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1

Mapping of subsurface shell midden components through percussion coring: examples from the Dundas Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following earlier examples of mapping the subsurface of shell bearing sites using augering, we employ percussion coring to identify early Holocene shell midden components at two types of sites on the Northwest Coast of North America. We describe a method for mapping subsurface components at shell bearing sites including basal deposits, paleosols and transitions between distinct cultural components. Our research

Andrew Martindale; Bryn Letham; Duncan McLaren; David Archer; Meghan Burchell; Bernd R. Schöne

2009-01-01

2

Early and middle holocene hunter-gatherer occupations in western Amazonia: the hidden shell middens.  

PubMed

We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region's past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene "Earthmovers" of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged. PMID:24013964

Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

2013-01-01

3

Early and Middle Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Occupations in Western Amazonia: The Hidden Shell Middens  

PubMed Central

We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region’s past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene “Earthmovers” of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged. PMID:24013964

Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M.; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

2013-01-01

4

Archaeologists regularly investi-gate oyster shell middens (piles of  

E-print Network

pelecypods (hatchet foot) that are included in the phy- lum Mollusca (clams, snails, squids, and octopods apparatus. Alabama oysters reach harvestable size (3 inches) in 24 to 30 months. Inspection Because oysters authorities pay close attention to molluscan shell- fish. Like all other varieties of seafood, once oysters

Florida, University of

5

Interspecies comparison of marine reservoir ages at the Kitakogane shell midden, Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apparent 14C ages of human and faunal remains from the Kitakogane shell midden assigned to the Early Jomon period were measured to estimate the reservoir effect on different species. In previous studies, northern fur seal and Japanese deer had showed significant age differences of 860 14C yr, in concordance with the large reservoir ages observed in pre-bomb shells from the western North Pacific. However, the present study suggests that other sedentary marine organisms, including porpoise, Japanese sea lion and scallop, show a smaller reservoir age-offset at 720 14C yr at the same site. The ethology of northern fur seal was probably responsible for this discrepancy because of a larger reservoir age in the Sea of Okhotsk into which they migrated. This suggests the reservoir effect on humans was more complicated than a simple linear mixing between marine and terrestrial reservoirs in the case of the NW Pacific coast. It was suggested that an interspecies comparison of 14C age-offsets could produce more precise estimation of the marine reservoir effect in the past.

Yoneda, Minoru; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi; Hirota, Masashi; Suzuki, Ryo; Uzawa, Kazuhiro; Ohshima, Naoyuki; Dodo, Yukio

2004-08-01

6

Stratigraphic and spatial variability in shell middens: microfacies identification at the ethnohistoric site Tunel VII (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on ethnographic accounts from the eighteenth to the twentieth century, functional areas have been identified within\\u000a Fueginian shell middens. In this context, archaeological microfacies acquire a functional meaning when the microscopic record\\u000a is compared to information gathered from ethnology, macroscopic observations made during excavation, and experimental modern\\u000a analogues. All these lines of evidence were combined for the first time

Ximena S. Villagran; Andrea L. Balbo; Marco Madella; Assumpció Vila; Jordi Estevez

7

Using shell middens to assess effects of fishing on queen conch ( Strombus gigas ) populations in Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Queen conch, Strombus gigas, is a commercially important gastropod that has been exploited throughout the Caribbean islands for thousands of years. Shell\\u000a middens in the region are the physical record of a long-term fishery and their study can provide valuable information on selectivity\\u000a patterns followed by fishermen and on resulting morphological shifts reflected by shells. In this study, we surveyed

Diego Schapira; Irene A. Montaño; Andrzej Antczak; Juan M. Posada

2009-01-01

8

An experimental approach for archeological soil micromorphology: building a model for site taphonomy in coastal shell middens of the Beagle Channel (Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are still many archaeological contexts where soil micromorphology has been little applied. Examples of such are anthropic shell deposits, common in coastal settings worldwide. These archaeological sites have complex stratigraphies composed mainly of shell from diverse species of local mollusks and gastropods. They have the peculiarity of being highly porous sediments with a coarse fraction that is dominated by gravel-sized bioclastic remains (shell, fish bones) and a fine fraction composed of organic material (charcoal, organic matter). The use of soil micromorphology in shell deposits was started by the Spanish-Argentinean research team working in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) since 1986. This project focused on excavation of hunter-gatherer sites from the contact period. One of the main objectives was to develop a detailed excavation method for shell middens that maximized the amount of recorded data during archaeological excavation. In this perspective, microstratigraphy was conceived as a fundamental complement for the study of site formation processes, as it would provide with high definition data for identification of shell accumulation episodes, trampling on site, abandonment periods, taphonomic alterations etc. A reference collection of known environmental and anthropic control features, such as hearths, trampling areas, wood ashes from local species, among others, was built to help in the microscopic characterization of archaeological samples. In this work, we analyze this experimental collection and compare it with samples from the Tunel VII archaeological site, located in the northern coast of the Beagle Channel and dated from the 18th-19th centuries. The set of modern samples included: trampling area from an animal pathway; beach deposit; forest litter; soil under the forest; hearths lit in diverse contexts (on the prairie, the beach and from the archaeologist camp site); and experimental burnt valves of Mytilus edulis, the main malacological component of the Tunel VII archaeological site, combusted in a muffle furnace at temperatures from 200 to 800° C. The original archaeological samples from Tunel VII included resin-consolidat columns taken from vaious profiles within the shell midden site. The thin sections analysed here were taken from a profile dug through a passageway that crosses the shell dumping area. The experimental reference collection showed the intense bioturbation of both exposed and buried surfaces, despite the low temperatures that characterize the area, commonly associated to inhibition of biological activity. The same intense bioturbation was observed in the shell midden, were a form of anthrosol develops during abandonment periods of the site. The experimental samples of Mytilus edulis served as reference for identification of burning temperatures reached by the anthropic fires and were useful aids to identify reworked burnt layers as accretion material for the shell midden.

Balbo, Andrea; Suarez Villagran, Ximena; Madella, Marco; Vila, Asumpcio; Estevez, Jordi

2010-05-01

9

Paleo Slide Set: Packrat Middens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show discusses plant-rich deposits called middens, that are found in caves and rock shelters in the arid southwestern United States. Middens are an amalgamation of plant and animal remains encased in crystallized packrat urine, and can be used to reconstruct past vegetation and climate in the immediate area of the midden deposit. This slide set outlines past climate variability by reconstructing vegetation change in the southwestern US as preserved in packrat middens. The set contains a comprehensive text and accompanying color photographs of middens, packrats, desert vegetation, and laboratory techniques which can be enlarged for better viewing.

10

Aboriginal Education When Aboriginal education  

E-print Network

to re-imagine education in general and to create an actual physical space embodying their culture1 Aboriginal Education When Aboriginal education becomes learning, Aboriginally, and Inuit Education Policy to Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Honouring Aboriginal Learners ­ A 20 year

Ellis, Randy

11

Understanding arid environments using fossil rodent middens  

Microsoft Academic Search

American rodent middens have made a more dramatic contribution to understanding past environments and the development of ecological theory than Australian rodent middens. This relates to differences in the natural environment, the landscape histories, the scale and scientific approaches of the researchers. The comparison demonstrates: the power of synoptic perspectives; the value of thorough macrofossil identification in midden analysis and

Stuart Pearson; Julio L. Betancourtz

2002-01-01

12

A 6,000 Year Old Red Abalone Midden from Otter Point, San Miguel Island, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, researchers have been interested in archaeological sites on California's Channel Islands that contain large concentrations of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) shells. Known as red abalone middens and dated to between about 7500 and 3500 years ago, these sites have been used to under- stand broad subsistence patterns, provide chrono-stratigraphic control, and investigate past environmental changes in the region.

RENÉ L. VELLANOWETH; TORBEN C. RICK; JON M. ERLANDSON; Gnesa Reynolds

2006-01-01

13

A conspiracy of silence - the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service (NP&WS), under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 (NSW) ('the Act'), is responsible for the 'care, control. and management' of Aboriginal cultural hentage sites (middens, burial sites, rock art sites, etc.) throughout NSW.2 Section 90 of the Act states that it is an offence to destroy, deface or disturb an

Michael K. Organ

1994-01-01

14

Aboriginal Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project for high school students in which they create Aboriginal-style paintings using cotton swabs. Discusses the process of creating the works of art in detail. Includes learning objectives, art materials, and a bibliography. (CMK)

Armstrong, Sherry

2003-01-01

15

Aboriginal health.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To inform health care workers about the health status of Canada's native people. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search for articles published from Jan. 1, 1989, to Nov. 31, 1995, with the use of subject headings "Eskimos" and "Indians, North American," excluding specific subject headings related to genetics and history. Case reports were excluded. Material was also identified from a review of standard references and bibliographies and from consultation with experts. STUDY SELECTION: Review and research articles containing original data concerning epidemiologic aspects of native health. Studies of Canadian populations were preferred, but population-based studies of US native peoples were included if limited Canadian information was available. DATA EXTRACTION: Information about target population, methods and conclusions was extracted from each study. RESULTS: Mortality and morbidity rates are higher in the native population than in the general Canadian population. The infant mortality rates averaged for the years 1986 to 1990 were 13.8 per 1000 live births among Indian infants, 16.3 per 1000 among Inuit infants, and only 7.3 per 1000 among all Canadian infants. Age-standardized all-cause mortality rates among residents of reserves averaged for the years 1979 to 1983 were 561.0 per 100,000 population among men and 334.6 per 100,000 among women, compared with 340.2 per 100,000 among all Canadian men and 173.4 per 100,000 among all Canadian women. Compared with the general Canadian population, specific native populations have an increased risk of death from alcoholism, homicide, suicide and pneumonia. Of the aboriginal population of Canada 15 years of age and older, 31% have been informed that they have a chronic health problem. Diabetes mellitus affects 6% of aboriginal adults, compared with 2% of all Canadian adults. Social problems identified by aboriginal people as a concern in their community include substance abuse, suicide, unemployment and family violence. Subgroups of aboriginal people are at a greater-than-normal risk of infectious diseases, injuries, respiratory diseases, nutritional problems (including obesity) and substance abuse. Initial data suggest that, compared with the general population, some subgroups of the native population have a lower incidence of heart disease and certain types of cancer. However, knowledge about contributing factors to the health status of aboriginal people is limited, since the literature generally does not assess confounding factors such as poverty. CONCLUSIONS: Canadian aboriginal people die earlier than their fellow Canadians, on average, and sustain a disproportionate share of the burden of physical disease and mental illness. However, few studies have assessed poverty as a confounding factor. Future research priorities in native health are best determined by native people themselves. PMID:8956834

MacMillan, H L; MacMillan, A B; Offord, D R; Dingle, J L

1996-01-01

16

Aboriginal Business Administration  

E-print Network

Aboriginal Business Administration Certificate #12;What is the Aboriginal Business Administra on Cer ficate (ABAC) Program? The Aboriginal Business Administra on Cer ficate (ABAC) is designed a cer ficate in business but do not want to study in a four year degree program. ABAC allows Aboriginal

Saskatchewan, University of

17

Midden formation by octopuses: The role of biotic and abiotic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many octopus species consume their prey in a shelter, where discarded prey items accumulate to form a midden. The shelters of Octopus bimaculatus rarely have middens. Some discarded prey items are present at 20% of the shelters of O. bimaculatus, but these do not accumulate to form middens. A field experiment using artificial middens demonstrated that currents and\\/or surge moved

Richard F. Ambrose

1983-01-01

18

Australian Aboriginal suicide: The need for an Aboriginal suicidology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines suicide among Australian Aboriginal peoples, and reviews current directions in suicide prevention. A particular focus is on the apparent differences discovered by other researchers in suicidal behaviour, risk factors, response to prevention programs, as well as cultures, customs and beliefs between the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal population, and between different Aboriginal communities and groups. Despite evidence of such

Terri Elliott-Farrelly

19

Misadventures with Aboriginalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 30 years the dominant approach to Aboriginal affairs in Australia has been to support cultural recovery and accommodate cultural difference in the expectation that this will enhance Aborigines’ and Torres Strait Islanders’ equality as citizens.This approach has been driven by a dialectic of progressivist desire to ameliorate the effects of earlier colonialist policy and Aboriginalist discourse that assumes isolable

Terry Moore

2011-01-01

20

Aboriginal Education Program, 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the beginning of time, Aboriginal people have had a high regard for education. Euro-Canadian contact with Aboriginal peoples has and continues to have devastating effects. The encroachment on their traditional territory has affected the lands and resources forever. Generations of experience within the residential school system have greatly…

British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

2012-01-01

21

Holocene Vegetation History from Fossil Rodent Middens near Arequipa, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rodent (Abrocoma, Lagidium, Phyllotis) middens collected from 2350 to 2750 m elevation near Arequipa, Peru (16°S), provide an ?9600-yr vegetation history of the northern Atacama Desert, based on identification of >50 species of plant macrofossils. These midden floras show considerable stability throughout the Holocene, with slightly more mesophytic plant assemblages in the middle Holocene. Unlike the southwestern United States, rodent middens of mid-Holocene age are common. In the Arequipa area, the midden record does not reflect any effects of a mid-Holocene mega drought proposed from the extreme lowstand (100 m below modern levels, >6000 to 3500 yr B.P.) of Lake Titicaca, only 200 km east of Arequipa. This is perhaps not surprising, given other evidence for wetter summers on the Pacific slope of the Andes during the middle Holocene as well as the poor correlation of summer rainfall among modern weather stations in the central Andes-Atacama Desert. The apparent difference in paleoclimatic reconstructions suggests that it is premature to relate changes observed during the Holocene to changes in El Niño Southern Oscillation modes.

Holmgren, Camille A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Roque, Jose; Tovar, Oscar; Zeballos, Horacio; Linares, Eliana; Quade, Jay

2001-09-01

22

Rescue excavations at Diaz Street Midden, Saldanha Bay, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents Diaz Street Midden, a Later Stone Age site discovered during recent development of a property in Saldanha Bay, South Africa. It began accumulating some 6000 years ago but the upper deposits were destroyed prior to excavation. The small excavation yielded a spectacular silcrete-dominated lithic assemblage with an unusually high frequency and variety of retouched artefacts. Ostrich eggshell

Jayson Orton

2009-01-01

23

Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Sorry Day," held on May 26, 1998 in Australia, was an attempt on the part of some Australians to come to grips with the policy of forced removal of Aboriginal children that took place for 150 years until the 1970s. The Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation, made up of 25 members, over half of whom are Aborigines or Torres Strait Islanders, as well as members of the Commonwealth Parliament, maintains a site highlighted by its Weaving the Threads: Progress Towards Reconciliation report to Parliament.

24

Aboriginal Canada Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A partnership effort between the Canadian government departments and the Aboriginal community, this site is designed to serve as a portal to Canadian Aboriginal Internet resources, contacts, information, and government programs and services. From the site, visitors may access homepages for national Aboriginal associations, governmental, and other sites. The latter are organized by resource type (business, learning, employment, health and social services, etc.) and further divided between government sites and other sources of information. An internal search engine and French and no-frames versions are also provided.

25

AFRICAN ABORIGINAL THERAPY  

PubMed Central

No other man in America has so complete a knowledge of the aborigines of South Africa as Dr. Sheppard. For twenty-one years he spent his vacations in their kraals. He is a blood-brother in two tribes, and a chief, and sits on his own mat at tribal councils. His picture of their aboriginal therapy is unique. Imagesp228-ap228-bp229-ap229-bp231-ap232-ap232-bp233-ap235-ap235-b PMID:18010265

Sheppard, Philip A. E.

1920-01-01

26

Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18°S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area.

Holmgren, C.A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J.L.

2008-01-01

27

Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18??S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Holmgren, C.A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J.L.

2008-01-01

28

Aboriginal Education: Fulfilling the Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is at the heart of the struggle of Canada's Aboriginal peoples to regain control over their lives as communities and nations. Based on hearings and research generated by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP), this collection of articles documents recent progress in transforming Aboriginal education to support…

Castellano, Marlene Brant, Ed.; Davis, Lynne, Ed.; Lahache, Louise, Ed.

29

Aboriginal Report - Charting Our Path  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report outlines Aboriginal learner participation and achievement in British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions for the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations leadership, public…

Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

2008-01-01

30

Aboriginal Documentary Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Libraries and Archives Canada "web exhibition recounts first-hand information illustrating the complex and often contentious relationship between the Canadian government and Canada's Aboriginal people from the late 1700s to the mid-20th century." Visitors interested in reading about the importance and meaning of these documentary resources to the aboriginal people, should read the link on the left side menu entitled: "The Resources from an Aboriginal Perspective". Visitors unfamiliar with the current and historical vocabulary used regarding Aboriginal people should refer to the "Glossary" on the left side menu to learn the definitions of such words as "band", "M'tis", "Indian Act", and "First Nation". The "Treaties, Surrenders and Agreements" link contains the following sections: "Essay", "Gallery" and "Database". The Gallery contains images of original treaties that, among other things, ceded vast amounts of land to Canada. Visitors can view one of the treaties that ceded the land of southwestern Ontario north of Lake Erie which originally was part of the Aboriginal people's territory.

31

Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2013-07-01

32

Pleistocene Wood Rat Middens and Climatic Change in Mohave Desert: A Record of Juniper Woodlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leafy twigs and seeds of juniper are abundant in nine ancient Neotoma middens discovered in low, arid, desert ranges devoid of junipers, near Frenchman Flat, Nevada. Existing vegetation is creosote bush and other desert shrubs. Twelve radiocarbon dates suggest that the middens were deposited between 7800 to more than 40,000 years ago. Dominance of Utah juniper and absence of pinyon

Philip V. Wells; Clive D. Jorgensen

1964-01-01

33

Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18°S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of

C. A. Holmgren; E. Rosello; C. Latorre; J. L. Betancourt

2008-01-01

34

Molecular analysis of a 11 700-year-old rodent midden from the Atacama Desert, Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

DNA was extracted from an 11 700-year-old rodent midden from the Atacama Desert, Chile and the chloroplast and animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene sequences were analysed to investigate the floral environment surrounding the midden, and the identity of the midden agent. The plant sequences, together with the macroscopic identifications, suggest the presence of 13 plant families and three orders that no longer exist today at the midden locality, and thus point to a much more diverse and humid climate 11 700 years ago. The mtDNA sequences suggest the presence of at least four different vertebrates, which have been putatively identified as a camelid (vicuna), two rodents (Phyllotis and Abrocoma), and a cardinal bird (Passeriformes). To identify the midden agent, DNA was extracted from pooled faecal pellets, three small overlapping fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were amplified and multiple clones were sequenced. These results were analysed along with complete cytochrome b sequences for several modern Phyllotis species to place the midden sequence phylogenetically. The results identified the midden agent as belonging to an ancestral P. limatus. Today, P. limatus is not found at the midden locality but it can be found 100 km to the north, indicating at least a small range shift. The more extensive sampling of modern Phyllotis reinforces the suggestion that P. limatus is recently derived from a peripheral isolate.

Kuch, M.; Rohland, N.; Betancourt, J.L.; Latorre, C.; Steppan, S.; Poinar, H.N.

2002-01-01

35

Excavation of red squirrel middens by grizzly bears in the whitebark pine zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Whitebark pine seeds Pinus albicaulis are an important food of grizzly Ursus arctos horribilis bears wherever whitebark pine is abundant in the contiguous United States of America; availability of seeds affects the distribution of bears, and the level of conflict between bears and humans. Almost all of the seeds consumed by bears are excavated from middens where red squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus have cached whitebark pine cones. 2. Relationships among the occupancy of middens by squirrels, the excavation of middens by bears, and site features were investigated in this study. Data were collected from radio-marked bears and from middens located from line transects on two study sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem. 3. Densities of active middens were positively related to lodgepole pine Pinus contorta basal area and negatively related to steepness of slope. 4. The probability that a midden was occupied by a squirrel (i.e. active) was positively related to lodgepole pine basal area in the surrounding stand, size of the midden and size of the whitebark pine cone crop, and negatively related to elevation and to bear excavation during the previous 2-12 months. 5. The probability that a midden had been excavated by a bear during the previous 12 months was positively related to size of the midden, and to whitebark pine basal area and cone crop, and negatively related to nearness of roads and town sites. 6. The influence of midden size on bear use was attributable to a positive relationship with the number of excavated cones. The positive association between bear excavations and whitebark pine basal area or cone crops was attributable to availability of pine seeds. 7. Grizzly bears would benefit from the minimization of roads and other human facilities in the whitebark pine zone and from increases in the availability of whitebark pine seeds, potentially achieved by increasing the numbers of cone-producing whitebark pine trees, especially in lower elevations of the whitebark pine zone where red squirrels are more abundant.

Mattson, D.J.; Reinhart, D.P.

1997-01-01

36

Attitudes towards Aboriginal issues in Saskatchewan  

E-print Network

Attitudes towards Aboriginal issues in Saskatchewan: A research brief January 2012 Saskatchewan), 15% of Saskatchewan residents reported having an Aboriginal identity (Statistics Canada 2008, 11 toward a number of Aboriginal issues. This briefing note reports these attitudes and examines how

Saskatchewan, University of

37

Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf Aboriginal

Power, Des

2013-01-01

38

Ephemera : Aboriginality, reconciliation, urban perspectives ; Artistic practice in contemporary Aboriginal theatre  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the forefront of cultural, social and political change Contemporary Aboriginal Theatre appeared on the horizon of Australian Theatre in 1968, just one year after the Australian government awarded citizenship rights for Aboriginal Australians. Historically Contemporary Aboriginal Theatre was a catalyst for cultural, political and social change in Australia, challenging existing assumptions of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal culture, politics and

Liza-Mare Syron

2005-01-01

39

Employment Equity for Aboriginal Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a letter of understanding between British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) and British Columbia Public School Employers' Association (BCPSEA) in response to Employment Equity for Aboriginal Teachers. The parties recognize that Aboriginal teachers are under-represented in the public education system. The parties are committed to…

British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

2012-01-01

40

An Annotated Aboriginal Science Bibliography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science is one area within Aboriginal Education which appears to receive comparatively little attention. The author experienced this in practice when he was lecturing in science education to trainee teachers on the topic of teaching science to Aboriginal students in secondary schools. As a newcomer to the Northern Territory the author does not…

Palmer, W. P.

1990-01-01

41

Constructing Seasonal Climograph Overlap Envelopes from Holocene Packrat Midden Contents, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five Neotoma spp. (packrat) middens are analyzed from Sand Canyon Alcove, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado. Plant remains in middens dated at approximately 9870, 9050, 8460, 3000, and 0 14C yr B.P. are used to estimate Holocene seasonal temperature and precipitation values based on modern plant tolerances published by Thompson et al. (1999a, 1999b). Early Holocene vegetation at the alcove shows

Saxon E Sharpe

2002-01-01

42

Packrat middens from Canyon de Chelly, northeastern Arizona: Paleoecological and archaeological implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In western North America, pollen data from highland lakes are often used to reconstruct vegetation on the adjacent lowlands. Plant macrofossils and pollen from packrat middens now provide a means to evaluate such reconstructions. On the basis of pollen diagrams from the Chuska Mountains, H. E. Wright, Jr., A. M. Bent, B. S. Hansen, and L. J. Maher, Jr., ((1973), Geological Society of America Bulletin, 84, 1155-1180) arrived at conservative estimates for late Pleistocene depression of highland conifers. In their interpretation, a proposed slight depression of 500 m for lower tree line precluded expansion of Pinus ponderosa into elevations now in desertscrub. Instead, it was suggested that pinyon pine and Artemisia occupied the lowland plateaus. Packrat midden records on either side of the Chuskas fail to verify this model. Early Holocene middens from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, and a terminal Pleistocene midden from Canyon de Chelly, Arizona, show that blue spruce, limber pine, Douglas fir, dwarf juniper, and Rocky Mountain juniper expanded at least down to 1770 m elevation Neither Colorado pinyon nor ponderosa pine was found as macrofossils in the middens. Artemisia pollen percentages are high in the terminal Pleistocene midden, as they are in the Chuska Mountain pollen sequence, suggesting regional dominance by sagebrush steppe. Of 38 taxa identified, only 3 are shared by middens dated 11,900 and 3120 yr B.P. from Canyon de Chelly, indicating a nearly complete turnover in the flora between the late Pleistocene and late Holocene. Although corn was previously thought to have been introduced to the Colorado plateaus after 2200 yr B.P., the midden dated 3120 yr B.P. contains pollen of corn and other indicators of incipient agriculture.

Betancourt, Julio L.; Davis, Owen K.

1984-01-01

43

High-throughput sequencing of ancient plant and mammal DNA preserved in herbivore middens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of arid palaeoenvironments is often frustrated by the poor or non-existent preservation of plant and animal material, yet these environments are of considerable environmental importance. The analysis of pollen and macrofossils isolated from herbivore middens has been an invaluable source of information regarding past environments and the nature of ecological fluctuations within arid zones. The application of ancient DNA (aDNA) techniques to hot, arid zone middens remains unexplored. This paper attempts to retrieve and characterise aDNA from four Southern Hemisphere fossil middens; three located in hot, arid regions of Australia and one sample from South Africa's Western Cape province. The middens are dated to between 30,490 (±380) and 710 (±70) cal yr BP. The Brockman Ridge midden in this study is potentially the oldest sample from which aDNA has been successfully extracted in Australia. The application of high-throughput sequencing approaches to profile the biotic remains preserved in midden material has not been attempted to date and this study clearly demonstrates the potential of such a methodology. In addition to the taxa previously detected via macrofossil and palynological analyses, aDNA analysis identified unreported plant and animal taxa, some of which are locally extinct or endemic. The survival and preservation of DNA in hot, arid environments is a complex and poorly understood process that is both sporadic and rare, but the survival of DNA through desiccation may be important. Herbivore middens now present an important source of material for DNA metabarcoding studies of hot, arid palaeoenvironments and can potentially be used to analyse middens in these environments throughout Australia, Africa, the Americas and the Middle East.

Murray, Dáithí C.; Pearson, Stuart G.; Fullagar, Richard; Chase, Brian M.; Houston, Jayne; Atchison, Jennifer; White, Nicole E.; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Clarke, Edward; Macphail, Mike; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Haile, James; Bunce, Michael

2012-12-01

44

Literacy in Aboriginal Education: An Historical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A historical overview of Aboriginal education in the Maritime Provinces of Canada reveals that an Aboriginal form of literacy that existed before European contact met all the requirements of a valid literacy and is worthy of respect. Teachers' understanding and valuing of Aboriginal literacy would transform Aboriginal education. (Contains 26…

Doige, Lynda A. Curwen

2001-01-01

45

Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) Arctic ground squirrel middens and a squirrel-eye-view of the mammoth-steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii ) middens were recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in association with Sheep Creek-Klondike and Dominion Creek tephras (ca 80 ka) exposed in west-central Yukon. These middens provide plant and insect macrofossil evidence for a steppe-tundra ecosystem during the Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) glacial interval. Midden plant and insect macrofossil data are compared with

Grant D. Zazula; Duane G. Froese; Scott A. Elias; Svetlana Kuzmina; Rolf W. Mathewes

2011-01-01

46

Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) Arctic ground squirrel middens and a squirrel-eye-view of the mammoth-steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii) middens were recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in association with Sheep Creek-Klondike and Dominion Creek tephras (ca 80ka) exposed in west-central Yukon. These middens provide plant and insect macrofossil evidence for a steppe-tundra ecosystem during the Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) glacial interval. Midden plant and insect macrofossil data are compared with those previously published

Grant D. Zazula; Duane G. Froese; Scott A. Elias; Svetlana Kuzmina; Rolf W. Mathewes

2011-01-01

47

Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

2011-03-01

48

Discarded queen conch ( Strombus gigas ) shells as shelter sites for fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Caribbean millions of queen conch (Strombus gigas Linnaeus) are harvested each year and shells discarded randomly or as middens. Fish use of discarded conch shells was investigated in four different habitat types: sand, seagrass beds, mangrove forests, and coral reefs. The study was carried out in the waters off South Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI), between October

S. K. Wilson; T. Sato

2005-01-01

49

Page 1 of 2 CENTRE FOR ABORIGINAL CULTURE AND EDUCATION  

E-print Network

to Aboriginal youth. The CACE Aboriginal Recruitment Assistant will act as a role model to Aboriginal youth-motivated individual who is passionate about the education outcomes for Aboriginal youth. Under the supervision Experience in public speaking Experience working with Aboriginal youth and Aboriginal communities Strong

50

Learning through an Aboriginal Language: The Impact on Students' English and Aboriginal Language Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…

Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.

2011-01-01

51

Late Holocene vegetation and historic grazing impacts at Capital Reef National Park reconstructed using fossil packrat middens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Holocene vegetation change from a high desert site in southern Utah was reconstructed using fossil plant macrofossils and pollen from packrat middens. Presettlement middens consistently contained abundant macrofossils of plant species palatable to livestock that are now absent or reduced such as: Ceratoides lanata, Stipa hymenoides, Pinus edulis, and Artemisia spp.. In contrast, species typical of overgrazed range, such

1995-01-01

52

Acting Across Boundaries in Aboriginal Curriculum Development  

E-print Network

Acting Across Boundaries in Aboriginal Curriculum Development: Examples from Northern British and for quotation purposes. Cross-roads in Aboriginal Curriculum Development: Examples from Northern British process. Collaborative curriculum development is, in this regard, much like other participatory

Bolch, Tobias

53

Late Quaternary Biogeographic and Climatic Changes in Western North America: Evidence From Mapped Arrays of Packrat Midden Data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USGS/NOAA North American Packrat Midden Database is a standardized archive of published paleobotanical data derived from packrat middens in western North America. We use midden age, location, and species presence-absence data from this dataset to generate maps illustrating the past occurrence of important woody plant taxa in western North America during the late Quaternary. We explore late Quaternary changes in the distributions of selected plant taxa commonly found in packrat middens and presently associated with western desert ( Carnegiea gigantea), steppe ( Artemisia tridentata-type), woodland (pinyon pines), montane ( Pinus ponderosa), and subalpine ( Pinus flexilis) plant communities. We compare the current geographic and climatic distributions of these taxa with the present-day climates at sites where these taxa have been found in packrat midden macrofossil assemblages. These comparisons suggest that late Pleistocene climates in western North America were generally characterized by cooler-than-present summers and by much greater-than-present mean annual precipitation.

Strickland, L. E.; Thompson, R. S.; Anderson, K. H.; Pelltier, R. T.

2005-12-01

54

Centring Aboriginal Worldviews in Social Work Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Aboriginal peoples gain more access to schools of social work, the academy needs to respond to their educational needs. This involves incorporating Aboriginal worldviews and research methodologies into social work education. This paper focuses on one definition of worldviews according to Aboriginal epistemology and implements an anti-colonial…

Baskin, Cyndy

2005-01-01

55

Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

56

Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

Clarke, Philip A.

57

Constructing Seasonal Climograph Overlap Envelopes from Holocene Packrat Midden Contents, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five Neotoma spp. (packrat) middens are analyzed from Sand Canyon Alcove, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado. Plant remains in middens dated at approximately 9870, 9050, 8460, 3000, and 0 14C yr B.P. are used to estimate Holocene seasonal temperature and precipitation values based on modern plant tolerances published by Thompson et al. (1999a, 1999b). Early Holocene vegetation at the alcove shows a transition from a cool/mesic to a warmer, more xeric community between 9050 and 8460 14C yr B.P. Picea pungens, Pinus flexilis, and Juniperus communis exhibit an average minimum elevational displacement of 215 m. Picea pungens and Pinus flexilis are no longer found in the monument. Estimates based on modern plant parameters (Thompson et al., 1999a) suggest that average temperatures at 9870 14C yr B.P. may have been at least 1° to 3°C colder in January and no greater than 3° to 10°C colder in July than modern at this site. Precipitation during this time may have been at least 2 times modern in January and 2 to 3 times modern in July. Discrepancies in estimated temperature and precipitation tolerances between last occurrence and first occurrence taxa in the midden record suggest that midden assemblages may include persisting relict vegetation.

Sharpe, Saxon E.

2002-05-01

58

Cultivating Aboriginal Cultures and Educating Aboriginal Children in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many Americans believe that diversity issues are limited to the United States. The truth is, however, that many cultures struggle to recognize and foster cultural diversity. In this article, the authors have two aims: (1) to recognize various ethnic groups in Taiwan, in particular aboriginal groups; and (2) to inform educators about what they can…

Liu, Karen; Kuo, Li Tsung Wen

2007-01-01

59

Stories of Aboriginal Transracial Adoption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the significant number of transracial Aboriginal adoptions that have taken place in Canada, little research is available that addresses the psychological and psychosocial ramifications for the children involved. The scant literature that does exist raises concerns about the psychological impact of this type of adoption. The present…

Nuttgens, Simon

2013-01-01

60

Years of life lost to incarceration: inequities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal representation in Canadian correctional institutions has increased rapidly over the past decade. We calculated “years of life lost to incarceration” for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians. Methods Incarceration data from provincial databases were used conjointly with demographic data to estimate rates of incarceration and years of life lost to provincial incarceration in (BC) and federal incarceration, by Aboriginal status. We used the Sullivan method to estimate the years of life lost to incarceration. Results Aboriginal males can expect to spend approximately 3.6 months in federal prison and within BC spend an average of 3.2 months in custody in the provincial penal system. Aboriginal Canadians on average spend more time in custody than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The ratio of the Aboriginal incarceration rate to the non-Aboriginal incarceration rate ranged from a low of 4.28 in Newfoundland and Labrador to a high of 25.93 in Saskatchewan. Rates of incarceration at the provincial level were highest among Aboriginals in Manitoba with an estimated rate of 1377.6 individuals in prison per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1311.8 – 1443.4). Conclusions The results indicate substantial differences in life years lost to incarceration for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Canadians. In light of on-going prison expansion in Canada, future research and policy attention should be paid to the public health consequences of incarceration, particularly among Aboriginal Canadians. PMID:24916338

2014-01-01

61

Extinct No More: Discourses on Tasmanian Aboriginal Heritage  

E-print Network

-determination. As a consequence, Aboriginal heritage is a contentious political issue in Tasmania, with dispute focused particularly on efforts to replace the existing state Aboriginal heritage protection legislation, the Aboriginal Relics Act 1975. Additionally...

Price, William

2014-05-31

62

A 16,000 14 C yr B.P. packrat midden series from the USA-Mexico Borderlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and\\/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals:

Camille A. Holmgren; M. Cristina Penalba; Kate Aasen Rylander; Julio L. Betancourt

2003-01-01

63

A 16,000 14C yr B.P. packrat midden series from the USA–Mexico Borderlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.–Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and\\/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals:

Camille A Holmgren; M. Cristina Peñalba; Kate Aasen Rylander; Julio L Betancourt

2003-01-01

64

Aboriginal Languages of Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This WWW Virtual Library site features annotated links to over 130 resources for nearly 40 of Australia's indigenous languages. The resources are categorized by type of resource, language, and region (i.e., Australian state). Included here are links to dictionaries, word lists, complete texts -- some with translations, bilingual education resources, language courses, academic papers, bibliographies, relevant libraries, indigenous songs and sounds, language rights and policy Websites, and more. The resources are succinctly and informatively annotated with graphic icons to represent sites with original text and bibliographies or catalogs as well as dates-of-posting to the directory. Updated in late July, Aboriginal Languages of Australia is created and maintained by David Nathan of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies and sponsored by the Linguistics department of the University of Melbourne.

65

As We See...Aboriginal Pedagogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years, Aboriginal knowledge was invalidated by Western ways of knowing. This collection of papers discusses ways of teaching, ways of knowing, and ways of being that have sustained Aboriginal people for over 500 years. The papers are: "Spirit Writing: Writing Circles as Healing Pedagogy" (Lenore A. Stiffarm); "Pedagogy from the Ethos: An…

Stiffarm, Lenore A., Ed.

66

Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

2013-01-01

67

Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

Vize, Anne

2009-01-01

68

No Aboriginal Students left Behind in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…

Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia

2005-01-01

69

Aboriginal Interpretation in Australian Wildlife Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates Aboriginal cultural interpretation at wildlife attractions and on wildlife tours in Australia. The sites included 14 wildlife parks or zoos; three Aboriginal-owned emu or crocodile farms; and 16 wildlife tours, river cruises or resorts with Indigenous interpretation of wildlife. Telephone interviews were conducted with 35 managers (nine Indigenous) and 26 Indigenous staff at wildlife attractions that included

Heather Zeppel; Sue Muloin

2008-01-01

70

Knowledge Building in an Aboriginal Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report on the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996), the Kelowna Accord announced in 2005 (five-billion dollars) followed by its demise in 2006, and the settlement in 2006 for Aboriginal survivors of residential schools (1.9 billion dollars), are but some of the recent high-profile indicators of the challenges to Canada in dealing with…

McAuley, Alexander

2009-01-01

71

Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.  

PubMed

The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered. PMID:25155236

Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

2014-10-01

72

The Holistic/Rainbow Approach to Aboriginal Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes approaches to literacy in Canadian aboriginal communities. It provides statistical data on education, employment, income, culture, language, and social issues among Canadian aboriginal people, comparing aboriginal people on and off the reserve. The statistics demonstrate issues that aboriginal literacy learners bring with them…

George, Priscilla

73

AIDS and the aboriginal community.  

PubMed

A concise portrait of HIV and AIDS within the Aboriginal community is difficult to present. Just as there are different customs and traditions among tribes, so are there different ways by which this issue is being addressed. The response to HIV/AIDS in the Aboriginal community is the process of moving from an individual or personal perspective to an immediate and extended family approach through the community, nation or society, and finally to the greater picture, Mother Earth. We don't necessarily move through in this order, rather we go back and forth as the need arises. When we deal with HIV or AIDS, it is important to view how this will affect our whole life: physical, mental, emotional and spiritual aspects of ourselves as well as financial, psychosocial and other dimensions. The teachings and study of children, youth, adults and elders are also discussed. We recognize the work we do in this area now will be a tool for survival in the future. PMID:8481869

Lambert, D T

1993-01-01

74

Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review.  

