remote and rural aboriginal communities in western Australia.  

PubMed

During 1994-1995 environmental health conditions of about 13,760 persons in 155 remote and rural Aboriginal communities in 20 local shires in Western Australia (WA) were surveyed. A semiquantitative questionnaire sought data about the communities and their services, including water supplies, power, sanitation and disposal of solid and liquid waste; a separate section dealt with conditions of individual dwellings. Data were recorded by experienced local workers. Thirty-five communities considered to have the worst conditions were evaluated on-site by a team of senior personnel in mid-1995. Environmental health problems were prevalent and often serious: over one-third of the communities had water supply or sanitation problems and 70 per cent had housing problems, with overcrowding and substandard housing being commonplace. Thirty-six per cent had difficulties with waste water disposal, 37 per cent had no rubbish disposal, and in others, the methods of disposal were often inadequate; pests were problems in 44 per cent of communities and the hygiene and maintenance of communal toilets was unacceptable in 25 per cent. Seventy-two per cent had no on-site environmental health worker and 44 per cent had no on-site or visiting medical, nursing or health worker personnel. An action plan was developed and the highest-priority communities were targeted in a program of major works (for example, housing, drainage and sewerage) and minor works, which have been commenced. The remote-area environmental health workers' program is being expanded. Increased intersectoral collaboration and enhanced community involvement in decision making have occurred as a result of this work. PMID:9343897

Gracey, M; Williams, P; Houston, S

1997-08-01

444

Prospective evaluation of unmet needs of rural and aboriginal cancer survivors in Northern British Columbia  

PubMed Central

Background The unmet needs of cancer survivors in rural, remote, and aboriginal communities are largely unexplored. We explored potential differences between rural survivors (rss) in 4 general population (gp) and 4 First Nations (fn) communities. Methods We approached 4 gp and 4 fn rs communities to participate in a mixed-methods project. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (hads) and the Survivor Unmet Needs Survey (suns) and provided demographic information. Each question on the suns can be scored from 0 to 4, with 0 representing “no unmet need” and 4 representing “very high unmet need.” A directed approach to content analysis of focus group and interview data was used to triangulate the hads and suns results. Results We prospectively accrued 23 fn rss and 56 gp rss for this study. More fn rss had borderline or abnormal anxiety (5% vs. 21%, p = 0.02). Compared with gp rss, fn rss had higher unmet needs scores in all categories: Information (2.29 vs. 0.8, p < 0.001), Work and Financial (1.66 vs. 0.5, p < 0.001), Access and Continuity of Health Care (1.83 vs. 0.44, p < 0.001), Coping and Sharing (2.22 vs. 0.62, p < 0.001), and Emotional (2.12 vs. 0.63, p < 0.001). The qualitative findings provided examples and insight into the unmet needs experienced by rss. Conclusions First Nations rss had significantly higher anxiety and unmet needs compared with their gp rs counterparts. In addition, different qualitative themes were identified in the groups. Our findings support the development of tailored approaches to survivorship for these populations. PMID:24764702

Olson, R.A.; Howard, F.; Turnbull, K.; Munroe, D.; Zirul, C.; Manji, R.; Tobin, P.; Ward, A.

2014-01-01

445

Colonisation - it's bad for your health: the context of Aboriginal health.  

PubMed

Australia's history is not often considered to be an indicator of any person's health status. However, as health professionals we are taught the importance of taking and listening to our client's detailed history to assist us in our comprehension of the issues impacting upon their lives. This skill base is an important one in that it makes available valuable information that assists the health professional to be discerning of intimate and specific circumstances that could contribute to health related problems not previously diagnosed. It is a vital screening tool. I would like to advocate that history taking, that being Australia's colonial, political, social and economic histories be a course of action undertaken by all health professionals working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Health researchers of recent years have been able to clearly illustrate that there is a powerful relationship between health status and individuals or collectives; social, political and economic circumstances (Marmot, 2011; Marmot & Wilkinson, 2001; Saggers & Gray, 2007). This way of knowing how health can be affected through such social health determinants is an important health competency (Anderson, 2007; Marmot, 2011). As such this paper delivers a timeline of specific historical and political events, contributing to current social health determinants that are undermining Indigenous Australians health and well-being. This has been undertaken because most Australians including Indigenous Australians have not benefited from a balanced and well informed historical account of the past 200 and something years. The implication of this lack of knowing unfortunately has left its effect on the way health service providers have delivered health to Indigenous children, moth