Note: This page contains sample records for the topic aboriginal shell midden from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. Last update: August 15, 2014.
Following earlier examples of mapping the subsurface of shell bearing sites using augering, we employ percussion coring to identify early Holocene shellmidden components at two types of sites on the Northwest Coast of North America. We describe a method for mapping subsurface components at shell bearing sites including basal deposits, paleosols and transitions between distinct cultural components. Our research
Andrew Martindale; Bryn Letham; Duncan McLaren; David Archer; Meghan Burchell; Bernd R. Schöne
We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shellmiddens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shellmidden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shellmiddens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region’s past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene “Earthmovers” of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged.
Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, Jose M.; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz
Shellmiddens are the most common archaeological feature within the Biosphere Reserve of the Upper Gulf of California and the Colorado River Delta, on the coasts of Baja California and Sonora. Although they have been little studied, they provide the oldest evi- dence of a human presence and a key to understanding the process of colonization and modification of the
Miguel Agustín; Téllez Duarte; Guillermo Ávila Serrano; Karl W. Flessa
This slide show discusses plant-rich deposits called middens, that are found in caves and rock shelters in the arid southwestern United States. Middens are an amalgamation of plant and animal remains encased in crystallized packrat urine, and can be used to reconstruct past vegetation and climate in the immediate area of the midden deposit. This slide set outlines past climate variability by reconstructing vegetation change in the southwestern US as preserved in packrat middens. The set contains a comprehensive text and accompanying color photographs of middens, packrats, desert vegetation, and laboratory techniques which can be enlarged for better viewing.
Describes an art project for high school students in which they create Aboriginal-style paintings using cotton swabs. Discusses the process of creating the works of art in detail. Includes learning objectives, art materials, and a bibliography. (CMK)
OBJECTIVE: To inform health care workers about the health status of Canada's native people. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search for articles published from Jan. 1, 1989, to Nov. 31, 1995, with the use of subject headings "Eskimos" and "Indians, North American," excluding specific subject headings related to genetics and history. Case reports were excluded. Material was also identified from a review of standard references and bibliographies and from consultation with experts. STUDY SELECTION: Review and research articles containing original data concerning epidemiologic aspects of native health. Studies of Canadian populations were preferred, but population-based studies of US native peoples were included if limited Canadian information was available. DATA EXTRACTION: Information about target population, methods and conclusions was extracted from each study. RESULTS: Mortality and morbidity rates are higher in the native population than in the general Canadian population. The infant mortality rates averaged for the years 1986 to 1990 were 13.8 per 1000 live births among Indian infants, 16.3 per 1000 among Inuit infants, and only 7.3 per 1000 among all Canadian infants. Age-standardized all-cause mortality rates among residents of reserves averaged for the years 1979 to 1983 were 561.0 per 100,000 population among men and 334.6 per 100,000 among women, compared with 340.2 per 100,000 among all Canadian men and 173.4 per 100,000 among all Canadian women. Compared with the general Canadian population, specific native populations have an increased risk of death from alcoholism, homicide, suicide and pneumonia. Of the aboriginal population of Canada 15 years of age and older, 31% have been informed that they have a chronic health problem. Diabetes mellitus affects 6% of aboriginal adults, compared with 2% of all Canadian adults. Social problems identified by aboriginal people as a concern in their community include substance abuse, suicide, unemployment and family violence. Subgroups of aboriginal people are at a greater-than-normal risk of infectious diseases, injuries, respiratory diseases, nutritional problems (including obesity) and substance abuse. Initial data suggest that, compared with the general population, some subgroups of the native population have a lower incidence of heart disease and certain types of cancer. However, knowledge about contributing factors to the health status of aboriginal people is limited, since the literature generally does not assess confounding factors such as poverty. CONCLUSIONS: Canadian aboriginal people die earlier than their fellow Canadians, on average, and sustain a disproportionate share of the burden of physical disease and mental illness. However, few studies have assessed poverty as a confounding factor. Future research priorities in native health are best determined by native people themselves.
MacMillan, H L; MacMillan, A B; Offord, D R; Dingle, J L
Middenshell mounds consisting mainly of shallow marine, estuarine and lagoonal molluscan species are known from the coasts of every continent (except for Antarctica). While principally mid- to late Holocene in age, they date back to late Pleistocene in some glacioisostatic uplift areas (Scandinavia) and even the last interglacial at about 125,000 BP (Southern Africa). Inasmuch as the camp sites would normally be located immediately adjacent to the best shellfish collecting areas, they constitute useful shoreline indicators. Large, complex mounds disclose horizons showing temporary inundation and short-term abandonment. Occupation dates match independent chronologies of sea-level change. Analysis of shell species permits estimation of paleosalinity and paleotemperature, as well as assisting appraisal of general paleoecological setting. It is speculated that an abrupt change in trend of the Flandrian sea-level rise at about 6000 BP (C-14) stabilized the development of large lagoons and estuaries, particularly favorable sites for safe shellfish gathering. Prior to that the frequent and very rapid transgressions created repeatedly displaced (drowned) habitats. Since then man has been able to occupy semi-stable coastal sites, thus contributing to the world-wide post-Neolithic shift away from nomadic economy and towards village way of life.
Rodent ( Abrocoma, Lagidium, Phyllotis) middens collected from 2350 to 2750 m elevation near Arequipa, Peru (16°S), provide an ˜9600-yr vegetation history of the northern Atacama Desert, based on identification of >50 species of plant macrofossils. These midden floras show considerable stability throughout the Holocene, with slightly more mesophytic plant assemblages in the middle Holocene. Unlike the southwestern United States, rodent middens of mid-Holocene age are common. In the Arequipa area, the midden record does not reflect any effects of a mid-Holocene mega drought proposed from the extreme lowstand (100 m below modern levels, >6000 to 3500 yr B.P.) of Lake Titicaca, only 200 km east of Arequipa. This is perhaps not surprising, given other evidence for wetter summers on the Pacific slope of the Andes during the middle Holocene as well as the poor correlation of summer rainfall among modern weather stations in the central Andes-Atacama Desert. The apparent difference in paleoclimatic reconstructions suggests that it is premature to relate changes observed during the Holocene to changes in El Niño Southern Oscillation modes.
Holmgren, Camille A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Roque, Jose; Tovar, Oscar; Zeballos, Horacio; Linares, Eliana; Quade, Jay
In Canada, about 100 Aboriginal Head Start (AHS) programs provide Aboriginal preschool children with a start in preparing for elementary school and an understanding of their Native culture. The involvement of parents, communities, and elders is key to the success of AHS. The AHS mission statement and seven guiding principles are presented. (SV)
For 30 years the dominant approach to Aboriginal affairs in Australia has been to support cultural recovery and accommodate cultural difference in the expectation that this will enhance Aborigines’ and Torres Strait Islanders’ equality as citizens.This approach has been driven by a dialectic of progressivist desire to ameliorate the effects of earlier colonialist policy and Aboriginalist discourse that assumes isolable
This paper addresses the need for research in relation to Aboriginal students in locations geographically distant from formal education services. The principles and policies of the Aboriginal Education Policy (AEP) have secured funding for Northern Territory Aboriginal education projects. These principles include: (1) the involvement of Aboriginal…
Outbreaks of coccidioidomycosis and isolation of Coccidioides immitis have been reported from Amerindian middens. This study was undertaken to determine the most important ecological component(s) for the occurrence of C. immitis at archeological sites. Soils from 10 former Indian villages with no prior history of coccidioidal infection were collected and cultured. The physicochemical properties of the midden soils were compared with nonmidden soils and positive soils. The following theories for the sporadic distribution of the pathogen in the soil of the Lower Sonoran Life Zone were considered: (i) the Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) association, (ii) the preference for saline soils, (iii) isolation near rodent burrows, and (iv) animals as possible agents of dispersal. Results showed that a high percentage of the midden soils contained C. immitis, whereas none of the adjacent, nonmidden soils yielded the fungus. Physicochemical analyses revealed that the dark color and alkaline pH of the midden soils were due to past organic contamination. Repeated isolations were made from soils with low to moderate alkalinity. Alkalinity and sandy texture were consistent features of all soils in this study. However, the lack of any reports of nonsandy infested soils possibly indicates that the sandy texture and alkalinity may be factors in the distribution of this fungus. The organic content, soil parent material, and color were not important in the soil ecology. L. tridentata was not significant in the macroflora at the infested sites surveyed. Samples collected without reference to rodent burrows yielded a high percentage of recoveries. Animals, although not the major natural reservoir, cannot be ignored as possible factors in the ecology of C. immitis. PMID:4856715
"Sorry Day," held on May 26, 1998 in Australia, was an attempt on the part of some Australians to come to grips with the policy of forced removal of Aboriginal children that took place for 150 years until the 1970s. The Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation, made up of 25 members, over half of whom are Aborigines or Torres Strait Islanders, as well as members of the Commonwealth Parliament, maintains a site highlighted by its Weaving the Threads: Progress Towards Reconciliation report to Parliament.
Education is at the heart of the struggle of Canada's Aboriginal peoples to regain control over their lives as communities and nations. Based on hearings and research generated by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP), this collection of articles documents recent progress in transforming Aboriginal education to support…
1. Whitebark pine seeds Pinus albicaulis are an important food of grizzly Ursus arctos horribilis bears wherever whitebark pine is abundant in the contiguous United States of America; availability of seeds affects the distribution of bears, and the level of conflict between bears and humans. Almost all of the seeds consumed by bears are excavated from middens where red squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus have cached whitebark pine cones. 2. Relationships among the occupancy of middens by squirrels, the excavation of middens by bears, and site features were investigated in this study. Data were collected from radio-marked bears and from middens located from line transects on two study sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem. 3. Densities of active middens were positively related to lodgepole pine Pinus contorta basal area and negatively related to steepness of slope. 4. The probability that a midden was occupied by a squirrel (i.e. active) was positively related to lodgepole pine basal area in the surrounding stand, size of the midden and size of the whitebark pine cone crop, and negatively related to elevation and to bear excavation during the previous 2-12 months. 5. The probability that a midden had been excavated by a bear during the previous 12 months was positively related to size of the midden, and to whitebark pine basal area and cone crop, and negatively related to nearness of roads and town sites. 6. The influence of midden size on bear use was attributable to a positive relationship with the number of excavated cones. The positive association between bear excavations and whitebark pine basal area or cone crops was attributable to availability of pine seeds. 7. Grizzly bears would benefit from the minimization of roads and other human facilities in the whitebark pine zone and from increases in the availability of whitebark pine seeds, potentially achieved by increasing the numbers of cone-producing whitebark pine trees, especially in lower elevations of the whitebark pine zone where red squirrels are more abundant.
This Libraries and Archives Canada "web exhibition recounts first-hand information illustrating the complex and often contentious relationship between the Canadian government and Canada's Aboriginal people from the late 1700s to the mid-20th century." Visitors interested in reading about the importance and meaning of these documentary resources to the aboriginal people, should read the link on the left side menu entitled: "The Resources from an Aboriginal Perspective". Visitors unfamiliar with the current and historical vocabulary used regarding Aboriginal people should refer to the "Glossary" on the left side menu to learn the definitions of such words as "band", "M'tis", "Indian Act", and "First Nation". The "Treaties, Surrenders and Agreements" link contains the following sections: "Essay", "Gallery" and "Database". The Gallery contains images of original treaties that, among other things, ceded vast amounts of land to Canada. Visitors can view one of the treaties that ceded the land of southwestern Ontario north of Lake Erie which originally was part of the Aboriginal people's territory.
Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.
Canadian schools have not respected or honored the history of Canada Natives. Much of what is taught are stereotypes or myths. Native organizations have developed materials that present a more honest and respectful perspective on Aboriginal culture. But for effective change to happen, teachers must develop the will to learn for themselves and make…
In western North America, pollen data from highland lakes are often used to reconstruct vegetation on the adjacent lowlands. Plant macrofossils and pollen from packrat middens now provide a means to evaluate such reconstructions. On the basis of pollen diagrams from the Chuska Mountains, H. E. Wright, Jr., A. M. Bent, B. S. Hansen, and L. J. Maher, Jr., ((1973), Geological Society of America Bulletin, 84, 1155-1180) arrived at conservative estimates for late Pleistocene depression of highland conifers. In their interpretation, a proposed slight depression of 500 m for lower tree line precluded expansion of Pinus ponderosa into elevations now in desertscrub. Instead, it was suggested that pinyon pine and Artemisia occupied the lowland plateaus. Packrat midden records on either side of the Chuskas fail to verify this model. Early Holocene middens from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, and a terminal Pleistocene midden from Canyon de Chelly, Arizona, show that blue spruce, limber pine, Douglas fir, dwarf juniper, and Rocky Mountain juniper expanded at least down to 1770 m elevation Neither Colorado pinyon nor ponderosa pine was found as macrofossils in the middens. Artemisia pollen percentages are high in the terminal Pleistocene midden, as they are in the Chuska Mountain pollen sequence, suggesting regional dominance by sagebrush steppe. Of 38 taxa identified, only 3 are shared by middens dated 11,900 and 3120 yr B.P. from Canyon de Chelly, indicating a nearly complete turnover in the flora between the late Pleistocene and late Holocene. Although corn was previously thought to have been introduced to the Colorado plateaus after 2200 yr B.P., the midden dated 3120 yr B.P. contains pollen of corn and other indicators of incipient agriculture.
This paper applies the work of Jacques Lacan, a French psychoanalyst, to decipher the desire of the teacher in Aboriginal education. It argues that the images of Aboriginal people represented in Australian classrooms are effects of the teacher's Imaginary, the Imaginary being one of the three psychoanalytic domains theorised by Lacan over a period…
Australia's rich inheritance of Aboriginal rock art is now under threat from a rapid growth in tourism. Tourists seek out remote areas of the country where they can experience the ‘real’ Australia and Aboriginal rock art sites are promoted as integral to that ‘outback’ experience. Various management techniques have been used at rock art sites to protect them from tourists
We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.
We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.
The USGS/NOAA North American Packrat Midden Database is a standardized archive of published paleobotanical data derived from packrat middens in western North America. We use midden age, location, and species presence-absence data from this dataset to generate maps illustrating the past occurrence of important woody plant taxa in western North America during the late Quaternary. We explore late Quaternary changes in the distributions of selected plant taxa commonly found in packrat middens and presently associated with western desert ( Carnegiea gigantea), steppe ( Artemisia tridentata-type), woodland (pinyon pines), montane ( Pinus ponderosa), and subalpine ( Pinus flexilis) plant communities. We compare the current geographic and climatic distributions of these taxa with the present-day climates at sites where these taxa have been found in packrat midden macrofossil assemblages. These comparisons suggest that late Pleistocene climates in western North America were generally characterized by cooler-than-present summers and by much greater-than-present mean annual precipitation.
Strickland, L. E.; Thompson, R. S.; Anderson, K. H.; Pelltier, R. T.
The purpose of the study was to identify the strengths of Aboriginal foster parents according to the foster parents themselves.\\u000a A total of 83 Aboriginal foster parents participated in over the phone interviews that included the question “What are the\\u000a main strengths you have as a foster parent?”. Responses to the questions were sorted by the participants and the sorted
This comparative analysis of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal families uses a 1998 Cana- dian study of child maltreatment cases to identify important differences: Aboriginal fam- ilies face worse socioeconomic conditions, are more often investigated because of neglect, less often reported for physical or sexual abuse, and report higher rates of substance abuse. At every decision point in the cases, Aboriginal children
Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…
Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.
The Bug Hill site is an accretional midden mount set on the Holocene age Jackfork Terrace, along an intermittent tributary of Jackfork Creek. Analyses indicated that the site was occupied from the Middle Archaic to the Historic Period. The site was the lo...
J. H. Altschul D. Johnson W. Johnson G. Fredlund J. Moorehead
The existing paleoenvironmental data from the Australian arid zone lack sensitivity and come from only a few sites. Macrofossils and pollen from four dated middens of the stick-nest rat ( Leporillus spp.) were analyzed from two sites in Western Australia. Animal and plant macrofossil remains were well preserved and provided evidence of change in species distribution within the last 1150 yr. Brush-tail possum and golden bandicoot have contracted their ranges in the recent past, possibly since the introduction of cats into Australia. An undescribed lacewing was also a significant find. Pollen preserved in parts of the same midden and in middens from different sites indicates that records are sensitive to the composition of the local vegetation when the midden was built. Pollen spectra are quite different from playa lakes, which record largely regional vegetation. Pollen preserved in the fecal pellets, desiccated urine, and grass mat nesting material provided similar information but some differences were apparent, suggesting dietary preferences were reflected in the fecal component. The pollen record suggested a trend to less-wooded vegetation cover in central Australia between 900 and 300 yr B.P.
Many therapists who have worked with Aboriginal clients remark on how resilient Aboriginal people seem to be. Despite having experienced incredible levels of trauma, losses etc., most Aboriginal people are still able to function well and are able to lead reasonably healthy lives. Some of them even flourish in spite of their difficult personal and collective histories. These observations raise
The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, which is usually reported in terms of songs or stories associated with stars and constellations. Here we argue that the astronomical components extend further, and include a search for meaning in the sky, beyond simply mirroring the earth-bound understanding. In particular, we have found that traditional Aboriginal cultures include a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and that this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. We also present evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, and paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts.
Many Americans believe that diversity issues are limited to the United States. The truth is, however, that many cultures struggle to recognize and foster cultural diversity. In this article, the authors have two aims: (1) to recognize various ethnic groups in Taiwan, in particular aboriginal groups; and (2) to inform educators about what they can…
Background Aboriginal representation in Canadian correctional institutions has increased rapidly over the past decade. We calculated “years of life lost to incarceration” for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians. Methods Incarceration data from provincial databases were used conjointly with demographic data to estimate rates of incarceration and years of life lost to provincial incarceration in (BC) and federal incarceration, by Aboriginal status. We used the Sullivan method to estimate the years of life lost to incarceration. Results Aboriginal males can expect to spend approximately 3.6 months in federal prison and within BC spend an average of 3.2 months in custody in the provincial penal system. Aboriginal Canadians on average spend more time in custody than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The ratio of the Aboriginal incarceration rate to the non-Aboriginal incarceration rate ranged from a low of 4.28 in Newfoundland and Labrador to a high of 25.93 in Saskatchewan. Rates of incarceration at the provincial level were highest among Aboriginals in Manitoba with an estimated rate of 1377.6 individuals in prison per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1311.8 – 1443.4). Conclusions The results indicate substantial differences in life years lost to incarceration for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Canadians. In light of on-going prison expansion in Canada, future research and policy attention should be paid to the public health consequences of incarceration, particularly among Aboriginal Canadians.
The Aboriginal Studies WWW Virtual Library has been now added to the other four WWW Virtual Library systems (Asian Studies, Buddhist Studies, Demography & Population Studies, and Social Sciences) developed and maintained by the Research Schools of Social Sciences & Pacific and Asian Studies at the Australian National University, Canberra.
Despite the significant number of transracial Aboriginal adoptions that have taken place in Canada, little research is available that addresses the psychological and psychosocial ramifications for the children involved. The scant literature that does exist raises concerns about the psychological impact of this type of adoption. The present…
This WWW Virtual Library site features annotated links to over 130 resources for nearly 40 of Australia's indigenous languages. The resources are categorized by type of resource, language, and region (i.e., Australian state). Included here are links to dictionaries, word lists, complete texts -- some with translations, bilingual education resources, language courses, academic papers, bibliographies, relevant libraries, indigenous songs and sounds, language rights and policy Websites, and more. The resources are succinctly and informatively annotated with graphic icons to represent sites with original text and bibliographies or catalogs as well as dates-of-posting to the directory. Updated in late July, Aboriginal Languages of Australia is created and maintained by David Nathan of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies and sponsored by the Linguistics department of the University of Melbourne.
An examination of the prevalence and phenotype of immune disorders in different ethnic groups may provide important clues to the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. Whilst still conjectural the restricted and somewhat unique polymorphisms of the MHC (and other genetic loci involving host defences) of the Australian Aborigines may provide an explanation for their apparent heightened susceptibility to newly encountered infections and their resistance to many (auto) immune and allergic disorders. In comparison with non-Aboriginal Australians, Australian Aborigines have heightened frequencies of rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, various infections and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In contrast various autoimmune disorders (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, CREST, biliary cirrhosis, coeliac disease, pernicious anaemia, vitiligo), B27 related arthropathies, psoriasis, lymphoproliferative disorders and atopic disorders appear infrequent or absent. Similarly various autoantibodies occur with increased or diminished frequency. With continuing racial admixture, social deprivation and deleterious lifestyles of these people it is likely that further changes in both the frequencies and phenotype of these immune disorders will occur. It is only with a full understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in these immune disorders that meaningful and clinical relevant interventions will be possible. PMID:16572744
Roberts-Thomson, P J; Roberts-Thomson, R A; Nikoloutsopoulos, T; Gillis, D
Objective: The authors examine how many Aboriginal children attending two reservation-based elementary schools in Northern Alberta, Canada, would demonstrate symptoms associated with ADHD using standardized parent and teacher questionnaires. Method: Seventy-five Aboriginal children in Grades 1 through 4 are tested. Seventeen of the 75 (22.7%)…
Baydala, Lola; Sherman, Jody; Rasmussen, Carmen; Wikman, Erik; Janzen, Henry
Prophecies say that Aboriginal peoples of the Americas will educate and illuminate the world by sharing their Sacred Fire, the spiritual strength that has enabled their survival. Such a vision sustains Aboriginal literacy practitioners, who are developing a unique holistic foundation for the healing and nurturing of minds, bodies, and spirits.…
The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…
The report on the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996), the Kelowna Accord announced in 2005 (five-billion dollars) followed by its demise in 2006, and the settlement in 2006 for Aboriginal survivors of residential schools (1.9 billion dollars), are but some of the recent high-profile indicators of the challenges to Canada in dealing with…
Educational responses to the wide-spread failure of indigenous children in Westernised schools have not made the desired impact. In Australia, for example, an appropriate elementary education for many Aboriginal children cannot be guaranteed. Suggestions in the psychological literature that Aboriginal children might experience success in programs that value and promote creative thinking, motivated the design of the present study. This
Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…
The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) is a nonprofit organization established in 1998 with funding from the Canadian Government. Its mission is to support Aboriginal people in building sustainable healing processes that address the legacy of physical and sexual abuse in the residential school system, including intergenerational impacts. AHF…
The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…
Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the philosophical basis to conceptualize quality Aboriginal early childhood education. Based on this theoretical
Jane P Preston; Michael Cottrell; Terrance R Pelletier; Joseph V Pearce
Canada's Aboriginal peoples face a number of social and health issues. Research shows that Aboriginal youths are over-represented in the criminal justice system and youth forensic psychiatric programmes. Within the literature on sex offending youth, there appears to be no published data available to inform clinicians working with adjudicated Aboriginal youth. Therefore, the present study examines the background, offence characteristics, and criminal outcomes of Aboriginal (n = 102) and non-Aboriginal (n = 257) youths who engaged in sexual offending behaviour and were ordered to attend a sexual offender treatment programme in British Columbia between 1985 and 2004. Overall, Aboriginal youths were more likely than non-Aboriginal youths to have background histories of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), substance abuse, childhood victimization, academic difficulties, and instability in the living environment. Both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youths had a tendency to target children under 12-years-old, females, and non-strangers. Aboriginal youths were more likely than non-Aboriginal youths to use substances at the time of their sexual index offence. Outcome data revealed that Aboriginal youths were more likely than their non-Aboriginal counterparts to recidivate sexually, violently, and non-violently during the 10-year follow-up period. Furthermore, the time between discharge and commission of all types of re-offences was significantly shorter for Aboriginal youths than for non-Aboriginal youths. Implications of these findings are discussed with regards to the needs of Aboriginal youth and intervention. PMID:17701354
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) strains are responsible for respiratory-related infections which cause a significant burden of disease in Australian children. We previously identified a disparity in NTHI culture-defined carriage rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children (42% versus 11%). The aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to accurately determine the true NTHI carriage rates (excluding other culture-identical Haemophilus spp.) and assess whether the NTHI strain diversity correlates with the disparity in NTHI carriage rates. NTHI isolates were cultured from 595 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected longitudinally from asymptomatic Aboriginal (n = 81) and non-Aboriginal (n = 76) children aged 0 to 2 years living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region, Western Australia. NTHI-specific 16S rRNA gene PCR and PCR ribotyping were conducted on these isolates. Confirmation of NTHI by 16S rRNA gene PCR corrected the NTHI carriage rates from 42% to 36% in Aboriginal children and from 11% to 9% in non-Aboriginal children. A total of 75 different NTHI ribotypes were identified, with 51% unique to Aboriginal children and 13% unique to non-Aboriginal children (P < 0.0001). The strain richness (proportion of different NTHI ribotypes) was similar for Aboriginal (19%, 65/346) and non-Aboriginal children (19%, 37/192) (P = 0.909). Persistent carriage of the same ribotype was rare in the two groups, but colonization with multiple NTHI strains was more common in Aboriginal children than in non-Aboriginal children. True NTHI carriage was less than that estimated by culture. The Aboriginal children were more likely to carry unique and multiple NTHI strains, which may contribute to the chronicity of NTHI colonization and subsequent disease. PMID:24501028
Pickering, J; Smith-Vaughan, H; Beissbarth, J; Bowman, J M; Wiertsema, S; Riley, T V; Leach, A J; Richmond, P; Lehmann, D; Kirkham, L-A
BACKGROUNDNorthern Territory Aboriginal children hospitalised with acute gastroenteritis have high rates of acidosis, hypokalaemia, and dehydration.AIMSTo determine whether Aboriginal children with and without diarrhoea have greater impairment in intestinal function than non-Aboriginal children, as assessed by increased permeability ratios.METHODSA descriptive study of 124 children (96 Aboriginal and 28 non-Aboriginal) hospitalised with and without diarrhoea. Intestinal permeability was assessed by the
R H Kukuruzovic; A Haase; K Dunn; A Bright; D R Brewster
BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) may predict subsequent risk of OM. METHODS: 100 Aboriginal and
Reviews materials from history, anthropology, art, and journalism related Canada's aboriginal peoples. Uses a regional geography approach to present information. Includes an extensive annotated bibliography of resources for classroom teachers. (CFR)
The aim of the current paper was to examine the equivalence of the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher rating measure of school readiness, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The current study used an approach, which analyzes the structure and properties of the EDI at the subdomain level. Similar subdomain score distributions…
This paper reports on a Talking Circle of six beginning Aboriginal teachers who discussed their roles as teachers. Participants criticized teacher education programs for not preparing them to teach in ways that are respectful of Aboriginal languages and culture. They discussed the importance of coming to know themselves and their culture. The…
Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie M.
Aboriginal literacy programs in Canada are using literacy as a means of reclaiming Aboriginal languages and a positive cultural identity. The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal literacy uses seven ways of knowing, each corresponding to a color. The approach recognizes that spirit, heart, mind, and body equally contribute to a life of balance,…
In British Columbia, K-12 school Aboriginal students' completion rates are far from equivalent to those of their non-Aboriginal peers. In addition, there is a high degree of variability in Aboriginal students' school completion rates across schools and communities. Administrative data associating approximately 1.5 million school census records of…
Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…
Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.