PubMed

The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence gambling by Aboriginal groups, which are individually different, making it difficult to implement a cohesive strategy to address gambling-related harms. Because of this complexity, a thorough literature review is necessary to identify gaps in policy and research. This paper uses a public health framework to consider multi-dimensional influences (personal, environmental, economic, cultural and social) that affect gambling uptake. Such analysis is also important for identifying risk factors which facilitate the development and maintenance of problem gambling and potentially for underpinning protection, prevention and treatment programs. It is advised that strategies be developed in consultation with Aboriginal peoples to guide public health policy and research to minimise any gambling-related harms. PMID:24707239

Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

2013-01-01

75

Does the EDI Equivalently Measure Facets of School Readiness for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the current paper was to examine the equivalence of the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher rating measure of school readiness, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The current study used an approach, which analyzes the structure and properties of the EDI at the subdomain level. Similar subdomain score distributions…

Muhajarine, Nazeem; Puchala, Chassidy; Janus, Magdalena

2011-01-01

76

Aboriginal Education as Cultural Brokerage: New Aboriginal Teachers Reflect on Language and Culture in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a Talking Circle of six beginning Aboriginal teachers who discussed their roles as teachers. Participants criticized teacher education programs for not preparing them to teach in ways that are respectful of Aboriginal languages and culture. They discussed the importance of coming to know themselves and their culture. The…

Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie M.

2009-01-01

77

Low-income Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal parent-child interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Limited research is available on the performance of North American Aboriginal 1 people on the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scales (NCATS) and available research examines parent- child interactions within Aboriginal samples drawn from the USA. Most published normative data on low-income people's performance on the NCATS are also limited to samples drawn from the USA. The purpose of this

N. L. Letourneau; K. M. Hungler; K. Fisher

2005-01-01

78

[Issues on aboriginal health in Taiwan].  

PubMed

In recent years health professionals have been concerned about the health of aborigines which has been neglected for a long time. Health disparities are known to exist among aborigines and non-aborigines in the United States or other countries. In Taiwan, there are nine main aboriginal tribes consisting of approximately 330,000 people. In general, their health status, evaluated by life expectancy, mortality rates and the prevalence and incidence of various diseases amongst them, is worse than amongst the rest of the Taiwanese (general) population. Current investigations indicate that life expectancy for aborigines is on average 10 years less than that of the general population; 12.5 years less for men, 6 years less for women; approaching a standardized mortality ratio of 2 fold, that is 2.1 fold in men, 1.7 fold in women. Accidental injures, suicide, tuberculosis, liver cirrhosis, alcoholism, pneumonia, bronchitis, parasite infections are the most important sources of diseases. Hypertension, heart disease, some selected sites of cancer, nutrition and lack of adaptation are gradually becoming important new sources of disorders. Although aboriginal health has improved over the decades, the author estimates that their overall health status is 25-30 years behind that of the general population or of off-shore islanders. The extent of their development varies with tribes. It is necessary to study the cause of why aborigines die so young. It may be due to insufficient medical care for heart disease whose prevalence is relatively low among aborigines but resultant mortality is nevertheless high. However, insufficient medical care cannot explain the high incidence of a number of cancers and resultant mortality. All factors relating to the environment, agents, hosts and diseases should be taken into consideration, such culture, transportation, life style, health behavior etc, and compared to those of non-aborigines. A series of studies are proposed to address the specific, multi-dimensional health demands of the aborigines. The author suggests the development of prevention and intervention strategies designed to overcome difficulties and barriers to eliminate these disparities among the people of Taiwan. PMID:8089870

Ko, Y C; Liu, B H; Hsieh, S F

1994-07-01

79

Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) Arctic ground squirrel middens and a squirrel-eye-view of the mammoth-steppe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii) middens were recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in association with Sheep Creek-Klondike and Dominion Creek tephras (ca 80 ka) exposed in west-central Yukon. These middens provide plant and insect macrofossil evidence for a steppe-tundra ecosystem during the Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) glacial interval. Midden plant and insect macrofossil data are compared with those previously published for Late Wisconsinan middens dating to ˜25-29 14C ka BP (MIS 3/2) from the region. Although multivariate statistical comparisons suggest differences between the relative abundances of plant macrofossils, the co-occurrence of steppe-tundra plants and insects (e.g., Elymus trachycaulus, Kobresia myosuroides, Artemisia frigida, Phlox hoodii, Connatichela artemisiae) provides evidence for successive reestablishment of the zonal steppe-tundra habitats during cold stages of the Late Pleistocene. Arctic ground squirrels were well adapted to the cold, arid climates, steppe-tundra vegetation and well-drained loessal soils that characterize cold stages of Late Pleistocene Beringia. These glacial conditions enabled arctic ground squirrel populations to expand their range to the interior regions of Alaska and Yukon, including the Klondike, where they are absent today. Arctic ground squirrels have endured numerous Quaternary climate oscillations by retracting populations to disjunct "interglacial refugia" during warm interglacial periods (e.g., south-facing steppe slopes, well-drained arctic and alpine tundra areas) and expanding their distribution across the mammoth-steppe biome during cold, arid glacial intervals.

Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Elias, Scott A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Mathewes, Rolf W.

2011-08-01

80

Explaining aboriginal/non-aboriginal inequalities in postseparation violence against Canadian women: application of a structural violence approach.  

PubMed

Adopting a structural violence approach, we analyzed 2004 Canadian General Social Survey data to examine Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequalities in postseparation intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Aboriginal women had 4.12 times higher odds of postseparation IPV than non-Aboriginal women (p < .001). Coercive control and age explained most of this inequality. The final model included Aboriginal status, age, a seven-item coercive control index, and stalking, which reduced the odds ratio for Aboriginal status to 1.92 (p = .085) and explained 70.5% of the Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequality in postseparation IPV. Research and action are needed that challenge structural violence, especially colonialism and its negative consequences. PMID:24048189

Pedersen, Jeanette Somlak; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Pulkingham, Jane

2013-08-01

81

Anthropology, Politics and the Changing World of Aboriginal Australians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essentialism has become a fundament of Aboriginal activism in modern Australia, with the result that informed, first-hand empirical observations of anthropologists who chronicle the deterioration of life in many Australian Aboriginal communities tend not to be taken seriously simply because their authors are not ethnically ‘Aboriginal’. This problem has contributed to a relative absence of analysis of the economic history

Marcia Langton

2011-01-01

82

Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

2013-01-01

83

Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada: Issues of Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…

Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.

2012-01-01

84

Non-timber Forest Products and Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotanical research was conducted in over 30 Aboriginal communi- ties within Canada's boreal forest region. Specific methods for the research were developed that involved a high degree of participation by Aboriginal people in every stage of the project, with the result that well over 100 Aboriginal elders contributed information on the uses of more that 200 species of plants as

Robin J. Marles

85

Aboriginal Students' Perspectives on the Factors Influencing High School Completion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Canadian education system is failing its Aboriginal students as evidenced by the significant proportion not completing high school. The Aboriginal population has experienced a significantly greater proportion of people living in poverty and higher rates of unemployment than has the non-Aboriginal population. These factors can be linked to the…

MacIver, Marion

2012-01-01

86

The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal literacy programs in Canada are using literacy as a means of reclaiming Aboriginal languages and a positive cultural identity. The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal literacy uses seven ways of knowing, each corresponding to a color. The approach recognizes that spirit, heart, mind, and body equally contribute to a life of balance,…

George, Ningwakwe Priscilla

2003-01-01

87

The Urgency of Postsecondary Education for Aboriginal Peoples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Canada has an unprecedented need to increase the number of Aboriginal peoples who undertake and complete postsecondary programs. Endorsing postsecondary education for Aboriginal peoples advocates an invigorating, fortifying future for Aboriginal peoples, their families, and their communities. Additionally, the postsecondary educational…

Preston, Jane P.

2008-01-01

88

Decolonization, Reinhabitation and Reconciliation: Aboriginal and Place-Based Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal/Indigenous education is being increasingly emphasized in Faculties of Education across Canada. Through self-study as an instructor of a mandatory course in Aboriginal education in a Faculty of Education, the author is exploring the use of local, place-based education in the fostering of cross-cultural understanding of Aboriginal and…

Scully, Alexa

2012-01-01

89

Supporting Educational Success for Aboriginal Students: Identifying Key Influences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The academic difficulties experienced by many Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, Inuit) students in Canada have been well-documented. Indicators such as school persistence and post-secondary enrollment are typically far lower for Aboriginal students as a group compared to non-Aboriginal students. Identifying facilitators of success is key to…

Whitley, Jessica

2014-01-01

90

Amino acid racemization dating of marine shells: A mound of possibilities  

PubMed Central

Shell middens are one of the most important and widespread indicators for human exploitation of marine resources and occupation of coastal environments. Establishing an accurate and reliable chronology for these deposits has fundamental implications for understanding the patterns of human evolution and dispersal. This paper explores the potential application of a new methodology of amino acid racemization (AAR) dating of shell middens and describes a simple protocol to test the suitability of different molluscan species. This protocol provides a preliminary test for the presence of an intracrystalline fraction of proteins (by bleaching experiments and subsequent heating at high temperature), checking the closed system behaviour of this fraction during diagenesis. Only species which pass both tests can be considered suitable for further studies to obtain reliable age information. This amino acid geochronological technique is also applied to midden deposits at two latitudinal extremes: Northern Scotland and the Southern Red Sea. Results obtained in this study indicate that the application of this new method of AAR dating of shells has the potential to aid the geochronological investigation of shell mounds in different areas of the world. PMID:21776187

Demarchi, Beatrice; Williams, Matt G.; Milner, Nicky; Russell, Nicola; Bailey, Geoff; Penkman, Kirsty

2011-01-01

91

Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Characteristics and Survival in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Western Australians  

PubMed Central

Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignancy affecting the oral cavity. While exposures to main risk factors for oral SCC such as smoking and alcohol use are higher amongst the Aboriginal people, little is known about oral cancer in this population. This study aimed to describe characteristics and survival of oral SCC in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Methods: All primary oral SCC cases reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry (WACR) between 1990 and 1999 were analysed with respect to person characteristics including: date of birth, sex and indigenous status; and disease characteristics including: date of biopsy, disease stage and site as well as date of recurrence and date of death. Exclusion criteria included diagnosis not based on incisional or excisional biopsy, diagnosis other than oral SCC or a history of another malignant neoplasm. Results: Aboriginal individuals were more likely to reside in rural areas. No statistically significant differences in oral SCC characteristics and survival were noted between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Conclusion: This study provides new information on person and disease characteristics of Aboriginal Western Australians diagnosed with oral SCC. PMID:25328552

Frydrych, A.M; Slack-Smith, L.M; Parsons, R; Threlfall, T

2014-01-01

92

Closing the Education Gap: A Case for Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada, a Look at the Aboriginal Headstart Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper raises awareness concerning the education gap between Aboriginal youth and the non-Aboriginal youth population in Canada. It argues that the historical consequences of colonialism that resulted in diminished sense of self-worth, self-determination, and culture have placed Aboriginals at the low-end of the socio-economic strata. This…

Nguyen, Mai

2011-01-01

93

Seattle Art Museum: Australian Aboriginal Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The fascinating world of Australian aboriginal art is captured in this digital collection from the Seattle Art Museum, a real find. Designed to complement an in situ exhibit, this collection brings together a number of works from the Kaplan & Levi Collection. Visitors will find that the materials here are divided into three primary areas: "Home," "Dream," and "Art." In the "Home" area, visitors can learn about the geographical regions where aboriginal peoples live. Moving on, visitors can click on the "Dream" area to learn about how the process of dreaming "encompasses the cosmologies and belief systems of Aboriginal societies." The "Art" section features an image gallery that contains works like Wati Kutjara's arresting "Two Men Story" and the elliptical shapes of Mitjili Napanangka Gibson's "Wilkinkarra."

2012-06-22

94

Rodent middens reveal episodic, long-distance plant colonizations across the hyperarid Atacama Desert over the last 34,000 years  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim To document the impact of late Quaternary pluvial events on plant movements between the coast and the Andes across the Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Location Sites are located along the lower and upper fringes of absolute desert (1100–2800 m a.s.l.), between the western slope of the Andes and the Coastal Ranges of northern Chile (24–26° S). Methods We collected and individually radiocarbon dated 21 rodent middens. Plant macrofossils (fruits, seeds, flowers and leaves) were identified and pollen content analysed. Midden assemblages afford brief snapshots of local plant communities that existed within the rodents' limited foraging range during the several years to decades that it took the midden to accumulate. These assemblages were then compared with modern floras to determine the presence of extralocal species and species provenance. Results Five middens span the last glacial period (34–21 ka) and three middens are from the last glacial–interglacial transition (19–11 ka). The remaining 13 middens span the last 7000 years. Coastal hyperarid sites exhibit low taxonomic richness in middens at 19.3, 1.1, 1.0, 0.9, 0.5 ka and a modern sample. Middens are also dominated by the same plants that occur today. In contrast, middens dated to 28.1, 21.3, 17.3, 3.7 and 0.5 ka contain more species, including Andean extralocals. Precordillera middens (c. 2700 m) show a prominent increase in plant macrofossil richness, along with the appearance of Andean extralocals and sedges at 34.5 and 18.9 ka. Six younger middens dated to 6.1–0.1 ka are similar to the modern local vegetation. Main conclusions Increased species richness and Andean extralocal plants occurred along the current lower fringes of absolute desert during the last glacial–interglacial transition and late Holocene. The absence of soil carbonates indicates the persistence of absolute desert throughout the Quaternary. Colonization by Andean plants could have been accomplished through long-distance seed dispersal either by animals or floods that originated in the Andes. We postulate that dispersal would have been most frequent during regional pluvial events and associated increases in groundwater levels, forming local wetlands in the absolute desert, and generating large floods capable of crossing the Central Depression.

Diaz, Francisca P.; Latorre, Claudio; Maldonado, Antonio; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, Julio L.

2012-01-01

95

Arctic ground squirrels of the mammoth-steppe: paleoecology of Late Pleistocene middens (˜24 000 29 450 14C yr BP), Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents paleoecological analyses of 48 fossil arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii) middens (nests and caches) recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in the Klondike region of west-central Yukon Territory. AMS radiocarbon dates and stratigraphic association of middens with Dawson tephra (˜25 300 14C yr BP), indicate these paleoecological data reflect the onset of glacial conditions of early Marine Isotope

Grant D. Zazula; Duane G. Froese; Scott A. Elias; Svetlana Kuzmina; Rolf W. Mathewes

2007-01-01

96

Arctic ground squirrels of the mammoth-steppe: paleoecology of Late Pleistocene middens (?24 000–29 450 14C yr BP), Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents paleoecological analyses of 48 fossil arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii) middens (nests and caches) recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in the Klondike region of west-central Yukon Territory. AMS radiocarbon dates and stratigraphic association of middens with Dawson tephra (?25300 14C yr BP), indicate these paleoecological data reflect the onset of glacial conditions of early Marine Isotope Stage

Grant D. Zazula; Duane G. Froese; Scott A. Elias; Svetlana Kuzmina; Rolf W. Mathewes

2007-01-01

97

Medical interactions, complaints, and the construction of Aboriginality in remote Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In remote Australian Aboriginal communities, medical interactions between non-Aboriginal nurses and Aboriginal patients often use health narratives to enact and contest social identities. Nursing staff complain that Aboriginal patients do not comply with their prescribed medication nor attend the clinic appropriately. Nurses often blame these behaviours on irresponsibility and laziness. Conversely, Aboriginal people complain that nursing staff are racist and

Eirik Saethre

2009-01-01

98

Does the EDI Equivalently Measure Facets of School Readiness for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current paper was to examine the equivalence of the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher rating measure\\u000a of school readiness, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The current study used an approach, which analyzes the structure\\u000a and properties of the EDI at the subdomain level. Similar subdomain score distributions would suggest that the EDI measures\\u000a subdomains similarly

Nazeem Muhajarine; Chassidy Puchala; Magdalena Janus

2011-01-01

99

Traditional Aboriginal Health Practice in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia is the only continent to have been occupied exclusively by nomadic hunters and gatherers until recent times. Carbon dating of skeletal remains proves that Australian Aboriginal history started some 40,000 years ago, long before Captain Cook landed on the eastern coast in 1770. This history is not completely lost. It is retained in the minds and memories of successive

Dayalan Devanesen; Patrick Maher

100

Native Americans and Aboriginal Australian Stereotypes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal Australians represent 1.5% of Australia's population, nearly double the percentage of native people in the U.S. population. While indigenous peoples throughout the world share common similarities, particularly contemporary issues and their spiritual regard for nature, many aspects of their lifestyles are different, such as governance,…

Muir, Sharon Pray

101

aboriginal first look viewbook Kimberly Van patten  

E-print Network

aboriginal first look viewbook Kimberly Van patten Bachelor of Arts Class of 2014 Rocky Lane recreational and competitive divisions fast facts #12;BACHELOR OF ARTS And RELATEd pROgRAmS Ancient 1 Economics 1 English 1 Film Studies 1, 6 French 1 Geography 1, 2 German 1 Greek and Roman Studies 1

Habib, Ayman

102

Sound and meaning in Aboriginal tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musical heritage is a profitable resource in the development of cultural tourism worldwide, yet the identities of the communities whose music is recontextualized at venues are frequently co-opted in the process. Centering on an Aboriginal tourism company operating in Ottawa, Canada, this paper demonstrates how marginalized communities having greater control over the space where products are consumed gain more flexibility

Kaley Mason

2004-01-01

103

SAMPLE BOWHEAD ABORIGINAL WHALING MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE TRIALS  

E-print Network

SAMPLE BOWHEAD ABORIGINAL WHALING MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE TRIALS Geof H. Givens and David J. Thomas towards it, so far as the environment permits. \\Lambda Geof H. Givens is Assistant Professor of Statistics the appropriateness and sufficiency of the simulation evaluation statistics proposed by Givens and Thomas (1996

Givens, Geof H.

104

BOWHEAD ABORIGINAL WHALING MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE TRIALS AND  

E-print Network

BOWHEAD ABORIGINAL WHALING MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE TRIALS AND STATISTICS Geof H. Givens and David J of this \\Lambda Geof H. Givens is Assistant Professor of Statistics and David J. Thomas is Graduate Research.g. see review in Donovan, 1991). Givens et al. (1996) offer an interpretation and quantification

Givens, Geof H.

105

Aboriginal Knowledge Traditions in Digital Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Manovich (2001), the database and the narrative are natural enemies, each competing for the same territory of human culture. Aboriginal knowledge traditions depend upon narrative through storytelling and other shared performances. The database objectifies and commodifies distillations of such performances and absorbs them into data…

Christie, Michael

2005-01-01

106

Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to renew the relationship between the Canadian government and the Aboriginal peoples of Canada, this action plan contains a statement of reconciliation, a statement of renewal, and four key objectives for action. First, renewing partnerships includes community-based healing to address the negative effects of the residential schools…

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

107

usPrestigio AboriginalStudents  

E-print Network

is a spiritual animal as it provided many things such as food, clothing, shelter and tools. #12;Tourism River cart has become synonymous with the Métis. Tourism SaskatchewanTourism Saskatoon Tourism Saskatoon is a prosperous city with a small-town sense of community. A source of pride to our city is our vibrant Aboriginal

Saskatchewan, University of

108

Aboriginal Connections: An Indigenous Peoples Web Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Rob Wesley, this Web directory indexes sites related to Canadian aboriginal, Native American, and international indigenous peoples and cultures. The annotated links are organized by topic, including First Nations, Education, Government, History, and Organizations, among others. What's new, a top 100 listing, and an internal search engine are also provided. Visitors are welcome to submit additional sites for inclusion.

109

Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind  

E-print Network

Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind Canadian Supplement to THE STATE OF THE WORLD'S CHILDREN 2009 #12;© Canadian UNICEF Committee, 2009 Permission to reproduce any part of this publication-8035 info@unicef.ca www.unicef.ca ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS UNICEF is the world's leader for children, working

Northern British Columbia, University of

110

A 16,000 14C yr B.P. packrat midden series from the USA-Mexico Borderlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals: 16,000-10,000 and 4000-0 14C yr B.P. Vegetation along pluvial lake margins consisted of open pinyon-juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis, and a rich understory of C 4 annuals and grasses. This summer-flowering understory is also characteristic of modern desert grassland in the Borderlands and indicates at least moderate summer precipitation. P. edulis and J. scopulorum disappeared or were rare in the midden record by 10,670 14C yr B.P. The late Holocene is marked by the arrival of Chihuahuan desert scrub elements and few departures as the vegetation gradually became modern in character. Larrea tridentata appears as late as 2190 14C yr B.P. based on macrofossils, but may have been present as early as 4095 14C yr B.P. based on pollen. Fouquieria splendens, one of the dominant desert species present at the site today, makes its first appearance only in the last millennium. The midden pollen assemblages are difficult to interpret; they lack modern analogs in surface pollen assemblages from stock tanks at different elevations in the Borderlands.

Holmgren, Camille A.; Peñalba, M. Cristina; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Betancourt, Julio L.

2003-11-01

111

A 16,000 14C yr B.P. packrat midden series from the USA-Mexico Borderlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals: 16,000-10,000 and 4000-0 14C yr B.P. Vegetation along pluvial lake margins consisted of open pinyon-juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis, and a rich understory of C4 annuals and grasses. This summer-flowering understory is also characteristic of modern desert grassland in the Borderlands and indicates at least moderate summer precipitation. P. edulis and J. scopulorum disappeared or were rare in the midden record by 10,670 14C yr B.P. The late Holocene is marked by the arrival of Chihuahuan desert scrub elements and few departures as the vegetation gradually became modern in character. Larrea tridentata appears as late as 2190 14C yr B.P. based on macrofossils, but may have been present as early as 4095 14C yr B.P. based on pollen. Fouquieria splendens, one of the dominant desert species present at the site today, makes its first appearance only in the last millennium. The midden pollen assemblages are difficult to interpret; they lack modern analogs in surface pollen assemblages from stock tanks at different elevations in the Borderlands. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Holmgren, C.A.; Penalba, M.C.; Rylander, K.A.; Betancourt, J.L.

2003-01-01

112

Late Holocene vegetation and historic grazing impacts at Capital Reef National Park reconstructed using fossil packrat middens  

SciTech Connect

Late Holocene vegetation change from a high desert site in southern Utah was reconstructed using fossil plant macrofossils and pollen from packrat middens. Presettlement middens consistently contained abundant macrofossils of plant species palatable to livestock that are now absent or reduced such as: Ceratoides lanata, Stipa hymenoides, Pinus edulis, and Artemisia spp.. In contrast, species typical of overgrazed range, such as: Chrysothamnus visidiflorus, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and Gutterezia sarothrae, are now more abundant than prior to the historic introduction of grazing animals. Similar changes are evident in the fossil pollen from the packrat middens. Pine and sagebrush pollen is now far lower than prior to settlement, while Salsola sp. is first recorded following settlement. Ordination of the plant records using Detrended Correspondence Analysis demonstrates that the modem assemblages are substantially different from the presettlement assemblages and that the rates of vegetation change accompanying settlement are far greater than any recorded during the previous 5000 years. These results suggest that the plant communities and rates of vegetation change observed during this century are unlike previous natural communities and rates of vegetation change.

Cole, K.L. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

1995-06-01

113

BC College and Institute Aboriginal Former Student Outcomes, 1999. Special Report on Aboriginal Former Students from the 1995, 1997, and 1999 BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Surveys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the employment, further education, and satisfaction outcomes of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal former students who attended public colleges and institutes in British Columbia (Canada). Data were drawn from 1995, 1997, and 1999 surveys of 2,323 Aboriginal and 55,252 non-Aboriginal former students approximately 9 months after…

British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology, Victoria.

114

Developing an Aboriginal Health Plan for NSW: the consultation process.  

PubMed

In partnership with the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of NSW (AH&MRC), the NSW Ministry of Health is developing a 10-year Aboriginal Health Plan for NSW. Recent reports have highlighted the need for significant systemic and structural change, coupled with genuine engagement with Aboriginal people. A whole health-system approach has been adopted and is examining all the interdependent and influencing elements that impede or facilitate effective health outcomes for Aboriginal people. The collaboration will develop a new strategic framework that will provide clear direction concerning how we address Aboriginal health in NSW. We have done this by seeking genuine engagement and partnership with Aboriginal people, organisations and communities. A phased approach has been used to develop the Plan. This paper describes the first phase of a two-phased approach. A discussion paper was released on National Close the Gap Day, 22 March 2012. PMID:22697094

Parter, Carmen; Gassner, Leigh; Atkinson, Stephen; McKendrick, Claire

2012-06-01

115

An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000

Morten Rasmussen; Xiaosen Guo; Yong Wang; Kirk E. Lohmueller; Simon Rasmussen; Anders Albrechtsen; Line Skotte; Stinus Lindgreen; Mait Metspalu; Thibaut Jombart; Toomas Kivisild; Weiwei Zhai; Anders Eriksson; Andrea Manica; Ludovic Orlando; Francisco M. De La Vega; Silvana Tridico; Ene Metspalu; Kasper Nielsen; María C. Ávila-Arcos; J. Víctor Moreno-Mayar; Craig Muller; Joe Dortch; M. Thomas P. Gilbert; Ole Lund; Agata Wesolowska; Monika Karmin; Lucy A. Weinert; Bo Wang; Jun Li; Shuaishuai Tai; Fei Xiao; Tsunehiko Hanihara; George van Driem; Aashish R. Jha; François-Xavier Ricaut; Peter de Knijff; Andrea B. Migliano; Irene Gallego Romero; Karsten Kristiansen; David M. Lambert; Søren Brunak; Peter Forster; Bernd Brinkmann; Olaf Nehlich; Michael Bunce; Michael Richards; Ramneek Gupta; Carlos D. Bustamante; Anders Krogh; Robert A. Foley; Marta M. Lahr; Francois Balloux; Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén; Richard Villems; Rasmus Nielsen; Jun Wang; Eske Willerslev

2011-01-01

116

Towards culturally relevant nursing education for aboriginal students.  

PubMed

Aboriginal nursing students face numerous challenges in North American nursing educational programs, as reflected in the relatively high attrition rate of these students. In this paper, the authors argue that nurse educators need to create more culturally relevant curriculum and instructional approaches for Aboriginal students. Such approaches would help nursing educators to ensure that current aboriginal nursing programs--which are largely assimilative in nature--can be more successful and transformative in nature. PMID:21071115

Pijl-Zieber, Em M; Hagen, Brad

2011-08-01

117

Holocene climate change in southernmost South Africa: rock hyrax middens record shifts in the southern westerlies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Africa's southern coastal margin is recognised as being a highly dynamic climatic region that plays a critical role in both regional and global atmospheric and oceanic circulation dynamics. Our understanding of the past dynamics of this system, however, has been limited by the number and nature of datasets available that can be used to infer changes in key climatic parameters in the region. In this paper we present new high resolution ?13C and ?15N data from two independently dated rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) middens from Seweweekspoort in South Africa's Groot Swartberg mountains. These data provide information regarding both past vegetation and hydroclimatic change, and allow a regional integration of available data that explore the long-term dynamics of mid-latitude circulation systems in the African sector of the Southern Hemisphere. Combined, a negative relationship is apparent between temperature and humidity in this area of the southern Cape, and these changes can for the first time be clearly linked to variations in Antarctic sea-ice extent and shifts in the southern westerly storm track. This dynamic is particularly evident between 5 and 7 cal kBP, when a reduction in sea-ice extent and a southward shift of the westerlies are manifested regionally by increased temperatures and a phase of marked aridity.

Chase, Brian M.; Boom, Arnoud; Carr, Andrew S.; Meadows, Michael E.; Reimer, Paula J.

2013-12-01

118

Factors associated with pretreatment and treatment dropouts: comparisons between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients admitted to medical withdrawal management  

PubMed Central

Background Addiction treatment faces high pretreatment and treatment dropout rates, especially among Aboriginals. In this study we examined characteristic differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients accessing an inpatient medical withdrawal management program, and identified risk factors associated with the probabilities of pretreatment and treatment dropouts, respectively. Methods 2231 unique clients (Aboriginal?=?451; 20%) referred to Vancouver Detox over a two-year period were assessed. For both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups, multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted with pretreatment dropout and treatment dropout as dependent variables, respectively. Results Aboriginal clients had higher pretreatment and treatment dropout rates compared to non-Aboriginal clients (41.0% vs. 32.7% and 25.9% vs. 20.0%, respectively). For Aboriginal people, no fixed address (NFA) was the only predictor of pretreatment dropout. For treatment dropout, significant predictors were: being female, having HCV infection, and being discharged on welfare check issue days or weekends. For non-Aboriginal clients, being male, NFA, alcohol as a preferred substance, and being on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) at referral were associated with pretreatment dropout. Significant risk factors for treatment dropout were: being younger, having a preferred substance other than alcohol, having opiates as a preferred substance, and being discharged on weekends. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of social factors for the Aboriginal population compared to substance-specific factors for the non-Aboriginal population. These findings should help clinicians and decision-makers to recognize the importance of social supports especially housing and initiate appropriate services to improve treatment intake and subsequent retention, physical and mental health outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of treatment. PMID:24325629

2013-01-01

119

Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ? 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ?0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the case in Australia, and along with Gorelli, I encourage WGN readers to get involved in studying meteoritic events in oral traditions. There is a lot of information regarding meteoritical events and phenomena in the literature that is still waiting to be collected and analysed ...and I applaud McBeath for his pursuit to publish this material through the successful Meteor Beliefs Project!

Hamacher, Duane W.

2011-06-01

120

Mining the Midden: A Facility for Dynamic Waste Harvesting at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining the Midden intends to re-frame the sanitary landfill as a new typology of public land containing an embodied energy of cultural and material value. By reconnecting the public with the landfill and seriously exposing its layers of history and then digesting both mined and new waste within an industrial facility of materials recovery and plasma gasification technology waste-to-energy plant. The sequence of experience for a public visitor begins where the waste is transformed to energy and flows in the opposite direction of the trash through the facility and then into the active landfill mining operation which is the large site component of the project. The mine is flanked by the visitor path, which is suspended from the soldier piles of the excavation system and allows the visitor to interpret along the 1/3 mile path their personal connection to the waste stream and the consumption patterns which drive our waste. Interpretation results from multi-sensory experience of the open mine and its connection to the processing structure as one hovers above, through moments of seeing through structural glass lagging directly into the sectional cut of the landfill, and through cultural artifacts harvested by landfill archaeologists which are displayed in rhythm with the structure and lagging. The culmination of the prescribed path is a narrow cut which frames the view of Mt. Rainier in the distance and opens up a visual connection with the remaining majority of the landfill which have up to this point been blocked by the small mountain of trash which they just walked up and through. This thesis intends that by confronting people with the juxtapositions of 2 potentially destructive mounds or mountains, and how we as a culture value and protect land while we simultaneously dump our rubbish on other lands, this experience will make the visitor more conscious of ones personal contribution to our culture of disposable commodities.

Allan, Aaron

121

Creating Community: A Roundtable on Canadian Aboriginal Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 13 essays on Canadian Aboriginal literature. Topics include literary criticism, pedagogical issues, and the experiences of Native authors and of faculty teaching Aboriginal literature in mainstream institutions. Entries are: (1) "Natives on Native Literature: What Do We Rightly Write? Or: Shot Headfirst from the Canon" (Anna…

Eigenbrod, Renate, Ed.; Episkenew, Jo-Ann, Ed.

122

Aboriginal English in the Classroom: An Asset or a Liability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of Australian Aboriginal English in the classroom in the light of a recent survey. Aboriginal English is often correlated with low academic performance and poor school attendance. The paper argues that in any discussion of the school role of students' home talk, a range of factors need to be…

Sharifian, Farzad

2008-01-01

123

Aboriginal English: Some Grammatical Features and Their Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…

Malcolm, Ian G.

2013-01-01

124

Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular risk factors among Aboriginal Canadian youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aboriginal populations in North America are exhibit- ing an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and as- sociated traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk fac- tors, trends believed to be due to the influence of Western lifestyle habits. Because these influences are present at an early age, we sought to study the patterns of one such habit, cigarette smoking, among Aboriginal

Ravi Retnakaran; Anthony J. G. Hanley; Philip W. Connelly; Stewart B. Harris; Bernard Zinman

2005-01-01

125

EXPLORING ABORIGINAL FORESTRY AND ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

EXPLORING ABORIGINAL FORESTRY AND ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF COWICHAN TRIBES of Resource Management Title of Research Project: Exploring Aboriginal Forestry and Ecosystem-based Management their objectives, and suit the characteristics of their land-bases and communities. Ecosystem-based management (EBM

126

Exploring the relationship between aboriginal tourism and community development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboriginal communities are increasingly turning toward aboriginal tourism development to diversify their economic base, validate their claims related to proprietary rights over traditional lands and re-connect youth with elders and the community to their land and their culture. Oftentimes, these development initiatives are tied to broader community development goals, yet the success of the tourism project is generally measured by

John W. Colton; Kelly Whitney-Squire

2010-01-01

127

Storied Understandings: Bringing Aboriginal Voices to Canada's Multicultural Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the implications and complexities of Canada's multicultural policies for aboriginal students in its post-secondary education systems. The author, a Pakistani-Canadian multicultural educator, interviewed an Aboriginal-Canadian multicultural educator, to discuss the cultural differences, divisions, and resistances between…

Syed, Khalida Tanvir

2010-01-01

128

Protective Predictors of Alcohol Use Trajectories among Canadian Aboriginal Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk of using substances and developing abuse and dependence disorders. However, not all Aboriginal youth misuse substances and limited research has examined the protective factors conferring against substance use among these youth. The present study aimed to identify protective factors related to the…

Rawana, Jennine S.; Ames, Megan E.

2012-01-01

129

Reconsidering Approaches to Aboriginal Science and Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Canada, Aboriginal postsecondary enrollment and completion rates are significantly lower than those of non-Aboriginal students. This is most evident in studies involving science and mathematics. The investigation of this issue was informed by focus group discussions with eight participants representing a Blackfoot community. Themes emerging in…

Sterenberg, Gladys; Hogue, Michelle

2011-01-01

130

Relationships Matter: Supporting Aboriginal Graduate Students in British Columbia, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current Canadian landscape of graduate education has pockets of presence of Indigenous faculty, students, and staff. The reality is that all too often, Aboriginal graduate students are either among the few, or is the sole Aboriginal person in an entire faculty. They usually do not have mentorship or guidance from an Indigenous faculty member…

Pidgeon, Michelle; Archibald, Jo-ann; Hawkey, Colleen

2014-01-01

131

Seeding Success: Schools That Work for Aboriginal Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a large mixed methods research project that investigated the conditions of success for Aboriginal school students. The article presents the qualitative case study component of the research. It details the work of four schools identified as successful for Aboriginal students with respect to social and academic outcomes, and…

Munns, Geoff; O'Rourke, Virginia; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian

2013-01-01

132

TUBERCULOSIS 1 Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Populations in Canada  

E-print Network

TUBERCULOSIS 1 Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Populations in Canada: The Role of Health Care, PhD March 27, 2013 #12;TUBERCULOSIS 2 Abstract The persistent presence of infectious and increasingly). Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which is far more common in the Aboriginal population than the Canadian

Peak, Derek

133

Aboriginal Education at Two Australian Schools: Under One Dream  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the author shares his experience visiting two schools that serve Aboriginal children in the state of Queensland, Australia: (1) Cherbourg State School in central Queensland; and (2) Kuranda State School in the Far North. Prior to his visit he had learned somewhat of Australia's troubled history regarding Aboriginal education, a…

Hones, Donald F.

2005-01-01

134

Aboriginal Identity: The Need for Historical and Contextual Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of Aboriginal identity is most often played out in Canadian law. Aboriginal "difference" from others is used to maintain inequities in power relations when it is convenient for those with power. Canada Natives should identify themselves from inside themselves, their communities, and their traditions, and not allow others to decide their…

Restoule, Jean-Paul

2000-01-01

135

Aspirations of Adult Learners in Aboriginal Family Service Agencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a gap in the literature on the experiences of Aboriginal adults who have made the transition into education and employment after moving to an urban community. Staff of three Aboriginal inner-city family services agencies participated in an interview that included the question: What changes do you see in your employment and education?…

Brown, Jason; Fraehlich, Cheryl; Debassige, Brent

2012-01-01

136

Educational Implications of the Values Held by Australian Aboriginal Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated whether the values held by Australian aboriginal college students, which are more collective than those of non-aboriginal students, could help explain their low achievement levels. Longitudinal survey data indicated there were factors other than value systems that had a much greater impact on students' problems (e.g., lack of…

White, Colin; Fogarty, Gerard J.

2001-01-01

137

Rapid characterisation of archaeological midden components using FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX and micro-XRD.  

PubMed

Samples taken from middens at the Neolithic site of Catalhöyük in Turkey have been analysed using IR spectroscopy backed up by powder XRD and SEM-EDX. Microcomponents studied include fossil hackberries (providing evidence of ancient diet and seasonality), mineral nodules (providing evidence of post-depositional change) and phytoliths (mineralised plant cells, providing evidence of usage of plant species). Finely laminated ashy deposits have also been investigated allowing chemical and mineralogical variations to be explored. It is found that many layers which appear visually to be quite distinctive have, in fact, very similar mineralogy. PMID:19268629

Shillito, Lisa-Marie; Almond, Matthew J; Nicholson, James; Pantos, Manolis; Matthews, Wendy

2009-07-01

138

BC College and Institute Aboriginal Former Student Outcomes, 1997. BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the employment, further education, and satisfaction outcomes of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal former students who attended public colleges and institutes in British Columbia (Canada). Data on 878 Aboriginal students and 19,440 non-Aboriginal students were collected in 1997, approximately 9 months after students completed all…

Centre for Education Information, Victoria (British Columbia).