This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…
Aboriginal/Indigenous education is being increasingly emphasized in Faculties of Education across Canada. Through self-study as an instructor of a mandatory course in Aboriginal education in a Faculty of Education, the author is exploring the use of local, place-based education in the fostering of cross-cultural understanding of Aboriginal and…
This paper concerns the determinants of fertility of precontact Australian Aborigine women. Emphasis is placed on social organization as well as the physical environment and considerations of adaptation. The key to understanding the fertility of Australian Aborigines is the structural tension evident in male-female relations. Ethnographic data on hunter-gatherers fertility indicate a low fertility rate, e.g. 4.7-5.2 live births/woman for the Kung. Traditional Aboriginal physiological fertility was also low if infant mortality is separated from infertility. Past studies of population and transition theory in pre-contact situations have attributed increase in population to reduction in mortality. This paper suggests that there must have been an increase in the birth rate. Factors affecting ovulation, conception, and parturition are examined for traditional Aboriginal populations. Ovulation is affected by nutrition, lactation, and introcision. Lack of body fat in women causes anovulation due to insufficent energy reserves. Increased fertility appears to be a greatly reduced energy expenditure and an increased carbohydrate intake leading to a build up of body weight. Pre-contact Aboriginal fertility was low because of a low caloric intake and a high energy expenditure. Prolonged lactation does not seem to cause birth spacing. The actual length of time after parturition appears to be an independent cause of reduced prolactin, and of reestablishment of ovulation. Stress and anxiety are factors which could reduce fertility by causing anovulation in women and/or reduced sperm counts in men. Contraception is affected by coital frequency and male fertility. Aboriginal coital frequency may have been affected by the lack of privacy and competition of a co-wife. Gestation is affected by spontaneous abortion, sterility, and foetal wastage. Harsh conditions of traditional Aborigines may have affected their ability to conceive. Voluntary controls on fertility for Aborigines include rituals, avoidance of coitus, taking medicines, abortion, and infanticide. Low fertility of precontact aborigines is accounted for by diet and energy expenditure, with limited coital frequency and foetal wastage as probable contributing factors. Fallopian tube blockage could account for the high rate of infertility of women. Social organization, values, and beliefs are important to take into account. PMID:12337490
Introduction and Aim. Although tobacco and alcohol use have declined substantially in the Australian community, substance use among prisoners remains high. The aim was to compare the smoking, drug, and alcohol characteristics, sociodemographic profile, and general health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal male prisoners in a smoking cessation intervention. Design and Methods. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of data from 425 male prisoners who joined a quit smoking trial conducted at 18 correctional centres in NSW and Queensland using data collected by standardised self-report instruments. Results. Average age was 33 years with 15% from Aboriginal descent. Compared to non-Aboriginal prisoners, Aboriginal prisoners were significantly more likely to have left school with no qualifications, to have been institutionalised as a child, to be previously incarcerated, and commenced smoking at a younger age. The tobacco use profile of both groups was similar; most of them had a medium to high level of nicotine dependence, smoked roll your own tobacco, and were “serious” about quitting. Discussion and Conclusion. Despite differences in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and offending history, the smoking characteristics of Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal prisoners were similar. Incarceration offers an opportunity to encourage smoking cessation and reduction of drug use.
Richmond, Robyn L.; Indig, Devon; Butler, Tony G.; Wilhelm, Kay A.; Archer, Vicki A.; Wodak, Alex D.
Shellmiddens are one of the most important and widespread indicators for human exploitation of marine resources and occupation of coastal environments. Establishing an accurate and reliable chronology for these deposits has fundamental implications for understanding the patterns of human evolution and dispersal. This paper explores the potential application of a new methodology of amino acid racemization (AAR) dating of shellmiddens and describes a simple protocol to test the suitability of different molluscan species. This protocol provides a preliminary test for the presence of an intracrystalline fraction of proteins (by bleaching experiments and subsequent heating at high temperature), checking the closed system behaviour of this fraction during diagenesis. Only species which pass both tests can be considered suitable for further studies to obtain reliable age information. This amino acid geochronological technique is also applied to midden deposits at two latitudinal extremes: Northern Scotland and the Southern Red Sea. Results obtained in this study indicate that the application of this new method of AAR dating of shells has the potential to aid the geochronological investigation of shell mounds in different areas of the world.
Climate archives contained in shells of the European limpet, Patella vulgata, from Viking shellmiddens can potentially provide much needed information about seasonality in mid-latitude coastal areas prior to the complicating effects of industrialization. P. vulgata shells are common in the stratified middens accumulated by the Viking inhabitants of Quoygrew, Orkney, and were likely used for baiting fish. Radiocarbon dates and artifacts place these middens between the 9th/10th and 13th centuries. This interval coincides with the Medieval Warm Period. Little is known about the seasonal temperature variation during this time of pre-industrial warming. Before reconstructing climate information from Viking shells, we determined whether P. vulgata preserves environmental and ecological information. Previous work on live-collected specimens from Whitley Bay near Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, confirmed that: (1) oxygen isotope ratios served as a proxy for sea surface temperature after accounting for a uniform +1.01 +/-0.21 ‰ offset; and (2) annual growth lines occurred during the winter given this location is within the cold-temperature biogeographic province. Winter growth lines and increments are common growth patterns found in marine bivalves from the cold-temperate province along the western North Atlantic. Preliminary isotope data from the 9th/10th century reveals similar winter and summer temperature relative to today and annual growth lines formed during winter, typical of a cold-temperate habitat.
Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.
In remote Australian Aboriginal communities, medical interactions between non-Aboriginal nurses and Aboriginal patients often use health narratives to enact and contest social identities. Nursing staff complain that Aboriginal patients do not comply with their prescribed medication nor attend the clinic appropriately. Nurses often blame these behaviours on irresponsibility and laziness. Conversely, Aboriginal people complain that nursing staff are racist and
A group of Taiwan aborigines, the Toroko, was typed for 21 classical genetic loci. This is part of an ongoing program aimed at a comprehensive study of Taiwan aborigines. In this first paper a short summary of historical, archeological, and anthropological data in the literature is made, and results of the present survey are compared with older results from other aborigine tribes. An analysis of other neighboring populations from southeast Asia has also been carried out in order to give a preliminary answer to the question of origin of Taiwanese aborigines. Fifteen populations were studied for 13 loci by tree analysis, principal components, and isolation by distance. Tree analysis and principal component analysis gave results in fairly good agreement and indicate three major population clusters: a northeast cluster (Ainu, Korea, Japan, and Ryukyu); a southeast cluster (south China, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Taiwan, and Toroko); and a third cluster including Malaya and Borneo. The positions of Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia are somewhat peripheral. Analysis of the tree shows some potential cases of convergence, perhaps owing to admixture, and of divergence. The analysis of isolation by distance shows that geographic propinquity is a reasonably good predictor of general similarity in this area. PMID:3857010
Chen, K H; Cann, H; Chen, T C; Van West, B; Cavalli-Sforza, L
According to Manovich (2001), the database and the narrative are natural enemies, each competing for the same territory of human culture. Aboriginal knowledge traditions depend upon narrative through storytelling and other shared performances. The database objectifies and commodifies distillations of such performances and absorbs them into data…
Australian English shows a number of features that are due to contact between white and indigenous populations and that are taken to signal part of its local distinctiveness. This article discusses a questionnaire that sought to explore whether Australian-English speakers are aware of Aboriginal influences in Australian English. (Author/JL)
The Martu people originate from the Pilbara region in Western Australia. Despite policies of removal, incarceration in prison and the need to leave community for health services, Martu maintain identity and connection to country. Their narratives have been used to inform a wider Australian audience about the history and culture of Aboriginal…
Created and maintained by Rob Wesley, this Web directory indexes sites related to Canadian aboriginal, Native American, and international indigenous peoples and cultures. The annotated links are organized by topic, including First Nations, Education, Government, History, and Organizations, among others. What's new, a top 100 listing, and an internal search engine are also provided. Visitors are welcome to submit additional sites for inclusion.
Mining the Midden intends to re-frame the sanitary landfill as a new typology of public land containing an embodied energy of cultural and material value. By reconnecting the public with the landfill and seriously exposing its layers of history and then digesting both mined and new waste within an industrial facility of materials recovery and plasma gasification technology waste-to-energy plant. The sequence of experience for a public visitor begins where the waste is transformed to energy and flows in the opposite direction of the trash through the facility and then into the active landfill mining operation which is the large site component of the project. The mine is flanked by the visitor path, which is suspended from the soldier piles of the excavation system and allows the visitor to interpret along the 1/3 mile path their personal connection to the waste stream and the consumption patterns which drive our waste. Interpretation results from multi-sensory experience of the open mine and its connection to the processing structure as one hovers above, through moments of seeing through structural glass lagging directly into the sectional cut of the landfill, and through cultural artifacts harvested by landfill archaeologists which are displayed in rhythm with the structure and lagging. The culmination of the prescribed path is a narrow cut which frames the view of Mt. Rainier in the distance and opens up a visual connection with the remaining majority of the landfill which have up to this point been blocked by the small mountain of trash which they just walked up and through. This thesis intends that by confronting people with the juxtapositions of 2 potentially destructive mounds or mountains, and how we as a culture value and protect land while we simultaneously dump our rubbish on other lands, this experience will make the visitor more conscious of ones personal contribution to our culture of disposable commodities.
Samples taken from middens at the Neolithic site of Catalhöyük in Turkey have been analysed using IR spectroscopy backed up by powder XRD and SEM-EDX. Microcomponents studied include fossil hackberries (providing evidence of ancient diet and seasonality), mineral nodules (providing evidence of post-depositional change) and phytoliths (mineralised plant cells, providing evidence of usage of plant species). Finely laminated ashy deposits have also been investigated allowing chemical and mineralogical variations to be explored. It is found that many layers which appear visually to be quite distinctive have, in fact, very similar mineralogy. PMID:19268629
Background Addiction treatment faces high pretreatment and treatment dropout rates, especially among Aboriginals. In this study we examined characteristic differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients accessing an inpatient medical withdrawal management program, and identified risk factors associated with the probabilities of pretreatment and treatment dropouts, respectively. Methods 2231 unique clients (Aboriginal?=?451; 20%) referred to Vancouver Detox over a two-year period were assessed. For both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups, multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted with pretreatment dropout and treatment dropout as dependent variables, respectively. Results Aboriginal clients had higher pretreatment and treatment dropout rates compared to non-Aboriginal clients (41.0% vs. 32.7% and 25.9% vs. 20.0%, respectively). For Aboriginal people, no fixed address (NFA) was the only predictor of pretreatment dropout. For treatment dropout, significant predictors were: being female, having HCV infection, and being discharged on welfare check issue days or weekends. For non-Aboriginal clients, being male, NFA, alcohol as a preferred substance, and being on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) at referral were associated with pretreatment dropout. Significant risk factors for treatment dropout were: being younger, having a preferred substance other than alcohol, having opiates as a preferred substance, and being discharged on weekends. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of social factors for the Aboriginal population compared to substance-specific factors for the non-Aboriginal population. These findings should help clinicians and decision-makers to recognize the importance of social supports especially housing and initiate appropriate services to improve treatment intake and subsequent retention, physical and mental health outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of treatment.
A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death. Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD, but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of CLD. High rates of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are reported in regions of coastal British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. Non-alcoholic liver disease is a common, but understudied, cause of CLD. Future research should monitor the incidence and etiology of CLD and should be geographically inclusive. In addition, more research is needed on the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in this population.
This work is the result of a research program developed from a research partnership between the Native Mental Health Research Team of McGill University and the Native Friendship Centre of Montreal, a Native-run urban community-based service organization. The aims of the study were to examine substance abuse as well as physical and mental health among an urban Aboriginal population. The
Precipitation in northern Chile is controlled by two great wind belts - the southern westerlies over the southern Atacama and points south (> 24° S) and the tropical easterlies over the northern and central Atacama Desert (16-24° S). At the intersection of these summer and winter rainfall regimes, respectively, is a Mars-like landscape consisting of expansive surfaces devoid of vegetation (i.e. absolute desert) except in canyons that originate high enough to experience runoff once every few years. Pollen assemblages from 39 fossil rodent middens in one of these canyons, Quebrada del Chaco (25° 30 S), were used to infer the history of vegetation and precipitation at three elevations (2670-2800 m; 3100-3200 m; 3450-3500 m) over the past 50 000 years. When compared to modern conditions and fossil records to the north and south, the pollen evidence indicates more winter precipitation at > 52, 40-33, 24-17 k cal. yr BP, more precipitation in both seasons at 17-14 k cal. yr BP, and more summer precipitation from 14-11 k cal.yrBP. Younger middens are scarce at Quebrada del Chaco, and the few Holocene samples indicate hyperarid conditions comparable to today. The only exception is a pollen assemblage that indicates a brief but significant interlude of increased winter precipitation in the last millennium. Copyright
Maldonado, Antonio; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Villagran, Carolina
Describes the traditions and philosophy behind successful substance abuse treatment strategies used by Aboriginal people in Canada. Discusses how substance abuse treatment strategies which facilitate reconnection to cultural values and traditions enables Aboriginal clients to discover meaning in their lives and promote healing. (Author/GCP)
There is little research available on binge drinking among the Aboriginal population. Between March and June 2004, 15 Aboriginal persons participated in a semi-structured interview related to their binge drinking behaviors. The majority of participants were women and described a family history of alcoholism and childhood abuse. Factors that…
This book contains 13 essays on Canadian Aboriginal literature. Topics include literary criticism, pedagogical issues, and the experiences of Native authors and of faculty teaching Aboriginal literature in mainstream institutions. Entries are: (1) "Natives on Native Literature: What Do We Rightly Write? Or: Shot Headfirst from the Canon" (Anna…
In remote Aboriginal communities, there are many challenges that confront educators, not the least of which is leadership that challenges the status quo and moves Aboriginal communities forward in their access to, and engagement with, the mathematics school curriculum. This paper draws on data from the "Maths in the Kimberley" (MiTK) project where…
Internet-based discussion forums provide access to health information and social support, and serve as a resource for others. This investigation analyzed health-oriented Aboriginal Internet discussion forum (Forum A; Forum B) conversations. The findings were framed with Nutbeam's model of health literacy. Discussions within Forum B were centralized around issues of political activism and advocacy regarding Aboriginal health care. Activity in
Some Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk of using substances and developing abuse and dependence disorders. However, not all Aboriginal youth misuse substances and limited research has examined the protective factors conferring against substance use among these youth. The present study aimed to identify protective factors related to the…
This article discusses the implications and complexities of Canada's multicultural policies for aboriginal students in its post-secondary education systems. The author, a Pakistani-Canadian multicultural educator, interviewed an Aboriginal-Canadian multicultural educator, to discuss the cultural differences, divisions, and resistances between…
The Aboriginal Language Standardisation (ALS) Project's task is to develop quality literacy materials in order to help preserve aboriginal languages of Canada. The Canadian Assembly of First Nations, a group of tribal leaders, recently called for the establishment of standards for written and oral languages by approving terminology, developing…
Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities, Toronto. Literacy and Basic Skills Section.
The purpose of this case-control study was to identify antenatal and perinatal risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Aboriginal infants in Western Australia (WA). Gases were all Aboriginal infants born in WA from 1980 to 1990 inclusive and classified as dying from SIDS in WA. Controls consisted of a matched group and a random group both selected
L. M. Alessandri; A. W. Read; P. R. Burton; F. J. Stanley
Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…
Remote and rural Australian Aboriginal children achieve lower standards of numeracy and literacy than their non-Aboriginal peers. The reasons are complex, but extraordinarily high rates of conductive hearing loss (>50%) are, in part, responsible for poor classroom success. In addition to the burden of acute bacterial respiratory illness (highest rates of invasive pneumococcal disease in the literature), chronic disease affects
Despite a growing body of critical scholarship in nursing, the concept of culture continues to be applied in ways that diminish the significance of power relations and structural constraints on health and health care. In this paper, we take a critical look at how assumptions and ideas underpinning conceptualizations of culture and cultural sensitivity can influence nurses' perceptions of Aboriginal peoples and Aboriginal health. Drawing on examples from our research, we examine how popularized assumptions about culture can shape nurses' views of Aboriginal patients. These assumptions and perceptions require closer scrutiny because of their potential to influence nurses' practice with Aboriginal patients. Our specific aims are to: (a) consider some of the limitations of cultural sensitivity in relation to health care involving Aboriginal peoples; (b) explore how ideas about culture have the potential to become problematic in nursing practice with Aboriginal peoples; and (c) explore the relevance of a 'critical cultural approach' in extending our understanding of culture in relation to Aboriginal peoples' health. We discuss a critical cultural perspective as one way of broadening nurses' understandings about the complexities of culture and the many facets of culture that require critical consideration. In relation to Aboriginal health, this will require nurses to develop greater critical awareness of culture as a relational process, and as necessarily influenced by issues of racism, colonialism, historical circumstances, and the current political climate in which we live. PMID:17026422
Low birth weight predisposes to renal disease in Aboriginal adults. This could be due to reduced nephronnumbers, which might be reflected in lower kidney volumes, at least early in life. In this study we evaluated the association of birth weight with renal volume in 174 children and in adolescents 5 to 18 years old in an Aboriginal community with high
In mid-2001, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in Australia was approximately 458,500 people (2.4% of the national population). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia experience disadvantage compared to non-Indigenous Australians in a number of areas, including greater prevalence of health risk factors, early…
Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 2007
In Canada, Aboriginal postsecondary enrollment and completion rates are significantly lower than those of non-Aboriginal students. This is most evident in studies involving science and mathematics. The investigation of this issue was informed by focus group discussions with eight participants representing a Blackfoot community. Themes emerging in…
Seventy per cent of Aboriginal students drop out of school before the end of their secondary school years and very few go on to do science at the Higher School Certificate level. As a result of this statistics reveal that only 0.003% of the 9000 university science graduates in 2005 in Australia were of Aboriginal origin. This paper discusses an
The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions of collagen extracted from well-preserved archeological fish bones has the potential to provide useful information on fish diets and food web dynamics over time. Previous work on the Turner Farm archaeological site in Penobscot Bay, Gulf of Maine, reveals significant shifts in fish diets have occurred since European colonization (post 1620’s). The objective of the present study was to analyze samples from other archaeological sites within Penobscot Bay to characterize the spatial extent of the isotopic shift measured at Turner Farm. Stratified cod, flounder, and sculpin bones were analyzed from eight coastal middens located approximately 50km apart from one another within Penobscot Bay. The bones were sampled from three time horizons (0kya, 0.5-1kya, and 2.2-2.4kya). All bone samples were demineralized in 0.2M HCl at 4°C for 2 to 7 days and then extracted in 0.25M NaOH at 4°C for 1 to 2 hours. After freeze-drying, the bulk isotopic composition of each sample was analyzed using the EA-IRMS. In all stratigraphic horizons analyzed, cod were more enriched in ?13C and ?15N than sculpin, and flounder were the most depleted in ?13C and ?15N . However, the isotopic offsets between the fish species decreased from 2.4kya to the present. The nitrogen isotope composition was relatively constant over time and space for all species, implying that trophic levels for the fishes analyzed have not changed significantly in Penobscot Bay for the last 2,400 years. The carbon isotope composition also appears to be constant spatially in Penobscot Bay, however, the modern signal was more depleted than the paleo signal in all three species. The difference between the modern and paleo ?13C is ~5‰ for cod and flounder, and ~9‰ for sculpin. These shifts may, in part, be explained by decreases in both primary producer and prey species diversity, as kelp forests replace eelgrass beds in the Gulf of Maine.
Harris, C.; Johnson, B.; Ambrose, W. G.; Bourque, B.; Dostie, P.; Crowley, E.
Social work practice with Aboriginal people and communities is generally regarded as complex, with workers often engaging with communities that are experiencing significant disadvantage. This paper reports on a research project that interviewed Aboriginal and non Aboriginal social workers who are experienced and well-regarded by Aboriginal communities. It provides insights into what sustains these workers and how they integrate a
A deliberate policy to separate and forcibly assimilate Aboriginal First Nations children into the mainstream has pervaded every era of Aboriginal history in Canada. Each era saw a new reason to take Aboriginal children away from their homes, placing them in residential schools, foster care, or non-Aboriginal adoptive families. In the words of…
This exploratory qualitative study focused on 1) the learning needs of Aboriginal adult learners residing in selected First Nations communities in rural Alberta and 2) the potential for increasing access to e-learning education. Through open dialogue with First Nations community leaders, Aboriginal adult learners, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal…
Kawalilak, Colleen; Wells, Noella; Connell, Lynn; Beamer, Kate
Effective social work practice with Aboriginal peoples and communities requires knowledge of operational communication skills and practice methods. In addition, there is also a need for practitioners to be aware of the history surrounding white engagement with Aboriginal communities and their cultures. Indeed, the Australian Association of Social…
This article examines the ‘case’ of Elsie Barrett, one of a number of girls removed from Victorian Aboriginal missions in the 1910s. Elsie, an ‘Aboriginal’, was removed from Lake Tyers mission, in Gippsland, following her love affair with a ‘half-caste’ man who was banned from the mission. This relationship led to the production of one of the lengthiest case files
We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…
Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.
This article examines two phenomena of 1930s Victoria: the desire for Aboriginal culture to appear in popular exhibits and centennial celebrations, and visits by members of the public to Lake Tyers Aboriginal Station to view Aboriginal performers and purchase Aboriginal material culture. While different, they are nonetheless connected by a desire to witness the Aborigine as primitive spectacle. They demonstrate
The brain volumes of 8 male Australian Aborigines and 11 male Caucasians were determined. Total brain volume was significantly smaller for Aborigines (1199 +/- 84 ml) compared to Caucasians (1386 +/- 98 ml). Significantly smaller volumes were also found for cerebellum, prosencephalon-mesencephalon unit, cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, parieto-occipitotemporal cortex, and hippocampus. Volumes of ponsmedulla oblongata unit (21 +/- 3 ml for Aborigines and 22 +/- 3 ml for Caucasians) and visual cortex (14.9 ml +/- 2.6 ml and 14.6 +/- 2.2 ml, respectively) did not differ significantly. The striate cortex extended further onto the lateral surface of the occipital lobe in Aboriginal brains. The frontal portion of cerebral cortex was larger in Aboriginal than in Caucasian brains. According to the specific growth periods for the areas studied, these differences could be explained by the higher incidence of malnutrition and infectious diseases for Aboriginals during the development of the brain in early childhood, especially after the 6th postnatal month. However, genetic influences cannot be excluded. The results for the visual cortex of Aborigines might represent an adaptation to living conditions in the bush and desert regions of Australia. Images Fig. 1
Klekamp, J; Riedel, A; Harper, C; Kretschmann, H J
We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates. PMID:24751666
Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H
Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles. PMID:18536535
Eleven Aboriginal seniors from Toronto were interviewed in order to explore the meaning of Aboriginal health literacy. Our hypothesis was that cultural knowledge is central to health in this community, and therefore must be included in any definition of Aboriginal health literacy. Information was gathered on what participants knew and wanted to learn about how to become and stay healthy
...captain shall engage in whaling for any calf or any whale accompanied by a calf. (d) No whaling captain...whaling. (f) No person may sell or offer for sale whale products from whales taken in an aboriginal subsistence hunt,...
...captain shall engage in whaling for any calf or any whale accompanied by a calf. (d) No whaling captain...whaling. (f) No person may sell or offer for sale whale products from whales taken in an aboriginal subsistence hunt,...
...captain shall engage in whaling for any calf or any whale accompanied by a calf. (d) No whaling captain...whaling. (f) No person may sell or offer for sale whale products from whales taken in an aboriginal subsistence hunt,...
We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.
Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Tridico, Silvana; Metspalu, Ene; Nielsen, Kasper; Avila-Arcos, Maria C.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Victor; Muller, Craig; Dortch, Joe; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Lund, Ole; Wesolowska, Agata; Karmin, Monika; Weinert, Lucy A.; Wang, Bo; Li, Jun; Tai, Shuaishuai; Xiao, Fei; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; van Driem, George; Jha, Aashish R.; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; de Knijff, Peter; Migliano, Andrea B; Romero, Irene Gallego; Kristiansen, Karsten; Lambert, David M.; Brunak, S?ren; Forster, Peter; Brinkmann, Bernd; Nehlich, Olaf; Bunce, Michael; Richards, Michael; Gupta, Ramneek; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Krogh, Anders; Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta M.; Balloux, Francois; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske
...accompanied by documentation concerning the needs of two Native groups: Alaska Eskimos and Chukotka Natives in the Russian Far East. This action by the IWC thus authorized aboriginal subsistence whaling by the AEWC for bowhead whales. This...
...accompanied by documentation concerning the needs of two Native groups: Alaska Eskimos and Chukotka Natives in the Russian Far East. This action by the IWC thus authorized aboriginal subsistence whaling by the AEWC for bowhead whales. This...
The ways in which Europeans experienced the legal system for crimes against Aboriginal people needs more systematic research. Although for the first fifty years of Australian settlement Aboriginal legal status was protractedly ambiguous, the foundational principle of later-established South Australia was that Aboriginal people were British subjects and settler crimes against them would be punished 'with exemplary severity'. This paper puts this foundational principle to the test by examining the working of the legal system where Europeans were investigated for the deaths of Aboriginal people. Ultimately, we argue, the principle of protecting Aboriginal people as British subjects not only failed, but became inverted into a principle of Aboriginal punishment. PMID:20845583
Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current services. While this study is with a select population of Aboriginal Australian women, it reveals the importance of acknowledging differences, particularly in use of language to convey ideas and support Aboriginal women experiencing menopause.
Background The ideal concept of Aboriginal holistic health is centrally placed in Australian Aboriginal health policies and strategies. Its effective uptake promises, as advocates suggest, reorienting the complex Australian health system to enable health improvements. However, continual reminders assail us that Aboriginal health is shocking, appalling, disastrous, disgraceful and damning. Could incapacity to engage effectively with the concept undermine health system improvements? The aim of this review of Australian literature was to identify the range of meanings attached to Aboriginal holistic health and engage with their implications for the health system. Results In terms of literature synthesis I found that policy makers cannot rely on this approach to provide coherent arguments for meaningful engagement with the concept because authors in general: are uncritical and un-reflexive in the use and interpretation of the concept; often provide no reference for their understandings; tend to alter the concept's definition and constituent elements without justification; ignore the wide range of mainstream literature about holism and health; and fail to acknowledge and examine the range of Aboriginal concepts of health. I used the ten themes from this literature to highlight implications for the health system, and found that a most profound contradiction exists in the acceptance of the English language concept 'holistic' as immutably Aboriginal. Additionally, a range of contradictions and mixed messages within the themes challenge the validity of the concept. Significantly, with the boundary of the concept constructed as diffuse and ethereal, the diverse and uncritical literature, and mixed thematic meanings, it is possible to justify any claim about the health system as holistic. Conclusion It seems not so much incapacity to engage, but incapacity to coherently articulate Aboriginal concepts of health, which prevents advisory bodies such as the National Indigenous Council to imbue whole-of-government approaches in accordance with Aboriginal values.
In 2006, the Canadian Helicobacter Study Group identified Aboriginal communities among Canadian population groups most at risk of Helicobacter pylori-associated disease. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize what is known about the H pylori-associated disease burden in Canadian and related Arctic Aboriginal populations to identify gaps in knowledge. Six health literature databases were systematically searched to identify reports on H pylori prevalence in Canadian population groups, or any topic related to H pylori in Canadian Aboriginals, Alaska Natives or Aboriginals of other Arctic regions. Identified reports were organized by subtopic and summarized in narrative form. Key data from studies of H pylori prevalence in defined populations were summarized in tabular form. A few Arctic Aboriginal communities were represented in the literature: two Canadian Inuit; one Canadian First Nation; two Greenland Inuit; one Russian Chutkotka Native; and several Alaska Native studies. These studies uniformly showed elevated H pylori prevalence; a few studies also showed elevated occurrence of H pylori-related diseases and high rates of treatment failure. Based on the evidence, it would be warranted for clinicians to relax the criteria for investigating H pylori and related diseases in patients from Arctic Aboriginal communities, and to pursue post-therapy confirmation of eradication. Additional community-based research is needed to develop public health policies for reducing H pylori-associated health risks in such communities.
Goodman, Karen J; Jacobson, Kevan; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen
Livestock was often released onto remote Southern Ocean islands as a food source for shipwreck survivors during the industrial whaling and sealing era. Although animals were put ashore at nearby Isles Kerguelen and Crozet, the historical records make no mention of domesticated livestock ever being set ashore at Heard Island between 1855 and 1882. Here we report a pig ( Sus scrofa) mandible discovered amongst other bones and artefacts in an `elephanters' midden found at Spit Bay, Heard Island. The find provides very strong evidence a live pig was shipped ashore and eaten as part of the sealers meagre provisions. Archaeological investigations of middens at other sealing locations could produce new insights into the dietary habits of these men.
Researchers working with Aboriginal Australian partners are confronted with an array of historical, social, and political complexities which make it difficult to come to theoretical and methodological decisions. In this article, we describe a culturally safe and respectful framework that maintains the intellectual and theoretical rigor expected of academic research. As an Aboriginal woman and two non-Aboriginal women, we discuss the arguments and some of the challenges of using grounded theory methods in Aboriginal Australian contexts, giving examples from our studies of Aboriginal empowerment processes. We argue that the ethics of care and responsibility embedded in Aboriginal research methodologies fit well with grounded theory studies of Aboriginal social processes. We maintain that theory development grounded in data provides useful insights into the processes for raising the health, well-being, and prosperity of Aboriginal Australians. PMID:23208201
The timing and relative contributions of precipitation versus temperature changes is crucial to understanding the tropical hydrological cycle over the central Andes since the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its location on the lee side of the Andes on the western margin of the tropical rainfall belt, the Rio Salado basin receives almost 90% of its scant precipitation during the summer months, depending on upper-air conditions that either favor or suppress transport of moist air masses from the Amazon and Gran Chaco Basins across the Altiplano onto the Pacific slope. Previous results from the central Atacama Desert indicate that century to millennial-scale variability of summer rainfall have been shown to produce dramatic elevational displacements in plant distributions. Plant macrofossils were analyzed in 35 rodent middens from the lower Rio Salado basin that span the last 22,000 calendar years (22 ka). Middens were collected at three different localities, two from between 2950-3050 m with almost exclusively riparian vegetation with sparse low shrubs, and one between 3100-3150 m with diverse dry slope plant communities. Based on the presence of steppe grasses (some of which are found several degrees further north today) and high species richness, we infer wet phases between 17.4-16.4, 11.2-9.6, 7.4-6.7, and 0.7-0.5 ka. Dry phases, characterized by low diversity and/or dominance of riparian species, occurred at 21.9, 14.2 and 4.8-2.3 ka. Summer precipitation variability inferred from Rio Salado middens generally agrees with other midden and lake records throughout the central Andes between 22-10 ka. Increased rainfall inferred from middens dated between 7.4-6.7 ka is in conflict with high Andean lake records which show evidence of severe drought beginning at 8 ka. Increased temperature at the end of the Pleistocene, however, was followed by colonization of the high Andes by considerably more productive plant communities. This may have had a major impact on lake hydrology budgets through increased evaporation, evapotranspiration and decreased surface runoff. Thus, part of the discrepancy between paleoclimate records in the central Andes during the early to middle Holocene could stem from confounding climate factors. Funding: FONDECYT 3030062, NSF-ESH, ICM P02-051-FICM, and CASEB
Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J. L.; Kalin Arroyo, M. T.
This qualitative study, initiated by the Canadian Teachers' Federation and its Advisory Committee on Aboriginal Education, explored the professional knowledge and experiences of Aboriginal (First Nations, Mets and Inuit) teachers. The rationale for the study was to address the urgent need to improve and promote Aboriginal education in public…
Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…
An Australian researcher exploring the underlying assumptions held by non-Aboriginal educators involved in Aboriginal education reexamined his first childhood history book, "Australia from the Beginning" (Pownall, 1980). Although a liberal and sympathetic treatment, the book reflected non-Aboriginal assumptions about assimilation as "success" and…
Some authors assume that the academic difficulties encountered by Aboriginal students can be partly explained by the discrepancy between teaching methods and Aboriginal learning styles. However, this hypothesis lacks empirical foundations. Using pan-Canadian data, we tried to identify the most efficient teaching methods for Aboriginal students and…
Examines the therapeutic nature of Aboriginal spirituality programs for Aboriginal offenders in Canadian prisons. Discusses benefits in the areas of coping with prison stresses, elders as therapists, culturally specific mental health problems, and Aboriginal identity. Presents a case study of the transformation of one angry young inmate during his…
This article outlines research undertaken by an Aboriginal women's non-government organization (NGO) into vocational training and education (VTE) needs and issues for remote Aboriginal communities in Central Australia. It describes the Central Australian context, and in particular the impact of remoteness, inequity and disadvantage upon Aboriginal…
There is an epidemic of Aboriginal youth gang violence in some parts of Canada today, and young Aboriginal gang members are killing each other and committing suicide at rates that exceed those of any other group in Canada. This paper provides an overview of the current situation, and describes five major pathways to violent gang involvement for Aboriginal youth. It
This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to investigate associations between personality risk factors and risky drinking motives. Stage 3
Christopher J. Mushquash; M. Nancy Comeau; Brian D. McLeod; Sherry H. Stewart
Suicide and non-accidental poisoning are two important causes of death of female aborigines in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and then to identify factors relating to this for female aborigines of childbearing age. Using stratified random sampling 212 female aborigines, aged between 20 and 49, were recruited into this study. Participants
The educational gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians is the most significant social policy challenge facing Canada (Richards 2008). This gap is particularly evident in the science fields. Educational institutions are still regarded as mechanisms of colonization by many Aboriginal people. Their "foreign" Eurocentric (or Western)…
There is national recognition of the need to incorporate Aboriginal health issues within the medical school curricula. This study aims to evaluate changes in medical students' knowledge and attitudes about Aboriginal health, and their preparedness to work in Aboriginal communities after attending a 3-hour Aboriginal health seminar. A…
Zhou, Alysia W.; Boshart, Samantha; Seelisch, Jennifer; Eshaghian, Reza; McLeod, Ryan; Nisker, Jeff; Richmond, Chantelle A. M.; Howard, John M.
From 1921 to the early 1970s, the federal government refused to negotiate any new land claims agreements with aboriginal peoples in Canada. In 1973, in Calder, a majority of the Supreme Court of Canada affirmed the existence of aboriginal title. The Court ruled that aboriginal title was not a creation of the Crown, but rather stemmed from aboriginal possession of
This article outlines a new social reality of global psycho-pharmaceutical prescribing: the pharmaceutical family, or ;phamily.' Ethnographic case studies from Manitoba, Canada (2002 to 2004) show how pharmaceutical emplotment, involving a synergy between cultural and drug scripts, can have uncanny consequences for vulnerable groups, such as Aboriginal children. Observations and interview transcripts of high prescribing doctors are analyzed to understand the prescribing logic of using psychoactive medication, such as methylphenidate, in young Aboriginal children diagnosed with FASD and/or ADHD. Pharmaceutical narratives are presented in order to show how non-compliance to psychotropic prescribing can further marginalize Aboriginal children and is related to the history of colonial practices in Canada. PMID:19293283
This report describes the ongoing transmission of tuberculosis in Aboriginal communities in NSW. From October 2000 to July 2012 there were 30 linked cases of tuberculosis diagnosed in Aboriginal people - 22 in the North Coast area of NSW, with a further three cases in Sydney and five in southern Queensland. It is likely that a range of factors have contributed to this ongoing transmission, including delayed diagnosis, the extensive social connections within the communities affected, and the highly mobile living arrangements of many of those affected. Cases have continued to emerge despite implementation of tuberculosis control measures in line with state and international protocols. Tuberculosis control staff are working in partnership with Aboriginal communities to identify and implement appropriate tuberculosis control strategies. PMID:23849029
Mental illnesses constitute a major burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders (hereafter Aboriginal Australians), who are also overrepresented in the prison system. A legacy of colonization compounds such prevalence, and is further exacerbated by the persistence of racial discrimination and insensitivity across many sectors, including health. This research completed in a Western Australian forensic mental health setting identifies non-Aboriginal health professionals' support needs to deliver high-quality, culturally-safe care to Aboriginal patients. Data were collected from health professionals using an online survey and 10 semistructured interviews. Survey and interview results found that ongoing education was needed for staff to provide culturally-safe care, where Aboriginal knowledge, beliefs, and values were respected. The findings also support previous research linking Aboriginal health providers to improved health outcomes for Aboriginal patients. In a colonized country, such as Australia, education programmes that critically reflect on power relations privileging white Anglo-Australian cultural dominance and subjugating Aboriginal knowledge, beliefs, and values are important to identify factors promoting or compromising the care of Aboriginal patients and developing a deeper understanding of 'cultural safety' and its clinical application. Organizational commitment is needed to translate the findings to support non-Aboriginal health professionals deliver high-quality care to Aboriginal patients that is respectful of cultural differences. PMID:24001401
Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Barr, Lesley; Ali, Mohammed
The article addresses issues of social power and privilege experienced by Aboriginal students in science classrooms. First, I present a rationale for a cross-cultural science education dedicated to all students making personal meaning out of their science classrooms. Then I describe a practical research and development project, Rekindling Traditions: Cross-Cultural Science & Technology Units, that modestly illustrates cross-cultural science teaching for years 6-11, in which Western and Aboriginal sciences are integrated. This integration is discussed in terms of the Rekindling Traditions units, including the assessment of students.
Thirteen packrat ( Neotoma spp.) and two porcupine ( Erethizon dorsatum) middens from 1555 to 1690 m elevation from the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, provide an 18,000-yr vegetation record in the northern Chiuahuan Desert. The vegetation sequence is a mesic, Wisconsin fullglacial (18,000-16,000 yr B.P.) pinyon-juniper-oak woodland; a xeric, early Holocene (ca. 11,000-8000 yr B.P.) juniper-oak woodland; a middle Holocene (ca. 8000-4000 yr B.P.) desert-grassland; and a late Holocene (ca. 4000 yr B.P. to present) Chihuahuan desertscrub. The frequency of spring freezes and summer droughts in the late Wisconsin probably set the northern limits of Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma at about 34°N, or 6° south of today's limit. Rising summer tempratures in the early Holocene eliminated pinyon and other mesic woodland plants from the desert lowlands and allowed the woodland to move upslope. At this time pinyon-juniper woodland and pine forest dominated by Pinus ponderosa probably began their spectacular Holocene expansions to the north. Continued warming in the middle Holocene led to very warm summers with strong monsoons, relatively dry, cold winters, and widespread desert-grasslands. Desertscrub communities in the northern Chihuahuan Desert did not develop until the late Holocene when the biseasonal rainfall shifted slightly back toward the winter, catastrophic winter freezes decreased, and droughts in all seasons increased. The creosote bush desertscrub corridor across the Continental Divide between the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts was probably connected for the first time since the last interglaciation.
Van Devender, Thomas R.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Wimberly, Mark
Objectives Australian Aboriginal children experience earlier, more frequent and more severe otitis media, particularly in remote communities, than non-Aboriginal children. Insertion of ventilation tubes is the main surgical procedure for otitis media. Our aim was to quantify inequalities in ventilation tube insertion (VTI) procedures between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children, and to explore the influence of birth characteristics, socioeconomic background and geographical remoteness on this inequality. Design Retrospective cohort study using linked hospital and mortality data from July 2000 to December 2008. Setting and participants A whole-of-population cohort of 653?550 children (16?831 Aboriginal and 636?719 non-Aboriginal) born in a New South Wales hospital between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2007 was included in the analysis. Outcome measure First VTI procedure. Results VTI rates were lower in Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal children (incidence rate (IR), 4.3/1000 person-years; 95% CI 3.8 to 4.8 vs IR 5.8/1000 person-years; 95% CI 5.7 to 5.8). Overall, Aboriginal children were 28% less likely than non-Aboriginal children to have ventilation tubes inserted (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted rate ratios (RRs) 0.72; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.80). After adjusting additionally for geographical remoteness, Aboriginal children were 19% less likely to have ventilation tubes inserted (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.91). After adjusting separately for private patient/health insurance status and area socioeconomic status, there was no significant difference (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.08 and RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.04, respectively). In the fully adjusted model, there were no significant differences in VTI rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children (RR 1.06; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.19). Conclusions Despite a much higher prevalence of otitis media, Aboriginal children were less likely to receive VTI procedures than their non-Aboriginal counterparts; this inequality was largely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and geographical remoteness.
This book is an appeal to First Nations leaders in Canada to promote educational integration--a mixing of ideas in which non-Aboriginal people are taught those elements of Native culture and philosophy that support a reverence for the Earth and all living things. The benefits of such an undertaking cannot be overemphasized since the very existence…
A general survey of the aboriginal American Indian cultures of Idaho is given in this book. Most of the anthropological and historical writing on the native peoples of this region are summarized. It does not deal with contemporary Indian cultures, which will be described in a second volume along with their history of contact with Euro-Americans.…
Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…
Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.
Purpose – In negotiation with diamond enterprises, Aboriginal communities have provided their consent for the diamond mines and have ensured their participation in all diamond projects within their traditional territories. The purpose of this study is to evaluate partnership strategies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Interviews. Findings – Natural resource enterprises support more than 650 Canadian communities and according to industry Canada this
Over 1 million Canadians aged 45-64 provide care to seniors with disabilities or physical limitations, and 70% are also employed - many full-time. Yet often policy assumes that all communities face the same eldercare challenges despite regional and cultural distinctions. This paper highlights what little is known about Aboriginal informal eldercare providers. Trends in health, employment and migration continue to
The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF), based in Ottawa (Ontario), works with Canada Native communities to reduce incidents of physical and sexual abuse, children in care, suicide, and incarceration among residential school survivors and their families. This guide has been prepared to help communities evaluate their AHF-funded activities in the…
Cultural awareness is a concept that is gaining much attention in health and education settings across North America. This article describes how the concepts of cultural awareness shaped the process and the curriculum of an online health education project called Interprofessional Collaboration: Culturally-informed Aboriginal Health Care. The…
Purpose. Indigenous Peoples are underrepresented in the health professions. This paper examines indigenous identity and the quality and nature of nursing work-life. The knowledge generated should enhance strategies to increase representation of indigenous peoples in nursing to reduce health inequities. Design. Community-based participatory research employing Grounded Theory as the method was the design for this study. Theoretical sampling and constant comparison guided the data collection and analysis, and a number of validation strategies including member checks were employed to ensure rigor of the research process. Sample. Twenty-two Aboriginal nurses in Atlantic Canada. Findings. Six major themes emerged from the study: Cultural Context of Work-life, Becoming a Nurse, Navigating Nursing, Race Racism and Nursing, Socio-Political Context of Aboriginal Nursing, and Way Forward. Race and racism in nursing and related subthemes are the focus of this paper. Implications. The experiences of Aboriginal nurses as described in this paper illuminate the need to understand the interplay of race and racism in the health care system. Our paper concludes with Aboriginal nurses' suggestions for systemic change at various levels.
Four case studies illustrate three approaches to Aboriginal postsecondary education in Canada: the add-on approach, the partnership approach, and the First Nations control approach. Overcoming challenges related to access, completion rates, Indian control, and cultural relevance relies in large part on the political will of Canadian governing…
Personal interviews with clients of the Calgary Indian Friendship Center and two other similar centers established a need for a program to enhance the social functioning of elderly aboriginals in Calgary. The needs focused on lack of transportation, inaccessible or inadequate medical care, isolation, elder abuse, and inadequate housing. The…
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in Australian schools continue to have poor education and health outcomes, and the introduction of a new national curriculum may assist in redressing this situation. This curriculum emphasises recommendations which have been circulating in the sector over many years, to require teacher education…
This article reports on findings from a school-based action research project with aboriginal adolescent students attending an alternative school in Canada. As a Freirean response to these marginalized students' school failures, the researcher engaged students in a critical multiliteracies approach to language and literacy learning. Based on…
In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…
Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.
This article identifies problems, issues and insights through critical reflection on the rules, written and unwritten, which encroach on the research process in the "Both Ways" project. The project investigates the development and sustainability of remote Aboriginal children's services in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Children's…
Background Heart disease is a leading cause of the gap in burden of disease between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Our study investigated short- and long-term mortality after admission for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, and examined the impact of the hospital of admission on outcomes. Methods Admission records were linked to mortality records for 60047 patients aged 25–84?years admitted with a diagnosis of AMI between July 2001 and December 2008. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for 30- and 365-day all-cause mortality. Results Aboriginal patients admitted with an AMI were younger than non-Aboriginal patients, and more likely to be admitted to lower volume, remote hospitals without on-site angiography. Adjusting for age, sex, year and hospital, Aboriginal patients had a similar 30-day mortality risk to non-Aboriginal patients (AOR: 1.07; 95% CI 0.83-1.37) but a higher risk of dying within 365?days (AOR: 1.34; 95% CI 1.10-1.63). The latter difference did not persist after adjustment for comorbid conditions (AOR: 1.12; 95% CI 0.91-1.38). Patients admitted to more remote hospitals, those with lower patient volume and those without on-site angiography had increased risk of short and long-term mortality regardless of Aboriginal status. Conclusions Improving access to larger hospitals and those with specialist cardiac facilities could improve outcomes following AMI for all patients. However, major efforts to boost primary and secondary prevention of AMI are required to reduce the mortality gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Canadian family medicine residency programs currently have objectives, staff, and clinical experiences for adequately exposing residents to aboriginal health issues. DESIGN: A one-page questionnaire was developed to survey the details of teaching about and exposure to aboriginal health issues. SETTING: Family medicine programs in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All Canadian family medicine program directors in the 18 programs (16 at universities and two satellite programs) were surveyed between October 1997 and March 1998. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whether programs had teaching objectives for exposing residents to aboriginal health issues, whether they had resource people available, what elective and core experiences in aboriginal health were offered, and what types of experiences were available. RESULTS: Response rate was 100%. No programs had formal, written curriculum objectives for residency training in aboriginal health issues, although some were considering them. Some programs, however, had objectives for specific weekend or day sessions. No programs had a strategy for encouraging enrollment of residents of aboriginal origin. Eleven programs had at least one resource person with experience in aboriginal health issues, and 12 had access to community-based aboriginal groups. Core experiences were all weekend seminars or retreats. Elective experiences in aboriginal health were available in 16 programs, and 11 programs were active on reserves. CONCLUSIONS: Many Canadian family medicine programs give residents some exposure to aboriginal health issues, but most need more expertise and direction on these issues. Some programs have unique approaches to teaching aboriginal health care that could be shared. Formalized objectives derived in collaboration with other family medicine programs and aboriginal groups could substantially improve the quality of education in aboriginal health care in Canada.
In the present study, for the first time, 293 Taiwanese aboriginal males from all nine major tribes (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Rukai, Paiwan, Saisat, Puyuma, Tsou, Yami) were genotyped with 17 YSTR loci in a attend to reveal migrational patterns connected with the Austronesian expansion. We investigate the paternal genetic relationships of these Taiwanese aborigines to 42 Asia-Pacific reference populations, geographically selected to reflect various locations within the Austronesian domain. The Tsou and Puyuma tribes exhibit the lowest (0.1851) and the highest (0.5453) average total genetic diversity, respectively. Further, the fraction of unique haplotypes is also relatively high in the Puyuma (86.7%) and low in Tsou (33.3%) suggesting different demographic histories. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed several notable findings: 1) the Taiwan indigenous populations are highly diverse. In fact, the level of inter-population heterogeneity displayed by the Taiwanese aboriginal populations is close to that exhibited among all 51 Asia-Pacific populations examined; 2) the asymmetrical contribution of the Taiwanese aborigines to the Oceanic groups. Ami, Bunun and Saisiyat tribes exhibit the strongest paternal links to the Solomon and Polynesian island communities, whereas most of the remaining Taiwanese aboriginal groups are more genetically distant to these Oceanic inhabitants; 3) the present YSTR analyses does not reveal a strong paternal affinity of the nine Taiwanese tribes to their continental Asian neighbors. Overall, our current findings suggest that, perhaps, only a few of the tribes were involved in the migration out of Taiwan. PMID:24613753
The shell designs consist of two series of related designs (the uniform shell designs and the simplicial shell designs) that are used for fitting second-order response surfaces over spherical regions. The shell designs for two, four, six, and eight factor...
We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were able to show that the PCL-R items were invariant across these 2 groups and that a 4-factor model fit the data well. Predictive accuracy analyses (receiver operator characteristic curves and Cohen's d) generated effect sizes that were medium in magnitude overall for the PCL-R total score in the prediction of violent, nonviolent, and general criminal recidivism (area under the curve=.63-.70, Cohen's d=.28-.42) for both ancestral groups. When disaggregated into its constituent factors, for both ancestral groups, the Lifestyle and Antisocial factors consistently and significantly predicted all recidivism outcomes, whereas the Interpersonal and Affective factors did not significantly predict any of the recidivism outcomes. Finally, structural equation modeling results with the total sample indicated that the PCL-R factors were able to account for 32% of the variance in a latent recidivism factor. Implications regarding the latent structure of psychopathy and the clinical use of the instrument with Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal male offenders are discussed. PMID:22924683
Olver, Mark E; Neumann, Craig S; Wong, Stephen C P; Hare, Robert D
This paper aims to identify the links that show how the establishment of an Aboriginal Elders Group in the Wagga Wagga community has contributed to the social capital of the Wagga Wagga Aboriginal Community. The paper will highlight the key educational episodes: oral history program; incorporation of the Elders group; self governance of the group,…
Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.
Background Aboriginal people have a disproportionately higher incidence rate of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) than non-Aboriginal people. The findings on Aboriginal disparity in receiving coronary artery procedures are inconclusive. We describe the profile and transfers of IHD patients admitted to rural hospitals as emergency admissions and investigate determinants of transfers and coronary angiography. Methods Person-linked hospital and mortality records were used to identify 28-day survivors of IHD events commencing at rural hospitals in Western Australia. Outcome measures were receipt of coronary angiography, transfer to a metropolitan hospital, and coronary angiography if transferred to a metropolitan hospital. Results Compared to non-Aboriginal patients, Aboriginal patients with IHD were more likely to be younger, have more co-morbidities, reside remotely, but less likely to have private insurance. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, Aboriginal people with MI were less likely to be transferred to a metropolitan hospital, and if transferred were less likely to receive coronary angiography. These disparities were not significant after adjusting for comorbidities and private insurance. In the full multivariate model age, comorbidities and private insurance were adversely associated with transfer to a metropolitan hospital and coronary angiography. Conclusion Disparity in receiving coronary angiography following emergency admission for IHD to rural hospitals is mediated through the lower likelihood of being transferred to metropolitan hospitals where this procedure is performed. The likelihood of a transfer is increased if the patient has private insurance, however, rural Aboriginal people have a lower rate of private insurance than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Health practitioners and policy makers can continue to claim that they treat Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people alike based upon clinical indications, as private insurance is acting as a filter to reduce rural residents accessing interventional cardiology. If health practitioners and policy makers are truly committed to reducing health disparities, they must reflect upon the broader systems in which disparity is perpetuated and work towards a systems improvement.
Introduction Canadian Aboriginal women are at increased risk of fracture compared with the general population.Hypothesis There is disproportionately reduced bone density in Aboriginal women as compared to white females of similar age.Methods A random age-stratified (25–39, 40–59 and 60–75) sample of Aboriginal women (n=258) and white women (n=181) was recruited. All subjects had calcaneus and distal forearm bone density measurements, and urban participants
W. D. Leslie; C. J. Metge; H. A. Weiler; M. Doupe; P. Wood Steiman; J. D. O’Neil
This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage\\u000a 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships\\u000a to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to investigate associations between personality\\u000a risk factors and risky drinking motives. Stage 3
Christopher J. Mushquash; M. Nancy Comeau; Brian D. McLeod; Sherry H. Stewart
Summary We have investigated plasma glucose and immunoreactive insulin responses to 75-g oral glucose in lean, young, full-blood Aboriginal men from urban and rural communities and made comparisons with age- and weight-matched Caucasoids. Fasting glucose concentrations were lower in the rural Aborigines than in the urban Aborigines or the Caucasoids. Plasma glucose concentrations 2 h postprandially were significantly higher in both
Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n?=?17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal society was an overarching challenge to quitting. Conclusions Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking that include personal, social, cultural and environmental factors. Multidimensional smoking cessation programs are needed that reduce the stress and burden for Aboriginal Health Workers; provide access to culturally relevant quitting resources; and address the prevailing normalisation of smoking in the family, workplace and community.
Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an\\u000a overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue\\u000a with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted
Sandra C Thompson; Shaouli Shahid; Dawn Bessarab; Angela Durey; Patricia M Davidson
Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc), nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM). Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT) bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1-?3 months and at least one clinical examination for OM by an ear, nose and throat specialist before age 2 years were included in this analysis. Tympanometry to detect middle ear effusion was also performed at 2- to 6-monthly scheduled field visits from age 3 months. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationship between early carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM controlling for environmental factors. Results Carriage rates of Pnc, NTHi and Mcat at age 1-?3 months were 45%, 29% and 48%, respectively, in 66 Aboriginal children and 14%, 5% and 18% in 146 non-Aboriginal children. OM was diagnosed at least once in 71% of Aboriginal children and 43% of non-Aboriginal children. After controlling for age, sex, presence of other bacteria and environmental factors, early nasopharyngeal carriage of NTHi increased the risk of subsequent OM (odds ratio?=?3.70, 95% CI 1.22-11.23) in Aboriginal children, while Mcat increased the risk of OM in non-Aboriginal children (odds ratio?=?2.63, 95% CI 1.32-5.23). Early carriage of Pnc was not associated with increased risk of OM. Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia.