139

Tertiary Success for the Aboriginal Student: The Numerous Factors Impacting on the Dream.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an overview of Aboriginal education in the state of Victoria, Australia, as a frame for the role of the Aboriginal Tertiary Support Unit (ATSU) at La Trobe University, Bendigo. At the elementary and secondary levels, Aboriginal advocacy and support are provided by the Victorian Aboriginal Education Association, which promotes…

Eltchelebi, Wadda

140

Silencing Aboriginal Curricular Content and Perspectives through Multiculturalism: "There Are Other Children Here"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how multicultural discourses impact the reception of Aboriginal teachers, and the Aboriginal knowledge, history, and experience they bring into Canadian public schools. The author argues that what happens to Aboriginal teachers in Canadian public schools as they attempt to include Aboriginal content and perspectives is a…

St. Denis, Verna

2011-01-01

141

Becoming "Real" Aboriginal Teachers: Attending to Intergenerational Narrative Reverberations and Responsibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our paper, and the inquiry from which it emerges, is situated in world-wide concern to increase the numbers of Aboriginal teachers in schools. In Canada, the population of Aboriginal young people is rapidly increasing. Yet, at the same time, the gap between the attainment of a university credential in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations is…

Young, Mary; Chester, Jerri-Lynn; Flett, Brenda Mary; Joe, Lucy; Marshall, Laura; Moore, Dorothy; Paul, Khea; Paynter, Florence; Williams, Jennifer; Huber, Janice

2010-01-01

142

Fostering Aboriginal Leadership: Increasing Enrollment and Completion Rates in Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal people have philosophies with a holistic approach to learning that are imperative to Aboriginal leadership development. The Aboriginal worldview is needed in any long-term education strategies of Aboriginal students to increase the awareness of higher education and to address cultural, financial, and academic barriers. This article…

King, Tracey

2008-01-01

143

E-Learning Access, Opportunities, and Challenges for Aboriginal Adult Learners Located in Rural Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory qualitative study focused on 1) the learning needs of Aboriginal adult learners residing in selected First Nations communities in rural Alberta and 2) the potential for increasing access to e-learning education. Through open dialogue with First Nations community leaders, Aboriginal adult learners, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal

Kawalilak, Colleen; Wells, Noella; Connell, Lynn; Beamer, Kate

2012-01-01

144

Barriers to participation of Aboriginal people in cancer care: communication in the hospital setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To report Aboriginal patients' views about effective communication between Aboriginal people and health service providers in Western Australian hospital settings. Design, setting and participants: Qualitative study involving indepth interviews between 1 March 2006 and 30 September 2007 with 30 Aboriginal people affected by cancer from across WA. Main outcome measures: Aboriginal patients' views about the quality of communication within

Shaouli Shahid; Lizzie D Finn; Sandra C Thompson

2009-01-01

145

The University of Saskatchewan's Aboriginal Equity Access Program in dentistry.  

PubMed

Persons of Aboriginal ancestry are underrepresented in the dental profession in North America. In Canada, the University of Saskatchewan College of Dentistry began a proactive program to recruit, retain, and graduate more Aboriginal students in 1996. This program, entitled the Aboriginal Equity Access Program, has seen the inclusion of twenty-two Aboriginal students in the predoctoral program. This article describes the program and reports on the success of the students enrolled via this route. The primary conclusion is that selection of Aboriginal dental students with lower entry scores--who would not have gained entry if the program did not exist--has not impaired their ability to successfully complete the dental undergraduate program and pass the National Dental Examining Board licensure examination. PMID:24489025

Teplitsky, Paul Elliot; Uswak, Gerald Stephen

2014-02-01

146

Aboriginal Oral Traditions of Australian Impact Craters  

E-print Network

We explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records, and fieldtrip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool, and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff and Wolfe Creek craters and non-impact origins of Liverpool and Henbury craters, with Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have formed during human habitation of Australia - Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole - do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

Hamacher, Duane W

2013-01-01

147

Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2014-06-01

148

Pollen analyses from a 50 000-yr rodent midden series in the southern Atacama Desert (25° 300' S)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Precipitation in northern Chile is controlled by two great wind belts—the southern westerlies over the southern Atacama and points south (>24° S) and the tropical easterlies over the northern and central Atacama Desert (16–24° S). At the intersection of these summer and winter rainfall regimes, respectively, is a Mars-like landscape consisting of expansive surfaces devoid of vegetation (i.e. absolute desert) except in canyons that originate high enough to experience runoff once every few years. Pollen assemblages from 39 fossil rodent middens in one of these canyons, Quebrada del Chaco (25° 30' S), were used to infer the history of vegetation and precipitation at three elevations (2670–800 m; 3100–3200 m; 3450–3500 m) over the past 50 000 years. When compared to modern conditions and fossil records to the north and south, the pollen evidence indicates more winter precipitation at >52, 40–33, 24–17 k cal.yrBP, more precipitation in both seasons at 17–14 k cal. yr BP, and more summer precipitation from 14–11 k cal. yr BP. Younger middens are scarce at Quebrada del Chaco, and the few Holocene samples indicate hyperarid conditions comparable to today. The only exception is a pollen assemblage that indicates a brief but significant interlude of increased winter precipitation in the last millennium.

Maldonado, Antonio; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Villagran, Carolina

2005-01-01

149

A quantitative study of Australian aboriginal and Caucasian brains.  

PubMed Central

The brain volumes of 8 male Australian Aborigines and 11 male Caucasians were determined. Total brain volume was significantly smaller for Aborigines (1199 +/- 84 ml) compared to Caucasians (1386 +/- 98 ml). Significantly smaller volumes were also found for cerebellum, prosencephalon-mesencephalon unit, cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, parieto-occipitotemporal cortex, and hippocampus. Volumes of ponsmedulla oblongata unit (21 +/- 3 ml for Aborigines and 22 +/- 3 ml for Caucasians) and visual cortex (14.9 ml +/- 2.6 ml and 14.6 +/- 2.2 ml, respectively) did not differ significantly. The striate cortex extended further onto the lateral surface of the occipital lobe in Aboriginal brains. The frontal portion of cerebral cortex was larger in Aboriginal than in Caucasian brains. According to the specific growth periods for the areas studied, these differences could be explained by the higher incidence of malnutrition and infectious diseases for Aboriginals during the development of the brain in early childhood, especially after the 6th postnatal month. However, genetic influences cannot be excluded. The results for the visual cortex of Aborigines might represent an adaptation to living conditions in the bush and desert regions of Australia. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3654333

Klekamp, J; Riedel, A; Harper, C; Kretschmann, H J

1987-01-01

150

Evidence of mitochondrial DNA diversity in South American aboriginals.  

PubMed

The absence in South American aboriginals of an Asian-specific marker, a 9-bp deletion between the genes for the second subunit of cytochrome oxidase II and lysine transfer RNA in region V, has been interpreted as a bottlenecking effect at the Isthmus of Panama during the peopling of the Americas. We screened mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for this 9-bp tandem repeat and for polymorphisms in specific regions of the mtDNA in 2 ancient and 31 contemporary samples from South American aboriginals. We found additional (mtDNA) diversity in South American aboriginals in three ways. First, an Asian-specific marker not previously reported in South American aboriginals was identified by a sequencing analysis in both the contemporary Andean and Amazonian aboriginal peoples. Second, two new haplotypes so far unique to South American aboriginals were found. Additionally, we show that South American aboriginals fall into discrete populations. These results suggest that the prehistoric colonization of South America is the outcome of multiple migrations; the data do not support a bottlenecking effect at the Isthmus of Panama. PMID:7872649

Monsalve, M V; Groot de Restrepo, H; Espinel, A; Correal, G; Devine, D V

1994-07-01

151

The missing link in Aboriginal care: resource accounting.  

PubMed

Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles. PMID:18536535

Ashton, C W; Duffie-Ashton, Denise

2008-01-01

152

Arctic ground squirrels of the mammoth-steppe: paleoecology of Late Pleistocene middens (˜24 000 29 450 14C yr BP), Yukon Territory, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents paleoecological analyses of 48 fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii) middens (nests and caches) recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in the Klondike region of west-central Yukon Territory. AMS radiocarbon dates and stratigraphic association of middens with Dawson tephra (˜25 300 14C yr BP), indicate these paleoecological data reflect the onset of glacial conditions of early Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and terminal MIS 3 (˜24 000-29 450 14C yr BP). Plant macrofossils include at least 60 plant taxa, including diverse graminoids ( Poa, Elymus trachycaulus, Kobresia myosuroides), steppe forbs ( Penstemon gormanii, Anemone patens var. multifida, Plantago cf. canescens), tundra forbs ( Draba spp., Bistorta vivipara), dwarf shrubs ( Salix cf. arctica, S. cf. polaris), sage ( Artemisia frigida) and rare trees ( Picea mariana). Many of these taxa identified in the middens represent the first recorded fossils for these plants in Eastern Beringia and add to our knowledge of the floristic composition of Pleistocene vegetation and biogeography in this region. Fossil beetles include typical members of the Eastern Beringian steppe-tundra fauna ( Lepidophorus lineaticollis and Connatichela artemisiae) and others suggesting predominantly dry, open habitats. Cache forage selection is suggested by some plant taxa which were particularly frequent and abundant in the middens ( Bistorta vivipara, Kobresia myosuroides, Ranunculus spp., Potentilla, Erysimum cf. cheiranthoides, Poa, Carex and Draba). Factors such as proximity of vegetation to burrows and abundance of fruits and seeds per plant were probably important in cache selection. Glacial conditions enabled arctic ground squirrels to form widespread and dense populations in regions such as the Klondike in which they are rare or absent at present. This fossil midden record supports previous hypotheses that suggest arctic ground squirrels evolved in and are well-adapted to the open, steppe-tundra vegetation, loessal soils and glacial climates of the mammoth-steppe biome.

Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Elias, Scott A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Mathewes, Rolf W.

2007-04-01

153

50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...captain shall engage in whaling for any calf or any whale accompanied by a calf. (d) No whaling captain...whaling. (f) No person may sell or offer for sale whale products from whales taken in an aboriginal subsistence hunt,...

2010-10-01

154

50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...captain shall engage in whaling for any calf or any whale accompanied by a calf. (d) No whaling captain...whaling. (f) No person may sell or offer for sale whale products from whales taken in an aboriginal subsistence hunt,...

2012-10-01

155

50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...captain shall engage in whaling for any calf or any whale accompanied by a calf. (d) No whaling captain...whaling. (f) No person may sell or offer for sale whale products from whales taken in an aboriginal subsistence hunt,...

2011-10-01

156

50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...subsistence whaling. (f) No person may sell or offer for sale whale products from whales taken in an aboriginal subsistence hunt, except that authentic articles of Native handicrafts may be sold or offered for sale. (g) No whaling captain shall...

2013-10-01

157

50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...subsistence whaling. (f) No person may sell or offer for sale whale products from whales taken in an aboriginal subsistence hunt, except that authentic articles of Native handicrafts may be sold or offered for sale. (g) No whaling captain shall...

2014-10-01

158

Emu Dreaming: An Introduction to Australian Aboriginal Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, ceremonies, and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Many share common traditions such as the "emu in the sky" constellation of dark clouds, and stories about the Sun, Moon , Orion, and the Pleiades. Several use the rising and setting of particular stars to indicate the time to harvest a food source, and some link the Sun and Moon to tides, and even explain eclipses as a conjunction of the Sun and Moon. Thse traditions reveal a depth and complexity of Aboriginal cultures which are not widely appreciated by outsiders. This book explores the wonderful mystical Aboriginal astronomical stories and traditions, and the way in which these are used for practical applications such as navigation and harvesting. It also describes the journey of exploration which is opening Western eyes to this treasury of ancient Aboriginal knowledge.

Norris, Ray P.; Norris, Cilla M.

2009-07-01

159

An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia  

PubMed Central

We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa. PMID:21940856

Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Tridico, Silvana; Metspalu, Ene; Nielsen, Kasper; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Muller, Craig; Dortch, Joe; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Lund, Ole; Wesolowska, Agata; Karmin, Monika; Weinert, Lucy A.; Wang, Bo; Li, Jun; Tai, Shuaishuai; Xiao, Fei; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; van Driem, George; Jha, Aashish R.; Ricaut, François-Xavier; de Knijff, Peter; Migliano, Andrea B; Romero, Irene Gallego; Kristiansen, Karsten; Lambert, David M.; Brunak, Søren; Forster, Peter; Brinkmann, Bernd; Nehlich, Olaf; Bunce, Michael; Richards, Michael; Gupta, Ramneek; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Krogh, Anders; Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta M.; Balloux, Francois; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

2013-01-01

160

Palatal rugae patterns in Australian aborigines and Caucasians.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether rugae patterns change with age and to compare the number and pattern of rugae in Australian Aborigines with those of Caucasians. For the longitudinal part of the study, serial dental casts of ten Aborigines, from 6 to 20 years of age, were examined and rugae patterns were recorded. To enable comparisons to be made between different ethnic groups an additional 100 dental casts of Australian Aborigines and 200 casts of caucasians, ranging in age from 13 to 17 years, were examined. Characteristics observed were number, length, shape, direction and unification of rugae. The length of rugae increased significantly with age but the total number of rugae remained constant. Thirty-two per cent of rugae showed changes in shape, while 28 per cent displayed a change in orientation. In contrast to studies suggesting that rugae move forward with age, the majority of Aboriginal rugae that changed direction moved posteriorly. Changes in rugae patterns have been assumed to result from palatal growth but alterations in pattern were observed in the Aboriginal sample even after palatal growth had ceased. The mean number of primary rugae in Aborigines was higher than in Caucasians, although more primary rugae in Caucasians exceeded 10 mm in length than in Aborigines. The most common shapes in both ethnic groups were wavy and curved forms, whereas straight and circular types were least common. There was a statistically significant association between rugae forms and ethnicity, straight forms being more common in Caucasians whereas wavy forms were more common Aborigines. PMID:9153843

Kapali, S; Townsend, G; Richards, L; Parish, T

1997-04-01

161

Helicobacter pylori infection in Canadian and related Arctic Aboriginal populations  

PubMed Central

In 2006, the Canadian Helicobacter Study Group identified Aboriginal communities among Canadian population groups most at risk of Helicobacter pylori-associated disease. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize what is known about the H pylori-associated disease burden in Canadian and related Arctic Aboriginal populations to identify gaps in knowledge. Six health literature databases were systematically searched to identify reports on H pylori prevalence in Canadian population groups, or any topic related to H pylori in Canadian Aboriginals, Alaska Natives or Aboriginals of other Arctic regions. Identified reports were organized by subtopic and summarized in narrative form. Key data from studies of H pylori prevalence in defined populations were summarized in tabular form. A few Arctic Aboriginal communities were represented in the literature: two Canadian Inuit; one Canadian First Nation; two Greenland Inuit; one Russian Chutkotka Native; and several Alaska Native studies. These studies uniformly showed elevated H pylori prevalence; a few studies also showed elevated occurrence of H pylori-related diseases and high rates of treatment failure. Based on the evidence, it would be warranted for clinicians to relax the criteria for investigating H pylori and related diseases in patients from Arctic Aboriginal communities, and to pursue post-therapy confirmation of eradication. Additional community-based research is needed to develop public health policies for reducing H pylori-associated health risks in such communities. PMID:18354758

Goodman, Karen J; Jacobson, Kevan; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen

2008-01-01

162

Aboriginal Peoples: Engagement and Scholarship This assessment of library collections and programs has been completed by Deborah Lee, Aboriginal  

E-print Network

and music materials are collected by the Education and Music Library; and considerable Aboriginal health development and resource management, health and wellness, and law and governance." The University Library Literature, Archaeology, Anthropology, Commerce / Economic Development, Agriculture & Bioresources, Health

Saskatchewan, University of

163

"But My Students All Speak English": Ethical Research Issues of Aboriginal English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I explore ethical issues in relation to the topic of Aboriginal students who speak a dialect of English. Taking the form of a retrospective inquiry, I draw on data from an earlier study that examined Aboriginal English in the broader context of Aboriginal language loss and revival. Three interrelated ethical issues are discussed:…

Wiltse, Lynne

2011-01-01

164

Aboriginal Women Working in Vocational Training and Education: A Story from Central Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines research undertaken by an Aboriginal women's non-government organization (NGO) into vocational training and education (VTE) needs and issues for remote Aboriginal communities in Central Australia. It describes the Central Australian context, and in particular the impact of remoteness, inequity and disadvantage upon Aboriginal

Lawrence, Kate

2006-01-01

165

Aboriginal Youth and Violent Gang Involvement in Canada: Quality Prevention Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an epidemic of Aboriginal youth gang violence in some parts of Canada today, and young Aboriginal gang members are killing each other and committing suicide at rates that exceed those of any other group in Canada. This paper provides an overview of the current situation, and describes five major pathways to violent gang involvement for Aboriginal youth. It

Mark Totten

166

Pathways to the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal Children in Canada's Child Welfare System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares child welfare services provided to Aboriginal (Indian) and Caucasian children in Canada. The findings suggest that child welfare reports involving Aboriginal children are more likely to be classified as suspected or substantiated than reports for Caucasian children. Aboriginal children also are twice as likely to be placed in foster care. This overrepresentation in out-of-home placement is explained

Nico Trocmé; Della Knoke; Cindy Blackstock

2004-01-01

167

Intellectual Property and Aboriginal People: A Working Paper = Propriete intellectuelle et Autochtones: Document de travail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in English and French, this paper outlines current Canadian intellectual property legislation as it relates to Aboriginal people in Canada, and provides a general review of the implications and limitations of this legislation for protecting the traditional knowledge of Aboriginal people. An initial discussion of Aboriginal perspectives…

Brascoupe, Simon; Endemann, Karin

168

Transformation and Re-Creation: Creating Spaces for Indigenous Theorising in Canadian Aboriginal Studies Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the professional experience of an Anishnabe educator working in various organisations teaching Indigenous knowledge issues in both Aboriginal and primarily non-Aboriginal settings. The reflections span a number of years of teaching Aboriginal worldview and knowledge issues courses and include formal evaluations from both…

McGregor, Deborah

2005-01-01

169

Knowledge of an Aboriginal Language and School Outcomes for Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses data from the child and adult components of the 2001 Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine what factors are related to speaking an Aboriginal language and how speaking an Aboriginal language is related to school outcomes. Even after controlling for child and family factors (age, sex, health status, household income, number…

Guevremont, Anne; Kohen, Dafna E.

2012-01-01

170

Aboriginal Students' Achievement in Science Education: The Effect of Teaching Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some authors assume that the academic difficulties encountered by Aboriginal students can be partly explained by the discrepancy between teaching methods and Aboriginal learning styles. However, this hypothesis lacks empirical foundations. Using pan-Canadian data, we tried to identify the most efficient teaching methods for Aboriginal students and…

Bourque, Jimmy; Bouchamma, Yamina; Larose, Francois

2010-01-01

171

A Study of Aboriginal Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Experience in Canadian Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study, initiated by the Canadian Teachers' Federation and its Advisory Committee on Aboriginal Education, explored the professional knowledge and experiences of Aboriginal (First Nations, Mets and Inuit) teachers. The rationale for the study was to address the urgent need to improve and promote Aboriginal education in public…

St. Denis, Verna

2010-01-01

172

The Boomerangs Parenting Program for Aboriginal Parents and Their Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Using three case studies, this paper describes the development and evaluation of ‘The Boomerangs Aboriginal Circle of Security Parenting Camp Program', which is a clinical intervention based on an attachment framework using the Circle of Security and Marte Meo, and drawing on traditional Aboriginal culture.Methods: Three mothers from an Aboriginal Australian background with preschool age children attended the 20-session

Lily Lee; Chryne Griffiths; Patricia Glossop; Valsamma Eapen

2010-01-01

173

A Social History of the Manitoba Metis. The Development and Loss of Aboriginal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of aboriginal rights has been interpreted in various ways. Too often the general public does not understand fully what is meant by aboriginal rights. This topic has been debated in Parliament since Confederation and the general attitude of the news media has been to overlook it as unimportant. By definition, an aboriginal right is what…

Pelletier, Emile

174

A pilot study of the quality of informed consent materials for Aboriginal participants in clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Objective: To pilot informed consent materials developed for Aboriginal parents in a vaccine trial, and evaluate their design and the informed consent process. Methods: Cross sectional quantitative and qualitative survey of 20 Aboriginal and 20 non-Aboriginal women in Alice Springs. Information about the proposed research was presented to Aboriginal participants by an Aboriginal researcher, using purpose designed verbal, visual, and written materials. Non-Aboriginal participants received standard materials developed by the sponsor. Questionnaires were used to evaluate recall and understanding immediately and five days later. Qualitative analysis of Aboriginal participants' interviews was performed. Results: There were no differences between the groups in understanding of diseases prevented by the vaccine, the potential risks of participating, or the voluntary nature of participation. Most Aboriginal participants had difficulty with the concept of a "licensed" versus "unlicensed" vaccine. The non-Aboriginal group had a good understanding of this. Aboriginal participants identified the use of the flipchart, along with a presentation by a doctor and Aboriginal health worker, as preferred delivery modes. Group presentations were preferred rather than one-on-one discussions. The use of the questionnaire posed considerable methodological difficulties. Conclusions: A one-off oral presentation to Aboriginal participants is unlikely to produce "informed consent". Key but unfamiliar concepts require identification and particularly considered presentation. PMID:16076978

Russell, F; Carapetis, J; Liddle, H; Edwards, T; Ruff, T; Devitt, J

2005-01-01

175

"We Can't Feel Our Language": Making Places in the City for Aboriginal Language Revitalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores possibilities for extending aboriginal language education opportunities into the urban domain based on qualitative research in Vancouver, British Columbia. The author argues that aboriginal language revitalization efforts have a place in the city, as demonstrated by emerging language ideologies of urban aboriginal people…

Baloy, Natalie J. K.

2011-01-01

176

Northern and Eastern Nevada: 1858-1971. Land Use Patterns and Aboriginal Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special attention is devoted to the relationship of aboriginal populations to Europeanoid American activities, since the aboriginal ethic of resource use differs so greatly from that imposed today, and since aboriginal land rights may play an important role in the future of Nevada. (FF)

Clemmer, Richard O.

1974-01-01

177

Building Cultural Bridges with Aboriginal Learners and Their "Classmates" for Transformative Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians is the most significant social policy challenge facing Canada (Richards 2008). This gap is particularly evident in the science fields. Educational institutions are still regarded as mechanisms of colonization by many Aboriginal people. Their "foreign" Eurocentric (or Western)…

Hatcher, Annamarie

2012-01-01

178

Food Perceptions and Concerns of Aboriginal Women Coping with Gestational Diabetes in Winnipeg, Manitoba  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe how Aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Semi-structured explanatory model interviews explored Aboriginal women's illness experiences with GDM. Setting and Participants: Twenty-nine self-declared Aboriginal women who had…

Neufeld, Hannah Tait

2011-01-01

179

Perspectives in Practice Partnerships to Address the Diabetes Epidemic in Aboriginal Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboriginal communities in Canada face unique challenges regarding type 2 diabetes. Screening for diabetes and its complications offers potential benefit, but the traditional biomedical healthcare model can fail Aboriginal patients with respect to diabetes education and management. Effective healthcare delivery to Aboriginal peoples must overcome geographical, economic, political, cultural and sociohistori- cal barriers. ABSTRACT RÉSUMÉ

Ellen Toth; Kathleen Cardinal; Doreen Moyah; Kelli Ralph-Campbell

2005-01-01

180

Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador Guidelines for research involving  

E-print Network

Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador 1 Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador Fern Brunger, PhD on behalf #12;Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador 2 Table

Brownstone, Rob

181

Late Quaternary Vegetation History and Paleoclimate of the U.S.A.Mexico Borderlands Region From Two New Packrat Midden Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new packrat midden (Neotoma spp.) chronologies reveal glacial to interglacial changes in vegetation and climate in the Playas and San Simon Valleys in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. The Borderlands, where the states of Arizona and New Mexico intersect with each other and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora, are characterized by several northwest-southeast trending and tilted fault-block ranges separated

C. A. Holmgren; M. Penalba; K. Aasen Rylander; J. L. Betancourt

2003-01-01

182

Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

2010-04-01

183

Efficacy of a 3-Hour Aboriginal Health Teaching in the Medical Curriculum: Are We Changing Student Knowledge and Attitudes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is national recognition of the need to incorporate Aboriginal health issues within the medical school curricula. This study aims to evaluate changes in medical students' knowledge and attitudes about Aboriginal health, and their preparedness to work in Aboriginal communities after attending a 3-hour Aboriginal health seminar. A…

Zhou, Alysia W.; Boshart, Samantha; Seelisch, Jennifer; Eshaghian, Reza; McLeod, Ryan; Nisker, Jeff; Richmond, Chantelle A. M.; Howard, John M.

2012-01-01

184

Increasing rates of surgical treatment and preventing comorbidities may increase breast cancer survival for Aboriginal women  

PubMed Central

Background Lower breast cancer survival has been reported for Australian Aboriginal women compared to non-Aboriginal women, however the reasons for this disparity have not been fully explored. We compared the surgical treatment and survival of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women diagnosed with breast cancer in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods We analysed NSW cancer registry records of breast cancers diagnosed in 2001–2007, linked to hospital inpatient episodes and deaths. We used unconditional logistic regression to compare the odds of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women receiving surgical treatment. Breast cancer-specific survival was examined using cumulative mortality curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Of the 27 850 eligible women, 288 (1.03%) identified as Aboriginal. The Aboriginal women were younger and more likely to have advanced spread of disease when diagnosed than non-Aboriginal women. Aboriginal women were less likely than non-Aboriginal women to receive surgical treatment (odds ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.86). The five-year crude breast cancer-specific mortality was 6.1% higher for Aboriginal women (17.7%, 95% CI 12.9-23.2) compared with non-Aboriginal women (11.6%, 95% CI 11.2-12.0). After accounting for differences in age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, spread of disease and surgical treatment received the risk of death from breast cancer was 39% higher in Aboriginal women (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.01-1.86). Finally after also accounting for differences in comorbidities, socioeconomic disadvantage and place of residence the hazard ratio was reduced to 1.30 (95% CI 0.94-1.75). Conclusion Preventing comorbidities and increasing rates of surgical treatment may increase breast cancer survival for NSW Aboriginal women. PMID:24606675

2014-01-01

185

On the genetic uniqueness of the Ami aborigines of Formosa.  

PubMed

In the attempt to reconstruct the prehistory of Pacific and Indian Ocean populations, Taiwan's aborigines appear to be of particular interest. Linguistic and archeological evidence indicates that the dispersal of Austronesian speakers throughout the islands of Oceania and Southeast Asia may have originated from Taiwan about 5,000 years ago. The Ami are Taiwan's largest aboriginal group. Here, we report on six polymorphic point mutation loci in Ami individuals and compare allelic frequencies to worldwide populations. In order to examine the genetic characteristics and relationships of the Ami aborigines, we used the allelic frequency data to generate expected heterozygosities, power of discrimination values, maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees, principal component maps, and centroid gene flow plots. These analyses argue for the genetic isolation and uniqueness of the Ami people. Data supportive of limited gene flow and/or small population size, as well as genetic similarities to Native Americans, were observed. PMID:12365036

Sewerin, Barbara; Cuza, Francisco J; Szmulewicz, Martin N; Rowold, Diane J; Bertrand-Garcia, Ralph L; Herrera, Rene J

2002-11-01

186

Immunogenicity and safety of 3-dose primary vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants.  

PubMed

This study compared immune responses of healthy Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) components of a DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine, 1 month after completing dosing at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Of 112 infants enrolled in each group, 94 Aboriginal and 107 non-Aboriginal infants qualified for the immunogenicity analysis. Anti-PRP concentrations exceeded the protective minimum (?0.15?g/ml) in ?97% of infants in both groups but geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher in Aboriginal infants (6.12?g/ml versus 3.51?g/ml). All subjects were seroprotected (anti-HBs ?10mIU/mL) against HBV, with groups having similar GMCs (1797.9 versus 1544.4mIU/mL, Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal, respectively). No safety concerns were identified. We conclude that 3-dose primary vaccination with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine elicited immune responses to Hib and HBV components that were at least as high in Aboriginal as in non-Aboriginal Canadian infants. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00753649. PMID:25701314

Scheifele, David W; Ferguson, Murdo; Predy, Gerald; Dawar, Meena; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Han, Htay-Htay

2015-04-15

187

Rodent middens, a new method for Quaternary research in arid zones of South America [Paleomadrigueras de roedores, un nuevo me??todo para el estudio del Cuaternario en zonas a??ridas de Sudame??rica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In arid and semi-arid regions of South America, historical evidence for climate and vegetation change is scarce despite its importance for determining reference conditions and rates of natural variability in areas susceptible to modern desertification. Normal lines of evidence, such as pollen stratigraphies from lakes, are either rare or unobtainable in deserts; studies of late Quaternary vegetation history are few and generally inconclusive. This gap in knowledge may be corrected with discovery and development of fossil rodent middens in rocky environments throughout arid South America. These middens, mostly the work of Lagidium, Phyllotis, Abrocoma and Octodontomys, are rich in readily identifiable plant macrofossils, cuticles and pollen, as well as vertebrate and insect remains. In the North American deserts, more than 2,500 woodrat (Neotoma) middens analyzed since 1960 have yielded a detailed history of environmental change during the past 40,000 years. Preliminary work in the pre-puna, Monte and Patagonian Deserts of western Argentina, the Atacama Desert of northern Chile/southern Peru, the Mediterranean matorral of central Chile, and the Puna of the Andean altiplano suggest a similar potential for rodent middens in South America. Here we borrow from the North American experience to synthesize methodologies and approaches, summarize preliminary work, and explore the potential of rodent midden research in South America.

Betancourt, J.L.; Saavedra, B.

2002-01-01

188

Aboriginal partnerships in Canada: focus on the Diavik Diamond Mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In negotiation with diamond enterprises, Aboriginal communities have provided their consent for the diamond mines and have ensured their participation in all diamond projects within their traditional territories. The purpose of this study is to evaluate partnership strategies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Interviews. Findings – Natural resource enterprises support more than 650 Canadian communities and according to industry Canada this

Richard Missens; Leo Paul Dana; Robert Anderson

2007-01-01

189

Rekindling Warm Embers: Teaching Aboriginal Languages in the Tertiary Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the teaching of Aboriginal languages in the tertiary sector of Australia, looking at the stronger languages taught in the university sector versus those languages under revival that tend to be taught in the TAFE sector. The paper summarises the status of courses offered state by state, and sets the scene with some historical…

Gale, Mary-Anne

2011-01-01

190

Researching Remote Aboriginal Children's Services: It's All about Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies problems, issues and insights through critical reflection on the rules, written and unwritten, which encroach on the research process in the "Both Ways" project. The project investigates the development and sustainability of remote Aboriginal children's services in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Children's…

Fasoli, Lyn; James, Ranu

2007-01-01

191

Understanding Race and Racism in Nursing: Insights from Aboriginal Nurses  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Indigenous Peoples are underrepresented in the health professions. This paper examines indigenous identity and the quality and nature of nursing work-life. The knowledge generated should enhance strategies to increase representation of indigenous peoples in nursing to reduce health inequities. Design. Community-based participatory research employing Grounded Theory as the method was the design for this study. Theoretical sampling and constant comparison guided the data collection and analysis, and a number of validation strategies including member checks were employed to ensure rigor of the research process. Sample. Twenty-two Aboriginal nurses in Atlantic Canada. Findings. Six major themes emerged from the study: Cultural Context of Work-life, Becoming a Nurse, Navigating Nursing, Race Racism and Nursing, Socio-Political Context of Aboriginal Nursing, and Way Forward. Race and racism in nursing and related subthemes are the focus of this paper. Implications. The experiences of Aboriginal nurses as described in this paper illuminate the need to understand the interplay of race and racism in the health care system. Our paper concludes with Aboriginal nurses' suggestions for systemic change at various levels. PMID:22778991

Vukic, Adele; Jesty, Charlotte; Mathews, Sr. Veronica; Etowa, Josephine

2012-01-01

192

An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

2005-01-01

193

Making Research Count at Minimbah Aboriginal Preschool, Armidale NSW.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interview with Dianne Roberts, director of the Minimbah Aboriginal Preschool in Armidale, New South Wales (Australia), explores research issues, leadership styles, and how decision making and responsibilities are handled at Minimbah. Incoming researchers must show how research will benefit the community under study, how they will work in…

Roberts, Dianne; Power, Kerith

194

Partnering with an Aboriginal Community for Health and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural awareness is a concept that is gaining much attention in health and education settings across North America. This article describes how the concepts of cultural awareness shaped the process and the curriculum of an online health education project called Interprofessional Collaboration: Culturally-informed Aboriginal Health Care. The…

Carter, Lorraine; Rukholm, Ellen

2009-01-01

195

American Indians of Idaho. Volume 1. Aboriginal Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general survey of the aboriginal American Indian cultures of Idaho is given in this book. Most of the anthropological and historical writing on the native peoples of this region are summarized. It does not deal with contemporary Indian cultures, which will be described in a second volume along with their history of contact with Euro-Americans.…

Walker, Deward E., Jr.

196

Teacher Education, Aboriginal Studies and the New National Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in Australian schools continue to have poor education and health outcomes, and the introduction of a new national curriculum may assist in redressing this situation. This curriculum emphasises recommendations which have been circulating in the sector over many years, to require teacher education…

Andersen, Clair

2012-01-01

197

Bridging into Small Business: A Program for Aboriginal People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-instructional kit is part of an entry-level training program that has been designed to support Aboriginal people in Australia in developing a business proposal and the skills required to achieve success. The manual, "Starting Your Own Small Business," includes information and activities that provide a thorough examination of the planning…

Kaufmann, Jill

198

Experiences of Beginning Aboriginal Teachers in Band-Controlled Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compelling evidence points to the need for higher education, and especially teacher education, to become better informed about the concerns of Aboriginal peoples and to be more responsive to their needs. With this focus in mind, we had conversations with 30 beginning First Nations teachers, graduates of a teacher education program in Saskatchewan,…

Wimmer, Randolph; Legare, Louise; Arcand, Yvette; Cottrell, Michael

2009-01-01

199

Psychological Sense of Community: An Australian Aboriginal Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sense of community (SOC) is central to an individual's psychological wellbeing (Sarason, 1974). Eleven participants, mainly from the North West of Western Australia, took part in semistructured interviews investigating Australian Aboriginal notions of community and SOC. Five key themes emerged from the data. These included: kinship structure,…

Bishop, Brian; Colquhoun, Simon; Johnson, Gemma

2006-01-01

200

Mobile Phone Adoption and Use in Lockhart River Aboriginal Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an ethnographic study of mobile phone adoption and use in a remote Aboriginal community in Cape York, Australia. The researchers found that, within nine months of the introduction of the 3G network, 58% of the Indigenous people interviewed had acquired a mobile phone, a much higher rate of adoption than any other ICT. The phones were

L. E. Dyson; F. Brady

2009-01-01

201

Social Indicators in Surveys of Urban Aboriginal Residents in Saskatoon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bridges and Foundations Project on Urban Aboriginal Housing, a Community-University Research Alliance (CURA) project financed primarily by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) and the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), has been operational in Saskatoon since early 2001. During these past 5 years…

Anderson, Alan B.; Spence, Cara

2008-01-01

202

Schooling Taiwan's Aboriginal Baseball Players for the Nation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major challenges that faces nation-builders in postcolonial societies is the incorporation of subaltern groups, particularly aboriginal peoples, into a collective national project. One vehicle for addressing this challenge is sport with schools being amongst the most important venues. This article offers an empirical study of the role…

Yu, Junwei; Bairner, Alan

2010-01-01

203

The Informal Caregivers of Aboriginal Seniors: Perspectives and Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1 million Canadians aged 45-64 provide care to seniors with disabilities or physical limitations, and 70% are also employed - many full-time. Yet often policy assumes that all communities face the same eldercare challenges despite regional and cultural distinctions. This paper highlights what little is known about Aboriginal informal eldercare providers. Trends in health, employment and migration continue to

Sarah Parrack; Gillian M. Joseph

204

The changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in aboriginal and non-aboriginal western Australians from 1997 through 2007 and emergence of nonvaccine serotypes.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. In 2001, Australia introduced a unique 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) 2-, 4-, and 6-month schedule with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) booster for Aboriginal children, and in 2005, 7vPCV alone in a 2-, 4-, and 6-month schedule for non-Aboriginal children. Aboriginal adults are offered 23vPPV but coverage is poor. We investigated trends in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australia (WA). METHODS. Enhanced IPD surveillance has been ongoing since 1996. We calculated IPD incidence rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians before and after introduction of 7vPCV. RESULTS. A total of 1792 cases occurred during the period 1997-2007; the IPD incidence rate was 47 cases per 100,000 population per year among Aboriginal people and 7 cases per 100,000 population per year in non-Aboriginal people. After introduction of 7vPCV, IPD rates among Aboriginal children decreased by 46% for those <2 years of age and by 40% for those 2-4 years of age; rates decreased by 64% and 51% in equivalent age groups for non-Aboriginal children. IPD rates decreased by >30% in non-Aboriginal people 50 years of age but increased among Aboriginal adults (eg, from 59.1 to 109.6 cases per 100,000 population per year among those 30-49 years of age). Although IPD due to 7vPCV serotypes decreased in all age groups, IPD incidence due to non-7vPCV serotypes increased, and it almost doubled among Aboriginal adults 30-49 years of age (from 48.3 to 97.0 cases per 100,000 population per year). Among non-Aboriginal children, 37% of IPD is now due to serotype 19A. CONCLUSIONS. IPD incidence rates have decreased markedly among children and non-Aboriginal adults with a 3-dose infant 7vPCV schedule. However, IPD due to non-7vPCV serotypes has increased and is of particular concern among young Aboriginal adults, for whom an intensive 23vPPV campaign is needed. An immunization register covering all age groups should be established. PMID:20420501

Lehmann, Deborah; Willis, Judith; Moore, Hannah C; Giele, Carolien; Murphy, Denise; Keil, Anthony D; Harrison, Catherine; Bayley, Kathy; Watson, Michael; Richmond, Peter

2010-06-01

205

Taiwanese aborigines: genetic heterogeneity and paternal contribution to Oceania.  