Aboriginal vegetation burning practices and their role in the Australian environment remains a central theme of Australian environmental history. Previous studies have identified a decline in the Australian summer monsoon during the late Quaternary and attributed it to land surface-atmosphere feedbacks, related to Aboriginal burning practices. Here we undertake a comprehensive, ensemble model evaluation of the effects of a decrease in vegetation cover over the summer monsoon region of northern Australia. Our results show that the climate response, while relatively muted during the full monsoon, was significant for the pre-monsoon season (austral spring), with decreases in precipitation, higher surface and ground temperatures, and enhanced atmospheric stability. These early monsoon season changes can invoke far-reaching ecological impacts and set-up land surface-atmosphere feedbacks that further accentuate atmospheric stability.
This paper brings forth the voices of adult Aboriginal First Nations community members who gathered in focus groups to discuss the problem of youth suicide on their reserves. Our approach emphasizes multilevel (e.g., individual, family, and broader ecological systems) factors viewed by participants as relevant to youth suicide. Wheaton’s conceptualization of stressors (1994; 1999) and Evans-Campbell’s (2008) multilevel classification of the impacts of historical trauma are used as theoretical and analytic guides. Thematic analysis of qualitative data transcripts revealed a highly complex intersection of stressors, traumas, and social problems seen by community members as underlying mechanisms influencing heightened levels of Aboriginal youth suicidality. Our multilevel coding approach revealed that suicidal behaviors were described by community members largely as a problem with deep historical and contemporary structural roots as opposed to being viewed as individualized pathology.
An aspect of the much needed efforts to "close the gap" in Indigenous health disadvantage in Australia has been workforce reform. This has included targeted training for general practitioners and has also been characterised by sensitising of psychiatrists to the particular mental health needs of persons of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander background. It has also incorporated increasing involvement by Indigenous persons in providing health services. In 2012, each Australian State and Territory constituted the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Practice Board to regulate and register Indigenous health practitioners. This marked an important recognition of the contribution able to be made by this complementary component of the Australian health workforce which is particularly enabled to understand and meet the needs of Indigenous persons. This column chronicles the first steps of the new regulatory board and identifies issues which face it. PMID:24804527
The article addresses issues of social power and privilege experienced by Aboriginal students in science classrooms. First, I present a rationale for a cross-cultural science education dedicated to all students making personal meaning out of their science classrooms. Then I describe a practical research and development project, “Rekindling Traditions: Cross-Cultural Science & Technology Units,” that modestly illustrates cross-cultural science teaching
Background Racism has been identified as an important determinant of health but few studies have explored associations between racism and health outcomes for Australian Aboriginal young people in urban areas. Methods Cross sectional data from participants aged 12-26 years in Wave 1 of the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service's Young People's Project were included in hierarchical logistic regression models. Overall mental health, depression and general health were all considered as outcomes with self-reported racism as the exposure, adjusting for a range of relevant confounders. Results Racism was reported by a high proportion (52.3%) of participants in this study. Self-reported racism was significantly associated with poor overall mental health (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.25-5.70, p = 0.01) and poor general health (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.03-4.57, p = 0.04), and marginally associated with increased depression (OR 2.0; 95% CI 0.97-4.09, p = 0.06) in the multivariate models. Number of worries and number of friends were both found to be effect modifiers for the association between self-reported racism and overall mental health. Getting angry at racist remarks was found to mediate the relationship between self-reported racism and general health. Conclusions This study highlights the need to acknowledge and address racism as an important determinant of health and wellbeing for Aboriginal young people in urban areas of Australia.
Background Canada has recognized that Aboriginal and northern communities in the country face unique challenges and that there is a need to expand the assessment of vulnerabilities to climate change to include these communities. Evidence suggests that Canada’s North is already experiencing significant changes in its climate—changes that are having negative impacts on the lives of Aboriginal people living in these regions. Research on climate change and health impacts in northern Canada thus far has brought together Aboriginal community members, government representatives, and researchers and is charting new territory. Methods and Results In this article we review experiences from two projects that have taken a community-based dialogue approach to identifying and assessing the effects of and vulnerability to climate change and the impact on the health in two Inuit regions of the Canadian Arctic. Conclusions The results of the two case projects that we present argue for a multi-stakeholder, participatory framework for assessment that supports the necessary analysis, understanding, and enhancement of capabilities of local areas to respond and adapt to the health impacts at the local level.
Background Because of established links between entrenched poverty and risk of HIV infection, there have long been warnings that HIV/AIDS will disproportionately affect Aboriginal people in Canada. We compared HIV incidence rates among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal injection drug users (IDUs) in Vancouver and studied factors associated with HIV seroconversion among Aboriginal participants. Methods This analysis was based on 941 participants (230 Aboriginal people) recruited between May 1996 and December 2000 who were seronegative at enrolment and had completed at least one follow-up visit. Incidence rates were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify independent predictors of time to HIV seroconversion among female and male Aboriginal IDUs. Results As of May 31, 2001, seroconversion had occurred in 112 (11.9%) of the participants, yielding a cumulative incidence of HIV infection at 42 months of 12.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.3%–15.1%). The cumulative incidence at 42 months was significantly higher among the Aboriginal participants than among the non-Aboriginal participants (21.1% v. 10.7%, p < 0.001). This elevation in risk was present in both female and male Aboriginal IDUs. Among the female Aboriginal IDUs, frequent speedball (combined cocaine and heroin) injection (adjusted relative risk [RR] 3.1; 95% CI 1.4–7.1) and going on binges of injection drug use (adjusted RR 2.3; 95% CI 1.0–5.2) were found to be independent predictors of HIV seroconversion. Among the male Aboriginal IDUs, the independent predictors of seroconversion were frequent speedball injection (adjusted RR 2.9; 95% CI 1.0–8.5) and frequent cocaine injection (adjusted RR 2.5; 95% CI 1.0–6.5). Interpretation In Vancouver, Aboriginal IDUs are becoming HIV positive at twice the rate of non-Aboriginal IDUs. Our findings emphasize the urgent need for an appropriate and effective public health strategy — planned and implemented in partnership with Aboriginal AIDS service organizations and the Aboriginal community — to reduce the harms of injection drug use in this population.
Craib, Kevin J.P.; Spittal, Patricia M.; Wood, Evan; Laliberte, Nancy; Hogg, Robert S.; Li, Kathy; Heath, Katherine; Tyndall, Mark W.; O'Shaughnessy, Michael V.; Schechter, Martin T.
Background Delayed immunisation and vaccine preventable communicable disease remains a significant health issue in Aboriginal children. Strategies to increase immunisation coverage and timeliness can be resource intensive. In a low cost initiative at the Aboriginal Medical Service Western Sydney (AMSWS) in 2008–2009, a trial of personalised calendars to prompt timely childhood immunisation was undertaken. Methods Calendars were generated during attendances for early childhood immunisations. They were designed for display in the home and included the due date of the next immunisation, a photo of the child and Aboriginal artwork. In a retrospective cohort design, Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data from AMSWS and non-AMSWS providers were used to determine the delay in immunisation and percentage of immunisations on time in those who received a calendar compared to those who did not. Interviews were undertaken with carers and staff. Results Data on 2142 immunisation doses given to 505 children were analysed, utilising pre-intervention (2005–2007) and intervention (2008–2009) periods and a 2 year post-intervention observation period. 113 calendars were distributed (30% of eligible immunisation attendances). Improvements in timeliness were seen at each schedule point for those children who received a calendar. The average delay in those who received a calendar at their previous visit was 0.6 months (95% CI -0.8 to 2.6) after the due date, compared to 3.3 months (95% CI ?0.6 to 7.5) in those who did not. 80% of doses were on time in the group who received a calendar at the preceding immunisation, 66% were on time for those who received a calendar at an earlier point and 57% of doses were on time for those who did not receive a calendar (P<0.0001, Cochran-Armitage trend test). Interview data further supported the value and effectiveness of the calendars as both a prompt to timely immunisations and a community health education project without undue resource implications. Conclusions Personalised calendars can increase the timeliness of immunisations in Aboriginal children. This simple, low cost tool appears practicable and effective in an Aboriginal community setting in improving early childhood vaccination timeliness and has high potential for local adaptation to suit the needs of diverse communities.
Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…
Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark
Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians’ perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers’ (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs’ views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). Methods A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006 - September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. Results CSPs’ lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients’ limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient–provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people’s distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff, providing appropriate cultural training for CSPs, cancer education for Aboriginal stakeholders, continuity of care, avoiding use of medical jargon, accommodating patients’ psychosocial and logistical needs, and in-service coordination. Conclusion Individual CSPs identified challenges in cross-cultural communication and their willingness to accommodate culture-specific needs within the wider health care system including better communication with Aboriginal patients. However, participants’ comments indicated a lack of concerted effort at the system level to address Aboriginal disadvantage in cancer outcomes.
This article reports on a formative evaluation of a Canadian cross cultural Aboriginal mental health program that combined the healing properties of the Aboriginal healing circle and the self-awareness and empowerment practices of the psychotherapy technique known as 'focusing'. The study was formative in nature and grounded in qualitative inquiry. Out of the data analysis, five salient themes surfaced that
This report provides Canadian Aboriginal communities with information and resources for carrying out participatory action research and applying the results to community development. Presented in English and French, the report is based on a literature review and a 2-day focus group involving 14 community development experts, Aboriginal community…
Ministry of the Solicitor General, Ottawa (Ontario).
Many Canadian universities report an under-representation of Aboriginal scholars in their professoriate. Employment equity policy seeks to redress the under-representation of marginalized groups in the Canadian workforce, including Aboriginal peoples. This article presents the findings of a case study which sought to examine, from the perspective…
Introduction: There is a paucity of intervention programs for Aboriginal girls and many of those that exist are delivered in cul- turally inappropriate ways. Methods: In this paper, we provide an overview of recent research that focused on delivering a sexual health mentorship program that enhanced the voices of Aboriginal youth and was culturally relevant and appropriate to indigenous youth.
This paper explores Aboriginal perspectives of tertiary education "online" from rural and remote community locations in New South Wales. It does so within a frame of enquiry as to how neo-liberal educational policy reforms are impacting on equity issues in distance education "online". Accounts from Aboriginal university students in health point to…
The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize the current empirical literature on cross-cultural evaluation in Aboriginal communities, and to begin to address the recognized lack of critically engaged discussion about research on culturally competent evaluation. The term "Aboriginal" in this document refers to First Nations, Inuit and…
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Ample evidence shows that regular physical activity (PA) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is beginning to emerge linking PA to the physical environment but little is known about the relationship between remote rural environments and PA involvement in Aboriginal peoples. This
Allison M. Kirby; Lucie Lévesque; Virginia Wabano; Jennifer Robertson-Wilson
This paper describes patterns of injecting drug use and blood borne virus (BBV)-related risk practices among Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people who inject drugs (PWID). A total of 588 participants, 120 of whom self-identified as Aboriginal completed a questionnaire. Aboriginal participants were more likely to have been in prison (37.6 vs. 16.5 %), to inject daily (72.7 vs. 55.0 %), to share ancillary equipment (64.9 vs. 44.8 %) and less likely to know about BBV transmission (72.0 vs. 87.7 %) and treatment (47.2 vs. 67.6 %). Aboriginal participants used services such as BBV testing and drug treatment at a comparable rate to non-Aboriginal participants. The findings suggest that Aboriginal PWID are at greater risk for acquiring BBV. The prison setting should be used to deliver health promotion information and risk reduction messages. More information is needed on Aboriginal people's access and use of services to ensure beneficial services are received in the most appropriate settings. PMID:22711223
In the context of contemporary Australian society, the education system is still failing to increase educational outcomes among the majority of Australian Aboriginal (1) learners. This educational dilemma has persisted despite the regular introduction of systemic initiatives and funding aimed at addressing Australian Aboriginal learners' low…
The book describes the setting, objectives, program, evaluation and achievement of six innovative action-research early childhood education projects for Aboriginal Australian children, traces various previous attempts to provide education, and provides an historical background of the estimated 140,000 Aboriginal people who make up 1% of…
In response to the enduring "deficit" approach to the educational attainment of Aboriginal students in North America, we hypothesized that academic underperformance is related to a cultural mismatch between Aboriginal students' cultural background, which emphasizes connectedness and interdependence, and the mainstream White model of education,…
Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Flores, Heidi; Ponizovskiy, Vladimir; Ranney, John D.; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Russo, Natalie; Burack, Jacob A.
qualified and skilled as clinicians to work in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) and the subsequent impact on the access and availability of mental health services for Aboriginal young people. This paper describes a recently commenced innovative program to develop training opportunities in the bush and sustain Aboriginal CAMHS workers in rural and regional areas of New South
There is substantial evidence that Aboriginal youth face serious challenges in schooling, in general, and in literacy development, specifically. Thus, it is essential to design early literacy programmes that engage Aboriginal children and produce positive outcomes. In this article, the authors propose that such programmes include oral storytelling by teachers and students because it is a precursor to reading and
Anne McKeough; Stan Bird; Erin Tourigny; Angela Romaine; Susan Graham; Jackie Ottmann; Joan Jeary
This paper takes u p the debate kindled by Bo yd Hunter in 'Conspicuous Compassion and Wicked Pr oblems' (2007). The present paper's contention is that just as unemployment is a 'matter of choice' — in the words of Treasury Secretary Ted Ev ans in 1993 — so too is Aboriginal despair. In the case of Aborigines, there is a
Obesity prevention efforts in Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, or Inuit) communities in Canada should focus predominantly on children given their demographic significance and the accelerated time course of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Aboriginal population. A socioecological model to address childhood obesity in Aboriginal populations would focus on the numerous environments at different times in childhood that influence weight status, including prenatal, sociocultural, family, and community environments. Importantly, for Aboriginal children, obesity interventions need to also be situated within the context of a history of colonization and inequities in the social determinants of health. This review therefore advocates for the inclusion of a historical perspective and a life-course approach to obesity prevention in Aboriginal children in addition to developing interventions around the socioecological framework. We emphasize that childhood obesity prevention efforts should focus on promoting maternal health behaviours before and during pregnancy, and on breastfeeding and good infant and child nutrition in the postpartum and early childhood development periods. Ameliorating food insecurity by focusing on improving the sociodemographic risk factors for it, such as increasing income and educational attainment, are essential. More research is required to understand and measure obesogenic Aboriginal environments, to examine how altering specific environments modifies the foods that children eat and the activities that they do, and to examine how restoring and rebuilding cultural continuity in Aboriginal communities modifies the many determinants of obesity. This research needs to be done with the full participation of Aboriginal communities as partners in the research. PMID:22269027
Willows, Noreen D; Hanley, Anthony J G; Delormier, Treena
This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…
Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.
The stress and anxiety of new teachers is a pervasive problem that impacts upon teacher preparation and retention. Although new mainstream teacher concerns and experiences have been readily discussed in the literature, the same attention has not been invested for new Aboriginal teachers. In Ontario, Canada, in excess of 60% of the Aboriginal…
Cherubini, Lorenzo; Niemczyk, Ewelina; Hodson, John; McGean, Sarah
This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…
This paper relates findings from learning circles held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, with urban Aboriginal men. The purpose of the circles was to determine how an Aboriginal cultural identity is formed in urban spaces. Education settings were mentioned by the research participants as a significant contribution to their cultural identity…
In Canada, the Aboriginal community is most at risk for HIV infection. Aboriginal peoples have disproportionately high rates of violence, drug use, and challenging socioeconomic circumstances. All of this is related to a history of colonization that has left Aboriginal people vulnerable to HIV infection through unsafe sex, needle sharing, and lack of access to health promotion and education. Aboriginal women are at particular risk for HIV infection. They experience a disproportionate degree of trauma, which is associated with colonization, high rates of childhood sexual abuse, and illicit drug use. A history of trauma impacts on access to health care, uptake of antiretroviral therapy, and mortality and morbidity in people with HIV. We describe the case of a 52-year-old, HIV-infected Aboriginal woman. We review the current evidence related to her case, including colonization, intersectionality, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, revictimization, and substance use. PMID:24012166
Aboriginal people in Australia have higher rates of transport injury than non-Aboriginal people, but a greater proportion of Aboriginal people live in rural or remote areas where risk of these injuries is higher. This paper investigated the contributing effect of geography on the relationship between Aboriginality and road transport injury rates in the state of New South Wales. Linked hospital admission and mortality records for individuals for the years 2001-2007 were grouped into distinct injury events. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to examine disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people clustered within geographic areas of residence. Overall, Aboriginal people had higher rates of road transport injuries (IRR: 1.18, 95% CIs: 1.09-1.28). However, there was no significant difference when geographic clustering was taken into account (IRR: 1.00, 95% CIs: 0.96-1.04). This effect was further influenced by mode of transport for the injury, with Aboriginal people having higher rates of pedestrian (IRR: 1.96, 95% CIs: 1.75-2.19) and lower rates of motorcycle (IRR: 0.64, 95% CIs: 0.59-0.70) injuries in all almost all local areas, while there was no systematic pattern across geographic areas for small vehicle injuries (IRR: 1.01, 95% CIs: 0.94-1.08). Geography plays an important role in the population disparity of road transport injuries between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and has a differential impact for different types of road transport injury. Exploring how individual and geographic factors influence patterns of disparity allows for clearer targeting of future intervention strategies. PMID:23474235
Falster, Michael O; Randall, Deborah A; Lujic, Sanja; Ivers, Rebecca; Leyland, Alastair H; Jorm, Louisa R
Background National notification data for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and blood borne viruses (BBVs) continue to have a high proportion of missing data on Indigenous status, potentially biasing estimates of notification rates by Aboriginality. We evaluated the use of data linkage to improve the accuracy of estimated notification rates for STIs and BBVs in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups in Western Australia. Methods STI and BBV case notifications in Western Australia received in 2010 were linked with administrative health data collections in Western Australia to obtain additional data on Indigenous status. STI and BBV notification rates based on the pre- and post-linkage data among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups were compared. Results Data linkage decreased the proportion of notifications with unknown Indigenous status by 74% from 10.2% to 2.7%. There was no significant difference in disease-specific age-adjusted notification rate ratio estimates based on pre-linkage data and post-linkage data for Aboriginal people compared with non-Aboriginal people. Conclusion Our findings suggest that reported STI and BBV disease-specific age-adjusted notification rates for 2010 in Western Australia are unlikely to be significantly biased by excluding notifications with unknown Indigenous status. This finding is likely to be dependent on recent improvements in the reporting of Indigenous status in notification data in Western Australia. Cost-effective and systematic solutions, including the better use of existing data linkage resources, are required to facilitate continued improvement in the completeness of reporting and accuracy of estimates for notifiable STIs and BBVs in Australia by Aboriginality.
Background Chlamydia infections are notified at much higher rates in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people compared to non-Indigenous people. The Australian Collaboration Chlamydia Enhanced Sentinel Surveillance System (ACCESS) was established to complement population-based surveillance. Methods We describe patient demographics, completeness of recording of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (‘Aboriginal’) status, chlamydia testing rates and positivity rates from the Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHSs), General Practice (GP) clinics and Sexual Health Services (SHSs) networks in ACCESS during 2009. Data were extracted from electronic medical records of each participating health service for consultations with patients aged 16–29 years and for chlamydia testing and positivity. Results Data were included from 16–29 year olds attending six ACCHSs (n?=?4,950); 22 SHSs (n?=?20,691) and 25 GP clinics (n?=?34,462). Aboriginal status was unknown for 79.3% of patients attending GP clinics, 4.5% attending SHSs and 3.8% of patients attending ACCHSs. Chlamydia testing rates among Aboriginal patients were 19.8% (95%CI:18.6%-21.0%) at ACCHSs, 75.5% (95% CI:72.5%-78.4%) at SHSs and 4.3% (95% CI: 2.6%-6.6%) at GP clinics. Positivity rates were highest in Aboriginal patients tested at SHSs at 22.7% (95% CI:19.5%-26.2%), followed by 15.8% (95% CI:3.8%-43.4%) at GP clinics and 8.6% at ACCHSs (95% CI:7.9%-12.4%). This compared with non-Indigenous patients positivity rates at SHSs of 12.7% (95% CI:12.2-13.2%); 8.6% (7.2%-11.3%) at GP clinics and 11.3% at ACCHSs (95% CI:15.4%-24.9%). Conclusions Higher chlamydia positivity in Aboriginal people across a range of clinical services is reflected in national notification data. Targeted efforts are required to improve testing rates in primary care services; to improve identification of Aboriginal patients in mainstream services such as GP clinics; and to better engage with young Aboriginal Australians.
In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many women, substance abuse offers a means of coping with trauma, such as childhood abuse, partner violence, and, for Aboriginal women, the intergenerational effects of colonization. In this paper, we review treatment issues for Aboriginal mothers with substance use problems and their children. We discuss gender-specific issues in substance abuse, the need for women-specific treatment, the impact of substance abuse on children and parenting, the additional risks for Aboriginal women and children, and the need for integrated programs (those that integrate pregnancy-, parenting-, and child-related services with women-specific addiction treatment). We describe New Choices as an example of an integrated program, review research on existing treatment for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues, and describe Sheway as a promising integrated program for Aboriginal women with substance abuse issues and their young children. There are few treatment programs specifically for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues and their children and very little research on their effectiveness. Based on our review of existing evidence, we offer recommendations for future research and practice.
Background Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression, experience, manifestations and consequences of emotional distress and depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia. Methods Utilizing a grounded theory approach, in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 theoretically sampled young, middle aged and senior Aboriginal men and traditional healers. Analysis was conducted by a single investigator using constant comparison methods. Results Depressive symptoms were common and identifiable, and largely consistent with symptom profiles seen in non-Aboriginal groups. For Aboriginal men, depression was expressed and understood as primarily related to weakness or injury of the spirit, with a lack of reference to hopelessness and specific somatic complaints. The primary contributors to depression related to the loss of connection to social and cultural features of Aboriginal life, cumulative stress and marginalisation. Conclusions Depression and depressive symptomatology clearly exists in Aboriginal men, however its determinants and expression differ from mainstream populations. Emotions were understood within the construction of spirit, Kurunpa, which was vulnerable to repetitive and powerful negative social forces, loss, and stress across the life course, and served to frame the physical and emotional experience and expression of depression.
We examined genetic affinities of Aboriginal Australian and New Guinean populations by using nucleotide variation in the two hypervariable segments of the mtDNA control region (CR). A total of 318 individuals from highland Papua New Guinea (PNG), coastal PNG, and Aboriginal Australian populations were typed with a panel of 29 sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes. The SSO-probe panel included five new probes that were used to type an additional 1,037 individuals from several Asian populations. The SSO-type data guided the selection of 78 individuals from Australia and east Indonesia for CR sequencing. A gene tree of these CR sequences, combined with published sequences from worldwide populations, contains two previously identified highland PNG clusters that do not include any Aboriginal Australians; the highland PNG clusters have coalescent time estimates of approximately 80,000 and 122,000 years ago, suggesting ancient isolation and genetic drift. SSO-type data indicate that 84% of the sample of PNG highlander mtDNA belong to these two clusters. In contrast, the Aboriginal Australian sequences are intermingled throughout the tree and cluster with sequences from multiple populations. Phylogenetic and multidimensional-scaling analyses of CR sequences and SSO types split PNG highland and Aboriginal Australian populations and link Aboriginal Australian populations with populations from the subcontinent of India. These mtDNA results do not support a close relationship between Aboriginal Australian and PNG populations but instead suggest multiple migrations in the peopling of Sahul.
Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals. Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews explored participants' beliefs about cancer and experiences of cancer care and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Information from interviews relevant to hospital services including and building design was extracted. Findings Relationships and respect emerged as crucial considerations of participants although many aspects of the hospital environment were seen as influencing the delivery of care. Five themes describing concerns about the hospital environment emerged: (i) being alone and lost in a big, alien and inflexible system; (ii) failure of open communication, delays and inefficiency in the system; (iii) practicalities: costs, transportation, community and family responsibilities; (iv) the need for Aboriginal support persons; and (v) connection to the community. Conclusions Design considerations and were identified but more important than the building itself was the critical need to build trust in health services. Promotion of cultural safety, support for Aboriginal family structures and respecting the importance of place and community to Aboriginal patients are crucial in improving cancer outcomes.
Indigenous populations in New World nations share the common experience of culture contact with outsiders and a prolonged history of prejudice and discrimination. This historical reality continues to have profound effects on their well-being, as demonstrated by their relative disadvantages in socioeconomic status on the one hand, and in their delayed demographic and epidemiological transitions on the other. In this study one aspect of aboriginals' epidemiological situation is examined: their mortality experience between the early 1980s and early 1990s. The groups studied are the Canadian Indians, the American Indians and the New Zealand Maori (data for Australian Aboriginals could not be obtained). Cause-specific death rates of these three minority groups are compared with those of their respective non-indigenous populations using multivariate log-linear competing risks models. The empirical results are consistent with the proposition that the contemporary mortality conditions of these three minorities reflect, in varying degrees, problems associated with poverty, marginalization and social disorganization. Of the three minority groups, the Canadian Indians appear to suffer more from these types of conditions, and the Maori the least. PMID:11316396
The prevalence of intestinal parasitoses by protozoans and helminths was determined in an aboriginal community located 6 km from Tartagal, province of Salta, Argentina. The age of the inhabitants studied ranged from 1 to 49 years old. A total of 112 stool samples were collected in sodium acetate-acetic acid- formalin solution (SAF). Each sample was obtained in three different days, alternatively. Ritchie biphasic concentration method and Faust flotation technique were applied. For survey of Enterobius vermicularis, 68 samples were collected during six consecutive days using anal swabs. For the diagnosis of Dientamoeba fragilis, the modified trichrome Gomori-Wheatley staining technique was used. One hundred and six (94.6%) subjects resulted positive for enteric parasites. Forty-four (41.5%) individuals were positive for four or more parasites. The parasites more frequently found were, among the protozoans Blastocystis hominis (58.9%), Entamoeba coli (51.8%), Giardia lamblia (27.7%) and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (24.1%). Among the helminths, the most frequent were hookworms (58.0%), Hymenolepis nana (31.2%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.1%). This is the first time that Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (24.1%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (2.7%) have been registered in the suburbs of Tartagal. This study reveals how intestinal parasitoses constitute a critical problem of public health in aboriginal communities like the one examined, where the lack of adequate sanitation conditions and unsuitable supply of water coexist. PMID:18422062
Menghi, Claudia I; Iuvaro, Franco R; Dellacasa, María A; Gatta, Claudia L
Background Despite a high prevalence of disability, Aboriginal Australians access disability services in Australia less than non-Aboriginal Australians with a disability. The needs of Aboriginal children with disability are particularly poorly understood. They can endure long delays in treatment which can impact adversely on development. This study sought to ascertain the factors involved in accessing services and support for Aboriginal children with a disability. Methods Using the focus group method, two community forums, one for health and service providers and one for carers of Aboriginal children with a disability, were held at an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS) in the Sydney, metropolitan area of New South Wales, Australia. Framework analysis was applied to qualitative data to elucidate key issues relevant to the dimensions of access framework. Independent coding consistency checks were performed and consensus of analysis verified by the entire research team, several of whom represented the local Aboriginal community. Results Seventeen health and social service providers representing local area government and non-government-funded health and social service organisations and five carers participated in two separate forums between September and October 2011. Lack of awareness of services and inadequate availability were prominent concerns in both groups despite geographic proximity to a major metropolitan area with significant health infrastructure. Carers noted racism, insufficient or non-existent services, and the need for an enhanced role of ACCHSs and AHWs in disability support services. Providers highlighted logistical barriers and cultural and historical issues that impacted on the effectiveness of mainstream services for Aboriginal people. Conclusions Despite dedicated disability services in an urban community, geographic proximity does not mitigate lack of awareness and availability of support. This paper has enumerated a number of considerations to address provision of disability services in an urban Australian Aboriginal community including building expertise and specialist capacity within Aboriginal Health Worker positions and services. Increasing awareness of services, facilitating linkages and referrals, eliminating complexities to accessing support, and working with families and Aboriginal community organisations within a framework of resilience and empowerment to ensure a relevant and acceptable model are necessary steps to improving support and care for Aboriginal children with a disability.