PubMed

In the present study, for the first time, 293 Taiwanese aboriginal males from all nine major tribes (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Rukai, Paiwan, Saisat, Puyuma, Tsou, Yami) were genotyped with 17 YSTR loci in a attend to reveal migrational patterns connected with the Austronesian expansion. We investigate the paternal genetic relationships of these Taiwanese aborigines to 42 Asia-Pacific reference populations, geographically selected to reflect various locations within the Austronesian domain. The Tsou and Puyuma tribes exhibit the lowest (0.1851) and the highest (0.5453) average total genetic diversity, respectively. Further, the fraction of unique haplotypes is also relatively high in the Puyuma (86.7%) and low in Tsou (33.3%) suggesting different demographic histories. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed several notable findings: 1) the Taiwan indigenous populations are highly diverse. In fact, the level of inter-population heterogeneity displayed by the Taiwanese aboriginal populations is close to that exhibited among all 51 Asia-Pacific populations examined; 2) the asymmetrical contribution of the Taiwanese aborigines to the Oceanic groups. Ami, Bunun and Saisiyat tribes exhibit the strongest paternal links to the Solomon and Polynesian island communities, whereas most of the remaining Taiwanese aboriginal groups are more genetically distant to these Oceanic inhabitants; 3) the present YSTR analyses does not reveal a strong paternal affinity of the nine Taiwanese tribes to their continental Asian neighbors. Overall, our current findings suggest that, perhaps, only a few of the tribes were involved in the migration out of Taiwan. PMID:24613753

Zeng, Zhaoshu; Rowold, Diane J; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Regueiro, Maria; Li, Li; Zhong, Mingxia; Herrera, Rene J

2014-06-01

206

Residents' exposure to aboriginal health issues. Survey of family medicine programs in Canada.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Canadian family medicine residency programs currently have objectives, staff, and clinical experiences for adequately exposing residents to aboriginal health issues. DESIGN: A one-page questionnaire was developed to survey the details of teaching about and exposure to aboriginal health issues. SETTING: Family medicine programs in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All Canadian family medicine program directors in the 18 programs (16 at universities and two satellite programs) were surveyed between October 1997 and March 1998. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whether programs had teaching objectives for exposing residents to aboriginal health issues, whether they had resource people available, what elective and core experiences in aboriginal health were offered, and what types of experiences were available. RESULTS: Response rate was 100%. No programs had formal, written curriculum objectives for residency training in aboriginal health issues, although some were considering them. Some programs, however, had objectives for specific weekend or day sessions. No programs had a strategy for encouraging enrollment of residents of aboriginal origin. Eleven programs had at least one resource person with experience in aboriginal health issues, and 12 had access to community-based aboriginal groups. Core experiences were all weekend seminars or retreats. Elective experiences in aboriginal health were available in 16 programs, and 11 programs were active on reserves. CONCLUSIONS: Many Canadian family medicine programs give residents some exposure to aboriginal health issues, but most need more expertise and direction on these issues. Some programs have unique approaches to teaching aboriginal health care that could be shared. Formalized objectives derived in collaboration with other family medicine programs and aboriginal groups could substantially improve the quality of education in aboriginal health care in Canada. PMID:10065306

Redwood-Campbell, L.; MacDonald, W. A.; Moore, K.

1999-01-01

207

The Aboriginal Mental Health Worker Program: The challenge of supporting Aboriginal involvement in mental health care in the remote community context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws on our experience as evaluators of the Aboriginal Mental Health Worker Program that has been operating in eight remote communities across the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia, for over four years. The program aimed to fund the placement of Aboriginal Mental Health Workers (AMHWs) in remote community health centres, to work under the clinical leadership

Amanda Harris; Gary Robinson

2007-01-01

208

On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the role and nature of eclipses, comets, meteors, impact events, and certain variable stars. I also test the hypothesis that certain types of stone arrangements have preferred orientations that probably relate to astronomical phenomena. This research shows that Aboriginal astronomical traditions explain the motions of celestial bodies and the relationship between events in the sky and events on Earth. I explore how Aboriginal people perceived and made use of particular astronomical phenomena, such as meteors and comets, and show that Aboriginal people made careful observations of the motions of celestial bodies. I provide evidence that Aboriginal people noticed the change in brightness of particular stars, described the kinematics of eclipses, explained how lunar phases are related to ocean tides, and acknowledged the relationship between meteors, meteorites, impact events, and impact craters. I then show that linear stone arrangements in New South Wales have a preferred orientation to the cardinal points and explore astronomical reasons for this. In the Appendix, I include biographical details of William Edward Stanbridge, one of the first people to write in depth about Aboriginal astronomical traditions, which were compiled from historic records.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2011-12-01

209

The community network: an Aboriginal community football club bringing people together.  

PubMed

There are few empirical studies about the role of Aboriginal sporting organisations in promoting wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to understand the impact of an Aboriginal community sporting team and its environment on the social, emotional and physical wellbeing of young Aboriginal men, and to identify barriers and motivators for participation. A literature review of the impact of sport on the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal participants was conducted. This informed a qualitative study design with a grounded theory approach. Four semistructured interviews and three focus groups were completed with nine current players and five past players of the Fitzroy Stars Football Club to collect data about the social, emotional and physical wellbeing impact of an Aboriginal football team on its Aboriginal players. Results of the interviews were consistent with the literature, with common concepts emerging around community connection, cultural values and identity, health, values, racism and discrimination. However, the interviews provided further detail around the significance of cultural values and community connection for Aboriginal people. The complex nature of social connections and the strength of Aboriginal community networks in sports settings were also evident. Social reasons were just as important as individual health reasons for participation. Social and community connection is an important mechanism for maintaining and strengthening cultural values and identity. Barriers and motivators for participation in Aboriginal sports teams can be complex and interrelated. Aboriginal sports teams have the potential to have a profound impact on the health of Aboriginal people, especially its players, by fostering a safe and culturally strengthening environment and encompassing a significant positive social hub for the Aboriginal community. PMID:25103025

Thorpe, Alister; Anders, Wendy; Rowley, Kevin

2014-10-01

210

From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.  

PubMed

More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM. PMID:25291039

Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

2014-01-01

211

Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n?=?17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal society was an overarching challenge to quitting. Conclusions Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking that include personal, social, cultural and environmental factors. Multidimensional smoking cessation programs are needed that reduce the stress and burden for Aboriginal Health Workers; provide access to culturally relevant quitting resources; and address the prevailing normalisation of smoking in the family, workplace and community. PMID:22621767

2012-01-01

212

"The Honour of the Crown is at Stake": Aboriginal Land Claims Litigation and the  

E-print Network

955 "The Honour of the Crown is at Stake": Aboriginal Land Claims Litigation and the Epistemology. Refurbishing the Crown..........................................................................................965 IV. Conclusion: Multiculturalism, Reconciliation, and the Refurbished Crown

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

213

Diarrhoeal disease: knowledge, attitudes and practices in an aboriginal community.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in an Australian Aboriginal community in South Australia on the knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to diarrhoeal disease. Suggestions were sought on appropriate interventions. Dietary causes (including alcohol), factors relating to drinking water, poor environmental hygiene, infective agents and teething were considered by community member to be important in the causation of diarrhoea. Poor personal and domestic hygiene, and the lack of adequate bathing, toilet and laundry facilities were not considered to be important contributory factors. This may reflect the Aboriginal view of hygiene derived from many years of desert living as nomadic hunter-gatherers. The study provides valuable information to enable the selection of appropriate interventions for the control of diarrhoeal disease in this community. PMID:3203725

Ratnaike, R N; Collings, M T; Ratnaike, S K; Brogan, R M; Gibbs, A

1988-12-01

214

Genetic research and aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.  

PubMed

While human genetic research promises to deliver a range of health benefits to the population, genetic research that takes place in Indigenous communities has proven controversial. Indigenous peoples have raised concerns, including a lack of benefit to their communities, a diversion of attention and resources from non-genetic causes of health disparities and racism in health care, a reinforcement of "victim-blaming" approaches to health inequalities, and possible misuse of blood and tissue samples. Drawing on the international literature, this article reviews the ethical issues relevant to genetic research in Indigenous populations and considers how some of these have been negotiated in a genomic research project currently under way in a remote Aboriginal community. We consider how the different levels of Indigenous research governance operating in Australia impacted on the research project and discuss whether specific guidelines for the conduct of genetic research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are warranted. PMID:23188401

Kowal, Emma; Pearson, Glenn; Peacock, Chris S; Jamieson, Sarra E; Blackwell, Jenefer M

2012-12-01

215

“Rebuilding our community”: Hearing silenced voices on Aboriginal youth suicide  

PubMed Central

This paper brings forth the voices of adult Aboriginal First Nations community members who gathered in focus groups to discuss the problem of youth suicide on their reserves. Our approach emphasizes multilevel (e.g., individual, family, and broader ecological systems) factors viewed by participants as relevant to youth suicide. Wheaton’s conceptualization of stressors (1994; 1999) and Evans-Campbell’s (2008) multilevel classification of the impacts of historical trauma are used as theoretical and analytic guides. Thematic analysis of qualitative data transcripts revealed a highly complex intersection of stressors, traumas, and social problems seen by community members as underlying mechanisms influencing heightened levels of Aboriginal youth suicidality. Our multilevel coding approach revealed that suicidal behaviors were described by community members largely as a problem with deep historical and contemporary structural roots as opposed to being viewed as individualized pathology. PMID:24097414

Walls, Melissa L.; Hautala, Dane; Hurley, Jenna

2014-01-01

216

The maternal aborigine colonization of La Palma (Canary Islands)  

PubMed Central

Teeth from 38 aboriginal remains of La Palma (Canary Islands) were analyzed for external and endogenous mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and for diagnostic coding positions. Informative sequences were obtained from 30 individuals (78.9%). The majority of lineages (93%) were from West Eurasian origin, being the rest (7%) from sub-Saharan African ascription. The bulk of the aboriginal haplotypes had exact matches in North Africa (70%). However, the indigenous Canarian sub-type U6b1, also detected in La Palma, has not yet been found in North Africa, the cradle of the U6 expansion. The most abundant H1 clade in La Palma, defined by transition 16260, is also very rare in North Africa. This means that the exact region from which the ancestors of the Canarian aborigines came has not yet been sampled or that they have been replaced by later human migrations. The high gene diversity found in La Palma (95.2±2.3), which is one of the farthest islands from the African continent, is of the same level than the previously found in the central island of Tenerife (92.4±2.8). This is against the supposition that the islands were colonized from the continent by island hopping and posterior isolation. On the other hand, the great similarity found between the aboriginal populations of La Palma and Tenerife is against the idea of an island-by-island independent maritime colonization without secondary contacts. Our data better fit to an island model with frequent migrations between islands. PMID:19337312

Fregel, Rosa; Pestano, Jose; Arnay, Matilde; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, Jose M; González, Ana M

2009-01-01

217

Climate Change, Health, and Vulnerability in Canadian Northern Aboriginal Communities  

PubMed Central

Background Canada has recognized that Aboriginal and northern communities in the country face unique challenges and that there is a need to expand the assessment of vulnerabilities to climate change to include these communities. Evidence suggests that Canada’s North is already experiencing significant changes in its climate—changes that are having negative impacts on the lives of Aboriginal people living in these regions. Research on climate change and health impacts in northern Canada thus far has brought together Aboriginal community members, government representatives, and researchers and is charting new territory. Methods and Results In this article we review experiences from two projects that have taken a community-based dialogue approach to identifying and assessing the effects of and vulnerability to climate change and the impact on the health in two Inuit regions of the Canadian Arctic. Conclusions The results of the two case projects that we present argue for a multi-stakeholder, participatory framework for assessment that supports the necessary analysis, understanding, and enhancement of capabilities of local areas to respond and adapt to the health impacts at the local level. PMID:17185292

Furgal, Christopher; Seguin, Jacinthe

2006-01-01

218

Late Quaternary Vegetation History and Paleoclimate of the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands Region From Two New Packrat Midden Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new packrat midden (Neotoma spp.) chronologies reveal glacial to interglacial changes in vegetation and climate in the Playas and San Simon Valleys in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. The Borderlands, where the states of Arizona and New Mexico intersect with each other and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora, are characterized by several northwest-southeast trending and tilted fault-block ranges separated by closed topographic basins. These basins now contain ephemeral playas, but held pluvial lakes (Animas, Cloverdale, Cochise, Goodsight, Hachita, Palomas, Playas) during the Pleistocene and lesser lakes sporadically in the Holocene. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from middens indicate vegetation along pluvial lake margins consisted of open pinyon-juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis and a rich understory of C4 annuals and grasses. Although both lake and pinyon-juniper expansion across the lowlands have been attributed to greater winter precipitation, the summer-flowering understory, characteristic of modern desert grassland in the Borderlands, indicates at least moderate summer precipitation during the late glacial. The U.S.A.-Borderlands may have been the only area in the western half of the coterminous United States to "green-up" in July and August, and may have offered seasonal refuge from the dry fire season to the north. Late glacial summer precipitation in the Borderlands may explain the concentration of megafauna and paleoindian sites dating from this period in the area. A transition to a warmer, drier climate is inferred from the extirpation of Pinus edulis from the lowlands of the Playas and San Simon Valleys by 10,300 14C yr B.P. The disappearance of pinyon and change to more xeric oak-juniper communities is contemporaneous with other midden sites in the northern Chihuahuan Desert and may have occurred abruptly during the "Clovis-aged Drought" when the water table at nearby Murray Springs dropped to unusually low levels just before 10,900 14C yr B.P. Few middens in our series dated from the middle Holocene (8000 - 4000 14C yr B.P.), a period during which middens are scarce across the Southwest. The gap was previously attributed to hydrologic drought during the middle Holocene and declines in woody perennials and packrat populations. However, beach ridge and lacustrine deposits from Laguna El Fresnal and Laguna Santa Maria indicate wetter than present conditions in the Borderlands during the middle Holocene. The late Holocene is marked by the arrival of Chihuahuan Desert scrub elements and few departures. Desertscrub elements begin to appear by about 4000 14C yr B.P., marking the transition to present-day vegetation. Larrea tridentata and Fouquieria splendens, two of the dominant desert species present at the sites today; both appear later than in surrounding areas.

Holmgren, C. A.; Penalba, M.; Aasen Rylander, K.; Betancourt, J. L.

2003-12-01

219

Hospitals caring for rural Aboriginal patients: holding response and denial.  

PubMed

Objective To investigate how policy requiring cultural respect and attention to health equity is implemented in the care of rural and remote Aboriginal people in city hospitals. Methods Interviews with 26 staff in public hospitals in Adelaide, South Australia, were analysed (using a framework based on cultural competence) to identify their perceptions of the enabling strategies and systemic barriers against the implementation of official policy in the care of rural Aboriginal patients. Results The major underlying barriers were lack of knowledge and skills among staff generally, and the persistent use of 'business as usual' approaches in their hospitals, despite the clear need for proactive responses to the complex care journeys these patients undertake. Staff reported a sense that while they are required to provide responsive care, care systems often fail to authorise or guide necessary action to enable equitable care. Conclusions Staff caring for rural Aboriginal patients are required to respond to complex particular needs in the absence of effective authorisation. We suggest that systemic misinterpretation of the principle of equal treatment is an important barrier against the development of culturally competent organisations. What is known about this topic? The care received by Aboriginal patients is less effective than it is for the population generally, and access to care is poorer. Those in rural and remote settings experience both severe access barriers and predictable complexity in their patient care journeys. This situation persists despite high-level policies that require tailored responses to the particular needs of Aboriginal people. What does this paper add? Staff who care for these patients develop skills and modify care delivery to respond to their particular needs, but they do so in the absence of systematic policies, procedures and programs that would 'build in' or authorise the required responsiveness. What are the implications for practitioners? Systematic attention, at hospital and clinical unit level, to operationalising high policy goals is needed. The framework of cultural competence offers relevant guidance for efforts (at system, organisation and care delivery levels) to improve care, but requires organisations to address misinterpretation of the principle of equal treatment. PMID:25099681

Dwyer, Judith; Willis, Eileen; Kelly, Janet

2014-11-01

220

Using "Slowmation" for Animated Storytelling to Represent Non-Aboriginal Preservice Teachers' Awareness of "Relatedness to Country"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a group (N=15) of final year non-Aboriginal preservice teachers participated in an elective subject that aimed to raise their awareness about Aboriginal ways of knowing. A vital aspect of the course was developing the preservice teachers' awareness of "relatedness to country" which is a key belief for Aboriginal people. The…

McKnight, Anthony; Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy

2011-01-01

221

Enough Bad News! Remote Social Health & Aboriginal Action in a Harsh Environment--Coober Pedy in South Australia's "Outback."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the complexities of health care in Coober Pedy (South Australia) and the nearby Umoona Aboriginal community, and highlights the vital role of Aboriginal health workers in the implementation of primary health care principles. The Aboriginal population in this "outback" area is characterized by considerable economic problems,…

Brice, G.; And Others

222

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, Volume 14, Number 2 (July, 2011): in press Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy  

E-print Network

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, Volume 14, Number 2 (July, 2011): in press 1 Eclipses explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing

Norris, Ray

223

Colleges Serving Aboriginal Learners and Communities: 2010 Environmental Scan. Trends, Programs, Services, Partnerships, Challenges and Lessons Learned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) released the first report on college Aboriginal programs and services entitled Canadian Colleges and Institutes--Meeting the Needs of Aboriginal Learners. The 2005 report provided an overview of the programs and services offered and described how colleges work with Aboriginal

Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2010

2010-01-01

224

Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

2013-01-01

225

Aboriginal Female Children in Kanyashrams of Orissa, India: A Critical Assessment of the Processes of Educational Institutionalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In India, the Constitution now includes special educational safeguards for aboriginals (Mohanty, 2003). Aboriginal communities, commonly denoted as "tribal," constitute roughly 8 percent of the total Indian population. In 1960, the Scheduled Area and Scheduled Tribes Commission was established with the aim of integrating the aboriginal people into…

Behera, Deepak Kumar; Nath, Nibedita

2005-01-01

226

Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians’ perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers’ (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs’ views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). Methods A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006 - September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. Results CSPs’ lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients’ limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient–provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people’s distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff, providing appropriate cultural training for CSPs, cancer education for Aboriginal stakeholders, continuity of care, avoiding use of medical jargon, accommodating patients’ psychosocial and logistical needs, and in-service coordination. Conclusion Individual CSPs identified challenges in cross-cultural communication and their willingness to accommodate culture-specific needs within the wider health care system including better communication with Aboriginal patients. However, participants’ comments indicated a lack of concerted effort at the system level to address Aboriginal disadvantage in cancer outcomes. PMID:24188503

2013-01-01

227

Didgeridoo Playing and Singing to Support Asthma Management in Aboriginal Australians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…

Eley, Robert; Gorman, Don

2010-01-01

228

Resting Lightly on Mother Earth: The Aboriginal Experience in Urban Educational Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the differential educational experiences of Aboriginal peoples in urban centers--primarily in Canada, but also in Australia and the United States. Major themes of the book are maintenance of individual and collective Aboriginal identity, the impact on that identity of disconnection from the land, spirituality as the key to…

Ward, Angela; Bouvier, Rita

229

Increasing School Success Among Aboriginal Students: Culturally Responsive Curriculum or Macrostructural Variables Affecting Schooling?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aspects of Aboriginal cultural knowledge/perspectives were integrated into the Grade 9 social studies curriculum of a high school in a western Canadian city to appraise the impact on academic achievement, class attendance, and school retention among specific groups of Aboriginal students. The results suggest cautious optimism about increasing…

Kanu, Yatta

2007-01-01

230

The Language of Literacy: A National Resource Directory of Aboriginal Literacy Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory presents, in narrative form, core information about the operations of approximately 100 Aboriginal literacy programs throughout Canada. To qualify for inclusion in the directory, each program had to offer basic, functional, or advanced literacy training; offer literacy training in English, French, or an Aboriginal language; be…

Sabourin, Beverly; Globensky, Peter Andre

231

Reconstructing Theory: Explaining Aboriginal Over-Representation in the Criminal Justice System in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper1 attempts to explain the vulnerability of aboriginal people to involvement in the criminal justice system in Canada. It argues that one of the most important factors is a decline in interdependency among people in aboriginal communities. This has come about as the result of historical processes (such as colonisation and the creation of the reserve system) which have

Carol LaPrairie

1997-01-01

232

Theory and Research on Bullying and Racism from an Aboriginal Australian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…

Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter

2012-01-01

233

Romanticism, aboriginality and national identity: The poetry and prose of Mary Gilmore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of Aborigines in Mary Gilmore's development of an Australian national identity based on the interrelations between natural environment, prominent historical figures, pre?industrial narratives and motifs associated with the settler frontier, Anzac and a distinctive literature and art. She romanticised the early settlers and held ideas inspired by Christianity. Gilmore called for the appropriation of Aboriginal

Kosmas Tsokhas

1998-01-01

234

Community as Teacher Model: Health Profession Students Learn Cultural Safety from an Aboriginal Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…

Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela

2013-01-01

235

Pathways to Equality: Hearings on Access to Public Education for Aboriginal People. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal people are not benefiting from the British Columbia school system, as evidenced by their poor performance on basic skills tests, overrepresentation in special education, and low high school completion rates. The British Columbia Human Rights Commission feels that Aboriginal students do not receive an equal education. Through research,…

British Columbia Human Rights Commission, Vancouver.

236

Multicriterion Decision Merging: Competitive Development of an Aboriginal Whaling Management Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Whaling Commission management of aboriginal subsistence whaling will eventually use an aboriginal whaling management procedure (AWMP) chosen from a collection of candidate procedures after grueling simulation testing. An AWMP is a fully automatic algorithm designed to operate on the results of an assessment (i.e., a statistical estimation problem relying on sparse series of whale abundance data) to produce a

Geof H. Givens

1999-01-01

237

Effective Nutrition Education for Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from a Diabetes Cooking Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Methods: Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured…

Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce E.; Moore, Louise F.; Rubinstein, Raechelle

2012-01-01

238

Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.  

PubMed

Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities. PMID:25265360

Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

2014-10-01

239

Culturally Competent Evaluation for Aboriginal Communities: A Review of the Empirical Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize the current empirical literature on cross-cultural evaluation in Aboriginal communities, and to begin to address the recognized lack of critically engaged discussion about research on culturally competent evaluation. The term "Aboriginal" in this document refers to First Nations, Inuit and…

Chouinard, Jill A.; Cousins, J. Bradley

2007-01-01

240

Translating Policies into Practice: Culturally Appropriate Practices in an Atayal Aboriginal Kindergarten Program in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the Atayal aboriginal kindergarten program in Taiwan, known as the Kui-whai kindergarten program. While teaching a course on "Designing Kindergarten Curriculum" at a teacher-training program in Taiwan, the author realized that she had seven aboriginal preservice teachers in her class; previously she had none. Those students…

Chang, Cecilia Lingfen

2005-01-01

241

Giibinenimidizomin: Owning Ourselves--Critical Incidents in the Attainment of Aboriginal Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explored the facilitation and hindrance of Aboriginal identity attainment and developed a scheme of categories to describe what facilitates and hinders cultural identity among Canadian Aboriginal adults living in British Columbia. Twelve individuals, interviewed using the critical incident technique, were asked to describe observable…

Goodwill, Alanaise O.; McCormick, Rod

2012-01-01

242

Integrating Aboriginal Perspectives in Education: Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored teacher candidates' perceptions of the potentialities and challenges associated with the integration of Aboriginal perspectives into mainstream education. Participants in this study were 2nd-year teacher candidates of a two-year teacher education programme who have completed a course on Aboriginal education. Using a…

Deer, Frank

2013-01-01

243

Exploring Place from an Aboriginal Perspective: Considerations for Outdoor and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a recent study about Outward Bound Canada's Giwaykiwin program for Aboriginal youth. A key finding that emerged from the study was the need to design contemporary Aboriginal education programs based on a recognition of the evolution of Indigenous cultures and languages in close relationship with specific geographical areas.…

Lowan, Greg

2009-01-01

244

Creating Inclusive Space for Aboriginal Scholars and Scholarship in the Academy: Implications for Employment Equity Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many Canadian universities report an under-representation of Aboriginal scholars in their professoriate. Employment equity policy seeks to redress the under-representation of marginalized groups in the Canadian workforce, including Aboriginal peoples. This article presents the findings of a case study which sought to examine, from the perspective…

Roland, Karen A.

2011-01-01

245

WGN, the Journal of the IMO 38:3 (2010) 87 Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings  

E-print Network

WGN, the Journal of the IMO 38:3 (2010) 87 Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings Duane W traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia, a long legged goanna that became a star, who played an important role in the Dreamings of the Abo

Norris, Ray

246

'We've fallen into the cracks': Aboriginal women's experiences with breast cancer through photovoice.  

PubMed

Despite some recognition that Aboriginal women who have experienced breast cancer may have unique health needs, little research has documented the experiences of Aboriginal women from their perspective. Our main objective was to explore and to begin to make visible Aboriginal women's experiences with breast cancer using the qualitative research technique, photovoice. The research was based in Saskatchewan, Canada and participants were Aboriginal women who had completed breast cancer treatment. Although Aboriginal women cannot be viewed as a homogeneous group, participants indicated two areas of priority for health-care: (i) Aboriginal identity and traditional beliefs, although expressed in diverse ways, are an important dimension of breast cancer experiences and have relevance for health-care; and (ii) there is a need for multidimensional support which addresses larger issues of racism, power and socioeconomic inequality. We draw upon a critical and feminist conception of visuality to interrogate and disrupt the dominant visual terrain (both real and metaphorical) where Aboriginal women are either invisible or visible in disempowering ways. Aboriginal women who have experienced breast cancer must be made visible within health-care in a way that recognizes their experiences situated within the structural context of marginalization through colonial oppression. PMID:19906281

Poudrier, Jennifer; Mac-Lean, Roanne Thomas

2009-12-01

247

Enhancing Opportunities for Australian Aboriginal Literacy Learners in Early Childhood Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of contemporary Australian society, the education system is still failing to increase educational outcomes among the majority of Australian Aboriginal (1) learners. This educational dilemma has persisted despite the regular introduction of systemic initiatives and funding aimed at addressing Australian Aboriginal learners' low…

Simpson, Lee; Clancy, Susan

2005-01-01

248

Perceived community environment and physical activity involvement in a northern-rural Aboriginal community  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Ample evidence shows that regular physical activity (PA) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is beginning to emerge linking PA to the physical environment but little is known about the relationship between remote rural environments and PA involvement in Aboriginal peoples. This

Allison M. Kirby; Lucie Lévesque; Virginia Wabano; Jennifer Robertson-Wilson

2007-01-01

249

Aboriginal Education with Anti-Racist Education: Building Alliances across Cultural and Racial Identity Politics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A critical race analysis could provide both Aboriginal students and their university student advisors with knowledge to understand and potentially challenge the effects and processes of racialization that have historically, legally, and politically divided Aboriginal communities and families. Coalition and alliances can be made within and across…

St. Denis, Verna

2007-01-01

250

Examining Disproportionality in School Discipline for Aboriginal Students in Schools Implementing PBIS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the extent to which students with Aboriginal status receive disproportionate rates of office discipline referrals (ODRs) and more severe administrative consequences relative to students without Aboriginal status. The participants were 1,750 students in five rural British Columbia and Alberta…

Greflund, Sara; McIntosh, Kent; Mercer, Sterett H.; May, Seth L.

2014-01-01

251

Evaluation of a mobile diabetes care telemedicine clinic serving Aboriginal communities in northern British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. In British Columbia, Aboriginal diabetes prevalence, hospitalization and mortality rates are all more than twice as high as in the rest of the population. We describe and evaluate a program to improve access to diabetes care for Aboriginal people in northern communities. Study design. Cost-ef- fectiveness evaluation. Methods. A diabetes nurse educator and an ophthalmic technician travel to Abo-

Andrew J. Jin; David Martin; David Maberley; Keith G. Dawson; David W. Seccombe; Joyce Beattie

2003-01-01

252

Disturbances and Dislocations: Understanding Teaching and Learning Experiences in Australian Aboriginal Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A White Australian professor of a class on Indigenous women's dance has her Aboriginal sister-in-law conduct workshops on Indigenous dance. The classroom dynamics resulting from the complex power relationships (teacher as White woman, Aboriginal family member, and students) disturbs Western paradigms. The responsibility of "safely delivering"…

Mackinlay, Elizabeth

2001-01-01

253

A Grounded Theory of New Aboriginal Teachers' Perceptions: The Cultural Attributions of Medicine Wheel Teachings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The stress and anxiety of new teachers is a pervasive problem that impacts upon teacher preparation and retention. Although new mainstream teacher concerns and experiences have been readily discussed in the literature, the same attention has not been invested for new Aboriginal teachers. In Ontario, Canada, in excess of 60% of the Aboriginal

Cherubini, Lorenzo; Niemczyk, Ewelina; Hodson, John; McGean, Sarah

2010-01-01

254

Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

2012-01-01

255

Context, Diversity and Engagement: Early Intervention with Australian Aboriginal Families in Urban and Remote Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…

Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.

2012-01-01

256

Design and implementation of a dental caries prevention trial in remote Canadian Aboriginal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The goal of this cluster randomized trial is to test the effectiveness of a counseling approach, Motivational Interviewing, to control dental caries in young Aboriginal children. Motivational Interviewing, a client-centred, directive counseling style, has not yet been evaluated as an approach for promotion of behaviour change in indigenous communities in remote settings. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Aboriginal women were hired from the

Rosamund Harrison; Jacques Veronneau; Brian Leroux

2010-01-01

257

Living Alongside: Teacher Educator Experiences Working in a Community-Based Aboriginal Teacher Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal education in Canada needs to shift away from the assimilative model to a model of culturally responsive pedagogy. Teacher education programs that serve Aboriginal teachers have an important role to play in developing an education system that both meets mainstream and Indigenous criteria for success. This paper examines the experiences…

Kitchen, Julian; Hodson, John

2013-01-01

258

Incidence and Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among Aboriginal Peoples in Alberta, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major respiratory disorder, largely caused by smoking that has been linked with large health inequalities worldwide. There are important gaps in our knowledge about how COPD affects Aboriginal peoples. This retrospective cohort study assessed the epidemiology of COPD in a cohort of Aboriginal peoples relative to a non-Aboriginal cohort. Methods We used linkage of administrative health databases in Alberta (Canada) from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2010 to compare the annual prevalence, and the incidence rates of COPD between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cohorts aged 35 years and older. Poisson regression models adjusted the analysis for important sociodemographic factors. Results Compared to a non-Aboriginal cohort, prevalence estimates of COPD from 2002 to 2010 were 2.3 to 2.4 times greater among Registered First Nations peoples, followed by the Inuit (1.86 to 2.10 times higher) and the Métis (1.59 to 1.67 times higher). All Aboriginal peoples had significantly higher COPD incidence rates than the non-Aboriginal group (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.97, 2.27). COPD incidence rates were higher in First Nation peoples (IRR: 2.37; 95% CI: 2.19, 2.56) followed by Inuit (IRR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.64, 2.25) and Métis (IRR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.32, 1.69) groups. Conclusions We found a high burden of COPD among Aboriginal peoples living in Alberta; a province with the third largest Aboriginal population in Canada. Altogether, the three Aboriginal peoples groups have higher prevalence and incidence of COPD compared to a non-Aboriginal cohort. The condition affects the three Aboriginal groups differently; Registered First Nations and Inuit have the highest burden of COPD. Reasons for these differences should be further explored within a framework of social determinants of health to help designing interventions that effectively influence modifiable COPD risk factors in each of the Aboriginal groups. PMID:25875817

Ospina, Maria B.; Voaklander, Don; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Stickland, Michael K.; King, Malcolm; Harris, Andrew W.; Rowe, Brian H.

2015-01-01

259

Trauma and cultural safety: providing quality care to HIV-infected women of aboriginal descent.  

PubMed

In Canada, the Aboriginal community is most at risk for HIV infection. Aboriginal peoples have disproportionately high rates of violence, drug use, and challenging socioeconomic circumstances. All of this is related to a history of colonization that has left Aboriginal people vulnerable to HIV infection through unsafe sex, needle sharing, and lack of access to health promotion and education. Aboriginal women are at particular risk for HIV infection. They experience a disproportionate degree of trauma, which is associated with colonization, high rates of childhood sexual abuse, and illicit drug use. A history of trauma impacts on access to health care, uptake of antiretroviral therapy, and mortality and morbidity in people with HIV. We describe the case of a 52-year-old, HIV-infected Aboriginal woman. We review the current evidence related to her case, including colonization, intersectionality, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, revictimization, and substance use. PMID:24012166

McCall, Jane; Lauridsen-Hoegh, Patricia

2014-01-01

260

Snail Shell  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Plant seems to be a Heliotropum sp. Huge snail shells litter the wetland around Asuncion Bay. Near 25°15’49’’S, 57°37’47’’W. La plantita detrás del caracol parece ser un Heliotropium sp., Boraginaceae....

261

"It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Results Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. Conclusions The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation among Aboriginal girls and women. It is critical to acknowledge Aboriginal identity and culture as a source of empowerment; and to recognise the role of persistent marginalization in contributing to the high prevalence and initiation of smoking. PMID:22152218

2011-01-01

262

Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal sexually transmitted infections and blood borne virus notification rates in Western Australia: using linked data to improve estimates  

PubMed Central

Background National notification data for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and blood borne viruses (BBVs) continue to have a high proportion of missing data on Indigenous status, potentially biasing estimates of notification rates by Aboriginality. We evaluated the use of data linkage to improve the accuracy of estimated notification rates for STIs and BBVs in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups in Western Australia. Methods STI and BBV case notifications in Western Australia received in 2010 were linked with administrative health data collections in Western Australia to obtain additional data on Indigenous status. STI and BBV notification rates based on the pre- and post-linkage data among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups were compared. Results Data linkage decreased the proportion of notifications with unknown Indigenous status by 74% from 10.2% to 2.7%. There was no significant difference in disease-specific age-adjusted notification rate ratio estimates based on pre-linkage data and post-linkage data for Aboriginal people compared with non-Aboriginal people. Conclusion Our findings suggest that reported STI and BBV disease-specific age-adjusted notification rates for 2010 in Western Australia are unlikely to be significantly biased by excluding notifications with unknown Indigenous status. This finding is likely to be dependent on recent improvements in the reporting of Indigenous status in notification data in Western Australia. Cost-effective and systematic solutions, including the better use of existing data linkage resources, are required to facilitate continued improvement in the completeness of reporting and accuracy of estimates for notifiable STIs and BBVs in Australia by Aboriginality. PMID:23621957

2013-01-01

263

Improving the Health of Future Generations: The Canadian Institutes of Health Research Institute of Aboriginal Peoples’ Health  

PubMed Central

In the past and in the present, research studies and media reports have focused on pathology and dysfunction in aboriginal communities and have often failed to present a true and complete picture of the aboriginal experience. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research Institute of Aboriginal Peoples’ Health is a national strategic research initiative led by both the aboriginal and research communities. This initiative aims to improve aboriginal health information, develop research capacity, better translate research into practice, and inform public health policy with the goal of improving the health of indigenous peoples. PMID:12197963

Reading, Jeff; Nowgesic, Earl

2002-01-01

264

Shelled opisthobranchs.  