The Determinants of TB Transmission (DTT) project, a federally-funded study covering the period April 1, 2006-March 31, 2013, and examining the determinants of TB transmission amongst the Canadian-born population (Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal) in the prairie provinces of Canada, took a novel approach to health research involving Aboriginal people. The methodology aligned itself with the recently published Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Guidelines for Health Research Involving Aboriginal People and the established principles of Ownership, Control, Access, and Possession (OCAP). This article details the process by which collaboration with Aboriginal peoples was achieved, including the involvement of Aboriginal researchers, the development of Provincial Network Committees (PNCs), and communications with First Nations Chiefs and Council. Strengths of this methodology included Aboriginal organizational and community support with a high rate of participation; PNC leadership, which brought together Aboriginal stakeholders with provincial and federal TB program planners; and the exploration of both on and off-reserve transmission factors. Challenges of the methodology included meeting funding agency timelines and expectations given the gradual process of trust development and PNC-reviewed publication; respecting both community and individual participants' autonomy regarding study participation; and political discomfort with strong Aboriginal involvement. While the methodology required a dedicated investment from researchers and funding agencies alike, the process was worthwhile and achieved a high degree of support from its major collaborators: the Aboriginal peoples. PMID:21316828
Boffa, Jody; King, Malcolm; McMullin, Kathleen; Long, Richard
A new compilation of pollen and packrat midden data from western North America provides a refined reconstruction of the composition and distribution of biomes in western North America for today and for 6000 and 18,000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP). Modern biomes in western North America are adequately portrayed by pollen assemblages from lakes and bogs. Forest biomes in western North America share many taxa in their pollen spectra and it can be difficult to discriminate among these biomes. Plant macrofossils from packrat middens provide reliable identification of modern biomes from arid and semiarid regions, and this may also be true in similar environments in other parts of the world. However, a weighting factor for trees and shrubs must be used to reliably reconstruct modern biomes from plant macrofossils. A new biome, open conifer woodland, which includes eurythermic conifers and steppe plants, was defined to categorize much of the current and past vegetation of the semiarid interior of western North America. At 6000 14C yr BP, the forest biomes of the coastal Pacific North-west and the desert biomes of the South-west were in near-modern positions. Biomes in the interior Pacific North-west differed from those of today in that taiga prevailed in modern cool/cold mixed forests. Steppe was present in areas occupied today by open conifer woodland in the northern Great Basin, while in the central and southern Rocky Mountains forests grew where steppe grows today. During the mid-Holocene, cool conifer forests were expanded in the Rocky Mountains (relative to today) but contracted in the Sierra Nevada. These differences from the forests of today imply different climatic histories in these two regions between 6000 14C yr BP and today. At 18,000 14C yr BP, deserts were absent from the South-west and the coverage of open conifer woodland was greatly expanded relative to today. Steppe and tundra were present in much of the region now covered by forests in the Pacific North-west.
Asthma and allergies are common conditions among Aboriginal children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to assess the health and health-care inequities experienced by affected children and by their parents. Aboriginal research assistants conducted individual interviews with 46 Aboriginal children and adolescents who had asthma and/or allergies (26 First Nations, 19 Métis, 1 Inuit) and 51 parents or guardians of these children and adolescents. Followup group interviews were conducted with 16 adolescents and 25 parents/ guardians. Participants reported inadequate educational resources, environmental vulnerability, social and cultural pressures, exclusion, isolation, stigma, blame, and major support deficits. They also described barriers to health-service access, inadequate health care, disrespectful treatment and discrimination by health-care providers, and deficient health insurance. These children, adolescents, and parents recommended the establishment of culturally appropriate support and education programs delivered by Aboriginal peers and health professionals. PMID:24236369
Aboriginal burning in Australia has long been assumed to be a “resource management” strategy, but no quantitative tests of this hypothesis have ever been conducted. We combine ethnographic observations of contemporary Aboriginal hunting and burning with satellite image analysis of anthropogenic and natural landscape structure to demonstrate the processes through which Aboriginal burning shapes arid-zone vegetational diversity. Anthropogenic landscapes contain a greater diversity of successional stages than landscapes under a lightning fire regime, and differences are of scale, not of kind. Landscape scale is directly linked to foraging for small, burrowed prey (monitor lizards), which is a specialty of Aboriginal women. The maintenance of small-scale habitat mosaics increases small-animal hunting productivity. These results have implications for understanding the unique biodiversity of the Australian continent, through time and space. In particular, anthropogenic influences on the habitat structure of paleolandscapes are likely to be spatially localized and linked to less mobile, “broad-spectrum” foraging economies.
Bliege Bird, R.; Bird, D. W.; Codding, B. F.; Parker, C. H.; Jones, J. H.
Aboriginal women are vastly over-represented in the Australian prison system. Their recidivism rates are high. Aboriginal women in contact with the criminal justice system also have higher rates of mental health disorders and are likely to have been a victim of violence. The majority of these women are mothers. Their increasing incarceration therefore has serious implications for the health and social and emotional wellbeing of their Aboriginal children, families and communities. Illustrating and exploring this situation requires an Indigenous informed conceptual framework utilising a decolonising research methodology inclusive of enduring community and stakeholder dialogue and consultation. Respectful and ethical praxis are central to this approach. We will describe how this methodology has been applied within a current National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) research project in NSW, Australia. The NHMRC guidelines for research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders peoples have supported our process and will be highlighted in illustrating our research experience. PMID:24716766
We evaluated evidence of community interventions to improve Aboriginal child passenger safety (CPS) in terms of its scientific merit and cultural relevance. We included studies if they reported interventions to improve CPS in Aboriginal communities, compared at least pre- and postintervention conditions, and evaluated rates and severity of child passenger injuries, child restraint use, or knowledge of CPS. We also appraised quality and cultural relevance of studies. Study quality was associated with community participation and cultural relevance. Strong evidence showed that multicomponent interventions tailored to each community improves CPS. Interventions in Aboriginal communities should incorporate Aboriginal views of health, involve the community, and be multicomponent and tailored to the community's circumstances and culture. PMID:24754652
Ishikawa, Takuro; Oudie, Eugenia; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian
This product contains final experimental estimates of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous), non-Indigenous and total populations of Australia at 30 June 2006, for various geographies.
In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today. PMID:22545265
\\u000a Aboriginal people share a consistent landscape-burning practice across the vast Northern Australian savanna region. The practice\\u000a is spatially and seasonally diverse and has been widely applied to manage important animal and plant resources and to bring\\u000a about health y and amenable landscape states. The burning practices of\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aboriginal people and their associated knowledge systems provide valuable alternative s to Western
Tom Vigilante; Brett P. Murphy; David M. J. S. Bowman
ABSTRACT Background: Dementia is an emerging health priority in Australian Aboriginal communities, but substantial gaps remain in our understanding of this issue, particularly for the large urban section of the population. In remote Aboriginal communities, high prevalence rates of dementia at relatively young ages have been reported. The current study is investigating aging, cognitive decline, and dementia in older urban/regional Aboriginal Australians. Methods: We partnered with five Aboriginal communities across the eastern Australian state of New South Wales, to undertake a census of all Aboriginal men and women aged 60 years and over residing in these communities. This was followed by a survey of the health, well-being, and life history of all consenting participants. Participants were also screened using three cognitive instruments. Those scoring below designated cut-offs, and a 20% random sample of those scoring above (i.e. "normal" range), completed a contact person interview (with a nominated family member) and medical assessment (blind to initial screening results), which formed the basis of "gold standard" clinical consensus determinations of cognitive impairment and dementia. Conclusion: This paper details our protocol for a population-based study in collaboration with local Aboriginal community organizations. The study will provide the first available prevalence rates for dementia and cognitive impairment in a representative sample of urban Aboriginal people, across city and rural communities, where the majority of Aboriginal Australians live. It will also contribute to improved assessment of dementia and cognitive impairment and to the understanding of social determinants of successful aging, of international significance. PMID:24507414
An irrepressibly popular musical phenomenon, hip-hop is close to spoken word and focuses on lyrics with a message, reviving local traditions of song that tell histories, counsel listeners, and challenge participants to outdo one another in clever exchanges. A hip-hop music-making program in Edmonton, Canada, successfully reengages at-risk Aboriginal youth in school with high levels of desertion and helps them establish a healthy sense of self and of their identity as Aboriginals. PMID:20391618
In recent decades, Indigenous peoples across the globe have become increasingly urbanized. Growing urbanization has been associated with high rates of geographic mobility between rural areas and cities, as well as within cities. In Canada, over 54 percent of Aboriginal peoples are urban and change their place of residence at a higher rate than the non-Aboriginal population. High rates of mobility may affect the delivery and use of health services. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between urban Aboriginal peoples' mobility and conventional (physician/nurse) as well as traditional (traditional healer) health service use in two distinct Canadian cities: Toronto and Winnipeg. Using data from Statistics Canada's 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this analysis demonstrates that mobility is a significant predisposing correlate of health service use and that the impact of mobility on health care use varies by urban setting. In Toronto, urban newcomers were more likely to use a physician or nurse compared to long-term residents. This was in direct contrast to the effect of residency on physician and nurse use in Winnipeg. In Toronto, urban newcomers were less likely to use a traditional healer than long-term residents, indicating that traditional healing may represent an unmet health care need. The results demonstrate that distinct urban settings differentially influence patterns of health service utilization for mobile Aboriginal peoples. This has important implications for how health services are planned and delivered to urban Aboriginal movers on a local, and potentially global, scale. PMID:23078674
Objective: To compare the relations of adiposity and body fat distribution to body mass index (BMI) in Australians of Aboriginal and European ancestry.Design: Cross-sectional volunteer samples.Setting: Australian Aboriginal communities in remote central and northern Australia, urban European Australians resident in Melbourne, Australia.Subjects: Healthy Aboriginal (130 women, 120 men) and European Australians (100 women, 47 men) with a BMI<30 kg\\/m2, aged
The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)
In the context of Aboriginal-Anglo Australian relations, we tested the effect of framing (multiculturalism versus separatism) and majority group members' social values (universalism) on the persuasiveness of Aboriginal group rhetoric, majority collective guilt, attitudes toward compensation, and reparations for Aboriginals. As predicted, Anglo…
Reid, Scott A.; Gunter, Helen N.; Smith, Joanne R.
The purpose of this study is to examine the differences in major health trajectories between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. We hypothesize that community conditions affect child health even when child and family characteristics are considered. In order to test this hypothesis, we identify a model of Aboriginal child health that consists of three broad conceptual categories of health determinants: community
Papers from the conference on the education of Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders include: "English Language and Numeracy Program for Aboriginal Students" (Alison Jarred); "The Aboriginal Identity Course: A Midstream Evaluation" (Simon Vaughan); "Making the Curriculum Your Own: The Senior Girls at Lajamanu School Read Glenyse Ward's…
Australian National Languages and Literacy Inst., Deakin.
The vibrational characteristics and mechanical properties of shell structures are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) fundamental equations of thin shell theory, (2) characteristics of thin circular cylindrical shells, (3) complicating effects in circular cylindrical shells, (4) noncircular cylindrical shell properties, (5) characteristics of spherical shells, and (6) solution of three-dimensional equations of motion for cylinders.
Describes an atom-building activity where students construct three-dimensional models of atoms using a styrofoam ball as the nucleus and pom-poms, gum drops, minimarshmallows, or other small items of two different colors to represent protons and neutrons attached. Rings of various sizes with pom-poms attached represent electron shells and…
Previous research revealed a 6-fold higher incidence of tuberculosis (TB) amongst aborigines compared to Han Chinese in Taiwan. To investigate the reasons for this disparity, we genotyped Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains obtained from members of different aboriginal tribes in different geographical regions of Taiwan by using molecular methods. In total, 177 isolates of MTB collected from patients at four hospitals in Taiwan from January 2006 to December 2011 were analysed by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. The most prevalent strains in the eastern and central regions of Taiwan were Beijing (45.7% in eastern) and Haarlem (39.1% in eastern, 37.1% in central) lineages, whereas in southern regions the most prevalent strains were EAI (47.7%) and Haarlem (20.5%) lineages. The high prevalence of EAI in southern Taiwan aborigines may be closely associated with Austronesian culture. This study provides a first overview of the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in aboriginal populations in Taiwan. The high prevalences of certain MTB lineages within aboriginal sub-populations suggest that transmission of MTB may have been restricted to close contacts. PMID:24370561
Background At the southern entrance to East Asia, early population migration has affected most of the Y-chromosome variations of East Asians. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the isolated genetic structure of Hainan Island and the original genetic structure at the southern entrance, we studied the Y chromosome diversity of 405 Hainan Island aborigines from all the six populations, who have little influence of the recent mainland population relocations and admixtures. Here we report that haplogroups O1a* and O2a* are dominant among Hainan aborigines. In addition, the frequency of the mainland dominant haplogroup O3 is quite low among these aborigines, indicating that they have lived rather isolated. Clustering analyses suggests that the Hainan aborigines have been segregated since about 20 thousand years ago, after two dominant haplogroups entered East Asia (31 to 36 thousand years ago). Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that Hainan aborigines have been isolated at the entrance to East Asia for about 20 thousand years, whose distinctive genetic characteristics could be used as important controls in many population genetic studies.
The national Closing the Gap framework commits to reducing persisting disadvantage in the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia, with cross-government-sector initiatives and investment. Central to efforts to build healthier communities is the Aboriginal community controlled health service (ACCHS) sector; its focus on prevention, early intervention and comprehensive care has reduced barriers to access and unintentional racism, progressively improving individual health outcomes for Aboriginal people. There is now a broad range of primary health care data that provides a sound evidence base for comparing the health outcomes for Indigenous people in ACCHSs with the outcomes achieved through mainstream services, and these data show: models of comprehensive primary health care consistent with the patient-centred medical home model; coverage of the Aboriginal population higher than 60% outside major metropolitan centres; consistently improving performance in key performance on best-practice care indicators; and superior performance to mainstream general practice. ACCHSs play a significant role in training the medical workforce and employing Aboriginal people. ACCHSs have risen to the challenge of delivering best-practice care and there is a case for expanding ACCHSs into new areas. To achieve the best returns, the current mainstream Closing the Gap investment should be shifted to the community controlled health sector. PMID:24938346
Panaretto, Kathryn S; Wenitong, Mark; Button, Selwyn; Ring, Ian T
Sexual abuse and family violence are widespread and under-reported phenomena for which Aboriginal victims face even greater barriers to asking for and receiving assistance than do others in the community. There is a need for strategies to address abuse without disempowering and alienating Aboriginal people. A program developed by the New South Wales Health Education Centre Against Violence is addressing this issue at the same time as contributing towards a strengthened Aboriginal health workforce. The training program which is a 1-year qualification course has grown from a 52% rate of graduation in its first 6 years to 92%. Three practices in the classroom have contributed to this success. These are: (i) recognition of the emotional impact of the training and its links to participants own histories; (ii) providing space to address participants negative prior educational experiences; and (iii) further developing content on the recent sociopolitical history of Aboriginal people. These practices have strengthened this successful course, which is building a skilled workforce to provide accessible, culturally sensitive services for Aboriginal people experiencing abuse. PMID:23237329
Lauw, Marlene L; Spangaro, Jo; Herring, Sigrid; McNamara, Lorna D
Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Country) and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships) and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism) factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples’ health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples’ wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples’ health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation.
Kingsley, Jonathan; Townsend, Mardie; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Bolam, Bruce
This study explores the potential of intertidal Protothaca staminea shells as high-resolution geochemical archives of environmental change in a coastal upwelling region. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were analyzed by excimer laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at sub-weekly temporal resolution in shells growing ???1 mm per month. Growth patterns of a modern P. staminea shell from Humboldt Bay, California, collected in December 1999 made it possible to infer a lifespan from 1993 to 1998. Growth hiatuses in the shell may have excluded records of extreme events. Mg/Ca ratios appeared to be partly controlled by water temperature; the correlation coefficient between temperature and Mg/Ca was r = 0.71 in one of four growth increments. Significant year-to-year differences in the sensitivity of Mg/Ca to temperature in P. staminea could not be explained, however. Sr/Ca ratios appeared to be more closely related to shell growth rate. Oxygen isotopes, measured at 2-week temporal resolution in the same shell, did not show a clear relation to local temperature in summer, possibly because temperatures were higher and less variable at the King Salmon mudflat, where the shell was collected, than in the main channel of Humboldt Bay, where water properties were monitored. Negative shell ??13C values (<-0.5???) marked spring and summer coastal upwelling events. The Mg contents of P. staminea middenshells dated to ???3 ka and ???9 ka were significantly lower than in the modern shell. This may have resulted from degradation of a Mg-rich shell organic matrix and precluded quantitative interpretation of the older high-resolution records. Elevated ??13C values in the ???3 ka shell suggested that the individual grew in highly productive or stratified environment, such as a shallow coastal embayment or lagoon. Copyright ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.
This paper reports on effective strategies for developing the cultural competence of teachers involved in Aboriginal education and presents the preliminary findings of a review into the Connecting to Country Program (CTC), a joint venture of the NSW Aboriginal Education Consultative Group (AECG) and the NSW Department of Education and Communities…
In 1829 Lieutenant Governor George Arthur issued a series of Proclamation Boards illustrated with images of friendship, equality before the law and mutual punishment for Aborigines and Europeans alike, in an attempt to conciliate Aboriginal people in Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania). These striking images have been reworked over time, and have come to shape understandings of Australian history at national
Aboriginal communities in Canada are typically marginalized, have very low employment participation rates, and have limited economic infrastructure. The downturn in global economies further marginalized these communities. The University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC) Continuing Studies department piloted an Aboriginal and Small Business…
Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…
Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie
The Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Health Council (QAIHC) lead and govern the Centre for Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE), which has a focus on circulatory and associated conditions in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The CCRE is a partnership between QAIHC and Monash University, the Queensland University of…
A pilot program in New South Wales (Australia) aimed to engage Aboriginal students in the education process by making school more interesting and relevant to them specifically. The project used career education and Aboriginal perspectives to achieve these objectives. The development of aspirations within students was central, and it was hoped that…
Background Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women are between two to five times more likely to die in childbirth than non-Aboriginal women, and two to three times more likely to have a low birthweight infant. Babies with a low birthweight are more likely to have chronic health problems in adult life. Currently, there is limited research evidence regarding effective interventions to inform new initiatives to strengthen antenatal care for Aboriginal families. Method/Design The Aboriginal Families Study is a cross sectional population-based study investigating the views and experiences of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women having an Aboriginal baby in the state of South Australia over a 2-year period. The primary aims are to compare the experiences and views of women attending standard models of antenatal care with those accessing care via Aboriginal Family Birthing Program services which include Aboriginal Maternal Infant Care (AMIC) Workers as members of the clinical team; to assess factors associated with early and continuing engagement with antenatal care; and to use the information to inform strengthening of services for Aboriginal families. Women living in urban, regional and remote areas of South Australia have been invited to take part in the study by completing a structured interview or, if preferred, a self-administered questionnaire, when their baby is between 4–12 months old. Discussion Having a baby is an important life event in all families and in all cultures. How supported women feel during pregnancy, how women and families are welcomed by services, how safe they feel coming in to hospitals to give birth, and what happens to families during a hospital stay and in the early months after the birth of a new baby are important social determinants of maternal, newborn and child health outcomes. The Aboriginal Families Study builds on consultation with Aboriginal communities across South Australia. The project has been implemented with guidance from an Aboriginal Advisory Group keeping community and policy goals in mind right from the start. The results of the study will provide a unique resource to inform quality improvement and strengthening of services for Aboriginal families.
In 1929, the Lutheran mission at Hermannsburg (Ntaria), central Australia, became an extraordinary investigatory site, attracting an array of leading psychologists wishing to define the "primitive" mentality of the Arrernte, who became perhaps the most studied people in the British Empire and dominions. This is a story of how scientific knowledge derived from close encounters and fraught entanglements on the borderlands of the settler state. The investigators-Stanley D. Porteus, H. K. Fry, and Géza Róheim-represent the major styles of psychological inquiry in the early-twentieth century, and count among the vanguard of those dismantling rigid racial typologies and fixed hierarchies of human mentality. They wanted to evaluate "how natives think," yet inescapably they found themselves reflecting on white mentality too. They came to recognise the primitive as an influential and disturbing motif within the civilised mind-their own minds. These intense interactions in the central deserts show us how Aboriginal thinking could make whites think again about themselves-and forget, for a moment, that many of their research subjects were starving. PMID:24615581
Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by???90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who are developing mental illnesses or are in a mental health crisis.
The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.
The authors present an analysis of transcultural psychiatry research in relation to three main population groups in Australia: Aboriginal Australians, documented immigrants, and refugees. The pioneering reports produced by Western psychiatrists in Aboriginal communities are examined in this article. Additional quantitative and qualitative studies developed with Aboriginal people in the context of a traumatic acculturation process are also reviewed. Subsequently, the authors examine the challenges faced by immigrants with mental disorders in a health care system still unequipped to treat a new array of clinical presentations unfamiliar to the clinical staff. The authors also highlight the development of policies aimed at providing quality mental health care to a mosaic of cultures in an evolving multicultural society. Lastly, the psychiatric manifestations of refugees and asylum seekers are analysed in the context of a series of vulnerabilities and deprivations they have experienced, including basic human rights. PMID:24002948
Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; de Moore, Gregory
In this article, we consider how the broad context of Aboriginal people's lives can shape their experience and understanding of their HIV diagnosis. We conducted interviews across Canada with 72 Aboriginal people living with HIV who also reported feelings of depression. Consistent with what has been found in previous studies, participants responded to their HIV diagnosis with shock, disbelief, and often anger. Prior depression, drug and alcohol use, multiple losses, stigma, and social isolation also shaped how participants experienced their diagnosis. We consider how the history of colonization of Aboriginal communities in Canada relates to the experience of HIV diagnosis, and end with a discussion of the service implications of our findings. PMID:23539094
Aboriginal Australia encompasses a diverse range of cultures, each of which has developed in a distinct landscape and environment. Most cultures cultivate their own astronomy as a response to the surrounding environmental conditions. This work is a study of the accounts of Aboriginal astronomy that have been recorded over the last two hundred years. An in depth review of the main contributors to the subject, their unique biases and their influence over Aboriginal astronomy is examined. Many of the common perceptions of Aboriginal astronomy are based on stories that were recorded over a hundred years ago and have been misinterpreted several times during the course of the last century. These errors are investigated and corrected. In total, the ethnographers and anthropologists recorded over five hundred stories and they are brought together here for the first time. Stories originate from every region in Australia and cover many objects and phenomena in the night sky. Each story is classified according to the object, location and source, allowing a direct comparison of related material. The aim of this research is to demonstrate where the differences and similarities arise within three distinct areas of Australia; the tropical north, the central desert and the temperate south. The analysis of the material focuses on each object individually and how it was perceived in each of the three environmental zones. The main themes discussed centre around the characters involved in each of the stories, how they are depicted in the sky and in the creation of Aboriginal constellations. The results of the analysis demonstrate the close connection between the land and the sky in the Aboriginal world and that in many areas of Australia the sky is simply a reflection of the land.
This article presents an overview of culture as treatment, by recognizing the impact that culture has on treatment along with the specific rituals, customs, and meanings related to healing. Attention must be given to the Aboriginal heritage, including various concepts of metaphysics, spirituality, medicines, government, oral history, and language. A pedagogical underpinning of illness and healing is better cared for through cultural messaging and learning that is related to the complex historical legacy of Aboriginal societies, and therefore, culture provides important diverse contributions to current treatment and wellness programs. PMID:20506971
Background This study investigates acculturation and other antecedent psychiatric and socio-environmental risk factors for posttraumatic\\u000a stress disorder (PTSD) in one aboriginal group (the Bunun) exposed to an earthquake disaster in Taiwan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Respondents (n = 196) were assessed 5 months after the disaster, using a Chinese version of the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry\\u000a and the Taiwan Aboriginal Acculturation Scale.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Result Four risk factors exerted
Chau-Shoun Lee; Jung-Chen Chang; Chia-Yih Liu; Ching-Jui Chang; Tony H. H. Chen; Chien-Hsiun Chen; Andrew T. A. Cheng
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how digital technologies were introduced in a collaborative literacy intervention to address a population long underserved by traditional schools: the Aboriginals of Canada. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Situated within a critical ethnographic project, this paper examines how digital technologies were introduced. The questions focused on: how can critical multiliteracies be used to
Fatima Pirbhai-Illich; K. C. Nat Turner; Theresa Y. Austin
This article comes out of the larger context of my doctoral dissertation where I investigated my experiences as an academic who attempts to remain true to Indigenous Knowledge (IK) traditions while working within a Western European intellectual setting. In this current paper, I combine the conceptual frameworks of Aboriginal literacy and…
The purpose of the present study was to explore the prior educational and employment experiences of staff members in urban Aboriginal human services agencies. A total of 44 individuals employed by one of three community sites within one Canadian inner city generated 85 unique responses to the question: "What were your employment and education…
This study explores the role of agency in early career Aboriginal teachers expressions of their professional identity. It argues that in the context of teaching, opportunities to exercise personal agency are critical to the development and maintenance of a "healthy" professional identity, particularly for those traditionally disempowered…
Australian Indigenous music and culture are in the foreground when Australia celebrates itself in international contexts but their inclusion in the school curriculum is sporadic. In New South Wales (NSW), high school music teachers are responsible for educating students about Aboriginal music(s) and culture(s) within a mandatory focus on…
The survival and maintenance of Aboriginal languages in Canada depend on their transmission from generation to generation. Children are the future speakers of a language. This paper demonstrates that the family and the community together play critical roles in the transmission of language from parent to child. On their own, neither family capacity…
An epidemiological study was carried out in the year 2000 and sought to measure the occurrences of middle ear disease and hearing loss within school aged (4 years to 12 years) Aboriginal children. A number of the local schools and preschools in Coraki and Lismore with a high percentage of Aboriginal students were selected in an effort to identify service gaps regarding essential hearing screenings and assessments. A total of 185 (370 ears) Aboriginal children aged 4 years to 12 years were examined from four schools and three preschools. This examination included otoscopy, tympanometry and audiometry. Data were collected as each child was tested and this was then entered into a computer database on returning to the work place. Results indicated that 61.08% of these children had middle ear problems of some type. Unilateral hearing loss of 30 dB or greater was found in 10.80% of children, bilateral hearing loss of 30 dB and greater was found in 22.16%, and perforation of tympanic membranes in 3.24%. Suggestions are made in relation to the need for ongoing training of Aboriginal Community Audiometrists to provide community, school and preschool screening programs together with health related promotional activities to minimise the occurrences of ear infections. PMID:14994905
The aboriginal people of Taiwan, who are believed to be of Indonesian or Proto-Malayan stock currently occupy mountainous areas in the eastern two-thirds of the island. The combined population of the nine principal tribes is approximately 200,000; a tenth...
A 6-year-old Australian Aboriginal student has trouble understanding the dominant cultural mores concerning sharing food or its use as a reward in school. Literacy not only entails how to read and write identifiable genres of texts, but also requires strategic knowledge of how to read social situations and institutional rule systems. (Contains 35…
This study explored HIV vaccine acceptability and strategies for culturally appropriate dissemination among sexually diverse Aboriginal peoples in Canada, among those at highest HIV risk. We conducted four focus groups (n=23) with Aboriginal male (1) and female (1) service users, peer educators (1) and service providers (1) in Ontario, Canada. Transcripts were analysed with narrative thematic techniques from grounded theory, using NVivo. Participants' mean age was 37 years; about half (52%) were female, half (48%) Two-spirit or lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB)-identified, 48% had a high-school education or less and 57% were unemployed. Vaccine uptake was motivated by community survival; however, negative HIV vaccine perceptions, historically based mistrust of government and healthcare institutions, perceived conflict between western and traditional medicine, sexual prejudice and AIDS stigma within and outside of Aboriginal communities, and vaccine cost may present formidable obstacles to HIV vaccine acceptability. Culturally appropriate processes of engagement emerged on individual levels (i.e., respect for self-determination, explanations in Native languages, use of modelling and traditional healing concepts) and community levels (i.e., leadership by Aboriginal HIV advocates and political representatives, identification of gatekeepers, and procuring Elders' endorsements). Building on cultural strengths and acknowledging the history and context of mistrust and social exclusion are fundamental to effective HIV vaccine dissemination. PMID:21390966
Objective : To pilot a community-based and owned sports massage course for Aboriginal health workers (AHWs). Design : Descriptive, pilot educational intervention study. Setting : Rural, Indigenous Australian community. Subjects : AHWs working in a rural community. Main outcome measures : Cultural and logistical acceptability of the program to AHWs. Results : The course was delivered within a culturally acceptable
Dein Vindigni; Lynne Parkinson; Bruce Walker; Darren A. Rivett; Steve Blunden; Janice Perkins
When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is our story of how positive cross-cultural relations developed in stages
Robert J. Schinke; Stephanie J. Hanrahan; Mark A. Eys; Amy Blodgett; Duke Peltier; Stephen Douglas Ritchie; Chris Pheasant; Lawrence Enosse
Background: Educational disengagement is a public health concern among Aboriginal populations in many countries. It has been investigated previously in a variety of ways, with the conventional focus being on the children themselves. Activity settings are events and places, theorized in terms of their symbols, roles, time frame, funds, people, and…
The term ''aboriginal forestry'' is used increasingly to describe the evolving role of First Nations peoples in Canadian forestry over the last 30 years. This paper reviews a diversity of experiences and identifies issues that have im- portant implications for governments, forest planners, and First Nations: a forestry regime that reflects the interests of gov- ernments and industry rather than
This report presents data from the 1996 Census of Canada concerning educational attainment, educational success, and labor market outcomes among Aboriginal people and others in Canada. There has been clear educational progress among registered Indians over the past decade, particularly in high school completion and postsecondary participation.…
In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way…
Commercial activity for the Australian bush foods i ndustry is derived from uniquely Australian flora and fauna and is founded primarily on traditional A boriginal knowledge of the collection, preparation and uses of the resources. Many of the plants used for commercial activity are sourced from the Australian rangelands and yet few Aboriginal people have engaged successfully in market-based commercial
Jennifer Cleary; Murray McGregor; Kim Bryecson; Craig James
The extant literature suggests that the high rates of educational failure for aboriginal schoolchildren result from differences in the home and school interaction patterns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the micro structures of classroom discursive interactions, and to examine those within and against the macro structures of…
Forty years after the 1967 Referendum and 10 years after the Bringing Them Home inquiry published its report into the Stolen Generations, in June 2007 the Howard Federal Government launched an Emergency Response intervention in the Northern Territory, having recognised the urgent need to reduce the incidence of child maltreatment in remote Aboriginal communities. This intervention was developed in response
This document presents the report on the formative evaluation of the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership (ASEP) program conducted by Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC), covering the period from November 2003 to November 2006. The report is organized into four sections. Section 1 presents an overview of the ASEP program…
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009
Describes an inductive method of training Aboriginal adult educators in Australia. The trainers had to overcome cross-cultural barriers, increase the assertiveness and confidence of trainees, teach them to experience processes as well as outcomes, and develop their aesthetic sense. (SK)
The Australian Government plans to rehabilitate the former nuclear weapons testing ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia and to allow access to the areas for the Pitjantjatjara (Aboriginal) people who are the traditional owners of the land. The major radiological hazard posed by reoccupation of the ranges arises from inhalation of residual plutonium. The committed effective dose that
Peter N. Johnston; Keith H. Lokan; Geoffrey A. Williams
European colonisation had a devastating effect on the health and well-being of indigenous people in Australia. The history of Aboriginal health research has reflected the history of colonisation; research has understandably been viewed with distrust. The need for accurate statistics and improved understanding of health problems is clear, but obtaining them is not easy. In this paper we describe the
Wendy Holmes; Paul Stewart; Anne Garrow; Ian Anderson; Lisa Thorpe
Within the Australian education system, Aboriginal students' use of non-standard English features is often viewed simplistically as evidence of non-attainment of literacy and oral-English milestones. One reason for this is the widespread use of assessment tools which fail to differentiate between native-English speakers and students who are…
This paper reviews sociolinguistic work which has addressed the provision of justice for Aboriginal English (AE) speakers in Australia. It questions the assumptions about cultural and linguistic diversity and inequality which underlie this work, and proposes a critical sociolinguistic approach, which draws on social theory in the analysis of how…
Texts in Aboriginal English (AE) and creole varieties have been created by Indigenous and non-Indigenous writers for a range of purposes. In this paper, we focus on materials created in and for five educational contexts, and investigate the orthographic or spelling systems developed in each setting. Choices about orthography are guided by…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how digital technologies were introduced in a collaborative literacy intervention to address a population long underserved by traditional schools: the Aboriginals of Canada. Design/methodology/approach: Situated within a critical ethnographic project, this paper examines how digital technologies…
Pirbhai-Illich, Fatima; Turner, K. C. Nat; Austin, Theresa Y.
Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief…
Dion, Jacinthe; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; De La Sablonniere, Mireille; Philippe-Labbe, Marie-Pierre; Giffard, Tania
Generally speaking, environmental education teaching, research, and practice have been informed by the traditions of western, Euro-centric culture. In this context indigenous perspectives are often marginalized, maligned, and perceived to be unscientific and therefore inferior. This essay adds to the growing body of literature exploring aboriginal…
Beckford, Clinton L.; Jacobs, Clint; Williams, Naomi; Nahdee, Russell
This paper is a dcscription of a walk- through experience of Aboriginal dance in the Welcome area of the Gallery of First Australians (GFA) at the new National Museum of Australia (NMA). The experience is an immersive multimedia environment with a perceptual user interface that extracts footstep fcatures in real-time from 32 square metres of vibration sensitive carpet. Six network
Australia's indigenous population is made up of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, who each have distinctly different cultures. The former can be found in cities and towns and cross the vast reaches of rural and remote Australia; the latter inhabit the coastal islands off the northeast coast and adjacent mainland areas. According to…
Little information is available about the employment trajectories of Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander peoples pursuing university professional qualifications. This article describes a context in which cultural space, issues of identity, pragmatics of employment, family and community and a bureaucratic regulatory environment intersect to…
Helping Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander job-seekers find and keep a job has been the focus of recent reforms announced by the Australian Government. This guide describes seven essential characteristics of employment service organisations that lead to successful employment outcomes for their Indigenous clients. Based on a selection of…
As we move forward with the shaping of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research agendas and directions in Australia we are confronted with many issues basic to the beginning of any discipline: the problem of small numbers; the complexity and enormity of the problems; the diversity in the intellectual field; the limited albeit developing…
Each year since 1991, the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) has conducted a follow-up study of program graduates to compare information on employment outcomes for graduates of Aboriginal ancestry to those for all graduates. In 1994, a project was undertaken to analyze responses from the surveys conducted from 1991 to…
An expressive way of presenting forms of adult education practice was developed using a phenomenological methodology. A case study of a cross-cultural awareness course in Aboriginal Australia illustrates the textual genres used: backgrounding, sketching, poetized reflection, intuiting and distilling using metaphorical and imagistic language, and…
Objectives: To report 13-year trends in weight status of Australian Aboriginal children, and to describe weight-related behaviour in children in 2010, by Aboriginality. Design, setting and participants: Cross-sectional population surveys of children aged 5-16 years (n = 18 983) conducted in New South Wales schools in Term 1 of 1997, 2004 and 2010. Main outcome measures: For trend analysis: body mass index and waist-to-height ratio (WtHr). Analyses of weight-related behaviour from 2010 survey data included indicators of dietary habits, screen time (ST) and physical activity. Results: Between 1997 and 2010, the relative increase in prevalence of overweight/obesity and WtHr ? 0.5 was 22.4% and 113.6%, respectively, among Aboriginal children, and 11.8% and 3.4%, respectively, among non-Aboriginal children. In 2010, Aboriginal children had 1.52 (95% CI, 1.03-2.24) greater odds of having a WtHr ? 0.5 than non-Aboriginal children. Compared with non-Aboriginal children, Aboriginal children also had significantly lower odds of eating breakfast daily (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-0.99) and significantly greater odds of drinking ? 1 cup of soft drink daily (AOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.13-2.29), having a television in their bedroom (AOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 2.04-3.70), having no ST rules (AOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04-1.73) and exceeding ST recommendations on weekdays (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.32-2.39). Conclusions: Overweight/obesity and WtHr have increased more rapidly in Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal children in NSW. Unhealthy weight-related behaviour was frequent among all children, but lack of daily breakfast, excessive ST and soft drink consumption appear particularly problematic among Aboriginal children. Raising awareness with families of the consequences of excessive ST and encouraging strategies to limit ST (such as rethinking placement of televisions in children's bedrooms and implementing ST rules) hold promise. PMID:24938350
Aboriginal people in Canada suffer ill-health at much higher rates compared with the rest of the population. A key challenge is the disjuncture between the dominant biomedical approach to health in Canada and the holistic and integrative understandings of and approaches to health in many Aboriginal cultures. More fundamentally, colonization is at the root of the health challenges faced by this population. Thus, effective approaches to health promotion with Aboriginal people will require decolonizing practices. In this paper, we look at one case study of a health promotion project, the Urban Aboriginal Community Kitchen Garden Project in Vancouver, Canada, which, guided by the teachings of the Medicine Wheel, aims to provide culturally appropriate health promotion. By drawing on Aboriginal approaches to healing, acknowledging the legacy of colonization and providing a context for cultural celebration, we suggest that the project can be seen as an example of what decolonizing health promotion could look like. Further, we suggest that a decolonizing approach to health promotion has the potential to address immediate needs while simultaneously beginning to address underlying causes of Aboriginal health inequities. PMID:20197359
Objectives: Vulnerability to HIV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection for indigenous populations worldwide must be contextualized in experiences of current and past trauma. Aboriginal women entrenched in poverty face further gender-specific harms which place them at increased risk for HIV infection.Methods: This study was cross-sectional and based on a community-based sample of Aboriginal young people (Métis, Aboriginal, First Nations,
Azar Mehrabadi; Katharina Paterson; Margo Pearce; Sheetal Patel; Kevin J. P. Craib; Akm Moniruzzaman; Martin T. Schechter; Patricia M. Spittal
Background While Aboriginal Australian health providers prioritise identification of local community health needs and strategies, they do not always have the opportunity to access or interpret evidence-based literature to inform health improvement innovations. Research partnerships are therefore important when designing or modifying Aboriginal Australian health improvement initiatives and their evaluation. However, there are few models that outline the pragmatic steps by which research partners negotiate to develop, implement and evaluate community-based initiatives. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical model of the tailoring of health improvement initiatives by Aboriginal community-based service providers and partner university researchers. It draws from the case of the Beat da Binge community-initiated youth binge drinking harm reduction project in Yarrabah. Methods A theoretical model was developed using the constructivist grounded theory methods of concurrent sampling, data collection and analysis. Data was obtained from the recordings of reflective Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) processes with Aboriginal community partners and young people, and university researchers. CBPR data was supplemented with interviews with theoretically sampled project participants. The transcripts of CBPR recordings and interviews were imported into NVIVO and coded to identify categories and theoretical constructs. The identified categories were then developed into higher order concepts and the relationships between concepts identified until the central purpose of those involved in the project and the core process that facilitated that purpose were identified. Results The tailored alcohol harm reduction project resulted in clarification of the underlying local determinants of binge drinking, and a shift in the project design from a social marketing awareness campaign (based on short-term events) to a more robust advocacy for youth mentoring into education, employment and training. The community-based process undertaken by the research partnership to tailor the design, implementation and evaluation of the project was theorised as a model incorporating four overlapping stages of negotiating knowledges and meanings to tailor a community response. Conclusions The theoretical model can be applied in spaces where local Aboriginal and scientific knowledges meet to support the tailored design, implementation and evaluation of other health improvement projects, particularly those that originate from Aboriginal communities themselves.
Resilience has been most frequently defined as positive adaptation despite adversity. Over the past 40 years, resilience research has gone through several stages. From an initial focus on the invulnerable or invincible child, psychologists began to recognize that much of what seems to promote resilience originates outside of the individual. This led to a search for resilience factors at the individual, family, community — and, most recently, cultural — levels. In addition to the effects that community and culture have on resilience in individuals, there is growing interest in resilience as a feature of entire communities and cultural groups. Contemporary researchers have found that resilience factors vary in different risk contexts and this has contributed to the notion that resilience is a process. In order to characterize the resilience process in a particular context, it is necessary to identify and measure the risk involved and, in this regard, perceived discrimination and historical trauma are part of the context in many Aboriginal communities. Researchers also seek to understand how particular protective factors interact with risk factors and with other protective factors to support relative resistance. For this purpose they have developed resilience models of three main types: “compensatory,” “protective,” and “challenge” models. Two additional concepts are resilient reintegration, in which a confrontation with adversity leads individuals to a new level of growth, and the notion endorsed by some Aboriginal educators that resilience is an innate quality that needs only to be properly awakened. The review suggests five areas for future research with an emphasis on youth: 1) studies to improve understanding of what makes some Aboriginal youth respond positively to risk and adversity and others not; 2) case studies providing empirical confirmation of the theory of resilient reintegration among Aboriginal youth; 3) more comparative studies on the role of culture as a resource for resilience; 4) studies to improve understanding of how Aboriginal youth, especially urban youth, who do not live in self-governed communities with strong cultural continuity can be helped to become, or remain, resilient; and 5) greater involvement of Aboriginal researchers who can bring a nonlinear world view to resilience research.
Proxy records reconstructing marine climatic conditions across the transition between the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; ~900-1350 AD) and Little Ice Age (LIA; ~1350-1850) are strongly biased towards decadal to annual resolution and summer/growing seasons. Here we present new archives of seasonal variability in North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) from shells of the European limpet, Patella vulgata, which accumulated in Viking and medieval shell and fish middens at Quoygrew on Westray, Orkney. SST was reconstructed at submonthly resolution using oxygen isotope ratios preserved in shells from the 12th and mid 15th centuries (MCA and LIA, respectively). MCA shells recorded warmer summers and colder winters by ~2 degrees C relative to the late 20th Century (1961-1990). Therefore, seasonality was higher during the MCA relative to the late 20th century. Without the benefit of seasonal resolution, SST averaged from shell time series would be weighted toward the fast-growing summer season, resulting in the conclusion that the early MCA was warmer than the late 20th century by ~1°C. This conclusion is broadly true for the summer season, but not true for the winter season. Higher seasonality and cooler winters during early medieval times may result from a weakened North Atlantic Oscillation index. In contrast, the LIA shells have a more a variable inter-annual pattern. Some years record cooler summers and winters relative to the MCA shells and late 20th century, whereas other years record warmer summers and cooler winters similar to the MCA shells. Our findings provide a new test for the accuracy of seasonal amplitudes resulting from paleoclimate model experiments.
Cambodia harbours a variety of aboriginal (and presumably ancient) populations that have largely been ignored in studies of genetic diversity. Here we investigate the matrilineal gene pool of 1,054 Cambodians from 14 geographic populations. Using mitochondrial whole-genome sequencing, we identify eight new mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, all of which are either newly defined basal haplogroups or basal sub-branches. Most of the new basal haplogroups have very old coalescence ages, ranging from ~55,000 to ~68,000 years, suggesting that present-day Cambodian aborigines still carry ancient genetic polymorphisms in their maternal lineages, and most of the common Cambodian haplogroups probably originated locally before expanding to the surrounding areas during prehistory. Moreover, we observe a relatively close relationship between Cambodians and populations from the Indian subcontinent, supporting the earliest costal route of migration of modern humans from Africa into mainland Southeast Asia by way of the Indian subcontinent some 60,000 years ago. PMID:24121720
This interpretive ethnographic study describes the experiences of northern British Columbian Aboriginal mothers raising adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and provides an understanding of how the mothers interpreted and responded to their adolescents' FASD. The all-encompassing theoretical perspectives of postcolonialism provided the conceptual guide for this study. This ontological stance facilitates discourse on the social and historical context of this research focused on northern British Columbian Aboriginal mothers. Using semistructured interviews and participant observation, eight participants were interviewed three times over a period of several months. Data were analyzed using an interpretive analysis to generate an overarching cultural theme, Mothering from the Margins. The theme conveyed how study participants understood FASD and how they were raising their adolescents within the social and historical context unique to postcolonial societies. PMID:22802305
This research was designed to investigate the conceptualisations and thinking strategies Indigenous Australian students use in counting tasks. Eighteen Aboriginal students, in years 1 to 11 at a remote community school, were interviewed using standard counting tasks and a `counting' task that involved fetching `maku' (witchetty grubs) to have enough to give a maku to each person in a picture. The tasks were developed with, and the interviews conducted by, an Aboriginal research assistant, to ensure appropriate cultural and language contexts. A main finding was that most of the students did not see the need to use counting to make equivalent sets, even though they were able to demonstrate standard counting skills. The findings highlight a need to further examine the world views, orientations and related mathematical concepts and processes that Indigenous students bring to school.
When Elija Thomas-Burrows discovered that the chance of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person being involuntarily admitted to psychiatric care is three to five times higher than other Australians1, he saw the need to educate health professionals in providing culturally sensitive care to Indigenous people experiencing acute mental illness.\\u000aThe third-year year nursing student at University of Notre Dame
AN ORAL TRADITION AND STORY TELLING CULTURE are still central to aboriginal personal and community identity, and provide major means of remembering and conveying personal and community experience with university researchers. These stories describe stark accounts of betrayal and upset, as well as descriptions of positive experiences. They provide dramatic reminders to researchers of the importance of respectful and collaborative relationships with traditional community leaders and their members. PMID:19385820
Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing\\u000a CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible\\u000a that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief that contribute to social\\u000a problems, such as pathological gambling. The purpose
Jacinthe Dion; Delphine Collin-Vézina; Mireille De La Sablonnière; Marie-Pierre Philippe-Labbé; Tania Giffard
This research project is located in the context of Aboriginal health and education, and in particular, emotional and social wellbeing, recognising the critical need for effective mental health services and resilient, well-trained workers in the field of mental health.\\u000aMental health is understood to include a broad spectrum of conditions with extreme and chronic mental illness at one end and
Background Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Ample evidence shows that regular physical activity (PA) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is beginning to emerge linking PA to the physical environment but little is known about the relationship between remote rural environments and PA involvement in Aboriginal peoples. This study's purpose was to investigate the relationship between perceptions of the environment and PA and walking patterns in Aboriginal adults in order to inform the planning and implementation of community-relevant PA interventions. Methods Two hundred and sixty three residents (133 women, mean age = 35.6 years, SD = 12.3 and 130 men, mean age = 37.2 years, SD = 13.1) from Moose Factory, Ontario were asked about environmental factors related to walking and PA involvement. Survey items were drawn from standardized, validated questionnaires. Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, percentages) were calculated. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were performed to determine associations between walking and overall PA with perceived environmental variables. Results Hierarchical multiple regression to predict walking revealed significant associations between walking and perceived safety and aesthetics. Owning home exercise equipment predicted strenuous PA. Different aspects of the physical environment appear to influence different types of physical activities. The significant amount of variance in behaviour accounted for by perceived environmental variables (5.3% walking) included safety, aesthetics, convenience, owning home exercise equipment and comfortable shoes for walking. Conclusion Results suggest that a supportive physical environment is important for PA involvement and that walking and activities of different intensity appear to be mediated by different perceived environmental variables. Implications for PA promotion in rural environments where Aboriginal people face many unique environmental features (e.g., bears, mosquitoes, extreme cold) are discussed.
Kirby, Allison M; Levesque, Lucie; Wabano, Virgina; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer
Aboriginal housing, sanitation and water supply, the effects of unemployment and educational problems, socio-economic status, access problems to nutritional foods are just some of the issues to be considered by 1st Year medical students studying at The University of Notre Dame Australia’s Fremantle Campus.\\u000aThe topic: Introduction to Indigenous Health and Health Care - A Historical and Contemporary View, was
In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among\\u000a pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance\\u000a abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many\\u000a women, substance abuse
The prevalence and risk of having impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes was estimated relative to body mass index (BMI) among Australian Aboriginal people. A stratified analysis was undertaken of community screening data. Measures included fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations, and BMI (five strata: <22, 22–24.9, 25–29.9, 30–34.9 and ?35 kg\\/m2). Age was stratified into three groups: 15–34.9, 35–44.9, and
Aims\\/hypothesis. To examine the prevalence and associations with the metabolic syndrome of albuminuria among Australian Aboriginal people.¶Methods. Early-morning urine specimens were collected as part of community-based risk factor surveys assessing the prevalence of diabetes\\u000a and cardiovascular disease in eight remote communities, with a sample size of 1,075 people. Microalbuminuria was defined as\\u000a urinary albumin : creatinine ratio 3.4–33.9 mg\\/mmol, macroalbuminuria
K. G. Rowley; D. M. Iser; J. D. Best; K. O'Dea; D. Leonard; R. McDermott
Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), are “broken spirit” diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases.
Background Betel quid, chewed by about 600 million people worldwide, is one of the most widely used addictive substances. Cessation factors in betel quid chewers are unknown. The present study explores prevalence and the quit rate of betel quid chewing in Taiwan aborigines. Our goal was to delineate potential predictors of chewing cessation. Methods A stratified random community-based survey was designed for the entire aborigines communities in Taiwan. A total of 7144 participants were included between June 2003 and May 2004 in this study. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, such as gender, age, obesity, education years, marital status, ethnicity, and habits of betel quid chewing, smoking and drinking was collected by trained interviewers. Results The prevalence of betel quid chewers was 46.1%. Betel quid chewing was closely associated with obesity (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.40–1.85). Betel quid chewers were most likely to use alcohol and cigarettes together. Quit rate of betel quid chewers was 7.6%. Betel quid chewers who did not drink alcohol were more likely to quit (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.43–2.50). Alcohol use is a significant factor related to cessation of betel quid chewing, but smoking is not. Conclusion Taiwan aborigines have a high prevalence of betel quid chewers and a low quit rate. Alcohol use is strongly association with betel quid chewing. Efforts to reduce habitual alcohol consumption might be of benefit in cessation of betel quid chewing.
Objectives: To examine experiences of racism in health settings and their impact on mental health among Aboriginal Australians. Design, setting and participants: A cross-sectional survey of experiences of racism and mental health was conducted in two metropolitan and two rural Victorian local government areas (LGAs) between 1 December 2010 and 31 October 2011. Participants included 755 Aboriginal Australians aged over 18 years who had resided in the relevant LGA for at least a year. The response rate across all LGAs was 99%. Main outcome measures: Being above or below the threshold for high or very high psychological distress on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Results: 221 participants reported experiences of racism in health settings in the past 12 months. The results suggested that people experiencing racism in health settings (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 2.28-8.86) and non-health settings (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.39-5.08) were more likely than people who did not experience racism to be above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. Conclusions: Experiencing interpersonal racism in health settings is associated with increased psychological distress over and above what would be expected in other settings. This finding supports the rationale for improving cultural competency and reducing racism as a means of closing the health gap between Aboriginal and other Australians. Capitalising on this investment will require explicitly evaluating the impact of these initiatives on reducing patient experiences of racism. PMID:24999898
Kelaher, Margaret A; Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin
Bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported to be both higher and lower in Indigenous women from different populations. Body composition data have been reported for Indigenous Australians, but there are few published BMD data in this population. We assessed BMD in 161 Indigenous Australians, identified as Aboriginal (n=70), Torres Strait Islander (n=68) or both (n=23). BMD measurements were made on Norland-XR46 (n=107) and Hologic (n=90) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machines. Norland BMD and body composition measurements in these individuals, and also in 36 Caucasian Australians, were converted to equivalent Hologic BMD (BMD(H)) and body composition measurements for comparison. Femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine Z-scores were high in Indigenous participants (mean FN Z-score: Indigenous men +0.98, p<0.0001 vs. mean zero; Indigenous women +0.82, p<0.0001 vs. mean zero). FN BMD(H) was higher in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander than Caucasian participants, after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes and height and remained higher in men after addition of lean mass to the model. We conclude that FN BMD is higher in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians than Caucasian Australian reference ranges and these differences still remained significant in men after adjustment for lean mass. It remains to be seen whether these BMD differences translate to differences in fracture rates. PMID:22561911
Maple-Brown, L J; Hughes, J; Piers, L S; Ward, L C; Meerkin, J; Eisman, J A; Center, J R; Pocock, N A; Jerums, G; O'Dea, K
Objective To determine and compare the frequency distribution of various arch shapes in ethnic Malays and Malaysian Aborigines in Peninsular Malaysia and to investigate the morphological differences of arch form between these two ethnic groups. Methods We examined 120 ethnic Malay study models (60 maxillary, 60 mandibular) and 129 Malaysian Aboriginal study models (66 maxillary, 63 mandibular). We marked 18 buccal tips and incisor line angles on each model, and digitized them using 2-dimensional coordinate system. Dental arches were classified as square, ovoid, or tapered by printing the scanned images and superimposing Orthoform arch templates on them. Results The most common maxillary arch shape in both ethnic groups was ovoid, as was the most common mandibular arch shape among ethnic Malay females. The rarest arch shape was square. Chi-square tests, indicated that only the distribution of the mandibular arch shape was significantly different between groups (p = 0.040). However, when compared using independent t-tests, there was no difference in the mean value of arch width between groups. Arch shape distribution was not different between genders of either ethnic group, except for the mandibular arch of ethnic Malays. Conclusions Ethnic Malays and Malaysian Aborigines have similar dental arch dimensions and shapes.
Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems.
Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness confront multiple challenges that contribute to their poor health outcomes, and to the health disparities that exist in Australian society. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to care and support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. Methods Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n-16) and family carers (n?=?3). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and the transcripts were analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified and these were used to inform the key findings of the study. Results Participants reported both negative and positive influences that affected their health and well-being. Among the negative influences, they identified poor access to culturally appropriate health services, dislocation from cultural support systems, exposure to racism, poor communication with health care professionals and economic hardship. As a counter to these, participants pointed to cultural and traditional knowledge as well as insights from their own experiences. Participants said that while they often felt overwhelmed and confused by the burden of chronic illness, they drew strength from being part of an Aboriginal community, having regular and ongoing access to primary health care, and being well-connected to a supportive family network. Within this context, elders played an important role in increasing people’s awareness of the impact of chronic illness on people and communities. Conclusions Our study indicated that non-Indigenous health services struggled to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. To address their complex needs, health services could gain considerably by recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients have a wealth of cultural knowledge at their disposal. Strategies to ensure that this knowledge is integrated into care and support programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness should achieve major improvements.
Cancer outcomes for Aboriginal Australians are poorer when compared with cancer outcomes for non-Aboriginal Australians despite overall improvements in cancer outcomes. One concept used to examine inequities in health outcomes between groups is health literacy. Recent research and advocacy have pointed to the importance of increasing health literacy as it relates to cancer among Aboriginal people. This study examined individual, social and cultural aspects of health literacy relevant to cancer among Aboriginal patients, carers and their health workers in New South Wales. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 Aboriginal people who had been diagnosed with cancer, 18 people who were carers of Aboriginal people with cancer and 16 healthcare workers (eight Aboriginal and eight non-Aboriginal health workers). Awareness, knowledge and experience of cancer were largely absent from people's lives and experiences until they were diagnosed, illustrating the need for cancer awareness raising among Aboriginal people, communities and services. Some beliefs about cancer (particularly equating cancer to death) differed from mainstream Western biomedical views of the body and cancer and this served to silence discussion on cancer. As such, these beliefs can be used to inform communication and help illuminate how beliefs can shape responses to cancer. Participants proposed some practical strategies that could work to fill absences in knowledge and build on beliefs about cancer. These results were characterised by a silence about cancer, an absence of discussions of cancer and an acknowledgement of an already full health agenda for Aboriginal communities. To promote health literacy in relation to cancer would require a multi-layered programme of work involving grass-roots community education, workers and Board members of Aboriginal community-controlled health organisations and speciality cancer services, with a particular focus on programmes to bridge community-based primary care and tertiary level cancer services. PMID:23692557
HI observations have revealed in several shell galaxies the presence of gaseous shells slightly displaced from the stellar shells radially, in the outward direction. We propose a mechanism to form this gaseous shells, based on the well-known phase-wrapping process of the companion matter in a merger, with nearly radial orbits. The mechanism relies on the existence of a clumpy interstellar matter, and on dynamical friction experienced by the companion core.
Our research identifies key skills and traits for service providers working with Aboriginal women that assists them with re-claiming their cultural identity. The “Turtle Finding Fact Sheet: The Role of the Treatment Provider in Aboriginal Women’s Healing from Illicit Drug Abuse” was created to disseminate and commence discussion on this initial finding from our community-based research project in Canada. The study overall focussed on the role of identity and stigma in the healing journeys of criminalized Aboriginal women from illicit drug abuse. Our team is committed to sharing its finding with the community from which the information was collected–workers in the National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program (NNADAP). The Fact Sheet is based on a sample of interviews with substance abuse treatment providers, and was verified with women in treatment and who have completed treatment. In recent years, the addictions literature has increased its attention toward the importance of the therapeutic alliance between treatment providers and clients(1), although understanding specific to Aboriginal women remains limited. Identity reclamation is central to women’s healing journeys and treatment providers have an influential role. This finding is framed in the fact sheet within the cultural understanding of the Seven Teachings of the Grandfathers(2). The fact sheet (8.5x11) has been distributed to the over 700 NNADAP workers, and is also available at no cost in two poster size formats. It is appropriate for anyone providing services to Aboriginal women requiring addictions treatment.
A two year study, funded through the Community Rehabilitation Workforce Project (CRWP), Queensland Health, has been conducted in collaboration with two Aboriginal communities in Cape York, far north Queensland, Australia, to explore issues and appropriate community based rehabilitation interventions around Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). The project developed from a recorded underutilisation by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Queenslanders of formal
From the perspective of social suffering, the paper explores the correlation between the migration experience of the Tao aboriginal people on Taiwan's Orchid Island and their mental disorders examines the limits of the genetic approach to aboriginal health based on the biomedical model of medicine after the 1990s. The focus of the study is on the cases of mental disorder
Background Partnerships between different health services are integral to addressing the complex health needs of vulnerable populations. In Australia, partnerships between Aboriginal1 community controlled and mainstream services can extend health care options and improve the cultural safety of services. However, although government funding supports such collaborations, many factors can cause these arrangements to be tenuous, impacting the quality of health care received. Research was undertaken to explore the challenges and enhancers of a government initiated service partnership between an Aboriginal Community Controlled alcohol and drug service and three mainstream alcohol rehabilitation and support services. Methods Sixteen staff including senior managers (n=5), clinical team leaders (n=5) and counsellors (n=6) from the four services were purposively recruited and interviewed. Interviews were semi-structured and explored staff experience of the partnership including the client intake and referral process, shared client care, inter-service communication and ways of working. Results & discussion Communication issues, partner unfamiliarity, ‘mainstreaming’ of Aboriginal funding, divergent views regarding staff competencies, client referral issues, staff turnover and different ways of working emerged as issues, emphasizing the challenges of working with a population with complex issues in a persistent climate of limited resourcing. Factors enhancing the partnership included adding a richness and diversity to treatment possibilities and opportunities to explore different, more culturally appropriate ways of working. Conclusion While the literature strongly advises partnerships be suitably mature before commencing service delivery, the reality of funding cycles may require partnerships become operational before relationships are adequately consolidated. Allowing sufficient time and funding for both the operation and relational aspects of a partnership is critical, with support for partners to regularly meet and workshop arrangements. Documentation that makes clear and embeds working arrangements between partners is important to ameliorate many of the issues that can arise. Given the historical undercurrents, flexible approaches are required to focus on strengths that contribute to progress, even if incremental, rather than on weaknesses which can undermine efforts. This research offers important lessons to assist other services collaborating in post-colonial settings to offer treatment pathways for vulnerable populations.
This cross-cultural qualitative study examined the ethical, language and cultural complexities around offering fetal anomaly screening in Australian Aboriginal communities. There were five study sites across the Northern Territory (NT), including urban and remote Aboriginal communities. In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2009 and August 2010, and included 35 interviews with 59 health providers and 33 interviews with 62 Aboriginal women. The findings show that while many providers espoused the importance of achieving equity in access to fetal anomaly screening, their actions were inconsistent with this ideal. Providers reported they often modified their practice depending on the characteristics of their client, including their English skills, the perception of the woman's interest in the tests and assumptions based on their risk profile and cultural background. Health providers were unsure whether it was better to tailor information to the specific needs of their client or to provide the same level of information to all clients. Very few Aboriginal women were aware of fetal anomaly screening. The research revealed they did want to be offered screening and wanted the 'full story' about all aspects of the tests. The communication processes advocated by Aboriginal women to improve understanding about screening included community discussions led by elders and educators. These processes promote culturally defined ways of sharing information, rather than the individualised, biomedical approaches to information-giving in the clinical setting. A different and arguably more ethical approach to introducing fetal anomaly screening would be to initiate dialogue with appropriate groups of women in the community, particularly young women, build relationships and utilise Aboriginal health workers. This could accommodate individual choice and broader cultural values and allow women to discuss the moral and philosophical debates surrounding fetal anomaly screening prior to the clinical encounter and within their own cultural space. PMID:23337828
Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules. PMID:23150558
Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R
Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules.
Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.
An aboriginal bacterial community capable of degrading cyanide (10 mg/l) and thiocyanate (2 g/l) and eliminating ammonia (120 mg/l) had been isolated from recycled water samples after blast-furnace gas purification of a metallurgical plant wastewater. It was shown that the optimal conditions for this bacterial community were as follows: temperature, 34 degrees C; pH, 8.8-9.0; available organic matter concentration (glucose equivalent), 5 g/l; and dissolved O2 concentration, 8-10 mg/l. This aboriginal community was formed by the bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. PMID:18822775
Grigor'eva, N V; Smirnova, Iu V; Terekhova, S V; Karava?ko, G I
High risk drinking is linked with high rates of physical harm. The reported incidence of alcohol - related trauma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Northern Territory is the highest in the world. Facial fractures are common among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. They are often linked with misuse of alcohol in the Northern Territory and are frequently secondary to assault. This review focuses on alcohol-related trauma in the Territory and draws attention to an urgent need for preventative health approach to address this critical issue.
High risk drinking is linked with high rates of physical harm. The reported incidence of alcohol - related trauma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Northern Territory is the highest in the world. Facial fractures are common among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. They are often linked with misuse of alcohol in the Northern Territory and are frequently secondary to assault. This review focuses on alcohol-related trauma in the Territory and draws attention to an urgent need for preventative health approach to address this critical issue. PMID:22862897
In 1991, the Family Planning Association (FPA) of the Malaysian state of Perak initiated a community-based development project in the remote Aborigine village of Kampung Tisong. The community consists of approximately 34 households who survive on an average income of about US $37. Malnutrition is pervasive, even minor ailments cause death, more serious afflictions are prevalent, and the closest government clinic is 20 kilometers away and seldom used by the Aborigines. 70% of the children have access to education, but parental illiteracy is a serious educational obstacle. The goals of the FPA program are to 1) promote maternal and child health and responsible parenthood, 2) provide health education, 3) encourage women to seek self-determination, and 4) encourage the development of self-reliance in the community as a whole. The first step was to survey the community's culture, beliefs, and health status with the help of the Aborigines Department and the village headman. After a series of preliminary meetings with other agencies, the FPA began to provide activities including health talks, health courses and demonstrations, medical examinations and check-ups, and first aid training. Environmental protection and sanitation measures were included in the educational activities, and following the traditional "mutual aid system," a small plot of land was cleared for vegetable production. Vegetable gardens and needlecraft will become income-producing activities for the women. Attempts to motivate the women to use family planning have been hindered by the fact that the health of 2 women deteriorated after they began using oral contraceptives. Positive changes are occurring slowly and steadily, however, and the FPA has been instrumental in having the settlement included in a program for the hardcore poor which will provide new housing and farming projects. PMID:12345736
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes in Taiwanese aborigines, whose ancestors have lived in Taiwan for over 10,000 years, have not been characterized. In order to characterize of HBV in this special population, serum samples were obtained from serologically HBsAg-positive 27 Taiwanese aborigines. The pre-S1/S2 region and the full-length 3.2 kb of the HBV genome were amplified by PCR. Obtained amplicons were sequenced and confirmed the HBV genotypes by phylogenetic analysis. By phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of pre-S1/pre-S2 region, HBV/B2 (21/27: 78 %) was the most prevalent followed by genotype D (6/27: 22 %). Two strains of HBV/B2, each having 3,215 bp genomes, had recombination with genotype C in the pre-C/C gene which is characteristic of subgenotype B2 circulating in Southeast Asia. Interestingly, six strains of genotype D formed a distinct cluster between subgenotypes D1 and D2 suggesting a novel group of HBV. A similar finding could also be confirmed based on the entire 3,182 bp genome from four strains of HBV/D. This new cluster was supported by a branch with 99 % bootstrap value and 3.4-5.8 % nucleotide divergence over the entire genome from other known subgenotypes D1 to D9. Four strains of the new D subgenotype showed serotype ayw2, but had unique amino acid sequences consisting of N115 in the preS/S gene; P41 in the X gene; S239, K/E295, V567, and P708 in the P gene, respectively. From the above results, we provisionally proposed to designate it as novel quasi-subgenotype D2 identified in Taiwanese aborigines. PMID:24792512
Cultural identity is an important factor in how well Aboriginal people respond to HIV/AIDS prevention or, once diagnosed with HIV or AIDS, how it affects their health care. This study explores the cultural skills among service providers who see Aboriginal people living with HIV/AIDS (APHAs) and the perspectives of APHAs. The purpose is to better understand the wellness needs of APHAs and how culturally competent care affects health service access and use. Data collection included face-to-face semi-structured interviews with APHAs and focus groups/interviews with community-based and primary health professionals in five regions of Canada. Interviews and focus groups were voice-recorded, verbatim transcribed, and coded using Atlas.ti® software. Thirty-five APHAs and fifty-two service providers were reached. Two key themes were noticed: Active addictions are a major obstacle to adherence to HIV drug regimes. Half of APHA participants said addictions are a major factor. A similar portion noted intensified substance use was an initial coping strategy when diagnosed. A slightly smaller portion noted that addictions were dealt with soon after diagnosis in order to begin antiretroviral treatment. Service providers who inform, encourage, and support APHAs’ choices are viewed as “culturally competent.”Addictions and HIV must be “treated together,” reflecting a holistic worldview of Aboriginal people. Programs that integrate addiction treatment with HIV/AIDS and service providers who encourage and support APHA’s choices are viewed as “wise practice” models by both sets of study participants offering some convergence and a set of five wise practices are identified.
Healthy food subsidy programmes have not been widely implemented in high-income countries apart from the USA and the UK. There is, however, interest being expressed in the potential of healthy food subsidies to complement nutrition promotion initiatives and reduce the social disparities in healthy eating. Herein, we describe the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy programme on the nutritional status of a cohort of disadvantaged Aboriginal children living in rural Australia. A before-and-after study was used to assess the nutritional impact in 174 children whose families received weekly boxes of subsidised F&V organised through three Aboriginal medical services. The nutritional impact was assessed by comparing 24 h dietary recalls and plasma carotenoid and vitamin C levels at baseline and after 12 months. A general linear model was used to assess the changes in biomarker levels and dietary intake, controlled for age, sex, community and baseline levels. Baseline assessment in 149 children showed low F&V consumption. Significant increases (P< 0.05) in ?-cryptoxanthin (28.9 nmol/l, 18%), vitamin C (10.1 ?mol/l, 21%) and lutein-zeaxanthin (39.3 nmol/l, 11%) levels were observed at the 12-month follow-up in 115 children, although the self-reported F&V intake was unchanged. The improvements in the levels of biomarkers of F&V intake demonstrated in the present study are consistent with increased F&V intake. Such dietary improvements, if sustained, could reduce non-communicable disease rates. A controlled study of healthy food subsidies, together with an economic analysis, would facilitate a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits of subsidising healthy foods for disadvantaged Aboriginal Australians. PMID:23742751
Objective: To evaluate the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy program for disadvantaged Aboriginal children in Australia, implemented alongside the introduction of mandatory folic acid fortification of bread-making flour. Methods: A before-and-after evaluation was undertaken of a F&V subsidy program at three Aboriginal community-controlled health services in New South Wales. The program provided a weekly box of subsidised F&V linked to preventive health services and nutrition promotion for families. In this analysis, red blood cell (RBC) folate was assessed together with self-reported dietary intake at baseline and 12 months later in a cohort of 125 children (aged 0-17 years). Results: No children had low RBC folate at baseline or at follow-up; however, 33 children (26%) exceeded the reference range of RBC folate at baseline and 38 children (30%) exceeded the reference range at follow-up. Mean RBC folate levels increased substantially in children at follow-up (mean RBC folate z-score increased +0.55 (95%CI 0.36-0.74). Change in F&V intake (p=0.196) and mean bread intake (p=0.676) were not statistically significant predictors for change in RBC folate levels. Conclusions: RBC folate levels increased among these disadvantaged Aboriginal children following mandatory folic acid fortification and participation in a subsidised F&V program. Even before mandatory folic acid fortification, none of these children had low RBC folate. Implications: The effect on health of mandatory fortification of foods with folate is not clear, hence, ongoing population-based monitoring of folate levels to assess the impact of mandatory folic acid fortification is important. PMID:24890482
Corrected groundwater 14C ages from the carbonate aquifer in Yucca Flat at the former Nevada Test Site (now the Nevada National Security Site), USA, were evaluated by comparing temporal variations of groundwater 36Cl/Cl estimated with these 14C ages with published records of meteoric 36Cl/Cl variations preserved in packrat middens (piles of plant fragments, fecal matter and urine). Good agreement between these records indicates that the groundwater 14C ages are reasonable and that 14C is moving with chloride without sorbing to the carbonate rock matrix or fracture coatings, despite opposing evidence from laboratory experiments. The groundwater 14C ages are consistent with other hydrologic evidence that indicates significant basin infiltration ceased 8,000 to 10,000 years ago, and that recharge to the carbonate aquifer is from paleowater draining through overlying tuff confining units along major faults. This interpretation is supported by the relative age differences as well as hydraulic head differences between the alluvial and volcanic aquifers and the carbonate aquifer. The carbonate aquifer 14C ages suggest that groundwater velocities throughout much of Yucca Flat are about 2 m/yr, consistent with the long-held conceptual model that blocking ridges of low-permeability rock hydrologically isolate the carbonate aquifer in Yucca Flat from the outlying regional carbonate flow system.
Background Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population, but information is scarce regarding variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. Our project helps fill these gaps. This report focuses on workplace injuries. Methods We used BC’s universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to worker compensation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of worker compensation injury, adjusted for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We assessed annual trend by regressing SRR as a linear function of year. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with community SRR of injury by multivariable linear regression. Results During the period 1987–2010, the crude rate of worker compensation injury in BC was 146.6 per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval: 146.4 to 146.9 per 10,000). The Aboriginal rate was 115.6 per 10,000 (95% CI: 114.4 to 116.8 per 10,000) and SRR was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87 to 0.89). Among those living on reserves SRR was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.80). HSDA SRRs were highly variable, within both total and Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal males under 35 and females under 40 years of age had lower SRRs, but older Aboriginal females had higher SRRs. SRRs are declining, but more slowly for the Aboriginal population. The Aboriginal population was initially at lower risk than the total population, but parity was reached in 2006. These community characteristics independently predicted injury risk: crowded housing, proportion of population who identified as Aboriginal, and interactions between employment rate and income, occupational risk, proportion of university-educated persons, and year. Conclusions As employment rates rise, so has risk of workplace injury among the Aboriginal population. We need culturally sensitive prevention programs, targeting regions and industries where Aboriginal workers are concentrated and demographic groups that are at higher risk.
A conceptual model for planning adolescent prenatal programs was developed that anticipated future trends, was easily modifiable, and fostered community self-direction (Loos & Morton, 1996). However, the model's reliability with diverse groups in atypical settings required testing. Validation of its reliability focused on adolescent Aboriginal women living in an isolated northern community. Use of the model helped identify modifications in program design, implementation, and evaluation to meet the ethno-cultural, socioeconomic, and age-related needs differences of this population, suggesting that this model is an effective tool for program development.
Loos, Cynthia; Morton, A. Michel; Meekis, Margaret
Background: Studies suggest that Aboriginal people in Canada are over-represented among people using injection drugs. The factors associated with transitioning to the use of injection drugs among young Aboriginal people in Canada are not well understood. Methods: The Cedar Project is a prospective cohort study (2003–2007) involving young Aboriginal people in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia, who use illicit drugs. Participants’ venous blood samples were tested for antibodies to HIV and the hepatitis C virus, and drug use was confirmed using saliva screens. The primary outcomes were use of injection drugs at baseline and tranisition to injection drug use in the six months before each follow-up interview. Results: Of 605 participants, 335 (55.4%) reported using injection drugs at baseline. Young people who used injection drugs tended to be older than those who did not, female and in a relationship. Participants who injected drugs were also more likely than those who did not to have been denied shelter because of their drug use, to have been incarcerated, to have a mental illness and to have been involved in sex work. Transition to injection drug use occurred among 39 (14.4%) participants, yielding a crude incidence rate of 19.8% and an incidence density of 11.5 participants per 100 person-years. In unadjusted analysis, transition to injection drug use was associated with being female (odds ratio [OR] 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–3.72), involved in sex work (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.75–6.40), having a history of sexually transmitted infection (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.07–3.78) and using drugs with sex-work clients (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.19–5.32). In adjusted analysis, transition to injection drug use remained associated with involvement in sex work (adjusted OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.45–10.71). Interpretation: The initiation rate for injection drug use of 11.5 participants per 100 person-years among participants in the Cedar Project is distressing. Young Aboriginal women in our study were twice as likely to inject drugs as men, and participants who injected drugs at baseline were more than twice as likely as those who did not to be involved in sex work.
Miller, Cari L.; Pearce, Margo E.; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Thomas, Vicky; Christian, Chief Wayne; Schechter, Martin T.; Spittal, Patricia M.
Wurdi Youang is an egg-shaped Aboriginal stone arrangement in Victoria, Australia. Here we present a new survey of the site, and show that its major axis is aligned within a few degrees of east-west. We confirm a previous hypothesis that it contains alignments to the position on the horizon of the setting sun at the equinox and the solstices, and show that two independent sets of indicators are aligned in these directions. We show that these alignments are unlikely to have arisen by chance, and instead the builders of this stone arrangement appear to have deliberately aligned the site on astronomically significant positions.
Norris, Ray P.; Norris, Cilla; Hamacher, Duane W.; Abrahams, Reg
Background The concepts and standard practices of implementation, largely originating in developed countries, cannot necessarily be simply transferred into diverse cultural contexts. There has been relative inattention in the implementation science literature paid to the implementation of interventions targeting minority Indigenous populations within developed countries. This suggests that the implementation literature may be bypassing population groups within developed countries who suffer some of the greatest disadvantage. Within the context of Aboriginal Australian health improvement, this study considers the impact of political and cultural issues by examining the transfer and implementation of the Family Wellbeing program across 56 places over a 20-year period. Methods A theoretical model of program transfer was developed using constructivist-grounded theory methods. Data were generated by conducting in-depth interviews with 18 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal research respondents who had been active in transferring the program. Data were categorised into higher order abstract concepts and the core impetus for and process of program transfer were identified. Results Organizations transferred the program by using it as a vehicle for supporting inside-out empowerment. The impetus to support inside-out empowerment referred to support for Aboriginal people's participation, responsibility for and control of their own affairs, and the associated ripple effects to family members, organizations, communities, and ultimately reconciliation with Australian society at large. Program transfer occurred through a multi-levelled process of embracing relatedness which included relatedness with self, others, and structural conditions; all three were necessary at both individual and organizational levels. Conclusions Similar to international implementation models, the model of supporting inside-out empowerment by embracing relatedness involved individuals, organizations, and interpersonal and inter-organizational networks. However, the model suggests that for minority Indigenous populations within developed countries, implementation approaches may require greater attention to the empowering nature of the intervention and its implementation, and multiple levels of relatedness by individuals and organizations with self, others, and the structural conditions. Key elements of the theoretical model provide a useful blueprint to inform the transfer of other empowerment programs to minority Indigenous and other disadvantaged populations on a case-by-case basis.
Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2) with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3). The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge translation plan has been formulated. Discussion The findings of this study will provide practitioners with an understanding of the cultural differences that affect women's dietary choices during maternity. We expect that the developed resources will be of immediate use within the women's units and will enhance counseling efforts. Wide dissemination of outputs may have a greater long term impact in the primary and secondary prevention of these high risk conditions.
Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology) and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service.
The mtDNA variation of 411 individuals from 10 aboriginal Siberian populations was analyzed in an effort to delineate the relationships between Siberian and Native American populations. All mtDNAs were characterized by PCR amplification and restriction analysis, and a subset of them was characterized by control region sequencing. The resulting data were then compiled with previous mtDNA data from Native Americans and Asians and were used for phylogenetic analyses and sequence divergence estimations. Aboriginal Siberian populations exhibited mtDNAs from three (A, C, and D) of the four haplogroups observed in Native Americans. However, none of the Siberian populations showed mtDNAs from the fourth haplogroup, group B. The presence of group B deletion haplotypes in East Asian and Native American populations but their absence in Siberians raises the possibility that haplogroup B could represent a migratory event distinct from the one(s) which brought group A, C, and D mtDNAs to the Americas. Our findings support the hypothesis that the first humans to move from Siberia to the Americas carried with them a limited number of founding mtDNAs and that the initial migration occurred between 17,000-34,000 years before present. Images Figure 4
Torroni, A; Sukernik, R I; Schurr, T G; Starikorskaya, Y B; Cabell, M F; Crawford, M H; Comuzzie, A G; Wallace, D C
The origin of Aboriginal Australians has been a central question of palaeoanthropology since its inception during the 19th Century. Moreover, the idea that Australians could trace their ancestry to a non-modern Pleistocene population such as Homo erectus in Southeast Asia have existed for more than 100 years, being explicitly linked to cranial robusticity. It is argued here that in order to resolve this issue a new program of research should be embraced, one aiming to test the full range of alternative explanations for robust morphology. Recent developments in the morphological sciences, especially relating to the ontogeny of the cranium indicate that character atomisation, an approach underpinning phylogenetic reconstruction, is fraught with difficulties. This leads to the conclusion that phylogenetic-based explanations for robusticity should be reconsidered and a more parsimonious approach to explaining Aboriginal Australian origins taken. One that takes proper account of the complex processes involved in the growth of the human cranium rather than just assuming natural selection to explain every subtle variation seen in past populations. In doing so, the null hypothesis that robusticity might result from phenotypic plasticity alone cannot be rejected, a position at odds with both reticulate and deep-time continuity models of Australian origins.