PubMed

In his contributions to the monographic series "Manual of Conchology", Henry Pilsbry reviewed the subgroup Tectibranchiata, comprising those opisthobranch snails that (at least primitively) still possess a shell (Pilsbry, 1894-1896). Exemplified by the Cephalaspidea (bubble shells), others included in this group at Pilsbry's time and since were Anaspidea (sea hares) and the shelled members of Notaspidea (side-gilled slugs) and Sacoglossa (leaf slugs). Pilsbry (and others since his time) considered tectibranchs to be the "root stock" from which more advanced gastropods such as Nudibranchia and Pulmonata were derived. Tectibranch systematics is firmly based on conchology and most species were originally described from empty shells. However, soft-anatomical characters were acknowledged quite early on as equally important in tectibranchs, due to the reduction of their shells and their evolutionary proximity to unshelled gastropods. Today, Tectibranchiata is not recognized as a natural taxon although the word "tectibranch" (like "prosobranch" and "mesogastropod") continues in vernacular use. Shelled opisthobranchs have been redistributed among various taxa, including several new ones--the unresolved basal opisthobranchs (Architectibranchia) and the "lower Heterobranchia", an enigmatic and currently much-studied group of families considered basal to all of Euthyneura (Opisthobranchia and landsnails (Pulmonata)). Despite their polyphyletic status, shelled opisthobranchs remain important subjects in evolutionary studies of gastropods--as the most basal members of nearly every opisthobranch clade and as organisms with mosaic combinations of primitive and derived features within evolutionary "trends" (e.g., loss of the shell, detorsion, concentration of the nervous system, ecological specialization, etc.). Although they play a pivotal role, the shelled opisthobranchs have received minimal attention in more comprehensive gastropod studies, often relegated to token representatives at the derived end of prosobranchs or at the basal end of nudibranchs. The choice of this representative in a larger study is critical if its morphology and/or molecules are to adequately exemplify a larger group. This review explores the shelled opisthobranchs, including their history, current status and presumed synapomorphies, and emphasizes the importance of anatomical data to our current understanding of these "transitional" forms. A synthetic phylogenetic analysis, based on a combination of characters used in four published phylogenies involving tectibranchs, shows the current state of our knowledge and emphasizes areas for future study. The results indicate that Opisthobranchia, Cephalaspidea and Sacoglossa are monophyletic taxa, and that Acteon, the traditional basal opisthobranch, is convincingly a lower heterobranch. In most of the resulting cladograms, Anaspidea formed a monophyletic group with Cephalaspidea, as did pleurobranchoidean Notaspidea with Nudibranchia (the latter recently named as Nudipleura Wägele and Willan, 2000). PMID:12094725

Mikkelsen, Paula M

2002-01-01

265

Songlines and navigation in Wardaman and other Australian Aboriginal cultures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the songlines and navigation of the Wardaman people, and place them in context by comparing them with corresponding practices in other Aboriginal Australian language groups, using previously-unpublished information and also information drawn from the literature. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, enabling the transmission of oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. In many cases, songlines on the Earth are mirrored by songlines in the sky, enabling the sky to be used as a navigational tool, both by using it as a compass and by using it as a mnemonic.

Norris, Ray P.; Harney, Bill Yidumdum

2014-07-01

266

Disease patterns among Canadian aboriginal children. Study in a remote rural setting.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe disease patterns among children in an isolated aboriginal community, and to compare them with patterns found among other aboriginal and non-aboriginal Canadian children. DESIGN: Retrospective review of logbooks and patient charts extracted from nursing station records for all visits to the community's nursing station between April 1, 1990, and March 31, 1991. SETTING: An isolated aboriginal community located in northwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: All aboriginal children younger than 5 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disease-specific incidence per 100 person-years by age, sex, and season. RESULTS: Upper and lower respiratory tract infections, skin conditions, otitis media, and chickenpox were the leading causes of illness. Except for chickenpox, these illnesses occurred at a significantly higher rate among infants than among children 1 to 4 years old. No important differences were found by sex for any condition, except asthma where boys predominated. Autumn and winter seasonal patterns were most evident for respiratory tract infections. The rate of illness for most conditions was higher than that reported among other aboriginal and non-aboriginal Canadian children. CONCLUSIONS: The illnesses most frequently seen in these children are respiratory tract infections and skin conditions. Etiologic factors are likely to be related to multiple interacting forces (both environmental and genetic) and require further investigation. PMID:9789667

Harris, S. B.; Glazier, R.; Eng, K.; McMurray, L.

1998-01-01

267

Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children  

PubMed Central

In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many women, substance abuse offers a means of coping with trauma, such as childhood abuse, partner violence, and, for Aboriginal women, the intergenerational effects of colonization. In this paper, we review treatment issues for Aboriginal mothers with substance use problems and their children. We discuss gender-specific issues in substance abuse, the need for women-specific treatment, the impact of substance abuse on children and parenting, the additional risks for Aboriginal women and children, and the need for integrated programs (those that integrate pregnancy-, parenting-, and child-related services with women-specific addiction treatment). We describe New Choices as an example of an integrated program, review research on existing treatment for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues, and describe Sheway as a promising integrated program for Aboriginal women with substance abuse issues and their young children. There are few treatment programs specifically for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues and their children and very little research on their effectiveness. Based on our review of existing evidence, we offer recommendations for future research and practice. PMID:24976814

Niccols, Allison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

2014-01-01

268

Peopling of Sahul: mtDNA variation in aboriginal Australian and Papua New Guinean populations.  

PubMed Central

We examined genetic affinities of Aboriginal Australian and New Guinean populations by using nucleotide variation in the two hypervariable segments of the mtDNA control region (CR). A total of 318 individuals from highland Papua New Guinea (PNG), coastal PNG, and Aboriginal Australian populations were typed with a panel of 29 sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes. The SSO-probe panel included five new probes that were used to type an additional 1,037 individuals from several Asian populations. The SSO-type data guided the selection of 78 individuals from Australia and east Indonesia for CR sequencing. A gene tree of these CR sequences, combined with published sequences from worldwide populations, contains two previously identified highland PNG clusters that do not include any Aboriginal Australians; the highland PNG clusters have coalescent time estimates of approximately 80,000 and 122,000 years ago, suggesting ancient isolation and genetic drift. SSO-type data indicate that 84% of the sample of PNG highlander mtDNA belong to these two clusters. In contrast, the Aboriginal Australian sequences are intermingled throughout the tree and cluster with sequences from multiple populations. Phylogenetic and multidimensional-scaling analyses of CR sequences and SSO types split PNG highland and Aboriginal Australian populations and link Aboriginal Australian populations with populations from the subcontinent of India. These mtDNA results do not support a close relationship between Aboriginal Australian and PNG populations but instead suggest multiple migrations in the peopling of Sahul. PMID:10441589

Redd, A J; Stoneking, M

1999-01-01

269

Understanding inequalities in access to health care services for aboriginal people: a call for nursing action.  

PubMed

We present findings from an Access Research Initiative to reduce health disparities and promote equitable access with Aboriginal peoples in Canada. We employed Indigenous, interpretive, and participatory research methodologies in partnership with Aboriginal people. Participants reported stories of bullying, fear, intimidation, and lack of cultural understanding. This research reveals the urgent need to enhance the delivery of culturally appropriate practices in emergency. As nurses, if we wish to affect equity of access, then attention is required to structural injustices that act as barriers to access such as addressing the stigma, stereotyping, and discrimination experienced by Aboriginal people in this study. PMID:25102218

Cameron, Brenda L; Carmargo Plazas, Maria Del Pilar; Salas, Anna Santos; Bourque Bearskin, R Lisa; Hungler, Krista

2014-01-01

270

‘Doing the hard yards’: carer and provider focus group perspectives of accessing Aboriginal childhood disability services  

PubMed Central

Background Despite a high prevalence of disability, Aboriginal Australians access disability services in Australia less than non-Aboriginal Australians with a disability. The needs of Aboriginal children with disability are particularly poorly understood. They can endure long delays in treatment which can impact adversely on development. This study sought to ascertain the factors involved in accessing services and support for Aboriginal children with a disability. Methods Using the focus group method, two community forums, one for health and service providers and one for carers of Aboriginal children with a disability, were held at an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS) in the Sydney, metropolitan area of New South Wales, Australia. Framework analysis was applied to qualitative data to elucidate key issues relevant to the dimensions of access framework. Independent coding consistency checks were performed and consensus of analysis verified by the entire research team, several of whom represented the local Aboriginal community. Results Seventeen health and social service providers representing local area government and non-government-funded health and social service organisations and five carers participated in two separate forums between September and October 2011. Lack of awareness of services and inadequate availability were prominent concerns in both groups despite geographic proximity to a major metropolitan area with significant health infrastructure. Carers noted racism, insufficient or non-existent services, and the need for an enhanced role of ACCHSs and AHWs in disability support services. Providers highlighted logistical barriers and cultural and historical issues that impacted on the effectiveness of mainstream services for Aboriginal people. Conclusions Despite dedicated disability services in an urban community, geographic proximity does not mitigate lack of awareness and availability of support. This paper has enumerated a number of considerations to address provision of disability services in an urban Australian Aboriginal community including building expertise and specialist capacity within Aboriginal Health Worker positions and services. Increasing awareness of services, facilitating linkages and referrals, eliminating complexities to accessing support, and working with families and Aboriginal community organisations within a framework of resilience and empowerment to ensure a relevant and acceptable model are necessary steps to improving support and care for Aboriginal children with a disability. PMID:23958272

2013-01-01

271

Vibration of Shells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vibrational characteristics and mechanical properties of shell structures are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) fundamental equations of thin shell theory, (2) characteristics of thin circular cylindrical shells, (3) complicating effects in circular cylindrical shells, (4) noncircular cylindrical shell properties, (5) characteristics of spherical shells, and (6) solution of three-dimensional equations of motion for cylinders.

Leissa, A. W.

1973-01-01

272

A systematic review of community interventions to improve Aboriginal child passenger safety.  

PubMed

We evaluated evidence of community interventions to improve Aboriginal child passenger safety (CPS) in terms of its scientific merit and cultural relevance. We included studies if they reported interventions to improve CPS in Aboriginal communities, compared at least pre- and postintervention conditions, and evaluated rates and severity of child passenger injuries, child restraint use, or knowledge of CPS. We also appraised quality and cultural relevance of studies. Study quality was associated with community participation and cultural relevance. Strong evidence showed that multicomponent interventions tailored to each community improves CPS. Interventions in Aboriginal communities should incorporate Aboriginal views of health, involve the community, and be multicomponent and tailored to the community's circumstances and culture. PMID:24754652

Ishikawa, Takuro; Oudie, Eugenia; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian

2014-06-01

273

Adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for Remote Aboriginal Australia.  

PubMed

A key challenge to providing quality developmental care in remote Aboriginal primary health care (PHC) centers has been the absence of culturally appropriate developmental screening instruments. This study focused on the cross-cultural adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, 3rd edition (ASQ-3), with careful attention to language and culture. We aimed to adapt the ASQ-3 for use with remote dwelling Australian Aboriginal children, and to investigate the cultural appropriateness and feasibility of the adapted ASQ-3 for use in this context. We undertook a qualitative study in two remote Australian Aboriginal communities, using a six-step collaborative adaptation process. Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) were trained to use the adapted ASQ-3, and follow-up interviews examined participants' views of the cultural acceptability and usefulness of the adapted instrument. The adapted ASQ-3 was found to have high face validity and to be culturally acceptable and relevant to parents, AHWs, and early childhood development experts. PMID:25488936

D'Aprano, Anita; Silburn, Sven; Johnston, Vanessa; Robinson, Gary; Oberklaid, Frank; Squires, Jane

2014-12-01

274

Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.  

PubMed

In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today. PMID:22545265

Balint, Ruth

2012-01-01

275

Lifestyle Variables, Nontraditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and the Metabolic Syndrome in an Aboriginal Canadian Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine lifestyle factors associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to explore the relationships between MetS and non-traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors [adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and serum amyloid A (SAA)] in an isolated Aboriginal Canadian community.Research Methods and Procedures: Data were obtained from 360 non-diabetic adults participating in a population-based study of Aboriginal Canadians. Fasting

Juan Liu; T. Kue Young; Bernard Zinman; Stewart B. Harris; Philip W. Connelly; Anthony J. G. Hanley

2006-01-01

276

Over-the-counter analgesic use by urban Aboriginal people in South Australia.  

PubMed

Despite recent health gains for Australian Aboriginal people their significantly poorer health status compared with that of non-Aboriginal Australians remains significant. Within the context of high levels of mortality and morbidity, research highlights significant barriers to timely health-care, access and safe use of prescribed and over-the-counter medicines. The risks to Aboriginal people's health due to unsafe medication use are preventable. The purpose of this article is to present the findings from qualitative research focused on Aboriginal people's knowledge, use and experience of over-the-counter analgesics. The study was conducted in the north-western metropolitan area of Adelaide, which has the largest urban Aboriginal population in South Australia. The employment of an Aboriginal Elder as Cultural Advisor enabled engagement with Aboriginal participants. Purposive 'snow ball' sampling was used to recruit participants for four focus groups [n = 30] and one participant opting for a personal semi-structured interview. Participants worked with the researchers to develop the findings and formulate recommendations. The 25 women and 6 men, aged 20-80 years reported various chronic medical conditions. Focus groups/interview elicited accounts of critical issues concerning safe selection and use of over-the-counter analgesics. Serious health risks were evident due to limited knowledge about safe analgesic use and over-reliance on information from family, friends and advertising. Extremely poor access was reported by participants to culturally and linguistically appropriate information, education and advice from a range of doctors and other health professionals including Aboriginal health workers. PMID:23387500

Cusack, Lynette; de Crespigny, Charlotte; Wilson, Coral

2013-07-01

277

Fire on the horizon: contemporary Aboriginal burning issues in the Tanami Desert, central Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a collaborative research project created to promote the coexistence of fire, people and biodiversity in central\\u000a Australia, a case study was conducted on Aboriginal perceptions of fire and its management in the southern Tanami Desert of\\u000a Central Australia. The Tanami was chosen due to consecutive wildfire events and reported fire conflicts between Aboriginal\\u000a and pastoral (cattle station)

Petronella Vaarzon-Morel; Kasia Gabrys

2009-01-01

278

Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current services. While this study is with a select population of Aboriginal Australian women, it reveals the importance of acknowledging differences, particularly in use of language to convey ideas and support Aboriginal women experiencing menopause. PMID:24646300

2014-01-01

279

Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented to improve communication on all levels and reduce systemic barriers operating within the health system. PMID:23497140

2013-01-01

280

Health effects of kava use in an eastern Arnhem Land Aboriginal community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Heavy kava use in Aboriginal commun- ities has been linked to various health effects, including anecdotes of sudden cardiac deaths. Aims: To examine associations between kava use and potential health effects. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out within a kava-using east Arnhem Land Aboriginal community in tropical northern Australia. One-hundred-and-one adults who were current, recent or non-users of

A. R. Clough; S. P. Jacups; Z. Wang; C. B. Burns; R. S. Bailie; S. J. Cairney; A. Collie; T. Guyula; S. P. McDonald; B. J. Currie

2003-01-01

281

Healing Traditions: Culture, Community and Mental Health Promotion with Canadian Aboriginal Peoples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify issues and concepts to guide the development of culturally appropriate mental health promotion strategies with Aboriginal populations and communities in Canada.Methods: We review recent literature examining the links between the history of colonialism and government interventions (including the residential school system, out-adoption, and centralised bureaucratic control) and the mental health of Canadian Aboriginal peoples.Results: There are high

Laurence Kirmayer; Cori Simpson; Margaret Cargo

2003-01-01

282

Awareness and impact of the ‘Bubblewrap’ advertising campaign among Aboriginal smokers in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAntismoking mass media campaigns have been shown to reduce smoking prevalence in the mainstream community, however there is little published research on their effect on Aboriginal Australian smokers.ObjectivesTo evaluate the awareness and impact of a mainstream mass media advertising campaign (the ‘Bubblewrap’ campaign) on Aboriginal smokers in the state of Western Australia.MethodsA personal intercept survey was conducted in July 2008

Terry Boyle; Carrington C. J. Shepherd; Glenn Pearson; Heather Monteiro; Daniel McAullay; Kristina Economo; Susan Stewart

2009-01-01

283

Shell worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications for SETI as well.

Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

2013-02-01

284

Comparison of the predictors of alcohol use and misuse among Han and aboriginal students in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the predictors of alcohol usage between the Han and aboriginal students in Taiwan. Results showed a significant gender difference for alcohol use and problematic drinking in both Han and aboriginal adolescents, with males having a higher prevalence of these problems than females in both groups. Aboriginal adolescents did not show gender differences in alcohol-related negative consequences. Male, paternal drinking, single-parent household, peer drinking, and peer relationships are the significant predictors for the Hans adolescents' problematic drinking. Gender, paternal drinking, and peer drinking are the significant predictors for aboriginal adolescents' problematic drinking. If the father drinks frequently, odds ratio is 6.48 likely for aboriginal adolescents to have problematic drinking. If peers drink frequently, odds ratio is 6.26 likely for aboriginal adolescents to have alcohol-related negative consequences. Frequent peer drinking was associated with a 6.26 odds ratio of have alcohol-related negative consequences. PMID:15893094

Yeh, Mei-Yu; Chiang, I-Chyun

2005-06-01

285

Aboriginal hunting buffers climate-driven fire-size variability in Australia's spinifex grasslands.  

PubMed

Across diverse ecosystems, greater climatic variability tends to increase wildfire size, particularly in Australia, where alternating wet-dry cycles increase vegetation growth, only to leave a dry overgrown landscape highly susceptible to fire spread. Aboriginal Australian hunting fires have been hypothesized to buffer such variability, mitigating mortality on small-mammal populations, which have suffered declines and extinctions in the arid zone coincident with Aboriginal depopulation. We test the hypothesis that the relationship between climate and fire size is buffered through the maintenance of an anthropogenic, fine-grained fire regime by comparing the effect of climatic variability on landscapes dominated by Martu Aboriginal hunting fires with those dominated by lightning fires. We show that Aboriginal fires are smaller, more tightly clustered, and remain small even when climate variation causes huge fires in the lightning region. As these effects likely benefit threatened small-mammal species, Aboriginal hunters should be considered trophic facilitators, and policies aimed at reducing the risk of large fires should promote land-management strategies consistent with Aboriginal burning regimes. PMID:22689979

Bliege Bird, Rebecca; Codding, Brian F; Kauhanen, Peter G; Bird, Douglas W

2012-06-26

286

Study on alcohol dependence and factors related to erectile dysfunction among aborigines in taiwan.  

PubMed

Relatively few studies have addressed the risk factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Taiwanese- most have described ED and medical problems in the general population. In this study, the cardiovascular risk factors of ED among aborigines in Taiwan were investigated. However, alcohol dependence (AD) was prevalent in Taiwan's aborigine population. So this study also focused on the relationship among AD, the cardiovascular risk factors and ED. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and data was obtained from a baseline survey of 192 aboriginal adults (35-75 years of age). The participants' demographic data, AD, markers of endothelial function, serum testosterone, and ED status were assessed. Ninety-four (49%) of the 192 participants had a history of alcoholism and 79 (84%) of those with alcoholism had ED. The study reported that AD and hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome (MetS), ED, abnormality of testosterone, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are highly prevalent among the aborigines. Factors that may affect ED included age, AD, central obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, MetS, and testosterone. ED is highly prevalent among aborigines with the risk factors of AD, MetS, old age, and abnormal testosterone serum level. MetS, atherosclerosis, and ED are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, an increased focus on Taiwanese aborigines with ED is necessary. PMID:25061088

Chao, Jian-Kang; Ma, Mi-Chia; Lin, Yen-Chin; Chiang, Han-Sun; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

2015-05-01

287

Aboriginal hunting buffers climate-driven fire-size variability in Australia’s spinifex grasslands  

PubMed Central

Across diverse ecosystems, greater climatic variability tends to increase wildfire size, particularly in Australia, where alternating wet–dry cycles increase vegetation growth, only to leave a dry overgrown landscape highly susceptible to fire spread. Aboriginal Australian hunting fires have been hypothesized to buffer such variability, mitigating mortality on small-mammal populations, which have suffered declines and extinctions in the arid zone coincident with Aboriginal depopulation. We test the hypothesis that the relationship between climate and fire size is buffered through the maintenance of an anthropogenic, fine-grained fire regime by comparing the effect of climatic variability on landscapes dominated by Martu Aboriginal hunting fires with those dominated by lightning fires. We show that Aboriginal fires are smaller, more tightly clustered, and remain small even when climate variation causes huge fires in the lightning region. As these effects likely benefit threatened small-mammal species, Aboriginal hunters should be considered trophic facilitators, and policies aimed at reducing the risk of large fires should promote land-management strategies consistent with Aboriginal burning regimes. PMID:22689979

Bliege Bird, Rebecca; Codding, Brian F.; Kauhanen, Peter G.

2012-01-01

288

An endemic neurological disorder in tribal Australian aborigines.  

PubMed Central

Thirteen, and possibly sixteen cases of neurological disorder have been identified in a population of approximately 1100 tribal aborigines living in Groote Eylandt and the adjacent mainland. There were two relatively distinct clinical pictures: one coming on in childhood involved the motor system, the patients often having remarkably lax ligaments; and the other, generally of later onset, comprising cerebellar, upper motor neurone and sometimes supranuclear ophthalmoplegic features. There was some evidence that the two syndromes are varieties of a single condition. No causal factors were identified but there were indications that the disorder might be genetically determined. Attention is drawn to the similarities between this disorder and other ethnic-geographic isolates, particularly the ALS-Parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam. Images PMID:7431026

Kiloh, L G; Lethlean, A K; Morgan, G; Cawte, J E; Harris, M

1980-01-01

289

Genitourinary tract infections in pregnancy and low birth weight: case-control study in Australian aboriginal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the association between genital and urinary tract infections in pregnant Aboriginal women and low birth weight. DESIGN--Retrospective case-control study controlling for potential confounding variables. SETTING--Western Australia from 1985 to 1987. SUBJECTS--All Aboriginal women (n = 269) who had given birth to singleton infants weighing 2250 g or less (cases), and 269 randomly selected Aboriginal women who had given

R Schultz; A W Read; J A Straton; F J Stanley; P Morich

1991-01-01

290

Biomes of western North America at 18,000, 6000 and 0 14C yr BP reconstructed from pollen and packrat midden data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new compilation of pollen and packrat midden data from western North America provides a refined reconstruction of the composition and distribution of biomes in western North America for today and for 6000 and 18,000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP). Modern biomes in western North America are adequately portrayed by pollen assemblages from lakes and bogs. Forest biomes in western North America share many taxa in their pollen spectra and it can be difficult to discriminate among these biomes. Plant macrofossils from packrat middens provide reliable identification of modern biomes from arid and semiarid regions, and this may also be true in similar environments in other parts of the world. However, a weighting factor for trees and shrubs must be used to reliably reconstruct modern biomes from plant macrofossils. A new biome, open conifer woodland, which includes eurythermic conifers and steppe plants, was defined to categorize much of the current and past vegetation of the semiarid interior of western North America. At 6000 14C yr BP, the forest biomes of the coastal Pacific North-west and the desert biomes of the South-west were in near-modern positions. Biomes in the interior Pacific North-west differed from those of today in that taiga prevailed in modern cool/cold mixed forests. Steppe was present in areas occupied today by open conifer woodland in the northern Great Basin, while in the central and southern Rocky Mountains forests grew where steppe grows today. During the mid-Holocene, cool conifer forests were expanded in the Rocky Mountains (relative to today) but contracted in the Sierra Nevada. These differences from the forests of today imply different climatic histories in these two regions between 6000 14C yr BP and today. At 18,000 14C yr BP, deserts were absent from the South-west and the coverage of open conifer woodland was greatly expanded relative to today. Steppe and tundra were present in much of the region now covered by forests in the Pacific North-west.

Thompson, R.S.; Anderson, K.H.

2000-01-01

291

Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and stable isotopes in modern and Holocene Protothaca staminea shells from a northern California coastal upwelling region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study explores the potential of intertidal Protothaca staminea shells as high-resolution geochemical archives of environmental change in a coastal upwelling region. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were analyzed by excimer laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at sub-weekly temporal resolution in shells growing ???1 mm per month. Growth patterns of a modern P. staminea shell from Humboldt Bay, California, collected in December 1999 made it possible to infer a lifespan from 1993 to 1998. Growth hiatuses in the shell may have excluded records of extreme events. Mg/Ca ratios appeared to be partly controlled by water temperature; the correlation coefficient between temperature and Mg/Ca was r = 0.71 in one of four growth increments. Significant year-to-year differences in the sensitivity of Mg/Ca to temperature in P. staminea could not be explained, however. Sr/Ca ratios appeared to be more closely related to shell growth rate. Oxygen isotopes, measured at 2-week temporal resolution in the same shell, did not show a clear relation to local temperature in summer, possibly because temperatures were higher and less variable at the King Salmon mudflat, where the shell was collected, than in the main channel of Humboldt Bay, where water properties were monitored. Negative shell ??13C values (<-0.5???) marked spring and summer coastal upwelling events. The Mg contents of P. staminea midden shells dated to ???3 ka and ???9 ka were significantly lower than in the modern shell. This may have resulted from degradation of a Mg-rich shell organic matrix and precluded quantitative interpretation of the older high-resolution records. Elevated ??13C values in the ???3 ka shell suggested that the individual grew in highly productive or stratified environment, such as a shallow coastal embayment or lagoon. Copyright ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

Takesue, R.K.; VanGeen, A.

2004-01-01

292

‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life’: Aboriginal people's experience of haemodialysis in rural Australia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Australian Aboriginal people have at least eight times the incidence of end-stage kidney disease, requiring dialysis, as the non-Aboriginal population. Provision of health services to rural Aboriginal people with renal disease is challenging due to barriers to access and cultural differences. We aimed to describe the experiences of Aboriginal people receiving haemodialysis in rural Australia, to inform strategies for improving renal services. Design A qualitative design incorporating: Indigenist research methodology and Community Based Participatory Research principles. In-depth interviews used a ‘yarning’ and storytelling approach. Thematic analysis was undertaken and verified by an Aboriginal Community Reference Group. Setting A health district in rural New South Wales, Australia. Participants Snowball sampling recruited 18 Aboriginal haemodialysis recipients. Results Six themes emerged which described the patient journey: ‘The biggest shock of me life,’ expressed the shock of diagnosis and starting the dialysis; ‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life,’ explained how positive attitudes to treatment develop; ‘Family is everything’, described the motivation and support to continue dialysis; ‘If I had one of them nurses at home to help me’, depicted acute hospital settings as culturally unsafe; ‘Don't use them big jawbreakers’, urged service providers to use simple language and cultural awareness; ‘Stop ‘em following us onto the machine’, emphasised the desire for education for the younger generations about preventing kidney disease. An Aboriginal interpretation of this experience, linked to the analysis, was depicted in the form of an Aboriginal painting. Conclusions Family enables Aboriginal people to endure haemodialysis. Patients believe that priorities for improving services include family-centred and culturally accommodating healthcare systems; and improving access to early screening of kidney disease. Inclusion of Aboriginal patients in cultural education for renal staff is recommended. Providing opportunities for patients to educate young Aboriginal people about kidney disease prevention may be highly effective and empowering. PMID:25231493

Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

2014-01-01

293

Aboriginal Self-Determination in Australia: The Effects of Minority-Majority Frames and Target Universalism on Majority Collective Guilt and Compensation Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of Aboriginal-Anglo Australian relations, we tested the effect of framing (multiculturalism versus separatism) and majority group members' social values (universalism) on the persuasiveness of Aboriginal group rhetoric, majority collective guilt, attitudes toward compensation, and reparations for Aboriginals. As predicted, Anglo…

Reid, Scott A.; Gunter, Helen N.; Smith, Joanne R.

2005-01-01

294

The Aboriginal Motif in Children's Literature. Proceedings of a National Seminar Held at the University of Tasmania Tasmania, Australia, September 25-27, 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This seminar on the Aboriginal motif in children's literature was opened by critic Walter McVitty with a paper entitled "The Presentation of Australian Aborigines and Their Culture in Children's Literature: A Brief Overview." In "Some Thoughts on the Aborigine as Presented in Children's Literature," Queensland author Bill Scott stressed the need…

Herr, Twila A. J., Ed.

295

Comparison of late HIV diagnosis as a marker of care for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal people living with HIV in Ontario  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Studies have found that Aboriginal people living with HIV/AIDS (APHAs) are more likely than non-APHAs to receive suboptimal HIV care, yet achieve similar clinical outcomes with proper care. OBJECTIVE: To compare the proportions of individuals diagnosed late with HIV between APHAs and non-APHAs within the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study (OCS). METHODS: The analysis included OCS participants who completed the baseline visit by November 2009. Two definitions of the outcome of late HIV diagnosis were used: the proportion of participants with an AIDS-defining illness (ADI) before or within three months of HIV diagnosis; and the proportion of participants with a CD4+ count <200 cells/mL at diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between Aboriginal ethnicity and late HIV diagnosis. RESULTS: APHAs were more likely to be female and have lower income, education and employment. No statistically significant differences were noted in the proportions receiving a late HIV diagnosis defined by ADI (Aboriginal 5.2% versus non-Aboriginal 6.3%; P=0.40). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between Aboriginal ethnicity and late HIV diagnosis defined by CD4+ count after adjusting for age and HIV risk factor (OR 1.55; P=0.04). DISCUSSION: APHAs were more likely to have a CD4+ count <200 cells/mL at diagnosis but had similar clinical outcomes from late diagnosis when defined by ADI. However, differences may be underestimated due to recruitment limitations and selection bias. CONCLUSION: Additional work is needed to address the socioeconomic and health care needs of APHAs. PMID:24294285

Jaworsky, Denise; Monette, LaVerne; Raboud, Janet; O’Brien-Teengs, Doe; Diong, Christina; Blitz, Sandra; Rourke, Sean B; Loutfy, Mona R

2012-01-01

296

Aboriginal overkill : The role of Native Americans in structuring western ecosystems.  

PubMed

Prior to European influence, predation by Native Americans was the major factor limiting the numbers and distribution of ungulates in the Intermountain West. This hypothesis is based on analyses of (1) the efficiency of Native American predation, including cooperative hunting, use of dogs, food storage, use of nonungulate foods, and hunting methods; (2) optimal-foraging studies; (3) tribal territory boundary zones as prey reservoirs; (4) species ratios, and sex and age of aboriginal ungulate kills; (5) impact of European diseases on aboriginal populations; and (6) synergism between aboriginal and carnivore predation. Native Americans had no effective conservation practices, and the manner in which they harvested ungulates was the exact opposite of any predicted conservation strategy. Native Americans acted in ways that maximized their individual fitness regardless of the impact on the environment. For humans, conservation is seldom an evolutionarily stable strategy. By limiting ungulate numbers and purposefully modifying the vegetation with fire, Native Americans structured entire plant and animal communities. Because ecosystems with native peoples are entirely different than those lacking aboriginal populations, a "hands-off" or "natural regulation" approach by today's land managers will not duplicate the ecological conditions under which those ecosystems developed. The modern concept of wilderness as areas without human influence is a myth. North America was not a "wilderness" waiting to be discovered, instead it was home to tens of millions of aboriginal peoples before European-introduced diseases decimated their numbers. PMID:24214685

Kay, C E

1994-12-01

297

Aboriginal community-centered injury surveillance: a community-based participatory process evaluation.  

PubMed

While injuries are a leading health concern for Aboriginal populations, injury rates and types vary substantially across bands. The uniqueness of Aboriginal communities highlights the importance of collecting community-level injury surveillance data to assist with identifying local injury patterns, setting priorities for action and evaluating programs. Secwepemc First Nations communities in British Columbia, Canada, implemented the Injury Surveillance Project using the Aboriginal Community-Centered Injury Surveillance System. This paper presents findings from a community-based participatory process evaluation of the Injury Surveillance Project. Qualitative data collection methods were informed by OCAP (Ownership, Control, Access, and Possession) principles and included focus groups, interviews and document review. Results focused on lessons learned through the planning, implementation and management of the Injury Surveillance Project identifying lessons related to: project leadership and staff, training, project funding, initial project outcomes, and community readiness. Key findings included the central importance of a community-based and paced approach guided by OCAP principles, the key role of leadership and project champions, and the strongly collaborative relationships between the project communities. Findings may assist with successful implementation of community-based health surveillance in other settings and with other health issues and illustrate another path to self-determination for Aboriginal communities. The evaluation methods represent an example of a collaborative community-driven approach guided by OCAP principles necessary for work with Aboriginal communities. PMID:22138890

Brussoni, Mariana; Olsen, Lise L; Joshi, Pamela

2012-04-01

298

Developing an exploratory framework linking Australian Aboriginal peoples' connection to country and concepts of wellbeing.  

PubMed

Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples' relationship to their traditional land (known as Country) and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships) and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism) factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples' health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples' wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples' health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation. PMID:23435590

Kingsley, Jonathan; Townsend, Mardie; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Bolam, Bruce

2013-02-01

299

'Race' matters: racialization and egalitarian discourses involving Aboriginal people in the Canadian health care context.  

PubMed

The major purpose of this paper is to examine how 'race' and racialization operate in health care. To do so, we draw upon data from an ethnographic study that examines the complex issues surrounding health care access for Aboriginal people in an urban center in Canada. In our analysis, we strategically locate our critical examination of racialization in the 'tension of difference' between two emerging themes, namely the health care rhetoric of 'treating everyone the same,' and the perception among many Aboriginal patients that they were 'being treated differently' by health care providers because of their identity as Aboriginal people, and because of their low socio-economic status. Contrary to the prevailing discourse of egalitarianism that paints health care and other major institutions as discrimination-free, we argue that 'race' matters in health care as it intersects with other social categories including class, substance use, and history to organize inequitable access to health and health care for marginalized populations. Specifically, we illustrate how the ideological process of racialization can shape the ways that health care providers 'read' and interact with Aboriginal patients, and how some Aboriginal patients avoid seeking health care based on their expectation of being treated differently. We conclude by urging those of us in positions of influence in health care, including doctors and nurses, to critically reflect upon our own positionality and how we might be complicit in perpetuating social inequities by avoiding a critical discussion of racialization. PMID:18425710

Tang, Sannie Y; Browne, Annette J

2008-04-01

300

Aboriginal Language-Learning in Cyberspace: A Typology of Language-Related Web Sites and Their Potential Uses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on language diversity, linguistic human rights, and language renewal is reviewed, and Web sites dedicated to Aboriginal languages are examined. The Internet provides a resource center where grammars, lexicons, fonts, and other resources can be developed; a means of learning languages; and a medium for communicating in Aboriginal

Yeoman, Elizabeth

2000-01-01

301

Can't hold us back! Hip-hop and the racial motility of aboriginal bodies in urban spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban centers across Canada are partitioned by racial geographies that circumvent and circumscribe the movements of aboriginal bodies. This article examines how aboriginal youth experience and engage these racisms that organize Canadian social spaces. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork undertaken at a drop-in recreational centre in the inner city of Edmonton, Alberta, it documents the different ways in which indigenous youth

Bonar Buffam

2011-01-01

302

Establishing a Community-Controlled Multi-Institutional Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Health Council (QAIHC) lead and govern the Centre for Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE), which has a focus on circulatory and associated conditions in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The CCRE is a partnership between QAIHC and Monash University, the Queensland University of…

Pearce, Leilani; Fredericks, Bronwyn

2007-01-01

303

Real Stories, Extraordinary People: Preliminary Findings from an Aboriginal Community-Controlled Cultural Immersion Program for Local Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on effective strategies for developing the cultural competence of teachers involved in Aboriginal education and presents the preliminary findings of a review into the Connecting to Country Program (CTC), a joint venture of the NSW Aboriginal Education Consultative Group (AECG) and the NSW Department of Education and Communities…

Burgess, Cathie; Cavanagh, Pat

2012-01-01

304

Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

2001-01-01

305

Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and…

Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

2015-01-01

306

Innovations on a shoestring: a study of a collaborative community-based Aboriginal mental health service model in rural Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Collaborative, culturally safe services that integrate clinical approaches with traditional Aboriginal healing have been hailed as promising approaches to ameliorate the high rates of mental health problems in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Overcoming significant financial and human resources barriers, a mental health team in northern Ontario is beginning to realize this ideal. We studied the strategies, strengths and challenges

Marion A Maar; Barbara Erskine; Lorrilee McGregor; Tricia L Larose; Mariette E Sutherland; Douglas Graham; Marjory Shawande; Tammy Gordon

2009-01-01

307

“People like numbers”: a descriptive study of cognitive assessment methods in clinical practice for Aboriginal Australians in the Northern Territory  

PubMed Central

Background Achieving culturally fair assessments of cognitive functioning for Aboriginal people is difficult due to a scarcity of appropriately validated tools for use with this group. As a result, some Aboriginal people with cognitive impairments may lack fair and equitable access to services. The objective of this study was to examine current clinical practice in the Northern Territory regarding cognitive assessment for Aboriginal people thereby providing some guidance for clinicians new to this practice setting. Method Qualitative enquiry was used to describe practice context, reasons for assessment, and current practices in assessing cognition for Aboriginal Australians. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 clinicians working with Aboriginal clients in central and northern Australia. Results pertaining to assessment methods are reported. Results A range of standardised tests were utilised with little consistency across clinical practice. Nevertheless, it was recognised that such tests bear severe limitations, requiring some modification and significant caution in their interpretation. Clinicians relied heavily on informal assessment or observations, contextual information and clinical judgement. Conclusions Cognitive tests developed specifically for Aboriginal people are urgently needed. In the absence of appropriate, validated tests, clinicians have relied on and modified a range of standardised and informal assessments, whilst recognising the severe limitations of these. Past clinical training has not prepared clinicians adequately for assessing Aboriginal clients, and experience and clinical judgment were considered crucial for fair interpretation of test scores. Interpretation guidelines may assist inexperienced clinicians to consider whether they are achieving fair assessments of cognition for Aboriginal clients. PMID:23368850

2013-01-01

308

Aboriginal Bark Painting: Learning about the Beliefs of Others Is Important for Developing an Appreciation of Other Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes one classroom's experience engaging in a lesson on aboriginal painting. Aboriginal painting has a particular allure to middle school students. As this age group crosses the threshold from concrete knowing to conceptual understanding, they are ready to re-frame their perspective of the artist's intent. Learning…

Graziano, Jane

2004-01-01

309

A Study of Aboriginal and Urban Junior High School Students' Alternative Conceptions on the Definition of Respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was two?fold: one aim was to investigate alternative conceptions of the definition of respiration held by aboriginal and urban junior high students in the Pingtung district, and the other was to determine possible causes for the formation of these alternative conceptions. To achieve this, a two?tier instrument concerning respiration was administered to 316 aboriginal and

2007-01-01

310

The Aboriginal Boys' Training Home, Kinchela, 1924-1970, and the Development of a Culture of Physical Fitness and Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kinchela Boys' Home on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, was established by the state's Aborigines Protection Board for Aboriginal boys and youths in 1924 and closed in 1970. By the 1930s the place had become known as a notorious carceral, poorly managed and psychologically isolated. An overdue government enquiry in 1940 concluded that it…

Ramsland, John

2006-01-01

311

Aboriginal Business Capacity Building Programs in the Central Interior of British Columbia: A Collaborative Project between the University and Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal communities in Canada are typically marginalized, have very low employment participation rates, and have limited economic infrastructure. The downturn in global economies further marginalized these communities. The University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC) Continuing Studies department piloted an Aboriginal and Small Business…

Kunkel, Titi; Schorcht, Blanca; Brazzoni, Randall

2011-01-01

312

Aboriginal Families Study: a population-based study keeping community and policy goals in mind right from the start  

PubMed Central

Background Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women are between two to five times more likely to die in childbirth than non-Aboriginal women, and two to three times more likely to have a low birthweight infant. Babies with a low birthweight are more likely to have chronic health problems in adult life. Currently, there is limited research evidence regarding effective interventions to inform new initiatives to strengthen antenatal care for Aboriginal families. Method/Design The Aboriginal Families Study is a cross sectional population-based study investigating the views and experiences of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women having an Aboriginal baby in the state of South Australia over a 2-year period. The primary aims are to compare the experiences and views of women attending standard models of antenatal care with those accessing care via Aboriginal Family Birthing Program services which include Aboriginal Maternal Infant Care (AMIC) Workers as members of the clinical team; to assess factors associated with early and continuing engagement with antenatal care; and to use the information to inform strengthening of services for Aboriginal families. Women living in urban, regional and remote areas of South Australia have been invited to take part in the study by completing a structured interview or, if preferred, a self-administered questionnaire, when their baby is between 4–12 months old. Discussion Having a baby is an important life event in all families and in all cultures. How supported women feel during pregnancy, how women and families are welcomed by services, how safe they feel coming in to hospitals to give birth, and what happens to families during a hospital stay and in the early months after the birth of a new baby are important social determinants of maternal, newborn and child health outcomes. The Aboriginal Families Study builds on consultation with Aboriginal communities across South Australia. The project has been implemented with guidance from an Aboriginal Advisory Group keeping community and policy goals in mind right from the start. The results of the study will provide a unique resource to inform quality improvement and strengthening of services for Aboriginal families. PMID:23767813

2013-01-01

313

The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n?=?18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n?=?29). An overarching theme of avoiding the "costly" crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system. PMID:25056441

Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

2015-01-01

314

The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n?=?18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n?=?29). An overarching theme of avoiding the “costly” crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system. PMID:25056441

Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

2015-01-01

315

Influences of indigenous language on spatial frames of reference in Aboriginal English  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.

Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

2014-06-01

316

Ethics in aboriginal research. A model for minorities or for all?  

PubMed

Guidelines for research among Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders were approved by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) in 1991. The recommendations seem more stringent than those previously published by the NHMRC for medical research in general. Several States independently have proposed or promulgated similar guidelines for Aboriginal research. This paper indicates the themes common to such guidelines and how they seek both to redress past faults and to encourage a greater participation and authority by Aboriginal communities when research is conducted among them. It is suggested that the guidelines raise questions about the control of research and the role of consumer groups that are of far-reaching importance to medicine. PMID:1479978

Maddocks, I

1992-10-19

317

Expanding knowledge among Aboriginal service providers on treatment options for excessive alcohol use.  

PubMed

Approaches to the prevention of alcohol problems among Aboriginal people in Australia have tended to emphasize primary and tertiary prevention, while neglecting secondary prevention or early intervention. In contrast, members of the wider Australian community can now access a variety of early interventions through general practice, in hospital settings and through drug and alcohol treatment agencies. As part of a survey of the use of brief interventions, 178 agencies throughout Australia were interviewed, and findings are presented from the 29 agencies in this sample which provided services primarily for Aboriginal people. Approximately half offered a variety of approaches including brief interventions, with goals of moderation; the other half were entirely abstinence-orientated. These findings are discussed in the context of expanding the options that might be offered by Aboriginal-run agencies. PMID:16203470

Brady, M; Dawe, S; Richmond, R

1998-03-01

318

The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 1: the ethnobotany of the skyworld  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Aboriginal Australia, the corpus of cosmological beliefs was united by the centrality of the Skyworld, which was considered to be the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. Early historical accounts of classical Australian hunter-gatherer beliefs described the heavens as inhabited by human and spiritual ancestors who interacted with the same species of plants and animals as they had below. This paper is the first of two that describes Indigenous perceptions of the Skyworld flora and draws out major ethnobotanical themes from the corpus of ethnoastronomical records garnered from a diverse range of Australian Aboriginal cultures. It investigates how Indigenous perceptions of the flora are interwoven with Aboriginal traditions concerning the heavens, and provides examples of how the study of ethnoastronomy can provide insights into the Indigenous use and perception of plants.

Clarke, Philip A.

2014-11-01

319

Aboriginal astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia. Part 1: Nyeeruna and 'The Orion Story'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE recorded the daily lives, lore and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as 'The Orion Story', stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of 'The Orion Story', including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

2014-07-01

320

Environmental agreements, EIA follow-up and aboriginal participation in environmental management: The Canadian experience  

SciTech Connect

During the last decade a number of environmental agreements (EAs) have been negotiated in Canada involving industry, government and Aboriginal peoples. This article draws on the Canadian experience to consider the potential of such negotiated agreements to address two issues widely recognised in academic and policy debates on environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental management. The first relates to the need to secure indigenous participation in environmental management of major projects that affect indigenous peoples. The second and broader issue involves the necessity for specific initiatives to ensure effective follow-up of EIA. The Canadian experience indicates that negotiated environmental agreements have considerable potential to address both issues. However, if this potential is to be realized, greater effort must be made to develop structures and processes specifically designed to encourage Aboriginal participation; and EAs must themselves provide the financial and other resource required to support EIA follow-up and Aboriginal participation.

O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran [Department of Politics and Public Policy, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Brisbane, Nathan, Queensland 4111 (Australia)]. E-mail: Ciaran.Ofaircheallaigh@griffith.edu.au

2007-05-15

321

Definitions of suicide and self-harm behavior in an Australian aboriginal community.  

PubMed

In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way such behavior is defined in an Aboriginal context. A continuation of certain "traditional" cultural forms of self-harm behavior was evident in participant definitions, notably the practice of female hair cutting, also described as a mourning ritual, which appears to serve as a marker both to the individual and others. PMID:19527158

Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

2009-04-01

322

Innovations on a shoestring: a study of a collaborative community-based Aboriginal mental health service model in rural Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Collaborative, culturally safe services that integrate clinical approaches with traditional Aboriginal healing have been hailed as promising approaches to ameliorate the high rates of mental health problems in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Overcoming significant financial and human resources barriers, a mental health team in northern Ontario is beginning to realize this ideal. We studied the strategies, strengths and challenges related to collaborative Aboriginal mental health care. Methods A participatory action research approach was employed to evaluate the Knaw Chi Ge Win services and their place in the broader mental health system. Qualitative methods were used as the primary source of data collection and included document review, ethnographic interviews with 15 providers and 23 clients; and 3 focus groups with community workers and managers. Results The Knaw Chi Ge Win model is an innovative, community-based Aboriginal mental health care model that has led to various improvements in care in a challenging rural, high needs environment. Formal opportunities to share information, shared protocols and ongoing education support this model of collaborative care. Positive outcomes associated with this model include improved quality of care, cultural safety, and integration of traditional Aboriginal healing with clinical approaches. Ongoing challenges include chronic lack of resources, health information and the still cursory understanding of Aboriginal healing and outcomes. Conclusions This model can serve to inform collaborative care in other rural and Indigenous mental health systems. Further research into traditional Aboriginal approaches to mental health is needed to continue advances in collaborative practice in a clinical setting. PMID:20017919

2009-01-01

323

Adiposity in aboriginal people from Arnhem Land, Australia: variation in degree and distribution associated with age, sex and lifestyle.  

PubMed

A number of researchers have found substantial sex, population and group differences in adiposity and fat-distribution patterns, but there is relatively little information on body fat distribution in Aboriginal groups, especially for the indigenous people of Australia. This study, the largest of its kind for Australian Aboriginal people, presents information on adiposity and fat distribution in 425 Yolngu, a group of Aboriginal people living in a number of communities representing a wide range of lifestyles, in northeast Arnhem Land, Australia. Using BMI standards developed for people of European descent, the majority of the individuals in this study were lean, and the incidence of obesity was considerably less than in other Australian groups, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal. For the Yolngu in this study the relationship between ageing and adiposity is similar to that reported for tradition-orientated Aboriginal people, as well as for a number of other indigenous groups, viz., while the men maintain their weight into old age, the women, once they are past early adulthood, lose body fat with age. The results from the present study suggest that the age at which the Yolngu women start to gain, and subsequently lose, body fat is associated with differences in degree of acculturation. As has been found in other populations, age- and sex-related differences in body fat distribution occur, but no correlation was found between adiposity and fat distribution. The Aboriginal women and men, however, had a significantly more central distribution of subcutaneous fat than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Our findings have implications for the health and demography of Aboriginal people in general, and the Yolngu in particular, as they continue the transition from hunting and foraging towards a more 'westernized' lifestyle. PMID:8060111

Jones, C O; White, N G

1994-01-01

324

Change Makers: Empowering Ourselves Thro' the Education and Culture of Aboriginal Languages: A Collaborative Team Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A British Columbian Native teacher education program is guided by a team of First Nations educators and elders, university faculty, a representative of the teacher federation, and students. Aboriginal languages are incorporated into a Native cultural studies course using a holistic approach based on the Medicine Wheel that empowers students to…

McLeod, Yvonne

2003-01-01

325

Degree Completion for Aboriginal People in British Columbia: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a case study of a First Nations educational initiative in British Columbia. Simon Fraser University's (SFU) Integrated Studies Program created two unique adult education programs in response to a request from the Aboriginal-operated Nicola Valley Institute of Technology (NVIT); this request involved the two institutions…

Price, Ruth; Burtch, Brian

2010-01-01

326

Adolescent Career Development in Urban-Residing Aboriginal Families in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand how urban-residing Aboriginal adolescent-parent dyads (n = 11) jointly constructed and acted on goals and strategies with their social supports (n = 17) to facilitate the adolescents' career development. A modified protocol following the qualitative action-project method was used. A discrete joint…

Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.; Stevens, Alison; Spence, Wayne; Deyell, Stewart; Easterbrook, Adam; Brokenleg, Martin

2011-01-01

327

[Health system and aboriginal communities in the province of Formosa, Argentina].  

PubMed

The author comments her experience in the practice of medicine and public health among aborigines in Formosa, a long neglected province in northeast Argentina. Her experience goes through a span of 34 years, 11 in a small community in a far off region. The province has 530162 inhabitants, 43358 (6.5%) aborigines of the Wichí, Qom, and Pilagá ethnicities. Some particular public health problems of these aborigines are due to the great distance between communities and the regular medical assistance while others are related to cultural differences. The situation has gradually improved in the last 30 years due to government awareness in providing easy and close access to medical care, making the most of the abilities of local aborigines midwifes, teaching health assistants and conventional measures. The most apparent results are the decrease in infant mortality rates and the lower incidence of tuberculosis, with no deaths due to tuberculous meningitis since 1999. No less important was the opening of new opportunities for education and the teaching of both native and Spanish language in the schools retaining local customs. The changes have brought about new risks and challenges such as: traffic accidents involving youngsters riding motorcycles, alcoholism, obesity, diabetes (undiagnosed beforehand), high rate of adolescence pregnancy, and crisis of leadership within the communities. PMID:24152404

Mirassou, Cristina S

2013-01-01

328

Assets for Employment in Aboriginal Community-Based Human Services Agencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to explore the prior educational and employment experiences of staff members in urban Aboriginal human services agencies. A total of 44 individuals employed by one of three community sites within one Canadian inner city generated 85 unique responses to the question: "What were your employment and education…

Brown, Jason; Fraehlich, Cheryl

2012-01-01

329

Our plants, our land: bridging aboriginal generations through cross-cultural plant workshops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in subsistence practices have negatively affected the social and economic structure of aboriginal communities across the Arctic. This has resulted in fewer opportunities for the transmission of traditional knowledge (TK). This article provides two case studies of how researchers can assist northern communities in TK transmission and provide a venue for science and TK to meet, thereby fostering a

Alain Cuerrier; Ashleigh Downing; Jill Johnstone; Luise Hermanutz; Laura Siegwart Collier

2012-01-01

330

Running head: TB among Aboriginal Populations in Canada: The Role of Health Care Professionals 1  

E-print Network

(World Health Organization [WHO], 2011; New Jersey Medical School: Global Tuberculosis Institute, 2011 by this are the most productive ages of the world's population (World Health Organization, 2011). (WHO, 2011). AlRunning head: TB among Aboriginal Populations in Canada: The Role of Health Care Professionals 1

Peak, Derek

331

Writing Aboriginal English & Creoles: Five Case Studies in Australian Education Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Texts in Aboriginal English (AE) and creole varieties have been created by Indigenous and non-Indigenous writers for a range of purposes. In this paper, we focus on materials created in and for five educational contexts, and investigate the orthographic or spelling systems developed in each setting. Choices about orthography are guided by…

Disbray, Samantha; Loakes, Deborah

2013-01-01

332

Teachers Make a Difference to the Study of Aboriginal Music in NSW  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australian Indigenous music and culture are in the foreground when Australia celebrates itself in international contexts but their inclusion in the school curriculum is sporadic. In New South Wales (NSW), high school music teachers are responsible for educating students about Aboriginal music(s) and culture(s) within a mandatory focus on…

Power, Anne; Bradley, Margaret

2011-01-01

333

An Outlier's Dream: Improving Post-Secondary Education Opportunities for Aboriginal Inmates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conversation with a John Howard Society volunteer prompts the author to reflect on how to improve educational opportunities for his incarcerated Aboriginal peers. He relates his personal experience of completing an undergraduate degree while in prison, highlighting the ways in which the prison environment has shaped his learning process. After…

Wilson, Vernon

2013-01-01

334

The Collaboration Difficulties between Aboriginal School and Parents -- A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major purpose of this article is to investigate the collaboration difficulties between aboriginal school and parents. Through a case study, we first explore the collaboration between school and parents. Then we present the collaboration difficulties and their causes. In the last part, we provide practical suggestions to local education authority (LEA) and school in order to strengthen the cooperation

Tian Ming; Sheu Chen; Lan Liu

335

The Development of Cross-Cultural Relations with a Canadian Aboriginal Community through Sport Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is…

Schinke, Robert J.; Hanrahan, Stephanie J.; Eys, Mark A.; Blodgett, Amy; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen Douglas; Pheasant, Chris; Enosse, Lawrence

2008-01-01

336

Professional Pathways of Aboriginal Early Childhood Teachers: Intersections of Community, Indigeneity, and Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little information is available about the employment trajectories of Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander peoples pursuing university professional qualifications. This article describes a context in which cultural space, issues of identity, pragmatics of employment, family and community and a bureaucratic regulatory environment intersect to…

Fleet, Alma; Wechmann, Kerrie; Whitworth, Ryan

2012-01-01

337

The Learning Circle: A New Model of BSW Education for Alberta's Rural, Remote, and Aboriginal Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998, a consortium including the University of Calgary (Alberta) and representatives from social service agencies and Native organizations developed a Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) model for delivery in rural, remote, and Aboriginal communities. The model called for innovative course content that was culturally and geographically relevant to…

Zapf, M. K.; Bastien, B.; Bodor, R.; Carriere, J.; Pelech, W.

338

COMMUNITY-BASED CHILD WELFARE FOR ABORIGINAL CHILDREN: SUPPORTING RESILIENCE THROUGH STRUCTURAL CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available data suggest that First Nations children, youth and families in Canada continue to experience multiple and disproportionate human rights violations stemming from colonialism. First Nations child and family service agencies began developing in the 1970s to affirm community- based systems of care and stem the tide of children being placed in non- Aboriginal homes. Although these agencies have demonstrated

Cindy Blackstock; Nico Trocmé

2005-01-01

339

Aboriginal Environmental Wisdom, Stewardship, and Sustainability: Lessons from the Walpole Island First Nations, Ontario, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generally speaking, environmental education teaching, research, and practice have been informed by the traditions of western, Euro-centric culture. In this context indigenous perspectives are often marginalized, maligned, and perceived to be unscientific and therefore inferior. This essay adds to the growing body of literature exploring aboriginal

Beckford, Clinton L.; Jacobs, Clint; Williams, Naomi; Nahdee, Russell

2010-01-01

340

An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief…

Dion, Jacinthe; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; De La Sablonniere, Mireille; Philippe-Labbe, Marie-Pierre; Giffard, Tania

2010-01-01

341

Cultural self-efficacy of Canadian nursing students caring for aboriginal patients with diabetes.  

PubMed

Cultural self-efficacy refers to how capable one feels functioning in culturally diverse situations. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of cultural self-efficacy among nursing students, specifically in relation to individuals of Aboriginal ancestry. The authors examined the extent to which intercultural anxiety, intercultural communication, and experience with persons of Aboriginal ancestry predicted two aspects of cultural self-efficacy, namely, knowledge and skills. In this correlational study, non-Aboriginal Canadian nursing students (N = 59) completed a survey assessing these variables. Overall, cultural self-efficacy was rated as moderate by nursing students. Regression analyses indicated that greater intercultural communication skills and experience with persons of Aboriginal ancestry were significant unique predictors of higher cultural knowledge self-efficacy. Greater intercultural communication and lower intercultural anxiety significantly predicted higher cultural skills self-efficacy. The results provide direction to nursing programs interested in facilitating higher levels of cultural self-efficacy among nursing students. PMID:22477719

Quine, Allisson; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D; Alberts, Nicole M

2012-07-01

342

School Engagement among Aboriginal Students in Northern Canada: Perspectives From Activity Settings Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Educational disengagement is a public health concern among Aboriginal populations in many countries. It has been investigated previously in a variety of ways, with the conventional focus being on the children themselves. Activity settings are events and places, theorized in terms of their symbols, roles, time frame, funds, people, and…

Davison, Colleen M.; Hawe, Penelope

2012-01-01

343

Definitions of Suicide and Self-Harm Behavior in an Australian Aboriginal Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way…

Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

2009-01-01

344

Supporting Australian Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal Nursing Students Using Mentoring Circles: An Action Research Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to recruit Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students into nursing degrees have made minimal impact on the number of registered nurses working in Australia's healthcare sector. Yet increasing the number of Indigenous nurses remains one of the most important objectives in strategies to close the health gap between Indigenous and…

Mills, Jane; Felton-Busch, Catrina; Park, Tanya; Maza, Karen; Mills, Frances; Ghee, McCauley; Hitchins, Marnie; Chamberlain-Salaun, Jennifer; Neuendorf, Nalisa

2014-01-01

345

Young "White" Teachers' Perceptions of Mathematics Learning of Aboriginal and Nonaboriginal Students in Remote Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a plethora of writings on Australian Aboriginal education (Craven, 1998; Fanshawe, 1999; LeRoux & Dunn, 1997; Malcolm, 1998; Malin, 1998; Morgan & Slade, 1998; Partington, 1998; Russell, 1999; Stewart, 1999), little has dealt with teacher perceptions of how Indigenous students learning in comparison with non-Indigenous students. This is…

Cooper, Tom J.; Baturo, Annette R.; Warren, Elizabeth; Doig, Shani M.

2004-01-01

346

Educational Failure or Success: Aboriginal Children's Non-Standard English Utterances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the Australian education system, Aboriginal students' use of non-standard English features is often viewed simplistically as evidence of non-attainment of literacy and oral-English milestones. One reason for this is the widespread use of assessment tools which fail to differentiate between native-English speakers and students who are…

Dixon, Sally

2013-01-01

347

Teaching for Equity? What Teachers Say about Their Work in Aboriginal Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policies to ensure education equity and programs to foster educational advancement among Aboriginal people have been in place for several years in most Canadian jurisdictions. Despite of the successes brought about by these policies, questions about just how much has been accomplished, and how best to secure desired results, remain matters of…

Wotherspoon, Terry

2007-01-01

348

If Reindeer Could Fly: Dreams and Real Solutions for Aboriginal Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the real solutions to the problems of Aboriginal children in Canada that seem so numerous--impacts of residential school, poverty, poor housing, racism, and over-representation in child welfare care. These are complex issues, but the author has come to believe that the most promising responses, at least in…

Blackstock, Cindy

2007-01-01

349

Using Digital Technologies to Address Aboriginal Adolescents' Education: An Alternative School Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how digital technologies were introduced in a collaborative literacy intervention to address a population long underserved by traditional schools: the Aboriginals of Canada. Design/methodology/approach: Situated within a critical ethnographic project, this paper examines how digital technologies…

Pirbhai-Illich, Fatima; Turner, K. C. Nat; Austin, Theresa Y.

2009-01-01

350

From Generation to Generation: Survival and Maintenance of Canada's Aboriginal Languages, within Families, Communities and Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The survival and maintenance of Aboriginal languages in Canada depend on their transmission from generation to generation. Children are the future speakers of a language. This paper demonstrates that the family and the community together play critical roles in the transmission of language from parent to child. On their own, neither family capacity…

Norris, Mary Jane

2004-01-01

351

"Do You Live in a Teepee?" Aboriginal Students' Experiences with Racial Microaggressions in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current qualitative investigation was to examine Aboriginal undergraduates' (N = 6) experiences with racial microaggressions at a leading Canadian university. The research team analyzed focus group data using a modified consensual qualitative research approach (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997). The authors identified 5…

Clark, D. Anthony; Kleiman, Sela; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Isaac, Paige; Poolokasingham, Gauthamie

2014-01-01

352

An Analysis of Ontario Aboriginal Education Policy: Critical and Interpretive Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an historical and contemporary interpretation of the developmental influences that have led to the Ontario Ministry of Education's recent focus on Aboriginal educational policy in Ontario, Canada. It offers an interpretive and critical perspective on the rhetorical constructions, assumptions, and value-orientations implicit in…

Cherubini, Lorenzo

2010-01-01

353

Relationship to Place: Positioning Aboriginal Knowledge and Perspectives in Classroom Pedagogies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project is based on research conducted with 12 schools in New South Wales, Australia. It examines how each school incorporates Aboriginal perspectives in its Kindergarten to Year 6 program with a view to identifying quality practice. As we interviewed teachers in these schools, it became clear that there is considerable confusion over the…

Harrison, Neil; Greenfield, Maxine

2011-01-01

354

Travelling a Mirrored Pathway: Care of Children and Adults With Special Needs in Aboriginal1 Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The words of the above participants reflect that a close relationship with a vulnerable person brings both a deepened appreciation of life as well as extreme stress. In this exploratory study, interviews with six Aboriginal caregivers and social service professionals reveal that traditional stories and legends uphold an \\

Joyce Clouston Carlson

2007-01-01

355

WARRIORS FOR PEACE The Political Condition of the Aboriginal People as Viewed from Palm Island  

E-print Network

Weekend visit in jail Barbed wire encircles the shiny buildings. Some ten families sit on rows of plastic a young Aboriginal mother carrying a baby, and a Papua New Guinean woman with her teenage daughter. Two, and he planned to tour Australia and possibly overseas to talk about his vision for his people. Lex

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

Essential service standards for equitable national cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) constitute the largest cause of death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and remain the primary contributor to life expectancy differentials between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians. As such, CVD remains the most critical target for reducing the life expectancy gap. The Essential Service Standards for Equitable National Cardiovascular Care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (ESSENCE) outline elements of care that are necessary to reduce disparity in access and outcomes for five critical cardiovascular conditions. The ESSENCE approach builds a foundation on which the gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians can be reduced. The standards purposefully focus on the prevention and management of CVD extending across the continuum of risk and disease. Each of the agreed essential service standards are presented alongside the most critical targets for policy development and health system reform aimed at mitigating population disparity in CVD and related conditions. PMID:25459487

Brown, Alex; O'Shea, Rebekah L; Mott, Kathy; McBride, Katharine F; Lawson, Tony; Jennings, Garry L R

2015-02-01

357

Healthy imaginations: A social history of the epidemiology of aboriginal and Torres strait islander health  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to imagine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health without the powerful descriptors of epidemiology. The statistical imagery of numerical tables, pie charts, and bar graphs have become a key element in the public presentation of Indigenous public health issues. Such quantitative measurements of health draw on the authority of neutral, objective science and are thus rarely questioned

Mark Brough

2001-01-01

358

Developing Future Health Professionals' Capacities for Working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article details reflections of an interdisciplinary team of educators working with groups of health sciences students in preparing them for working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The first-year common core unit discussed here is one attempt to equip future health practitioners with skills and knowledges to work adequately…

Hendrick, Antonia; Britton, Katherine Frances; Hoffman, Julie; Kickett, Marion

2014-01-01

359

Constructing Knowledge and Training Curricula about Early Childhood Care and Development in Canadian Aboriginal Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Meadow Lake Tribal Council (MLTC) (Saskatchewan) and the University of Victoria (British Columbia) developed a bicultural postsecondary training curriculum in early childhood care and development that incorporated both Euro-Western and Aboriginal knowledge. Since the MLTC sought curricula using representative Cree and Dene cultures rather than…

Ball, Jessica; Pence, Alan

360

Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

Jorgensen, Robyn

2012-01-01

361

Quality of Life of Some Under-Represented Survey Respondents: Youth, Aboriginals and Unemployed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining an aggregated sample (N=8800) of residents who responded to one of 16 surveys undertaken in Prince George, British Columbia in the period from November 1997 to February 2005, it was found that satisfaction with the quality of life of unemployed residents is lower than that of residents with Aboriginal backgrounds and that satisfaction…

Michalos, Alex C.; Orlando, Julie Anne

2006-01-01

362

Building on Conceptual Interpretations of Aboriginal Literacy in Anishinaabe Research: A Turtle Shaker Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article comes out of the larger context of my doctoral dissertation where I investigated my experiences as an academic who attempts to remain true to Indigenous Knowledge (IK) traditions while working within a Western European intellectual setting. In this current paper, I combine the conceptual frameworks of Aboriginal literacy and…

Debassige, Brent

2013-01-01

363

Non-timber forest products from the Canadian boreal forest: an exploration of aboriginal opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as foods or environmental products are proposed as potential engines of economic development or income for Aboriginal Peoples in rural or remote communities in Canada. An assessment of the potential market for NTFPs is often overlooked when proposing the development of new NTFPs. Our study specifically evaluates the market potential for wild berry jams produced

Peter C. Boxall; Gordon Murray; James R. Unterschultz

2003-01-01

364

Knowledge Transfer and Exchange Processes for Environmental Health Issues in Canadian Aboriginal Communities  

PubMed Central

Within Canadian Aboriginal communities, the process for utilizing environmental health research evidence in the development of policies and programs is not well understood. This fundamental qualitative descriptive study explored the perceptions of 28 environmental health researchers, senior external decision-makers and decision-makers working within Aboriginal communities about factors influencing knowledge transfer and exchange, beliefs about research evidence and Traditional Knowledge and the preferred communication channels for disseminating and receiving evidence. The results indicate that collaborative relationships between researchers and decision-makers, initiated early and maintained throughout a research project, promote both the efficient conduct of a study and increase the likelihood of knowledge transfer and exchange. Participants identified that empirical research findings and Traditional Knowledge are different and distinct types of evidence that should be equally valued and used where possible to provide a holistic understanding of environmental issues and support decisions in Aboriginal communities. To facilitate the dissemination of research findings within Aboriginal communities, participants described the elements required for successfully crafting key messages, locating and using credible messengers to deliver the messages, strategies for using cultural brokers and identifying the communication channels commonly used to disseminate and receive this type of information. PMID:20616996

Jack, Susan M.; Brooks, Sandy; Furgal, Chris M.; Dobbins, Maureen

2010-01-01

365

‘Race’ matters: racialization and egalitarian discourses involving Aboriginal people in the Canadian health care context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major purpose of this paper is to examine how ‘race’ and racialization operate in health care. To do so, we draw upon data from an ethnographic study that examines the complex issues surrounding health care access for Aboriginal people in an urban center in Canada. In our analysis, we strategically locate our critical examination of racialization in the ‘tension

Sannie Y. Tang; Annette J. Browne

2008-01-01

366

Aboriginal communities in the Canadian North rely heavily on traditional food. Tradi-  

E-print Network

in Canada and remains a key compo- nent of the modern lifestyle of many North- ern aboriginal communities- traditional (market) foods. The frequency of traditional food consumption was influ- enced by many different factors including availability of traditional food in the geo- graphical area and the cost of market foods

Edwards, Thomas W.D.

367

Maintaining the Illusion of Democracy: Policy-Making and Aboriginal Education in Canada, 1946-1948  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the 1949 recommendations of the Joint Committee of the Senate and House of Commons (SJC), the Canadian government shifted away from a policy of segregated to integrated schooling for Aboriginal children. This paper examines the minutes and proceedings of the SJC. Fewer than 10% of the briefs presented to the SJC called for integration…

Raptis, Helen; Bowker, Samantha

2010-01-01

368

Formation of Gaseous Shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HI observations have revealed in several shell galaxies the presence of gaseous shells slightly displaced from the stellar shells radially, in the outward direction. We propose a mechanism to form this gaseous shells, based on the well-known phase-wrapping process of the companion matter in a merger, with nearly radial orbits. The mechanism relies on the existence of a clumpy interstellar matter, and on dynamical friction experienced by the companion core.

Combes, F.; Charmandaris, V.

369

Old medium, new design : in search of alternative aesthetics of Taiwanese aboriginal woven textiles in theatrical costume designs   

E-print Network

The main purpose of this practice-led research is to explore the relevance of present day Taiwanese aboriginal weavers’ work to contemporary society and how it might be integrated into today’s production processes, and ...

Chen, Wan-Lee

2012-06-27

370

Responding to racism: Insights on how racism can damage health from an urban study of Australian Aboriginal people  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006\\/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism

Anna M. Ziersch; Gilbert Gallaher; Fran Baum; Michael Bentley

2011-01-01

371

The protective role of optimism and self-esteem on depressive symptom pathways among Canadian Aboriginal youth.  

PubMed

Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk for depression and substance use problems. Increasingly, developmental theories have shifted from focusing on vulnerabilities to protective factors for adolescent depression. In particular, theories emphasizing protective factors are relevant when understanding the mental health of Aboriginal youth. However, it is unclear which factors protect against depressive symptomatology among Aboriginal adolescents to promote optimal development. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, the present study had three main objectives. First, we aimed to model the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using a sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth from a national Canadian dataset (ages 12-23). Second, we sought to examine the relationship between alcohol use behaviors, self-esteem, optimism, and the trajectories of depressive symptoms. Lastly, we investigated whether self-esteem and optimism mediated the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Gender differences were also examined within each of the study objectives. A sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth (N = 283; 48.3% male) was selected from cycles 4-7 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Heavy drinking was a risk factor for depressive symptoms, while self-esteem and optimism were key protective factors for depressive symptoms among early adolescent Aboriginal youth. Further, the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms among Canadian Aboriginal youth differed for boys and girls once accounting for risk and protective factors. Thus, it is valuable to integrate the protective role of self-esteem and optimism into developmental theories of depression and mental health intervention programs for early adolescent Aboriginal youth. PMID:24045879

Ames, Megan E; Rawana, Jennine S; Gentile, Petrice; Morgan, Ashley S

2015-01-01

372

Aboriginal premature mortality within South Australia 1999-2006: a cross-sectional analysis of small area results  

PubMed Central

Background This paper initially describes premature mortality by Aboriginality in South Australia during 1999 to 2006. It then examines how these outcomes vary across area level socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness. Methods The retrospective, cross-sectional analysis uses estimated resident population by sex, age and small areas based on the 2006 Census, and Unit Record mortality data. Premature mortality outcomes are measured using years of life lost (YLL). Subsequent intrastate comparisons are based on indirect sex and age adjusted YLL results. A multivariate model uses area level socio-economic disadvantage rank, geographic remoteness, and an interaction between the two variables to predict premature mortality outcomes. Results Aboriginal people experienced 1.1% of total deaths but 2.2% of YLL and Aboriginal premature mortality rates were 2.65 times greater than the South Australian average. Premature mortality for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people increased significantly as area disadvantage increased. Among Aboriginal people though, a significant main effect for area remoteness was also observed, together with an interaction between disadvantage and remoteness. The synergistic effect shows the social gradient between area disadvantage and premature mortality increased as remoteness increased. Conclusions While confirming the gap in premature mortality rates between Aboriginal South Australians and the rest of the community, the study also found a heterogeneity of outcomes within the Aboriginal community underlie this difference. The results support the existence of relationship between area level socio-economic deprivation, remoteness and premature mortality in the midst of an affluent society. The study concludes that vertically equitable resourcing according to population need is an important response to the stark mortality gap and its exacerbation by area socio-economic position and remoteness. PMID:21554738

2011-01-01

373

The Ilgarijiri Project: A collaboration between Aboriginal communities and radio astronomers in the Murchison Region of Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international radio astronomy initiative known as the Square Kilometre Array is a cutting-edge science project, aimed atdramatically expanding our vision and understanding of the Universe. The $2billion+ international project is being shared between Southern Africa and Australia. The Australian component, centred in the Murchison region of Western Australia, is based upon collaboration with Aboriginal communities. A collaborative project called "Ilgarijiri- Things Belonging to the Sky" shared scientific and Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky. Through a series of collaborative meetings and knowledge sharing, the Ilgarijiri project developed and showcased Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky, via an international touring Aboriginal art exhibition, in Australia, South Africa, the USA and Europe. The Aboriginal art exhibition presents Aboriginal stories relating to the night sky, which prominently feature the 'Seven Sisters' and the 'Emu', as well as the collaborative experience with radio astronomers. The success of the Ilgarijiri collaborative project is based upon several principles, which can help to inform and guide future cultural collaborative projects.

Goldsmith, John

2014-07-01

374

Tailoring a response to youth binge drinking in an Aboriginal Australian community: a grounded theory study  

PubMed Central

Background While Aboriginal Australian health providers prioritise identification of local community health needs and strategies, they do not always have the opportunity to access or interpret evidence-based literature to inform health improvement innovations. Research partnerships are therefore important when designing or modifying Aboriginal Australian health improvement initiatives and their evaluation. However, there are few models that outline the pragmatic steps by which research partners negotiate to develop, implement and evaluate community-based initiatives. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical model of the tailoring of health improvement initiatives by Aboriginal community-based service providers and partner university researchers. It draws from the case of the Beat da Binge community-initiated youth binge drinking harm reduction project in Yarrabah. Methods A theoretical model was developed using the constructivist grounded theory methods of concurrent sampling, data collection and analysis. Data was obtained from the recordings of reflective Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) processes with Aboriginal community partners and young people, and university researchers. CBPR data was supplemented with interviews with theoretically sampled project participants. The transcripts of CBPR recordings and interviews were imported into NVIVO and coded to identify categories and theoretical constructs. The identified categories were then developed into higher order concepts and the relationships between concepts identified until the central purpose of those involved in the project and the core process that facilitated that purpose were identified. Results The tailored alcohol harm reduction project resulted in clarification of the underlying local determinants of binge drinking, and a shift in the project design from a social marketing awareness campaign (based on short-term events) to a more robust advocacy for youth mentoring into education, employment and training. The community-based process undertaken by the research partnership to tailor the design, implementation and evaluation of the project was theorised as a model incorporating four overlapping stages of negotiating knowledges and meanings to tailor a community response. Conclusions The theoretical model can be applied in spaces where local Aboriginal and scientific knowledges meet to support the tailored design, implementation and evaluation of other health improvement projects, particularly those that originate from Aboriginal communities themselves. PMID:23919727

2013-01-01

375

Gender Differences in HIV and Hepatitis C Related Vulnerabilities Among Aboriginal Young People Who Use Street Drugs in Two Canadian Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Vulnerability to HIV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection for indigenous populations worldwide must be contextualized in experiences of current and past trauma. Aboriginal women entrenched in poverty face further gender-specific harms which place them at increased risk for HIV infection.Methods: This study was cross-sectional and based on a community-based sample of Aboriginal young people (Métis, Aboriginal, First Nations,

Azar Mehrabadi; Katharina Paterson; Margo Pearce; Sheetal Patel; Kevin J. P. Craib; Akm Moniruzzaman; Martin T. Schechter; Patricia M. Spittal

2008-01-01

376

The impact of a postgraduate diabetes course on the perceptions Aboriginal health workers and supervisors in South Australia.  

PubMed

Contemporary diabetes management is a specialised area of health care and qualified health professionals in this country seeking employment as diabetes educators are first advised to undertake a postgraduate accredited Australian Diabetes Educators Association (ADEA) course. In 1998, aware that type 2 diabetes was a major health problem in the Aboriginal population, Flinders University opened its ADEA accredited course to Aboriginal health workers. This initiative was supported by the South Australian Aboriginal Health Partnership, and the Aboriginal Health Council of South Australia and, as a result, three cohorts of Aboriginal health workers (n=31) were funded to undertake the diabetes course between 1998 and 2001. This was the first time in Australia that health workers in large numbers had undertaken an accredited ADEA course that had been developed for registered nurses and allied health professionals. In view of the different educational background of the two groups, it was thought that the course may not meet the learning needs of Aboriginal health workers. Thus, a qualitative study using critical ethnography was undertaken in fourteen sites in South Australia. The aim was to identify the perceptions of the course held by the health workers who had undertaken the course and the supervisors whose responsibility it was to oversee their clinical activities. It also included establishing whether the course was relevant to the health care needs of Aboriginal people with diabetes in South Australia. The participant group was comprised from the health workers (n=18) who had undertaken the diabetes course and their supervisors (n=21). Data collection and analysis took place between 2001 and 2002. The instrument used was a semi-structured questionnaire. The methods included interviewing and tape recording, observation and fieldwork. The transcripts were thematically analysed and managed by using NVivo software. Three main themes emerged: the positive and negative perceptions of the course held by the participants, the development of the health workers as health professionals and the relevance of the course to the health care needs of Aboriginal people with diabetes. We concluded that other Schools of Nursing & Midwifery in Australia who offer ADEA courses might also enable Aboriginal health workers to access their courses. This contribution would greatly help improve the diabetes health status of Aboriginal people. PMID:17622992

King, Meri; Munt, Rebecca; Eastwood, Angela

2007-01-01

377

Starting points and pathways in Aboriginal students' learning of number: recognising different world views  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research was designed to investigate the conceptualisations and thinking strategies Indigenous Australian students use in counting tasks. Eighteen Aboriginal students, in years 1 to 11 at a remote community school, were interviewed using standard counting tasks and a `counting' task that involved fetching `maku' (witchetty grubs) to have enough to give a maku to each person in a picture. The tasks were developed with, and the interviews conducted by, an Aboriginal research assistant, to ensure appropriate cultural and language contexts. A main finding was that most of the students did not see the need to use counting to make equivalent sets, even though they were able to demonstrate standard counting skills. The findings highlight a need to further examine the world views, orientations and related mathematical concepts and processes that Indigenous students bring to school.

Treacy, Kaye; Frid, Sandra; Jacob, Lorraine

2014-05-01

378

From (b)edouin to (a)borigine: the myth of the desert noble savage.  

PubMed

This article examines the myth of the supposed superiority of the desert noble savage over civilized man. With the Bedouin of Arabia and the Aborigines of Australia as its two prime examples, the article argues that two versions of this myth can be traced: one in which the desert noble savage is valorized due to his valour, physical prowess and martial skill (Bedouin); and another, later version, where the desert noble savage is valorized as a pacifist, an ecologist and a mythmaker/storyteller (Aborigines). The article concludes by examining the way in which this turn from one type of desert noble savage to another reflects the manner in which western modernity has shifted its values from Cartesian dualities and Enlightenment rationalism to that of networks, potentialities, ecology and myth. PMID:19886291

Graulund, Rune

2009-01-01

379

Analysis of mitochondrial genome diversity identifies new and ancient maternal lineages in Cambodian aborigines.  

PubMed

Cambodia harbours a variety of aboriginal (and presumably ancient) populations that have largely been ignored in studies of genetic diversity. Here we investigate the matrilineal gene pool of 1,054 Cambodians from 14 geographic populations. Using mitochondrial whole-genome sequencing, we identify eight new mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, all of which are either newly defined basal haplogroups or basal sub-branches. Most of the new basal haplogroups have very old coalescence ages, ranging from ~55,000 to ~68,000 years, suggesting that present-day Cambodian aborigines still carry ancient genetic polymorphisms in their maternal lineages, and most of the common Cambodian haplogroups probably originated locally before expanding to the surrounding areas during prehistory. Moreover, we observe a relatively close relationship between Cambodians and populations from the Indian subcontinent, supporting the earliest costal route of migration of modern humans from Africa into mainland Southeast Asia by way of the Indian subcontinent some 60,000 years ago. PMID:24121720

Zhang, Xiaoming; Qi, Xuebin; Yang, Zhaohui; Serey, Bun; Sovannary, Tuot; Bunnath, Long; Seang Aun, Hong; Samnom, Ham; Zhang, Hui; Lin, Qiang; van Oven, Mannis; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing

2013-01-01

380

Fluctuating shells under pressure  

PubMed Central

Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules. PMID:23150558

Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.

2012-01-01

381

Enamel hypoplasia and dental caries in Australian Aboriginal children: prevalence and correlation between the two diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the prevalence of enamel hypoplasia and dental caries and the relationship between the two diseases in all 4- to 6-year-old Australian Aboriginal children of the Tiwi tribe on Bathurst Island. Seventy-nine of 80 children (99%) had enamel hypoplasia, with a mean of 12.0 ~_ 4.1 hypoplastic teeth per child. Dental caries was noted in 66 (83%) of

L. Pascoe; BDS W. Kim Seow

1994-01-01

382

Towards, wellbeing : Creative inquiries into an experiential arts-based healing practice in Aboriginal contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project is located in the context of Aboriginal health and education, and in particular, emotional and social wellbeing, recognising the critical need for effective mental health services and resilient, well-trained workers in the field of mental health.\\u000aMental health is understood to include a broad spectrum of conditions with extreme and chronic mental illness at one end and

Judith Christian Miller

2008-01-01

383

Database and Narratological Representation of Australian Aboriginal Knowledge as Information Visualisation using a Game Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current database technologies do not support contextualised representations of multi-dimensional narratives. This paper outlines a new approach to this problem using a multi-dimensional database served in a 3D game environment. Preliminary results indicate it is a particularly efficient method for the types of contextualised narratives used by Australian Aboriginal peoples to tell their stories about their traditional landscapes and knowledge

Malcolm Pumpa; Theodor G. Wyeld

2006-01-01

384

An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing\\u000a CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible\\u000a that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief that contribute to social\\u000a problems, such as pathological gambling. The purpose

Jacinthe Dion; Delphine Collin-Vézina; Mireille De La Sablonnière; Marie-Pierre Philippe-Labbé; Tania Giffard

2010-01-01

385

An Institutional Suicide Machine: Discrimination Against Federally Sentenced Aboriginal Women in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

On October 19, 2007, Ashley Smith, a nineteen-year-old Aboriginal woman from Moncton, New Brunswick, was found dead in her segregation cell at the Grand Valley Institution, a federal woman’s prison in Kitchener, Ontario. Smith spent the majority of her life in federal institutions across Canada, effectively cutting her off from her family and her community. During her incarceration, a prison

Jena McGill

2008-01-01

386

Food, food choice and nutrition promotion in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.  

PubMed

Contemporary diets of Aboriginal people living in remote Australia are characterised by processed foods high in fat and sugar. Within the 'new' food system, evidence suggests many Aboriginal people understand food in their own terms but lack access to consumer information about store-purchased foods, and parents feel inadequate as role models. In a remote Australian Aboriginal community, purposive sampling identified adults who participated in semistructured interviews guided by food-based themes relating to the contemporary food system, parental guidance of children's food choice and channels through which people learn. Interpretive content analysis was used to identify salient themes. In discussions, people identified more closely with dietary qualities or patterns than nutrients, and valued a balanced, fresh diet that made them feel 'light'. People possessed basic knowledge of 'good' store foods, and wanted to increase familiarity and experience with foods in packets and cans through practical and social skills, especially cooking. Education about contemporary foods was obtained from key family role models and outside the home through community-based organisations, including school, rather than pamphlets and flip charts. Freedom of choice was a deeply held value; carers who challenged children's autonomy used strategic distraction, or sought healthier alternatives that did not wholly deny the child. Culturally safe approaches to information sharing and capacity building that contribute to the health and wellbeing of communities requires collaboration and shared responsibility between policy makers, primary healthcare agencies, wider community-based organisations and families. PMID:25053144

Colles, Susan L; Maypilama, Elaine; Brimblecombe, Julie

2014-10-01

387

The Cedar Project: Residential transience and HIV vulnerability among young Aboriginal people who use drugs.  

PubMed

Aboriginal homelessness is considered to be a result of historic dispossession of traditional territories and forced displacement from community structures. Using data collected from 2005-2010 from the Cedar Project, a cohort of young Aboriginal people who use drugs in two Canadian cities, we examined how residential transience shapes HIV vulnerability. At baseline, 48 of 260 participants (18.5%) reported sleeping in six or more places ('highly transient') in the past six months. Generalized linear mixed models identified associations between high transience and sex and drug related HIV vulnerabilities. Transience was independently associated with sex work (AOR:3.52, 95%CI:2.06, 6.05); sexual assault (AOR:2.48, 95%CI:1.26, 4.86); injection drug use (AOR:4.54, 95%CI:2.71, 7.61); daily cocaine injection (AOR:2.16, 95%CI:1.26, 3.72); and public injection (AOR:2.87, 95%CI:1.65, 5.00). After stratification, transience and sexual vulnerability remained significantly associated among women but not men. Ensuring that young Aboriginal people have access to safe spaces to live, work, and inject must include policies addressing residential transience as well as the absence of a roof and walls. PMID:25840350

Jongbloed, Kate; Thomas, Vicky; Pearce, Margo E; Christian, Kukpi Wunuxtsin; Zhang, Hongbin; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

2015-05-01

388

Appropriate health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: crucial for closing the gap.  

PubMed

Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization and the Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It serves as a guide for community-focused health promotion practice to be built on and shaped by the respect for understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is not about targeting, intervening or responding. Rather, it encourages health programme planners and policymakers to have a greater understanding, respect, a sense of empowerment and collaboration with communities, and their sociocultural environment to improve health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the eight principles of Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes a widespread adoption of the framework for a more respectful, collaborative, locally suitable and therefore appropriate approach to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion. PMID:24801784

Demaio, Alessandro; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

2012-06-01

389

Whole-Genome Genetic Diversity in a Sample of Australians with Deep Aboriginal Ancestry  

PubMed Central

Australia was probably settled soon after modern humans left Africa, but details of this ancient migration are not well understood. Debate centers on whether the Pleistocene Sahul continent (composed of New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania) was first settled by a single wave followed by regional divergence into Aboriginal Australian and New Guinean populations (common origin) or whether different parts of the continent were initially populated independently. Australia has been the subject of relatively few DNA studies even though understanding regional variation in genomic structure and diversity will be important if disease-association mapping methods are to be successfully evaluated and applied across populations. We report on a genome-wide investigation of Australian Aboriginal SNP diversity in a sample of participants from the Riverine region. The phylogenetic relationship of these Aboriginal Australians to a range of other global populations demonstrates a deep common origin with Papuan New Guineans and Melanesians, with little evidence of substantial later migration until the very recent arrival of European colonists. The study provides valuable and robust insights into an early and important phase of human colonization of the globe. A broader survey of Australia, including diverse geographic sample populations, will be required to fully appreciate the continent's unique population history and consequent genetic heritage, as well as the importance of both to the understanding of health issues. PMID:20691402

McEvoy, Brian P.; Lind, Joanne M.; Wang, Eric T.; Moyzis, Robert K.; Visscher, Peter M.; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila M.; Wilton, Alan N.

2010-01-01

390

Determinants of Diet for Urban Aboriginal Youth: Implications for Health Promotion.  

PubMed

Overweight and obesity are associated with several life-threating comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity is a growing health concern in North America, with some groups experiencing higher levels of obesity than others. One group of particular interest is urban Aboriginal youth because they are a quickly growing population who experience high rates of obesity. Obesity is a complex condition with many contributing factors, diet being one of the primary contributors. In this article, we discuss the findings from an ethnographic study that examined determinants of diet for urban Aboriginal youth. Results revealed two themes: (a) Traditions and Sharing, and (b) The Struggle. The findings with Traditions and Sharing showed that food-sharing networks are often used to acquire traditional food. Traditional foods were believed to be healthy and desired by the participants. The theme The Struggle provides insight into the daily challenges the participants faced with food insecurity. Health promotion professionals need to consider the multiplicity of determinants of diet for urban Aboriginal youth in order to plan and implement culturally appropriate health promotion programs. PMID:25384578

Kerpan, Serene T; Humbert, M Louise; Henry, Carol J

2014-11-10

391

Research | Mini-Monograph Climate Change, Health, and Vulnerability in Canadian Northern Aboriginal Communities  

E-print Network

BACKGROUND: Canada has recognized that Aboriginal and northern communities in the country face unique challenges and that there is a need to expand the assessment of vulnerabilities to climate change to include these communities. Evidence suggests that Canada’s North is already experiencing significant changes in its climate—changes that are having negative impacts on the lives of Aboriginal people living in these regions. Research on climate change and health impacts in northern Canada thus far has brought together Aboriginal community members, government representatives, and researchers and is charting new territory. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this article we review experiences from two projects that have taken a community-based dialogue approach to identifying and assessing the effects of and vulnerability to climate change and the impact on the health in two Inuit regions of the Canadian Arctic. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the two case projects that we present argue for a multi-stakeholder, participatory framework for assessment that supports the necessary analysis, understanding, and enhancement of capabilities of local areas to respond and adapt to the health impacts at the local level.

Christopher Furgal; Jacinthe Seguin

2006-01-01

392

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People  

PubMed Central

Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

Funston, Leticia

2013-01-01

393

Discovery Collection: Oyster Shells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oyster Shells is one of the AMNH Education Department's many collections of specimens and artifacts gathered the world over by explorers and scientists. In its online Discovery Collection form, Oyster Shells includes photographs of 15 specimens with classification and distribution details, an interactive key that guides you through specimen identification, an activity where students select and identify a specimen photograph using the interactive identification key and an Educator's Guide with suggestions for how to use the Oyster Shells Discovery Collection in the classroom.

Lisa Breslof

394

Off-Shell Tachyons  

E-print Network

The idea that the new particles invented in some models beyond the standard model can appear only inside the loops is attractive. In this paper, we fill these loops with off-shell tachyons, leading to a solution of the zero results of the loop diagrams involving the off-shell non-tachyonic particles. We also calculate the Passarino-Veltman $A_0^o$ and $B_0^o$ of the off-shell tachyons.

Yi-Lei Tang

2015-01-30

395

Off-Shell Tachyons  

E-print Network

The idea that the new particles invented in some models beyond the standard model can appear only inside the loops is attractive. In this paper, we fill these loops with off-shell tachyons, leading to a solution of the zero results of the loop diagrams involving the off-shell non-tachyonic particles. We also calculate the Passarino-Veltman $A_0^o$ and $B_0^o$ of the off-shell tachyons.

Tang, Yi-Lei

2015-01-01

396

Does more equitable governance lead to more equitable health care? A case study based on the implementation of health reform in Aboriginal health Australia.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that providing increased voice to vulnerable or disenfranchised populations is important to improving health equity. In this paper we will examine the engagement of Aboriginal community members and community controlled organisations in local governance reforms associated with the Aboriginal Health National Partnership Agreements (AHNPA) in Australia and its impact on the uptake of health assessments. The sample included qualitative and quantitative responses from 188 people involved in regional governance in Aboriginal health. The study included data on the uptake of Aboriginal health assessments from July 2008 to December 2012. The study population was 83190 in 2008/9, 856986 in 2009/10, 88256 in 2010/11 and 90903 in 2011/12. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between organisations within forums and the regional uptake of Aboriginal health assessments. The independent variables included before and after the AHNPA, state, remoteness, level of representation from Aboriginal organisations and links between Aboriginal and mainstream organisations. The introduction of the AHNPA was associated with a shift in power from central government to regional forums. This shift has enabled Aboriginal people a much greater voice in governance. The results of the analyses show that improvements in the uptake of health assessments were associated with stronger links between Aboriginal organisations and between mainstream organisations working with Aboriginal organisations. Higher levels of community representation were also associated with improved uptake of health assessments in the AHNPA. The findings suggest that the incorporation of Aboriginal community and community controlled organisations in regional planning plays an important role in improving health equity. This study makes an important contribution to understanding the processes through which the incorporation of disadvantaged groups into governance might contribute to health equity. PMID:25103343

Kelaher, Margaret; Sabanovic, Hana; La Brooy, Camille; Lock, Mark; Lusher, Dean; Brown, Larry

2014-12-01

397

Turtle Finding Fact Sheet: The Role of the Treatment Provider in Aboriginal Women’s Healing from Illicit Drug Abuse  

PubMed Central

Our research identifies key skills and traits for service providers working with Aboriginal women that assists them with re-claiming their cultural identity. The “Turtle Finding Fact Sheet: The Role of the Treatment Provider in Aboriginal Women’s Healing from Illicit Drug Abuse” was created to disseminate and commence discussion on this initial finding from our community-based research project in Canada. The study overall focussed on the role of identity and stigma in the healing journeys of criminalized Aboriginal women from illicit drug abuse. Our team is committed to sharing its finding with the community from which the information was collected–workers in the National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program (NNADAP). The Fact Sheet is based on a sample of interviews with substance abuse treatment providers, and was verified with women in treatment and who have completed treatment. In recent years, the addictions literature has increased its attention toward the importance of the therapeutic alliance between treatment providers and clients(1), although understanding specific to Aboriginal women remains limited. Identity reclamation is central to women’s healing journeys and treatment providers have an influential role. This finding is framed in the fact sheet within the cultural understanding of the Seven Teachings of the Grandfathers(2). The fact sheet (8.5x11) has been distributed to the over 700 NNADAP workers, and is also available at no cost in two poster size formats. It is appropriate for anyone providing services to Aboriginal women requiring addictions treatment. PMID:25010607

Dell, Colleen; Kilty, Jennifer; Fillmore, Cathy; Grantham, Sheila; Lyons, Tara; Clarke, Sharon; Hopkins, Carol

2014-01-01

398

Yarning/Aboriginal storytelling: towards an understanding of an Indigenous perspective and its implications for research practice.  

PubMed

There is increasing recognition of Indigenous perspectives from various parts of the world in relation to storytelling, research and its effects on practice. The recent emergence of storytelling or yarning as a research method in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island studies and other Indigenous peoples of the world is gaining momentum. Narratives, stories, storytelling and yarning are emerging methods in research and has wide ranging potential to shape conventional research discourse making research more meaningful and accessible for researchers. In this paper we argue for the importance of Indigenous research methods and Indigenous method(ology), within collaborative respectful partnerships with non-Indigenous researchers. It is imperative to take these challenging steps together towards better outcomes for Indigenous people and their communities. In the Australian context we as researchers cannot afford to allow the gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and mainstream Australia health outcomes to grow even wider. One such pathway is the inclusion of Aboriginal storytelling or yarning from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait perspective within Indigenous and non-Indigenous research paradigms. Utilising Aboriginal storytelling or yarning will provide deeper understanding; complementing a two-way research paradigm for collaborative research. Furthermore, it has significant social implications for research and clinical practice amongst Indigenous populations; thus complementing the biomedical medical paradigm. PMID:24716757

Geia, Lynore K; Hayes, Barbara; Usher, Kim

2013-12-01

399

In Quest of Indigeneity, Quality, and Credibility in Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education in Canada: Problematic, Contexts, and Potential Ways Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning involves conceptual frameworks embedded in worldviews and values. The overarching problematic of Aboriginal post-secondary education is complex and multifaceted. Normative and institutional forces as well as the credentialing and certification agenda of post-secondary education limit the degree to which Aboriginal education at any level…

Paquette, Jerald; Fallon, Gerald

2014-01-01

400

Sensational spherical shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid-dynamic and capillary forces can be used to form nearly perfect, very small spherical shells when a liquid that can solidify is passed through an annular die to form an annular jet. Gravity and certain properties of even the most ideal materials, however, can cause slight asymmetries. The primary objective of the present work is the control of this shell

M. C. Lee; J. M. Kendall Jr.; P. A. Bahrami; T. G. Wang

1986-01-01

401

SHELL METHOD DEMO GALLERY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a gallery of animations that can be used to illustrate the shell method for computing volumes of solids of revolution. The animations are designed to be used by the instructor in a classroom setting or by students as they acquire a visual background relating to solids of revolution and the steps of the shell method.

Roberts, Lila F.

2002-02-02

402

I Learned about Shells!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through the use of nonfiction text, students will be able to share their prior knowledge and schema of shells. Students will practice gathering information from a text, help create a KEL chart through class and small group discussions, and will use the information learned to create an informative writing about shell animals.

Kris Ryan

2012-06-26

403

Cohesive Elements for Shells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cohesive element for shell analysis is presented. The element can be used to simulate the initiation and growth of delaminations between stacked, non-coincident layers of shell elements. The procedure to construct the element accounts for the thickness offset by applying the kinematic relations of shell deformation to transform the stiffness and internal force of a zero-thickness cohesive element such that interfacial continuity between the layers is enforced. The procedure is demonstrated by simulating the response and failure of the Mixed Mode Bending test and a skin-stiffener debond specimen. In addition, it is shown that stacks of shell elements can be used to create effective models to predict the inplane and delamination failure modes of thick components. The results indicate that simple shell models can retain many of the necessary predictive attributes of much more complex 3D models while providing the computational efficiency that is necessary for design.

Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.; Turon, Albert

2007-01-01

404

Qualitative exploration of the perceived barriers and enablers to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people accessing healthcare through one Victorian Emergency Department.  

PubMed

Abstract Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experience challenges when accessing health care from the Emergency Department. The aim of this project was to identify the perceived barriers and enablers to accessing health care at one Victorian Emergency Department for the local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. This qualitative explorative study collected data using focus groups or yarns to investigate the perceptions of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community presentations to the Emergency Department. Data were analysed following the standards of qualitative data analysis procedure. Three themes emerged organisational process, staff interactions and strategies for improvement. Information from this study will assist hospital and Emergency Department executives and practitioners to collaborate with the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community in developing and implementing policy and practice changes that enable Aboriginal patients to be identified and receive culturally appropriate care. PMID:24792606

Chapman, Rose; Smith, Tammy; Martin, Catherine

2014-05-01

405

Aboriginal-mainstream partnerships: exploring the challenges and enhancers of a collaborative service arrangement for Aboriginal clients with substance use issues  

PubMed Central

Background Partnerships between different health services are integral to addressing the complex health needs of vulnerable populations. In Australia, partnerships between Aboriginal1 community controlled and mainstream services can extend health care options and improve the cultural safety of services. However, although government funding supports such collaborations, many factors can cause these arrangements to be tenuous, impacting the quality of health care received. Research was undertaken to explore the challenges and enhancers of a government initiated service partnership between an Aboriginal Community Controlled alcohol and drug service and three mainstream alcohol rehabilitation and support services. Methods Sixteen staff including senior managers (n=5), clinical team leaders (n=5) and counsellors (n=6) from the four services were purposively recruited and interviewed. Interviews were semi-structured and explored staff experience of the partnership including the client intake and referral process, shared client care, inter-service communication and ways of working. Results & discussion Communication issues, partner unfamiliarity, ‘mainstreaming’ of Aboriginal funding, divergent views regarding staff competencies, client referral issues, staff turnover and different ways of working emerged as issues, emphasizing the challenges of working with a population with complex issues in a persistent climate of limited resourcing. Factors enhancing the partnership included adding a richness and diversity to treatment possibilities and opportunities to explore different, more culturally appropriate ways of working. Conclusion While the literature strongly advises partnerships be suitably mature before commencing service delivery, the reality of funding cycles may require partnerships become operational before relationships are adequately consolidated. Allowing sufficient time and funding for both the operation and relational aspects of a partnership is critical, with support for partners to regularly meet and workshop arrangements. Documentation that makes clear and embeds working arrangements between partners is important to ameliorate many of the issues that can arise. Given the historical undercurrents, flexible approaches are required to focus on strengths that contribute to progress, even if incremental, rather than on weaknesses which can undermine efforts. This research offers important lessons to assist other services collaborating in post-colonial settings to offer treatment pathways for vulnerable populations. PMID:23305201

2013-01-01

406

General Practitioner Supervisor assessment and teaching of Registrars consulting with Aboriginal patients – is cultural competence adequately considered?  

PubMed Central

Background General Practitioner (GP) Supervisors have a key yet poorly defined role in promoting the cultural competence of GP Registrars who provide healthcare to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people during their training placements. Given the markedly poorer health of Indigenous Australians, it is important that GP training and supervision of Registrars includes assessment and teaching which address the well documented barriers to accessing health care. Methods A simulated consultation between a GP Registrar and an Aboriginal patient, which illustrated inadequacies in communication and cultural awareness, was viewed by GP Supervisors and Medical Educators during two workshops in 2012. Participants documented teaching points arising from the consultation which they would prioritise in supervision provided to the Registrar. Content analysis was performed to determine the type and detail of the planned feedback. Field notes from workshop discussions and participant evaluations were used to gain insight into participant confidence in cross cultural supervision. Results Sixty four of 75 GPs who attended the workshops participated in the research. Although all documented plans for detailed teaching on the Registrar’s generic communication and consultation skills, only 72% referred to culture or to the patient’s Aboriginality. Few GPs (8%) documented a plan to advise on national health initiatives supporting access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. A lack of Supervisor confidence in providing guidance on cross cultural consulting with Aboriginal patients was identified. Conclusions The role of GP Supervisors in promoting the cultural competence of GP Registrars consulting with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients could be strengthened. A sole focus on generic communication and consultation skills may lead to inadequate consideration of the health disparities faced by Indigenous peoples and of the need to ensure Registrars utilise health supports designed to decrease the disadvantage faced by vulnerable populations. PMID:25115609

2014-01-01

407

Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale  

PubMed Central

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB). Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability. We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES), in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities. PMID:18001479

Kowal, Emma; Gunthorpe, Wendy; Bailie, Ross S

2007-01-01

408

High risk alcohol-related trauma among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory  

PubMed Central

High risk drinking is linked with high rates of physical harm. The reported incidence of alcohol - related trauma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Northern Territory is the highest in the world. Facial fractures are common among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. They are often linked with misuse of alcohol in the Northern Territory and are frequently secondary to assault. This review focuses on alcohol-related trauma in the Territory and draws attention to an urgent need for preventative health approach to address this critical issue. PMID:22862897

2012-01-01

409

Failure of Viral Shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a combined theoretical and experimental study of the structural failure of viral shells under mechanical stress. We find that discontinuities in the force-indentation curve associated with failure should appear when the so-called Föppl von Kármán (FvK) number exceeds a critical value. A nanoindentation study of a viral shell subject to a soft-mode instability, where the stiffness of the shell decreases with increasing pH, confirms the predicted onset of failure as a function of the FvK number.

Klug, William S.; Bruinsma, Robijn F.; Michel, Jean-Philippe; Knobler, Charles M.; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.

2006-12-01

410

Effect of periodontal therapy on arterial structure and function among aboriginal australians: a randomized, controlled trial.  

PubMed

Observational studies and nonrandomized trials support an association between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Both diseases occur frequently in Aboriginal Australians. We hypothesized that nonsurgical periodontal therapy would improve measures of arterial function and structure that are subclinical indicators of atherosclerotic vascular disease. This parallel-group, randomized, open label clinical trial enrolled 273 Aboriginal Australians aged ?18 years with periodontitis. Intervention participants received full-mouth periodontal scaling during a single visit, whereas controls received no treatment. Prespecified primary end points measured 12-month change in carotid intima-media thickness, an indicator of arterial structure, and 3- and 12-month change in pulse wave velocity, an indicator of arterial function. ANCOVA used complete case data to evaluate treatment group differences. End points could be calculated for 169 participants with follow-up data at 3 months and 168 participants at 12 months. Intima-media thickness decreased significantly after 12 months in the intervention group (mean reduction=-0.023 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.038 to -0.008] mm) but not in the control group (mean increase=0.002 [95% CI, -0.017 to 0.022] mm). The difference in intima-media thickness change between treatment groups was statistically significant (-0.026 [95% CI, -0.048 to -0.003] mm; P=0.03). In contrast, there were no significant differences between treatment groups in pulse wave velocity at 3 months (mean difference, 0.06 [95% CI, -0.17 to 0.29] m/s; P=0.594) or 12 months (mean difference, 0.21 [95% CI, -0.01 to 0.43] m/s; P=0.062). Periodontal therapy reduced subclinical arterial thickness but not function in Aboriginal Australians with periodontal disease, suggesting periodontal disease and atherosclerosis are significantly associated. PMID:24958498

Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; O'Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Cai, Tommy Y; Anstey, Nicholas M; Sullivan, David R; Wang, Hao; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

2014-10-01

411

Providing choices for a marginalized community. A community-based project with Malaysian aborigines.  

PubMed

In 1991, the Family Planning Association (FPA) of the Malaysian state of Perak initiated a community-based development project in the remote Aborigine village of Kampung Tisong. The community consists of approximately 34 households who survive on an average income of about US $37. Malnutrition is pervasive, even minor ailments cause death, more serious afflictions are prevalent, and the closest government clinic is 20 kilometers away and seldom used by the Aborigines. 70% of the children have access to education, but parental illiteracy is a serious educational obstacle. The goals of the FPA program are to 1) promote maternal and child health and responsible parenthood, 2) provide health education, 3) encourage women to seek self-determination, and 4) encourage the development of self-reliance in the community as a whole. The first step was to survey the community's culture, beliefs, and health status with the help of the Aborigines Department and the village headman. After a series of preliminary meetings with other agencies, the FPA began to provide activities including health talks, health courses and demonstrations, medical examinations and check-ups, and first aid training. Environmental protection and sanitation measures were included in the educational activities, and following the traditional "mutual aid system," a small plot of land was cleared for vegetable production. Vegetable gardens and needlecraft will become income-producing activities for the women. Attempts to motivate the women to use family planning have been hindered by the fact that the health of 2 women deteriorated after they began using oral contraceptives. Positive changes are occurring slowly and steadily, however, and the FPA has been instrumental in having the settlement included in a program for the hardcore poor which will provide new housing and farming projects. PMID:12345736

Kaur, P

1994-01-01

412

Culturally Competent Service Provision Issues Experienced By Aboriginal People Living With HIV/AIDS  

PubMed Central

Cultural identity is an important factor in how well Aboriginal people respond to HIV/AIDS prevention or, once diagnosed with HIV or AIDS, how it affects their health care. This study explores the cultural skills among service providers who see Aboriginal people living with HIV/AIDS (APHAs) and the perspectives of APHAs. The purpose is to better understand the wellness needs of APHAs and how culturally competent care affects health service access and use. Data collection included face-to-face semi-structured interviews with APHAs and focus groups/interviews with community-based and primary health professionals in five regions of Canada. Interviews and focus groups were voice-recorded, verbatim transcribed, and coded using Atlas.ti® software. Thirty-five APHAs and fifty-two service providers were reached. Two key themes were noticed: Active addictions are a major obstacle to adherence to HIV drug regimes. Half of APHA participants said addictions are a major factor. A similar portion noted intensified substance use was an initial coping strategy when diagnosed. A slightly smaller portion noted that addictions were dealt with soon after diagnosis in order to begin antiretroviral treatment. Service providers who inform, encourage, and support APHAs’ choices are viewed as “culturally competent.”Addictions and HIV must be “treated together,” reflecting a holistic worldview of Aboriginal people. Programs that integrate addiction treatment with HIV/AIDS and service providers who encourage and support APHA’s choices are viewed as “wise practice” models by both sets of study participants offering some convergence and a set of five wise practices are identified. PMID:20835301

Barlow, Kevin; Loppie, Charlotte; Jackson, Randy; Akan, Margaret; MacLean, Lynne; Reimer, Gwen

2010-01-01

413

Biomechanics of Turtle Shells: How Whole Shells Fail in  

E-print Network

Biomechanics of Turtle Shells: How Whole Shells Fail in Compression PAUL M. MAGWENE1 AND JOHN J of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois The turtle shell serves an obvious and tactile perception (Rosenberg, '86). The turtle shell is thus a multifunctional system

Socha, Jake

414

Worker compensation injuries among the Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: incidence, annual trends, and ecological analysis of risk markers, 1987–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population, but information is scarce regarding variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. Our project helps fill these gaps. This report focuses on workplace injuries. Methods We used BC’s universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to worker compensation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of worker compensation injury, adjusted for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We assessed annual trend by regressing SRR as a linear function of year. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with community SRR of injury by multivariable linear regression. Results During the period 1987–2010, the crude rate of worker compensation injury in BC was 146.6 per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval: 146.4 to 146.9 per 10,000). The Aboriginal rate was 115.6 per 10,000 (95% CI: 114.4 to 116.8 per 10,000) and SRR was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87 to 0.89). Among those living on reserves SRR was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.80). HSDA SRRs were highly variable, within both total and Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal males under 35 and females under 40 years of age had lower SRRs, but older Aboriginal females had higher SRRs. SRRs are declining, but more slowly for the Aboriginal population. The Aboriginal population was initially at lower risk than the total population, but parity was reached in 2006. These community characteristics independently predicted injury risk: crowded housing, proportion of population who identified as Aboriginal, and interactions between employment rate and income, occupational risk, proportion of university-educated persons, and year. Conclusions As employment rates rise, so has risk of workplace injury among the Aboriginal population. We need culturally sensitive prevention programs, targeting regions and industries where Aboriginal workers are concentrated and demographic groups that are at higher risk. PMID:25012161

2014-01-01

415

Inhalation doses for aboriginal people reoccupying former nuclear weapons testing ranges in South Australia.  

PubMed

The Australian Government plans to rehabilitate the former nuclear weapons testing ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia and to allow access to the areas for the Pitjantjatjara (Aboriginal) people who are the traditional owners of the land. The major radiological hazard posed by reoccupation of the ranges arises from inhalation of residual plutonium. The committed effective dose that these people might receive from inhalation on reoccupation of the lands is computed for a range of sites. The estimated doses for permanent occupancy range up to 300 mSv y-1 indicating the need for substantial rehabilitation before these areas are suitable for unrestricted access. PMID:1428883

Johnston, P N; Lokan, K H; Williams, G A

1992-12-01

416

The transfer and implementation of an Aboriginal Australian wellbeing program: a grounded theory study  

PubMed Central

Background The concepts and standard practices of implementation, largely originating in developed countries, cannot necessarily be simply transferred into diverse cultural contexts. There has been relative inattention in the implementation science literature paid to the implementation of interventions targeting minority Indigenous populations within developed countries. This suggests that the implementation literature may be bypassing population groups within developed countries who suffer some of the greatest disadvantage. Within the context of Aboriginal Australian health improvement, this study considers the impact of political and cultural issues by examining the transfer and implementation of the Family Wellbeing program across 56 places over a 20-year period. Methods A theoretical model of program transfer was developed using constructivist-grounded theory methods. Data were generated by conducting in-depth interviews with 18 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal research respondents who had been active in transferring the program. Data were categorised into higher order abstract concepts and the core impetus for and process of program transfer were identified. Results Organizations transferred the program by using it as a vehicle for supporting inside-out empowerment. The impetus to support inside-out empowerment referred to support for Aboriginal people's participation, responsibility for and control of their own affairs, and the associated ripple effects to family members, organizations, communities, and ultimately reconciliation with Australian society at large. Program transfer occurred through a multi-levelled process of embracing relatedness which included relatedness with self, others, and structural conditions; all three were necessary at both individual and organizational levels. Conclusions Similar to international implementation models, the model of supporting inside-out empowerment by embracing relatedness involved individuals, organizations, and interpersonal and inter-organizational networks. However, the model suggests that for minority Indigenous populations within developed countries, implementation approaches may require greater attention to the empowering nature of the intervention and its implementation, and multiple levels of relatedness by individuals and organizations with self, others, and the structural conditions. Key elements of the theoretical model provide a useful blueprint to inform the transfer of other empowerment programs to minority Indigenous and other disadvantaged populations on a case-by-case basis. PMID:24171867

2013-01-01

417

Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2) with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3). The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge translation plan has been formulated. Discussion The findings of this study will provide practitioners with an understanding of the cultural differences that affect women's dietary choices during maternity. We expect that the developed resources will be of immediate use within the women's units and will enhance counseling efforts. Wide dissemination of outputs may have a greater long term impact in the primary and secondary prevention of these high risk conditions. PMID:22152052

2011-01-01

418

C-Shell Cookbook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This cookbook describes the fundamentals of writing scripts using the UNIX C shell. It shows how to combine Starlink and private applications with shell commands and constructs to create powerful and time-saving tools for performing repetitive jobs, creating data-processing pipelines, and encapsulating useful recipes. The cookbook aims to give practical and reassuring examples to at least get you started without having to consult a UNIX manual. However, it does not offer a comprehensive description of C-shell syntax to prevent you from being overwhelmed or intimidated. The topics covered are: how to run a script, defining shell variables, prompting, arithmetic and string processing, passing information between Starlink applications, obtaining dataset attributes and FITS header information, processing multiple files and filename modification, command-line arguments and options, and loops. There is also a glossary.

Currie, Malcolm J.

419

Scripts Shell Laurent Tichit  

E-print Network

variable IFS. On peut la modifier. Laurent Tichit () Scripts Shell 6 avril 2011 10 / 47 #12;Lister les variables lister toutes les variables : set lister toutes les variables d'environnement (celles qui sont

Tichit, Laurent

420

Hollow spherical shell manufacture  

DOEpatents

A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.

O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

1991-01-01

421

Hollow spherical shell manufacture  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.

O'Holleran, T.P.

1991-11-26

422

Shell forming system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hollow shells of high uniformity are formed by emitting liquid through an outer nozzle and gas through an inner nozzle, to form a hollow extrusion, by flowing the gas at a velocity between about 1.3 and 10 times the liquid velocity. The natural breakup rate of the extrusion can be increased to decrease shell size by applying periodic perturbations to one of the materials prior to exiting the nozzles, to a nozzle, or to the extrusion.

Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

423

Molecular analysis of mutations and polymorphisms of the Lewis secretor type alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene reveals that Taiwan aborigines are of Austronesian derivation.  

PubMed

The origins of the Taiwan aborigines have not been fully resolved. Anthropological and linguistic studies have indicated that their ancestry is mainly Austronesian or Malayopolynesian. Some polymorphisms and mutations in the secretor type alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase (FUT2) gene are found in Taiwan aborigines. In this study, we analyzed the frequency of eight mutations and one polymorphism of the FUT2 gene in Taiwan aborigines and other ethnic groups in order to explore the origins of these groups. The results showed that the C302T, G428A, and fusion gene mutations were specific for Thai, Caucasians, and Japanese, respectively. The A385T mutation was specific for Asians including Taiwan aborigines. The genetic frequencies of C571T were much higher in Taiwan aborigines (1.96% to 20.4%), Filipinos (13.2%), and Indonesians (3.30%) as compared with Thai (0.57%), Chinese (0.65% to 1.12%), Japanese (0%), and Caucasians (0%). The frequencies of the G849A mutation were also higher in Taiwan aborigines (0.38% to 21.57%), Filipinos (6.80%), and Indonesians (1.48%) than in Thai (0.94%), Chinese (0-0.37%), Japanese (0%), or Caucasians (0%). Deletion of a 3-bp region (nt 688 to nt 690) was found only in Filipinos (0.85%), Indonesians (0.74%), and three tribes (0.42% to 2.70%) of Taiwan aborigines, but not in other populations. The C628T mutation was found only in Taiwanese Han, Thai, and two tribes of Taiwan aborigines. The genetic frequency of the C357T polymorphism was much higher in Asians than in Caucasians. The genetic analysis confirms that the origins of Taiwan aborigines are Austronesian and that they are closely related to the Filipino and Indonesian populations. We suggest that mutations or polymorphisms of the FUT2 gene are very good markers for investigating population genetics. PMID:11916003

Chang, Jan-Gowth; Ko, Ying-Chin; Lee, James Chun-I; Chang, Shun-Jen; Liu, Ta-Chih; Shih, Mu-Chin; Peng, Ching-Tien

2002-01-01

424

Injury Hospitalizations Due to Unintentional Falls among the Aboriginal Population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, Changes over Time, and Ecological Analysis of Risk Markers, 1991-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls. Methods We used BC’s universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression. Results During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94). Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07). Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment. Conclusions Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of hospitalization due to unintentional fall injury has declined among the Aboriginal population. Women and older adults have benefited more. PMID:25793298

2015-01-01

425

A 150-Year Conundrum: Cranial Robusticity and Its Bearing on the Origin of Aboriginal Australians  

PubMed Central

The origin of Aboriginal Australians has been a central question of palaeoanthropology since its inception during the 19th Century. Moreover, the idea that Australians could trace their ancestry to a non-modern Pleistocene population such as Homo erectus in Southeast Asia have existed for more than 100 years, being explicitly linked to cranial robusticity. It is argued here that in order to resolve this issue a new program of research should be embraced, one aiming to test the full range of alternative explanations for robust morphology. Recent developments in the morphological sciences, especially relating to the ontogeny of the cranium indicate that character atomisation, an approach underpinning phylogenetic reconstruction, is fraught with difficulties. This leads to the conclusion that phylogenetic-based explanations for robusticity should be reconsidered and a more parsimonious approach to explaining Aboriginal Australian origins taken. One that takes proper account of the complex processes involved in the growth of the human cranium rather than just assuming natural selection to explain every subtle variation seen in past populations. In doing so, the null hypothesis that robusticity might result from phenotypic plasticity alone cannot be rejected, a position at odds with both reticulate and deep-time continuity models of Australian origins. PMID:21350636

Curnoe, Darren

2011-01-01

426

mtDNA variation of aboriginal Siberians reveals distinct genetic affinities with Native Americans  

SciTech Connect

The mtDNA variation of 411 individuals from 10 aboriginal Siberian populations was analyzed in an effort to delineate the relationships between Siberian and Native American populations. All mtDNAs were characterized by PCR amplification and restriction analysis, and a subset of them was characterized by control region sequencing. The resulting data were then compiled with previous mtDNA data from Native Americans and Asians and were used for phylogenetic analysis and sequence divergence estimations. Aboriginal Siberian populations exhibited mtDNAs from three (A, C, and D) of the four haplogroups observed in Native Americans. However, none of the Siberian populations showed mtDNAs from the fourth haplogroup, group B. The presence of group B deletion haplotypes in East Asian and Native American populations but their absence in Siberians raises the possibility that haplogroup B could represent a migratory event distinct from the one(s) which brought group A, C, and D mtDNAs to the Americas. These findings support the hypothesis that the first humans to move from Siberia to the Americas carried with them a limited number of founding mtDNAs and that the initial migration occurred between 17,000-34,000 years before present. 61 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Torroni, A.; Schurr, T.G.; Cabell, M.F.; Wallace, D.C. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Sukernik, R.I.; Starikovskaya, Y.B. (Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Crawford, M.H.; Comuzzie, A.G. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States))

1993-09-01

427

Niche construction and Dreaming logic: aboriginal patch mosaic burning and varanid lizards (Varanus gouldii) in Australia.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic fire is a form of ecosystem engineering that creates greater landscape patchiness at small spatial scales: such rescaling of patch diversity through mosaic burning has been argued to be a form of niche construction, the loss of which may have precipitated the decline and extinction of many endemic species in the Western Desert of Australia. We find evidence to support this hypothesis relative to one keystone species, the sand monitor lizard (Varanus gouldii). Paradoxically, V. gouldii populations are higher where Aboriginal hunting is most intense. This effect is driven by an increase in V. gouldii densities near successional edges, which is higher in landscapes that experience extensive human burning. Over time, the positive effects of patch mosaic burning while hunting overwhelm the negative effects of predation in recently burned areas to produce overall positive impacts on lizard populations. These results offer critical insights into the maintenance of animal communities in the desert, supporting the hypothesis that the current high rate of endemic species decline among small animals may be linked to the interaction between invasive species and mid-century removal of Aboriginal niche construction through hunting and patch mosaic burning. PMID:24266036

Bliege Bird, Rebecca; Tayor, Nyalangka; Codding, Brian F; Bird, Douglas W

2013-12-01

428

Aboriginal health learning in the forest and cultivated gardens: building a nutritious and sustainable food system.  

PubMed

Sustainable food systems are those in which diverse foods are produced in close proximity to a market. A dynamic, adaptive knowledge base that is grounded in local culture and geography and connected to outside knowledge resources is essential for such food systems to thrive. Sustainable food systems are particularly important to remote and Aboriginal communities, where extensive transportation makes food expensive and of poorer nutritional value. The Learning Garden program was developed and run with two First Nation communities in northwestern Ontario. With this program, the team adopted a holistic and experiential model of learning to begin rebuilding a knowledge base that would support a sustainable local food system. The program involved a series of workshops held in each community and facilitated by a community-based coordinator. Topics included cultivated gardening and forest foods. Results of survey data collected from 20 Aboriginal workshop participants are presented, revealing a moderate to low level of baseline knowledge of the traditional food system, and a reliance on the mainstream food system that is supported by food values that place convenience, ease, and price above the localness or cultural connectedness of the food. Preliminary findings from qualitative data are also presented on the process of learning that occurred in the program and some of the insights we have gained that are relevant to future adaptations of this program. PMID:19437287

Stroink, Mirella L; Nelson, Connie H

2009-01-01

429

mtDNA variation of aboriginal Siberians reveals distinct genetic affinities with Native Americans.  

PubMed Central

The mtDNA variation of 411 individuals from 10 aboriginal Siberian populations was analyzed in an effort to delineate the relationships between Siberian and Native American populations. All mtDNAs were characterized by PCR amplification and restriction analysis, and a subset of them was characterized by control region sequencing. The resulting data were then compiled with previous mtDNA data from Native Americans and Asians and were used for phylogenetic analyses and sequence divergence estimations. Aboriginal Siberian populations exhibited mtDNAs from three (A, C, and D) of the four haplogroups observed in Native Americans. However, none of the Siberian populations showed mtDNAs from the fourth haplogroup, group B. The presence of group B deletion haplotypes in East Asian and Native American populations but their absence in Siberians raises the possibility that haplogroup B could represent a migratory event distinct from the one(s) which brought group A, C, and D mtDNAs to the Americas. Our findings support the hypothesis that the first humans to move from Siberia to the Americas carried with them a limited number of founding mtDNAs and that the initial migration occurred between 17,000-34,000 years before present. Images Figure 4 PMID:7688933

Torroni, A; Sukernik, R I; Schurr, T G; Starikorskaya, Y B; Cabell, M F; Crawford, M H; Comuzzie, A G; Wallace, D C

1993-01-01

430

Niche construction and Dreaming logic: aboriginal patch mosaic burning and varanid lizards (Varanus gouldii) in Australia  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic fire is a form of ecosystem engineering that creates greater landscape patchiness at small spatial scales: such rescaling of patch diversity through mosaic burning has been argued to be a form of niche construction, the loss of which may have precipitated the decline and extinction of many endemic species in the Western Desert of Australia. We find evidence to support this hypothesis relative to one keystone species, the sand monitor lizard (Varanus gouldii). Paradoxically, V. gouldii populations are higher where Aboriginal hunting is most intense. This effect is driven by an increase in V. gouldii densities near successional edges, which is higher in landscapes that experience extensive human burning. Over time, the positive effects of patch mosaic burning while hunting overwhelm the negative effects of predation in recently burned areas to produce overall positive impacts on lizard populations. These results offer critical insights into the maintenance of animal communities in the desert, supporting the hypothesis that the current high rate of endemic species decline among small animals may be linked to the interaction between invasive species and mid-century removal of Aboriginal niche construction through hunting and patch mosaic burning. PMID:24266036

Bird, Rebecca Bliege; Tayor, Nyalangka; Codding, Brian F.; Bird, Douglas W.

2013-01-01

431

Exploring cross-sectional associations between common childhood illness, housing and social conditions in remote Australian Aboriginal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is limited epidemiological research that provides insight into the complex web of causative and moderating factors that links housing conditions to a variety of poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between housing conditions (with a primary focus on the functional state of infrastructure) and common childhood illness in remote Australian Aboriginal communities for the purpose of

Ross Bailie; Matthew Stevens; Elizabeth McDonald; David Brewster; Steve Guthridge

2010-01-01

432

Digital Opportunities within the Aboriginal Teacher Education Program: A Study of Preservice Teachers' Attitudes and Proficiency in Technology Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores changes that occurred in preservice teachers' thinking about the use of educational technology in a post-secondary, Aboriginal, elementary teacher education program. The research explores relationships associated with changes in preservice teachers' attitudes and perceived proficiency with technology integration. Quantitative…

Dragon, Karon; Peacock, Kim; Norton, Yvonne; Steinhauer, Evelyn; Snart, Fern; Carbonaro, Mike; Boechler, Patricia

2012-01-01

433

20 YEARS OF ABORIGINAL WOODCARVING IN ARNHEM LAND, AUSTRALIA: USING ART SALES RECORDS TO EXAMINE THE DYNAMICS OF SCULPTURE PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of the Aboriginal Arts Industry in Australia over the last few decades has seen an increase in the number of indigenous communities producing woodcarvings. The timber used for carving is derived from locally available tree species. Whilst the practice relies on the continued supply of timber from native forests, very little is known about the harvesters and their

JENNIFER KOENIG; JON C. ALTMAN; ANTHONY D. GRIFFITHS; APOLLINE KOHEN

2007-01-01

434

Cultural and Social Capital and Talent Development: A Study of a High-Ability Aboriginal Student in a Remote Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the course of a school year, a study was conducted on the cultural context, the social milieu and the personal characteristics of a high ability Aboriginal student in a remote community in Canada. Using the lenses of cultural capital, social capital and human capital, the study explores the development of the student's talent through his…

Kostenko, Karen; Merrotsy, Peter

2009-01-01

435

Because aboriginal communities and organizations have limited local data on what they feel is important to the health of their  

E-print Network

they feel is important to the health of their communities, it is di cult to allocate resources to areas?"asksSylviaAbonyi,CanadaResearch Chair in Aboriginal Health and associate professor at the U of S department of community health Saskatchewan Health ResearchWith Impact Tool Kit for Community Health Sylvia

Saskatchewan, University of

436

‘The Secret of England's Greatness’: Medievalism, Ornithology, and Anglican Imperialism in the Aboriginal Gospel Book of Sir George Grey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bible was a central symbol of the Victorian age and one which was readily adapted to the Gothic style which became fashionable from the middle of the nineteenth century. This essay provides an analysis for the Aboriginal Gospel Book (Auckland Public Library, Grey MS 82) which was once owned by the colonial administrator Sir George Grey (1812–1898). This contains

Hilary M. Carey

2011-01-01

437

Key Factors for the Development of a Culturally Appropriate Interactive Multimedia Informative Program for Aboriginal Health Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research aims to create and evaluate a model for a culturally appropriate, interactive, multimedia and informative health program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers that aims to improve the capacity to independently control their learning within an attractive learning environment. The research also aims to provide…

El Sayed, Faeka; Soar, Jeffrey; Wang, Zoe

2012-01-01

438

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: How Teachers' Attributions, Expectations, and Stereotypes Influence the Learning Opportunities Afforded Aboriginal Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational decisions made about students often have consequences for their subsequent employment and financial well-being, therefore it is imperative to determine whether teacher decisions are discriminatory. This study examines how factors such as race, class, and gender influence the decisions teachers make regarding Aboriginal students. The…

Riley, Tasha; Ungerleider, Charles

2012-01-01

439

‘Choice, culture and confidence’: key findings from the 2012 having a baby in Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander survey  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the maternity care experiences of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women in Queensland, Australia and to identify areas for policy and practice improvements. Methods A culturally-tailored survey requesting both quantitative and qualitative information was completed by respondents either independently (online or in hard copy) or with the assistance of a trained peer-interviewer. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Eligible women were over 16 years of age, identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, resided in Queensland, and had a live, singleton birth between the first of July 2011 and the first of July 2012. Results 187 women of 207 respondents were included in analyses. Women reported high rates of stressful life events in pregnancy, low levels of choice in place of birth and model of care and limited options to carry out cultural practices. High levels of confidence in parenting were also reported. Women were less likely to report being treated with kindness, understanding and respect by maternity care staff than women answering a similar mainstream survey. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have additional needs to mainstream Australian women. This study identified a number of recommendations to improve services including the need to enhance the cultural competence of maternity services; increase access to continuity of midwifery care models, facilitate more choices in care, work with the strengths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, families and communities, and engage women in the design and delivery of care. PMID:24884930

2014-01-01

440

Transitional Justice and the Task of Inclusion: A Habermasian Perspective on the Justification of Aboriginal Educational Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In February 2012, Canada's Truth and Reconciliation Commission released an interim report that detailed its findings based on extensive testimony by former students of the nation's residential school system, a system designed to forcibly assimilate aboriginal peoples. The report concludes that the state must play an active role in the…

Martin, Christopher

2014-01-01

441

Boyfriends, Babies and Basketball: Present Lives and Future Aspirations of Young Women in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the aspirations of a group of young women in a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory of Australia. It examines how their hopes and expectations are influenced by the reality of their everyday lives and the extent to which they are able to influence the course of their lives and become agents for change in their…

Senior, Kate A.; Chenhall, Richard D.

2012-01-01

442

A Cross-Cultural Examination of Aboriginal and European Canadian Mothers' Beliefs regarding Proactive and Reactive Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine the maternal beliefs and practices regarding preschool children's proactive and reactive aggression, within a cross-cultural framework. Participants included 30 Aboriginal and 45 European Canadian mothers of preschoolers who provided their emotional reactions, causal attributions, socialization…

Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Sheperd, Kelly A.

2011-01-01

443

Meeting the Needs of Aboriginal Learners: An Overview of Current Programs and Services, Challenges, Opportunities and Lessons Learned. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) is the national and international voice through which Canada's colleges and institutes inform and advise various levels of government, business, industry and labour. ACCC's Strategic Focus priorities for 2005-2006 include Aboriginal peoples' access to post-secondary education, and enhancing…

Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2005

2005-01-01

444

Mapping Early Speech: Prescriptive Developmental Profiles for Very Remote Aboriginal Students in the First Two Years of School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the issues surrounding the mapping of the oral language development of Standard Australian English (SAE) in the early school years of remote and very remote Aboriginal education in the Northern Territory (NT). Currently, teachers in this context have 2 mandated documents as guides that chart the development of SAE oracy.…

Kenny, Lawrence

2011-01-01

445

"The Tongue of Pangcah and of Savages Are the Same": Language Ideology in a Multilingual Aboriginal Village in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines incongruent languages ideologies as they exist among parents, grandparents and community members of Taiwan's aboriginal Pangcah people. The language ideologies of the villagers function as language policy that informs their decisions in favor of transmitting or abandoning their linguistic heritage. Taking a critical perspective…

Chang, Ya-ling

2011-01-01

446

The Effectiveness of Web-Delivered Learning with Aboriginal Students: Findings from a Study in Coastal Labrador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the findings of a study that explores perspectives of e-learning for aboriginal students in five coastal communities in Labrador, Canada. The rural nature of many communities in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, coupled with a dramatically declining enrollment, has resulted in expanding use of e-learning as a means to…

Philpott, David; Sharpe, Dennis; Neville, Rose

2009-01-01

447

Everywhere and Nowhere: Invisibility of Aboriginal and Torres Strain Islander Contact Languages in Education and Indigenous Language Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Queensland are characterised by widespread language shift to contact language varieties, yet they remain largely invisible in discourses involving Indigenous languages and education. This invisibility--its various causes and its many implications--are explored through a…

Sellwood, Juanita; Angelo, Denise

2013-01-01

448

Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of…

Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

2011-01-01

449

Dis/Abling States, Dis/Abling Citizenship: Young Aboriginal Mothers and the Medicalization of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on data collected in group interviews with six young, urban Aboriginal mothers whose lives have included substance use and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/ Fetal Alcohol Effects (hereafter FAS/FAE) to highlight the multiple and often contradictory ways in which disability as a constituent of social relations is defined in public policy…

Salmon, Amy

2007-01-01

450

Sensational spherical shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid-dynamic and capillary forces can be used to form nearly perfect, very small spherical shells when a liquid that can solidify is passed through an annular die to form an annular jet. Gravity and certain properties of even the most ideal materials, however, can cause slight asymmetries. The primary objective of the present work is the control of this shell formation process in earth laboratories rather than space microgravity, through the development of facilities and methods that minimize the deleterious effects of gravity, aerodynamic drag, and uncontrolled cooling. The spherical shells thus produced can be used in insulation, recyclable filter materials, fire retardants, explosives, heat transport slurries, shock-absorbing armor, and solid rocket motors.

Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M., Jr.; Bahrami, P. A.; Wang, T. G.

1986-01-01

451

Clinical trials in a remote Aboriginal setting: lessons from the BOABS smoking cessation study  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited evidence regarding the best approaches to helping Indigenous Australians to stop smoking. The composite analysis of the only two smoking cessation randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating this suggests that one-on-one extra support delivered by and provided to Indigenous Australians in a primary health care setting appears to be more effective than usual care in encouraging smoking cessation. This paper describes the lessons learnt from one of these studies, the Be Our Ally Beat Smoking (BOABS) Study, and how to develop and implement an integrated smoking cessation program. Methods Qualitative study using data collected from multiple documentary sources related to the BOABS Study. As the project neared completion the research team participated in four workshops to review and conduct thematic analyses of these documents. Results Challenges we encountered during the relatively complex BOABS Study included recruiting sufficient number of participants; managing the project in two distant locations and ensuring high quality work across both sites; providing appropriate training and support to Aboriginal researchers; significant staff absences, staff shortages and high workforce turnover; determining where and how the project fitted in the clinics and consequent siloing of the Aboriginal researchers relating to the requirements of RCTs; resistance to change, and maintaining organisational commitment and priority for the project. The results of this study also demonstrated the importance of local Aboriginal ownership, commitment, participation and control. This included knowledge of local communities, the flexibility to adapt interventions to local settings and circumstances, and taking sufficient time to allow this to occur. Conclusions The keys to the success of the BOABS Study were local development, ownership and participation, worker professional development and support, and operating within a framework of cultural safety. There were difficulties associated with the BOABS Study being an RCT, and many of these are shared with stand-alone programs. Interventions targeted at particular health problems are best integrated with usual primary health care. Research to investigate complex interventions in Indigenous health should not be limited to randomised clinical trials and funding needs to reflect the additional, but necessary, cost of providing for local control of planning and implementation. PMID:24912949

2014-01-01

452

Implementing the Current Management Regime for Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling to Establish a Catch Limit for the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas Stock of Bowhead Whales  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantify the existing Aboriginal Management Scheme for subsistence whaling,which can be implemented for the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas stock of bowheadwhales using the Bayesian synthesis assessment method. The catch limit given by thisimplementation meets our quantification of aboriginal management objectives establishedby the Commission, and results from a direct implementation of the aboriginalmanagement principles given in paragraph 13(a) of the Schedule.1 INTRODUCTIONThis

Geof H. Givens; Judith E. Zeh; Adrian E. Raftery

1995-01-01

453

The uluru\\/kakadu model—anangu tjukurrpa. 50,000 years of aboriginal law and land management changing the concept of national parks in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978 the first Australian Aboriginal?owned and jointly managed national park, Kakadu, was established in the Northern Territory. Since that time the Aboriginaliza?tion of national parks has gathered pace in the Northern Territory and an Uluru\\/Kakadu model of park management has evolved, which in recent times has spread to parks under state jurisdiction. One estimation is there will be upward

Terry de Lacy

1994-01-01

454

Social determinants and psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria: A cross-sectional population based study.  

PubMed

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts. We sought to explain this inequality, focussing on the social determinants of health. We used population-based survey data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. We defined psychological distress as a score of 22 or more on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. We used logistic regression to identify socio-demographic characteristics and social capital indicators that were associated with psychological distress. We then created multivariable models to explore the association between psychological distress and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status that incorporated all significant socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital variables, adjusting for all non-SES socio-demographic characteristics. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians (24.5%) were more than twice as likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (11.3%) to have psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval; 1.67-3.93). Controlling for SES, negative perceptions of the residential neighbourhood, lack of social support from family, social and civic distrust, and all non-SES socio-demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, household composition, and rurality), rendered the previously statistically significant inequality in the prevalence of psychological distress, between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians and their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts, insignificant at the p = 0.05 level (OR = 1.50; 0.97-2.32). Psychological distress is an important health risk factor for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults that has yet to be widely acknowledged and addressed. Addressing the underlying inequalities in SES and social capital may be the key to addressing the inequality in psychological distress. PMID:25618607

Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; McNeil, John

2015-03-01

455

Snail Shell Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three inquiry-based lessons to develop the science process skills of observation, identification, and classification. Activities use whelk eggs and snail shells as the focus of the students' inquiries. Provides a list of 19 facts about whelks and snails. (MDH)

Matthews, Catherine

1992-01-01

456

Shell Creek Summers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-01-01

457

The Durkheim-Tarde debate and the social study of aboriginal youth suicide.  

PubMed

A debate that took place in France in the early 20th century still has much to tell us about the interpretation and strategies of intervention of suicide, particularly the "cohort effect" of aboriginal youth suicide. The act of suicide, for Durkheim, was inseparable from the problem of social cohesion, with extremes in solidarity and regulation predictably reflected in high rates of suicide. For Gabriel Tarde, by contrast, suicide was seen as an outcome of changeable ideas found in processes of innovation and imitation among creatively receptive individuals. This latter approach remains overlooked in favor of a growing reliance on conceptions of historical trauma and conditions of social disintegration. Recognizing the idea of suicide itself as a potential locus of solidarity opens up other possibilities for responding to and intervening in suicide crises or "clusters." PMID:25361691

Niezen, Ronald

2015-02-01

458

Suicide prevention in Australian aboriginal communities: a review of past and present programs.  

PubMed

A review of Aboriginal suicide prevention programs were conducted to highlight promising projects and strategies. A content analysis of gray literature was conducted to identify interventions reported to have an impact in reducing suicidal rates and behaviors. Most programs targeted the whole community and were delivered through workshops, cultural activities, or creative outlets. Curriculums included suicide risk and protective factors, warning signs, and mental health. Many programs were poorly documented and evaluations did not include suicidal outcomes. Most evaluations considered process variables. Results from available outcome evaluations suggest that employing a whole of community approach and focusing on connectedness, belongingness and cultural heritage may be of benefit. Despite the challenges, there is a clear need to evaluate outcomes if prevention is to be progressed. PMID:25227155

Ridani, Rebecca; Shand, Fiona L; Christensen, Helen; McKay, Kathryn; Tighe, Joe; Burns, Jane; Hunter, Ernest

2015-02-01

459

Access to primary care from the perspective of Aboriginal patients at an urban emergency department.  

PubMed

In this article, we discuss findings from an ethnographic study in which we explored experiences of access to primary care services from the perspective of Aboriginal people seeking care at an emergency department (ED) located in a large Canadian city. Data were collected over 20 months of immersion in the ED, and included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 44 patients triaged as stable and nonurgent, most of whom were living in poverty and residing in the inner city. Three themes in the findings are discussed: (a) anticipating providers' assumptions; (b) seeking help for chronic pain; and (c) use of the ED as a reflection of social suffering. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the role of the ED as well as the broader primary care sector in responding to the needs of patients affected by poverty, racialization, and other forms of disadvantage. PMID:21075979

Browne, Annette J; Smye, Victoria L; Rodney, Patricia; Tang, Sannie Y; Mussell, Bill; O'Neil, John

2011-03-01

460

Reduction of Family Violence in Aboriginal Communities: A Systematic Review of Interventions and Approaches1  

PubMed Central

Many efforts to reduce family violence are documented in the published literature. We conducted a systematic review of interventions intended to prevent family violence in Aboriginal communities. We retrieved studies published up to October 2009; 506 papers included one systematic review, two randomized controlled trials, and fourteen nonrandomized studies or reviews. Two reviews discussed interventions relevant to primary prevention (reducing the risk factors for family violence), including parenting, role modelling, and active participation. More studies addressed secondary prevention (where risk factors exist, reducing outbreaks of violence) such as restriction on the trading hours for take away alcohol and home visiting programs for high risk families. Examples of tertiary prevention (preventing recurrence) include traditional healing circles and group counselling. Most studies contributed a low level of evidence. PMID:21052554

Shea, Beverley; Nahwegahbow, Amy; Andersson, Neil

2010-01-01

461

7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody...

2013-01-01

462

7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody...

2012-01-01

463

7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody...

2011-01-01

464

7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1 2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody...

2014-01-01

465

7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody...

2010-01-01

466

Sea shells and blood cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists know that oysters make their shells from crystals but where the crystals are made is still a mystery. A new study in the 09 April 2004 issue of the journal Science suggests that these shell-building crystals are formed in a special class of blood cells that travel to the site of shell formation and unload their crystal cargo.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

2004-04-09

467

Recent Advances in Shell Evolution with Shell-Model Calculations  

E-print Network

Shell evolution in exotic nuclei is investigated with large-scale shell-model calculations. After presenting that the central and tensor forces produce distinctive ways of shell evolution, we show several recent results: (i) evolution of single-particle-like levels in antimony and cupper isotopes, (ii) shape coexistence in nickel isotopes understood in terms of configuration-dependent shell structure, and (iii) prediction of the evolution of the recently established $N=34$ magic number towards smaller proton numbers. In any case, large-scale shell-model calculations play indispensable roles in describing the interplay between single-particle character and correlation.

Yutaka Utsuno; Takaharu Otsuka; Yusuke Tsunoda; Noritaka Shimizu; Michio Honma; Tomoaki Togashi; Takahiro Mizusaki

2014-09-16

468

Oocysts and high seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dogs living in remote Aboriginal communities and wild dogs in Australia.  

PubMed

Canines are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa). For horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of N. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. Canids in Australia include wild dogs and Aboriginal community dogs. Wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. Aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a family, but are free-roaming and have free access throughout the community. In this study the extent of N. caninum infection was determined in a total of 374 dogs (75 wild dogs and 299 Aboriginal community dogs) using a combination of microscopic, molecular and serological techniques. Oocysts of N. caninum were observed in the faeces of two juvenile Aboriginal community dogs (2/132; 1.5%). To estimate N. caninum prevalence, a new optimised cut-off of 18.5% inhibition for a commercial competitive ELISA was calculated using a two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis and IFAT as the gold standard resulting in equal sensitivity and specificity of 67.8%. Of the 263 dog sera tested the true prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was 27.0% (95% confidence limit: 10.3-44.1%). The association between the competitive ELISA results in dogs less than 12 month old and older dogs was significant (P=0.042). To our knowledge this is the first large scale parasitological survey of the Aboriginal community dogs and wild dogs from Australia. The high prevalence of N. caninum infection in Aboriginal community dogs illustrates that horizontal transmission of N. caninum is occurring in Australia. These results demonstrated that N. caninum in dogs is widespread, including the semi-arid to arid regions of north-western New South Wales and the Northern Territory. The populations of free-ranging dogs are likely to be important contributors to the sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum. PMID:22245069

King, Jessica S; Brown, Graeme K; Jenkins, David J; Ellis, John T; Fleming, Peter J S; Windsor, Peter A; Slapeta, Jan

2012-06-01

469

Proteinuria is associated with persistence of antibody to streptococcal M protein in Aboriginal Australians.  

PubMed Central

Aboriginal communities in Northern Australia with high rates of group A streptococcal (GAS) skin infection in childhood also have high rates of renal failure in adult life. In a cross-sectional study of one such high risk community, albuminuria was used as a marker of renal disease. The prevalence of albuminuria increased from 0/52 in subjects aged 10-19 years to 10/29 (32.9%) in those aged 50 or more (P < 0.001). Antibodies to streptococcal M protein, markers of past GAS infection, were present in 48/52 (92%) at ages 10-19 years, 16/32 (50%) at ages 30-39, and 20/29 (69%) in those aged 50 or more. After allowing for the age-dependencies of albuminuria and of M protein antibodies (P < 0.001) albuminuria was significantly associated with M protein antibodies (P < 0.01). Thus, 72% of adults aged 30 or more with M protein antibodies also had albuminuria, compared with only 21% of those who were seronegative. More detailed modelling suggested that although most Aboriginal people in this community developed M protein antibodies following GAS infection in childhood, the development of proteinuria was associated with the persistence of such seropositivity into adult life. The models predicted that proteinuria developed at a mean age of 30 years in seropositive persons, at 45 years in seronegative persons who were overweight, and at 62 years in seronegative persons of normal weight. We demonstrated a clear association between evidence of childhood GAS infection and individual risk of proteinuria in adult life. This study provided a strong rationale for prevention of renal disease through the more effective control of GAS skin infections in childhood and through the prevention of obesity in adult life. PMID:10098787

Goodfellow, A. M.; Hoy, W. E.; Sriprakash, K. S.; Daly, M. J.; Reeve, M. P.; Mathews, J. D.

1999-01-01

470

Optimisation Modelling to Assess Cost of Dietary Improvement in Remote Aboriginal Australia  

PubMed Central

Background The cost and dietary choices required to fulfil nutrient recommendations defined nationally, need investigation, particularly for disadvantaged populations. Objective We used optimisation modelling to examine the dietary change required to achieve nutrient requirements at minimum cost for an Aboriginal population in remote Australia, using where possible minimally-processed whole foods. Design A twelve month cross-section of population-level purchased food, food price and nutrient content data was used as the baseline. Relative amounts from 34 food group categories were varied to achieve specific energy and nutrient density goals at minimum cost while meeting model constraints intended to minimise deviation from the purchased diet. Results Simultaneous achievement of all nutrient goals was not feasible. The two most successful models (A & B) met all nutrient targets except sodium (146.2% and 148.9% of the respective target) and saturated fat (12.0% and 11.7% of energy). Model A was achieved with 3.2% lower cost than the baseline diet (which cost approximately AUD$13.01/person/day) and Model B at 7.8% lower cost but with a reduction in energy of 4.4%. Both models required very large reductions in sugar sweetened beverages (?90%) and refined cereals (?90%) and an approximate four-fold increase in vegetables, fruit, dairy foods, eggs, fish and seafood, and wholegrain cereals. Conclusion This modelling approach suggested population level dietary recommendations at minimal cost based on the baseline purchased diet. Large shifts in diet in remote Aboriginal Australian populations are needed to achieve national nutrient targets. The modeling approach used was not able to meet all nutrient targets at less than current food expenditure. PMID:24391790

Brimblecombe, Julie; Ferguson, Megan; Liberato, Selma C.; O'Dea, Kerin; Riley, Malcolm

2013-01-01

471

Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS), questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH) tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community. PMID:23134669

2012-01-01

472

Variable phenotype of Marfan syndrome in two large Australian pedigrees, one of Australian aboriginal origin  

SciTech Connect

Marfan syndrome may affect the cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. The gene for this autosomal dominant disease maps to chromosome 15 and codes for the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin. Phenotypic expression is very variable both within and between families, possibly due to the influence of other, unlinked, genetic factors interacting with the fibrillin gene. We report two Australian families which demonstrate the extent of inter- and intra-family phenotypic variability. Eye, cardiac and skeletal assessments were made independently. In the first family, 8 of 12 siblings and 11 of 19 of their children had ectopia lentis with or without other ocular findings. There were few cardiac signs. One child had mitral valve prolapse. He and three other children had mild dilatation of the aorta. Skeletal abnormalities were also found (3 adults and 7 children). Chest wall asymmetry was the most common skeletal finding. This family has less cardiac and skeletal involvement than is usual in Marfan syndrome, although the disease maps to chromosome 15 in the region of the fibrillin gene (LOD=4.8 at {theta}=0 with respect to CYP19). The second family is partly of Australian aboriginal origin. The disease has been traced through 5 generations. To date we have examined 37 of 84 living members. Twenty-three in 3 generations are affected. Five adults and 4 children have moderate to severe aortic dilatation and there has been at least one death due to aortic dissection. However, two adolescents with subluxed lenses and marked skeletal abnormalities have normal aortic diameters, two children have aortic dilatation without other signs and two children have only subluxed lenses. This family shows the range of phenotypic variation which can arise from mutation in the fibrillin gene, which may be influenced by the admixture of Australian aboriginal genes. These two families provide an invaluable resource for studying genetic interactions in this disease.

Wong, K.K.; Summers, K.M.; West, M.J. [Univ. of Queensland (Australia)] [and others

1994-09-01

473

Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India.  

PubMed

There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we suggest that TAK such as that of the Malasars may serve toward a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability. PMID:18371206

Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Steven, Newmaster G; Maruthakkutti, Murugesan; Velusamy, Balasubramaniam; Ul-Huda, Muneer M

2008-01-01

474

Kidney disease in Aboriginal Australians: a perspective from the Northern Territory  

PubMed Central

This article outlines the increasing awareness, service development and research in renal disease in Aboriginal people in Australia's Northern Territory, among whom the rates of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are among the highest in the world. Kidney failure and RRT dominate the intellectual landscape and consume the most professional energy, but the underlying kidney disease has recently swung into view, with increasing awareness of its connection to other chronic diseases and to health profiles and trajectories more broadly. Albuminuria is the marker of the underlying kidney disease and the best treatment target, and glomerulomegaly and focal glomerulosclerosis are the defining histologic features. Risk factors in its multideterminant genesis reflect nutritional and developmental disadvantage and inflammatory/infectious milieu, while the major putative genetic determinants still elude detection. A culture shift of “chronic disease prevention” has been catalyzed in part by the human pain, logistic problems and great costs associated with RRT. Nowadays chronic disease management is the central focus of indigenous primary care, with defined protocols for integrated testing and management of chronic diseases and with government reimbursed service items and free medicines for people in remote areas. Blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are all mitigated by good treatment, which centres on renin-angiotensin system blockade and good metabolic control. RRT incidence rates appear to be stabilizing in remote Aboriginal people, and chronic disease deaths rates are falling. However, the profound levels of disadvantage in many remote settings remain appalling, and there is still much to be done, mostly beyond the direct reach of health services. PMID:25503952

Hoy, Wendy E.

2014-01-01

475

Labeling and cultural expectations & the shaping of a sorcery syndrome in aboriginal Australia.  

PubMed

An Aboriginal behavioral syndrome is described and considered from cognitive and social labeling perspectives. Fifty-seven cases of this fear of sorcery syndrome were encountered in a 5-year epidemiological survey of Aboriginals living on reserves in the Northern Territory. The syndrome is similar to others reported from around the world in cultural contexts where sorcery is an important component of belief systems. It is characterized by severe anxiety and agitation, a breakdown of normal social behavior, and a paranoid preoccupation with personal, physical, and social security. The syndrome is particularly noteworthy in that it circulates from one clansman to another, although the individual course of the disorder is relatively short term and nonrecurring. From a Western perspective, when the behavior associated with this syndrome assumes clinical proportions, appropriate diagnosis is made, and tranquilizing medication typically prescribed. The detailed epidemiology is in accordance with local definition of likely sorcery victims. This conformity with cultural expectation is taken as evidence for the labeling hypothesis. This analysis is based on theoretical models deriving from psychological and sociological approaches to psychiatric disorder, which suggest that the behaviors can only be explained by reference to the larger cultural context and belief system which is operating. The syndrome is institutionalized both in terms of social expression and control. Cognitive labeling and social labeling theory are seen as complementary models conjointly explaining both individual and social response to the illness, suggesting the interactive nature of adjustment etiologies. In addition, these approaches speak to the individual and social functions served by the sorcery symptoms described. PMID:7217941

Reser, J P; Eastwell, H D

1981-05-01

476

A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health  

PubMed Central

Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous knowledge. PMID:23939388

Johnston, Leah; Doyle, Joyce; Morgan, Bec; Atkinson-Briggs, Sharon; Firebrace, Bradley; Marika, Mayatili; Reilly, Rachel; Cargo, Margaret; Riley, Therese; Rowley, Kevin