Infection, associated with protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM), is a widespread and important health problem in young Aboriginal children. Clinical obervations have suggested these children to have impaired immune resistance to infection. Children were fivided by anthropometric criteria into three groups: moderately malnourished; showing effects of previous PCM; normally nourished. Numbers and function of T and B lymphocytes and neutrophils were measured in these groups to give an assessment of systemic immune resistance. Primary antigen recognition and blastogenic response of T-lymphocytes were significantly impaired in the malnourished groups. Normal or increased numbers of B and T lymphocytes, and normal secondary antibody response to tetanus toxoid inoculations were found in all groups. Serum opsonin levels, C3 concentrations, immunoglobulin levels, neutrophil numbers and phagocytic activity were normal or increased in all groups. The malnourished children showed relative impairment of neutrophil chemotaxis, metabolic response to phagocytosis and intraphagocytic bactericidal activity. The findings suggested that children with moderate or lasting effects of PCM had multiple dificiencies in the funnction of their immune defence mechanism which may profoundly influence the prevalence, chronicity and mortality of infections diseases in Aboriginal communities. PMID:813096
Jose, D G; Shelton, M; Tauro, G P; Belbin, R; Hosking, C S
During 1948, scientists (an anthropologist, a nutritionist and a plant ecologist) of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land observed the daily activities of families of nomadic Aborigines in the monsoonal climate of Groote Eylandt, Bickerton Island, Port Bradshaw, Yirrkala and Oenpelli, Northern Territory. The close relationship between the hunter-gatherers and the marine and terrestrial landscape is described at Hemple Bay in Port Langdon, north-eastern Groote Eylandt. Food-gathering from both land and sea was followed hourly to assess the nutritional value of 'bush tucker' in comparison with that of natives eating freshly picked fruit and vegetables grown in the garden of the Umbakumba Settlement. The ecological distributions of food plants used by the Aborigines, together with their seasonality, determined the migratory pattern of the hunter-gatherers throughout the year. With only a few exceptions, the diets which were seen at the four camps in Arnhem Land were well-balanced and provided amounts of most nutrients comparable with the recommended international dietary allowances. Seasonal and regional variations in food supply were a constant problem to these nomadic people. PMID:24394451
The mtDNA variation of 411 individuals from 10 aboriginal Siberian populations was analyzed in an effort to delineate the relationships between Siberian and Native American populations. All mtDNAs were characterized by PCR amplification and restriction analysis, and a subset of them was characterized by control region sequencing. The resulting data were then compiled with previous mtDNA data from Native Americans and Asians and were used for phylogenetic analysis and sequence divergence estimations. Aboriginal Siberian populations exhibited mtDNAs from three (A, C, and D) of the four haplogroups observed in Native Americans. However, none of the Siberian populations showed mtDNAs from the fourth haplogroup, group B. The presence of group B deletion haplotypes in East Asian and Native American populations but their absence in Siberians raises the possibility that haplogroup B could represent a migratory event distinct from the one(s) which brought group A, C, and D mtDNAs to the Americas. These findings support the hypothesis that the first humans to move from Siberia to the Americas carried with them a limited number of founding mtDNAs and that the initial migration occurred between 17,000-34,000 years before present. 61 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.
Torroni, A.; Schurr, T.G.; Cabell, M.F.; Wallace, D.C. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Sukernik, R.I.; Starikovskaya, Y.B. (Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Crawford, M.H.; Comuzzie, A.G. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States))
People in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory have greater morbidity and mortality than other Australians, but face considerable barriers when accessing hospital-based specialist services. The Specialist Outreach Service, which began in 1997, was a novel policy initiative to improve access by providing a regular multidisciplinary visiting specialist services to remote communities. It led to two interesting juxtapositions: that of 'state of the art' specialist services alongside under-resourced primary care in remote and relatively traditional Aboriginal communities; and that of attempts to develop an evidence base for the effectiveness of outreach, while meeting the short-term evaluative requirements of policy-makers. In this essay, first we describe the development of the service in the Northern Territory and its initial process evaluation. Through a Cochrane systematic review we then summarise the published research on the effectiveness of specialist outreach in improving access to tertiary and hospital-based care. Finally we describe the findings of an observational population-based study of the use of specialist services and the impact of outreach to three remote communities over 11 years. Specialist outreach improves access to specialist care and may lessen the demand for both outpatient and inpatient hospital care. Specialist outreach is, however, dependent on well-functioning primary care. According to the way in which outreach is conducted and the service is organised, it can either support primary care or it can hinder primary care and, as a result, reduce its own effectiveness. PMID:15511327
This paper examines the process of cultural mediation in end of life care of Aboriginal people in urban hospitals. It summarises interview and observational data on the experience of ten Canadians from First Nations communities who were receiving palliative care for renal cancers and other forms of end stage renal disease. Parallel interviews were conducted with members in their families,
Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are used in forensic science laboratories all over the world, as their application is wide and often vital in solving casework. Analysis of an in-house database of South Australian self-declared Aboriginal males held by Forensic Science South Australia (FSSA) using the Applied Biosystem's AmpF?STR® Yfiler™ PCR Amplification Kit revealed 43 variant Y-STR alleles at 6 of the 17 loci. All variant alleles were sequenced to determine the exact repeat structure for each. As a high level of admixture has previously been found within the SA Aboriginal database, samples were haplogrouped using Y-SNPs to determine their likely geographical origin. Although a number of variant alleles were associated with non-Aboriginal Y-haplogroups, a high frequency was observed within the Australian K-M9 lineage. Detailed knowledge of these variant alleles may have further application in the development of new DNA markers for identification purposes, and in population and evolutionary studies of Australian Aborigines. PMID:24048501
Collins, Tegan E; Ottens, Renee; Ballantyne, Kaye N; Nagle, Nano; Henry, Julianne; Taylor, Duncan; Gardner, Michael G; Fitch, Alison J; Goodman, Amanda; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Mitchell, R John; Linacre, Adrian
This article outlines an early childhood leadership model that senior Anangu and Yapa (Aboriginal) women, living semi-traditional lifestyles in the remote desert regions of central Australia, have identified as a positive and important way forward for their children, families, governments and related professionals. The initiative--Warrki…
In February 2012, Canada's Truth and Reconciliation Commission released an interim report that detailed its findings based on extensive testimony by former students of the nation's residential school system, a system designed to forcibly assimilate aboriginal peoples. The report concludes that the state must play an active role in the…
The purpose of the present study was to examine the maternal beliefs and practices regarding preschool children's proactive and reactive aggression, within a cross-cultural framework. Participants included 30 Aboriginal and 45 European Canadian mothers of preschoolers who provided their emotional reactions, causal attributions, socialization…
Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), among the most common neglected tropical diseases, is a major public health problem in Malaysia with a possible impact on the nutritional status and school participation of rural children. This study was carried out among Aboriginal schoolchildren, living in an endemic area for STH in Malaysia, to determine the possible relationship between intestinal helminthiasis and school absenteeism.
A. Ahmed; H. M. Al-Mekhlafi; M. N. Azam; I. Ithoi; A. H. Al-Adhroey; A. M. Abdulsalam; J. Surin
Educational decisions made about students often have consequences for their subsequent employment and financial well-being, therefore it is imperative to determine whether teacher decisions are discriminatory. This study examines how factors such as race, class, and gender influence the decisions teachers make regarding Aboriginal students. The…
Historically, Aboriginal perceptions of health and well-being emphasized the need for a collective balance among mind, body, spirit, emotion, and the environment. Illness and disease are believed to be caused by a disruption to this balance. Thus, traditional health practices are utilized to restore balance to either maintain or enhance overall health and well-being. This study examines how access to
The continuing destruction of indigenous people is a global human rights problem. Today, tens of millions of Aboriginal people reside in dozens of countries around the world (Hitchcock and Twedt, 1997, p 374). Whether called native or tribal peoples, First Nations or the Fourth World, many live under the threat of annihilation. During the twentieth century, dozens of states implemented
We have created an exhibit, Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky, which has shown since June, 1999 in newly refurbished exhibit space at the Leander McCormick Observatory. The University of Virginia has a long and continuing tradition of astrometry starting with early parallax work at the McCormick Observatory, extending to our own
This paper outlines the findings of a study that explores perspectives of e-learning for aboriginal students in five coastal communities in Labrador, Canada. The rural nature of many communities in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, coupled with a dramatically declining enrollment, has resulted in expanding use of e-learning as a means to…
BACKGROUND: There is limited epidemiological research that provides insight into the complex web of causative and moderating factors that links housing conditions to a variety of poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between housing conditions (with a primary focus on the functional state of infrastructure) and common childhood illness in remote Australian Aboriginal communities for the purpose of
Ross Bailie; Matthew Stevens; Elizabeth McDonald; David Brewster; Steve Guthridge
The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of…
Objective: To examine mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease (CVD), and CVD hospitalisation rate for a decentralised Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory. Design and participants: For a community-based cohort of 296 people aged 15 years or older screened in 1995, we reviewed hospital and primary health care records and death certificates for the period up to December
Kevin G Rowley; Kerin O'Dea; Ian Anderson; Robyn McDermott; Karmananda Saraswati; Ricky Tilmouth; Iris Roberts; Joseph Fitz; Zaimin Wang; Alicia Jenkins; James D Best; Zhiqiang Wang; Alex Brown
This paper explores the aspirations of a group of young women in a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory of Australia. It examines how their hopes and expectations are influenced by the reality of their everyday lives and the extent to which they are able to influence the course of their lives and become agents for change in their…
Background To describe the maternity care experiences of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women in Queensland, Australia and to identify areas for policy and practice improvements. Methods A culturally-tailored survey requesting both quantitative and qualitative information was completed by respondents either independently (online or in hard copy) or with the assistance of a trained peer-interviewer. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Eligible women were over 16 years of age, identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, resided in Queensland, and had a live, singleton birth between the first of July 2011 and the first of July 2012. Results 187 women of 207 respondents were included in analyses. Women reported high rates of stressful life events in pregnancy, low levels of choice in place of birth and model of care and limited options to carry out cultural practices. High levels of confidence in parenting were also reported. Women were less likely to report being treated with kindness, understanding and respect by maternity care staff than women answering a similar mainstream survey. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have additional needs to mainstream Australian women. This study identified a number of recommendations to improve services including the need to enhance the cultural competence of maternity services; increase access to continuity of midwifery care models, facilitate more choices in care, work with the strengths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, families and communities, and engage women in the design and delivery of care.
This article describes the work of the Circle of Courage, a cross-cultural group committed to improving the cultural competence of organizations providing services to Aboriginal populations in a midsized city in Canada. Rather than concentrating on individuals' cultural competence, the Circle targets mainstream organizations. Many of its…
website extra Extended tables can be found on the STI website www.sextransinf.com Objective: To identify risk factors for incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a remote Aboriginal community in Australia. Design: A population based cohort study. Setting: An Aboriginal community in central Australia. Participants: 1034 Aboriginal people aged 12–40 years, resident in the study region, seen during the period 1 January 1996 to 30 June 1998 for STI diagnosis. Main outcome measures: Incident rate of gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and syphilis per 100 person years. Results: There were 313 episodes of incident gonorrhoea, 240 of incident chlamydial infection, and 17 of incident syphilis. For gonorrhoea, risk factors were age, substance abuse, and previous prevalent chlamydial infection with a rate ratio (RR) of 3.2 in people aged 15–19 years, 1.6 in people who abused alcohol, and 3.2 in women who had sniffed petrol on a regular basis. For chlamydia, risk factors were sex, age, and a previous history of STI with a RR of 2.7 in people aged 15–19 years. Similar factors were associated with an increased risk of syphilis but the associations were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study identified objective predictors of incident STI which can be used to target interventions and maximise their impact. The results of this study may well have relevance to indigenous communities in other countries that are faced with high levels of STI and substance abuse. Key Words: Aborigines; sexually transmitted infections; risk factors; Australia
This research aims to create and evaluate a model for a culturally appropriate, interactive, multimedia and informative health program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers that aims to improve the capacity to independently control their learning within an attractive learning environment. The research also aims to provide…
Studied the conceptions of formal learning held by 22 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students from 3 Australian universities, a group with a high attrition rate in tertiary education. Results show that these students view and approach university learning in much the same way as other students, but the strategies these students used did not…
Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Marton, Ference; Lewis, David C.; Wilss, Lynn A.
The language ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Queensland are characterised by widespread language shift to contact language varieties, yet they remain largely invisible in discourses involving Indigenous languages and education. This invisibility--its various causes and its many implications--are explored through a…
Bilingual education is thought to be one of the principal means of simultaneously revitalizing threatened language and preparing students for success in mainstream society. However, little research has examined, in a comprehensive and longitudinal fashion, bilingual programs in Aboriginal contexts. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to conduct a longitudinal analysis of the language skills of 110 Inuit students participating in
Esther Usborne; Julie Caouette; Qiallak Qumaaluk; Donald M. Taylor
Through the use of nonfiction text, students will be able to share their prior knowledge and schema of shells. Students will practice gathering information from a text, help create a KEL chart through class and small group discussions, and will use the information learned to create an informative writing about shell animals.
We introduce a way of simulating the creation of simple Origami (paper folding). The Origami is created in a thin shell simulation that realistically models the behavior and physical properties of paper. We demonstrate how to fold and crease the simulated paper wherever the user desires. This work employs cutting- edge advances in the field of discrete shell modeling to
This is a gallery of animations that can be used to illustrate the shell method for computing volumes of solids of revolution. The animations are designed to be used by the instructor in a classroom setting or by students as they acquire a visual background relating to solids of revolution and the steps of the shell method.
Background Despite a lower overall incidence, Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared with the non-Aboriginal population as manifested by higher mortality and lower 5-year survival rates. Lower participation in screening, later diagnosis of cancer, poor continuity of care, and poorer compliance with treatment are known factors contributing to this poor outcome. Nevertheless, many deficits remain in understanding the underlying reasons, with the recommendation of further exploration of Aboriginal beliefs and perceptions of cancer to help understand their care-seeking behavior. This could assist with planning and delivery of more effective interventions and better services for the Aboriginal population. This research explored Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal peoples' perceptions, beliefs and understanding of cancer. Methods A total of 37 Aboriginal people from various geographical areas within WA with a direct or indirect experience of cancer were interviewed between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. A social constructionist framework provided a theoretical basis for analysis. Interpretation occurred within the research team with member checking and the involvement of an Aboriginal Reference Group assisting with ensuring validity and reliability. Results Outcomes indicated that misunderstanding, fear of death, fatalism, shame, preference for traditional healing, beliefs such as cancer is contagious and other spiritual issues affected their decisions around accessing services. These findings provide important information for health providers who are involved in cancer-related service delivery. Conclusion These underlying beliefs must be specifically addressed to develop appropriate educational, screening and treatment approaches including models of care and support that facilitate better engagement of Indigenous people. Models of care and support that are more culturally-friendly, where health professionals take account of both Indigenous and Western beliefs about health and the relationship between these, and which engage and include Indigenous people need to be developed. Cultural security, removing system barriers and technical/scientific excellence are all important to ensure Indigenous people utilise healthcare to realise the benefits of modern cancer treatments.
Shahid, Shaouli; Finn, Lizzie; Bessarab, Dawn; Thompson, Sandra C
A cohesive element for shell analysis is presented. The element can be used to simulate the initiation and growth of delaminations between stacked, non-coincident layers of shell elements. The procedure to construct the element accounts for the thickness offset by applying the kinematic relations of shell deformation to transform the stiffness and internal force of a zero-thickness cohesive element such that interfacial continuity between the layers is enforced. The procedure is demonstrated by simulating the response and failure of the Mixed Mode Bending test and a skin-stiffener debond specimen. In addition, it is shown that stacks of shell elements can be used to create effective models to predict the inplane and delamination failure modes of thick components. The results indicate that simple shell models can retain many of the necessary predictive attributes of much more complex 3D models while providing the computational efficiency that is necessary for design.
Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.; Turon, Albert
We have created an exhibit, Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky, which has shown since June, 1999 in newly refurbished exhibit space at the Leander McCormick Observatory. The University of Virginia has a long and continuing tradition of astrometry starting with early parallax work at the McCormick Observatory, extending to our own NSF CAREER Award-funded projects, and including a long-term, ongoing southern parallax program at Mt. Stromlo and Siding Springs Observatories in Australia. Recently, through a gift of Mr. John Kluge, the University of Virginia has obtained one of the most extensive collections of Australian Aboriginal art outside of Australia. The goal of our exhibit is to unite the University's scientific, artistic and cultural connections to Australia through an exhibit focusing on different perspectives of the Australian night sky. We have brought together Australian Aboriginal bark and canvas paintings that feature astronomical themes, e.g., Milky Way, Moon, Magellanic Cloud and Seven Sisters Dreamings, from the Kluge-Ruhe and private collections. These paintings, from the Central Desert and Arnhem Land regions of Australia, are intermingled with modern, large format, color astronomical images of the same scenes. Descriptive panels and a small gallery guide explain the cultural, artistic and scientific aspects of the various thematic groupings based on particular southern hemisphere night sky objects and associated Aboriginal traditions and stories. This unusual combination of art and science not only provides a unique avenue for educating the public about both astronomy and Australian Aboriginal culture, but highlights mankind's ancient and continuing connection to the night sky. We appreciate funding from NSF CAREER Award #AST-9702521, a Cottrell Scholar Award from The Research Corporation, and the Dept. of Astronomy and Ruhe-Kluge Collection at the University of Virginia.
This report outlines the major positive impacts of vaccines on the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from 2007 to 2010, as well as highlighting areas that require further attention. Hepatitis A disease is now less common in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in their non-Indigenous counterparts. Hepatitis A vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children was introduced in 2005 in the high incidence jurisdictions of the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. In 2002–2005, there were 20 hospitalisations for hepatitis A in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged<5 years--over 100 times more common than in other children--compared to none in 2006/07–2009/10. With respect to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), there has been a reduction of 87% in notifications of IPD caused by serotypes contained in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) since the introduction of the childhood 7vPCV program among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. However, due to a lower proportion of IPD caused by 7vPCV types prior to vaccine introduction, the decline in total IPD notifications has been less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. Higher valency vaccines (10vPCV and 13vPCV) which replaced 7vPCV from 2011 are likely to result in a greater impact on IPD and potentially also non-invasive disease, although disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes appears likely to be an ongoing problem. Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged ?50 years, there have been recent increases in IPD, which appear related to low vaccination coverage and highlight the need for improved coverage in this high-risk target group. Since routine meningococcal C vaccination for infants and the high-school catch-up program were implemented in 2003, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by serogroup C. However, the predominant serogroup responsible for disease remains serogroup B, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have significantly higher incidence of serogroup B disease than other children. A vaccine against meningococcus type B has now been licensed in Australia. The decline in severe rotavirus disease after vaccine introduction in 2007 was less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. By far the highest hospitalisation rates continue to occur among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in the Northern Territory. Consideration of the role of age cut-offs and 2-dose versus 3-dose schedules may be necessary. Genotype surveillance is critically important to allow detection of any possible emergence of genotypes for which there is lower vaccine-derived immunity. Although Haemophilus influenzae type b disease rates have decreased significantly since the introduction of vaccines in 1993, the plateauing of rates in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, and increasing disparity with other children, are concerning. While it is possible that higher disease rates in young infants could be associated with the later age of protection from the newer 4-dose schedule, it is also possible that higher vaccine immunogenicity will result in reduced carriage. Close monitoring is important to detect any re-emergence of Hib disease as soon as possible. Pandemic and seasonal influenza and pneumonia are other diseases with comparatively higher rates in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. For Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged?50 years, it is unclear whether or not there has been a decline in influenza hospitalisations since the start of the National Indigenous Pneumococcal and Influenza Immunisation Program in 1999, but hospitalisation rates are still higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Achieving high coverage in those aged?15 years should now be a priority. A prolonged mumps outbreak occurred in 2007/2008 predominantly affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents an
Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically challenging aspects, these informants considered that with flexibility of data collection to account for the preferences of Aboriginal members, then the method was appropriate in cross-cultural contexts for the difficult discussions that are needed to improve partnerships. Conclusion Critical reflection showed that the preconditions for difficult discussions are, first, that partners have the capacity to engage in such discussions, second, that partners assess whether the effort required for these discussions is balanced by the benefits they gain from the partnership, and, third, that “boundary spanning” staff can facilitate commitment to partnership goals.
Background There is limited evidence regarding the best approaches to helping Indigenous Australians to stop smoking. The composite analysis of the only two smoking cessation randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating this suggests that one-on-one extra support delivered by and provided to Indigenous Australians in a primary health care setting appears to be more effective than usual care in encouraging smoking cessation. This paper describes the lessons learnt from one of these studies, the Be Our Ally Beat Smoking (BOABS) Study, and how to develop and implement an integrated smoking cessation program. Methods Qualitative study using data collected from multiple documentary sources related to the BOABS Study. As the project neared completion the research team participated in four workshops to review and conduct thematic analyses of these documents. Results Challenges we encountered during the relatively complex BOABS Study included recruiting sufficient number of participants; managing the project in two distant locations and ensuring high quality work across both sites; providing appropriate training and support to Aboriginal researchers; significant staff absences, staff shortages and high workforce turnover; determining where and how the project fitted in the clinics and consequent siloing of the Aboriginal researchers relating to the requirements of RCTs; resistance to change, and maintaining organisational commitment and priority for the project. The results of this study also demonstrated the importance of local Aboriginal ownership, commitment, participation and control. This included knowledge of local communities, the flexibility to adapt interventions to local settings and circumstances, and taking sufficient time to allow this to occur. Conclusions The keys to the success of the BOABS Study were local development, ownership and participation, worker professional development and support, and operating within a framework of cultural safety. There were difficulties associated with the BOABS Study being an RCT, and many of these are shared with stand-alone programs. Interventions targeted at particular health problems are best integrated with usual primary health care. Research to investigate complex interventions in Indigenous health should not be limited to randomised clinical trials and funding needs to reflect the additional, but necessary, cost of providing for local control of planning and implementation.
Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA). This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so that the research outcomes benefit the Aboriginal community. There are a number of factors that influence whether the desired level of engagement can be achieved in practice. These include the level of resourcing for the project and the researchers' efforts to ensure dissemination and research translation; and the capacity of the Aboriginal community to engage with research given other demands upon their time.
The national Quality Assurance for Aboriginal Medical Services (QAAMS) Program, in which point-of-care testing (POCT) for haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) is performed for diabetes management in 65 Australian Aboriginal medical services, is now embedded in the practice of diabetes care across Indigenous Australia. This paper documents the results of a detailed survey to assess levels of
Objective: To investigate waist circumference (WC), waist–hip ratio, hip circumference and body mass index (BMI) as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Aboriginal Australians.Methods: This cohort study included 836 adults aged 20–74 y in a remote Aboriginal community. WC, waist–hip ratio, hip circumference and BMI were obtained from a screening program. The participants were followed for up to 10 y
A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.
A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.
SHELL SHOCK is a computer code that performs a frequency analysis and determines the static and dynamic response of any structure represented by mass, damping, and stiffness matrices. These matrices may be formed directly by the user, formed internally by...
The way a firework shell is designed and assembled determines the shape and color of a firework display. Choose a video clip and try to identify each firework variety in this interactive activity from the NOVA Web site.
"Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…
Hollow shells of high uniformity are formed by emitting liquid through an outer nozzle and gas through an inner nozzle, to form a hollow extrusion, by flowing the gas at a velocity between about 1.3 and 10 times the liquid velocity. The natural breakup rate of the extrusion can be increased to decrease shell size by applying periodic perturbations to one of the materials prior to exiting the nozzles, to a nozzle, or to the extrusion.
Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor)
A strong case is made in this paper for the effective utilisation of the learner's environment for science and mathematics teaching in African, rural, and Aboriginal societies. Dwelling on the rich cultural heritage of indigenous, traditional, and rural settings, the paper attempts to explain why, and show how this heritage can be advantageously tapped and transferred to modern day mathematics and science classrooms and laboratories. The need for the integration of school science and mathematics with the lived experiences of learners in indigenous cultures where factors such as folklore, myths, legends, and taboos play powerful roles is also discussed. Integrating the environment into school teaching/learning, the paper argues, would contribute to an effective mathematics-science-environment-society interaction. Additionally, the approach could boost enrolment and performance in mathematics and science for students from indigenous cultural backgrounds, many of who shy away from these areas of study in present-day schools.
Many efforts to reduce family violence are documented in the published literature. We conducted a systematic review of interventions intended to prevent family violence in Aboriginal communities. We retrieved studies published up to October 2009; 506 papers included one systematic review, two randomized controlled trials, and fourteen nonrandomized studies or reviews. Two reviews discussed interventions relevant to primary prevention (reducing the risk factors for family violence), including parenting, role modelling, and active participation. More studies addressed secondary prevention (where risk factors exist, reducing outbreaks of violence) such as restriction on the trading hours for take away alcohol and home visiting programs for high risk families. Examples of tertiary prevention (preventing recurrence) include traditional healing circles and group counselling. Most studies contributed a low level of evidence.
Many efforts to reduce family violence are documented in the published literature. We conducted a systematic review of interventions intended to prevent family violence in Aboriginal communities. We retrieved studies published up to October 2009; 506 papers included one systematic review, two randomized controlled trials, and fourteen nonrandomized studies or reviews. Two reviews discussed interventions relevant to primary prevention (reducing the risk factors for family violence), including parenting, role modelling, and active participation. More studies addressed secondary prevention (where risk factors exist, reducing outbreaks of violence) such as restriction on the trading hours for take away alcohol and home visiting programs for high risk families. Examples of tertiary prevention (preventing recurrence) include traditional healing circles and group counselling. Most studies contributed a low level of evidence. PMID:21052554
Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous knowledge.
Background The customary medicinal plant knowledge possessed by the Australian Aboriginal people is a significant resource. Published information on it is scattered throughout the literature, in heterogeneous data formats, and is scattered among various Aboriginal communities across Australia, due to a multiplicity of languages. This ancient knowledge is at risk due to loss of biodiversity, cultural impact and the demise of many of its custodians. We have developed the Customary Medicinal Knowledgebase (CMKb), an integrated multidisciplinary resource, to document, conserve and disseminate this knowledge. Description CMKb is an online relational database for collating, disseminating, visualising and analysing initially public domain data on customary medicinal plants. The database stores information related to taxonomy, phytochemistry, biogeography, biological activities of customary medicinal plant species as well as images of individual species. The database can be accessed at . Known bioactive molecules are characterized within the chemoinformatics module of CMKb, with functions available for molecular editing and visualization. Conclusion CMKb has been developed as a prototype data resource for documenting, integrating, disseminating, analysing multidisciplinary customary medicinal plant data from Australia and to facilitate user-defined complex querying. Each species in CMKb is linked to online resources such as the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), NCBI Taxonomy, Australia's SpeciesLinks-Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) and Google images. The bioactive compounds are linked to the PubChem database. Overall, CMKb serves as a single knowledgebase for holistic plant-derived therapeutics and can be used as an information resource for biodiversity conservation, to lead discovery and conservation of customary medicinal knowledge.
Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.
Background Tick-borne haemoparasites Babesia vogeli and Anaplasma platys are common among the free-roaming canine populations associated with Aboriginal communities in Australia, whilst the prevalence of haemoplasmas, which are also suspected to be tick-borne, remained unexplored. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of haemoplasma infection in these populations, and to identify any correlation with other haemoparasites. Blood was collected from 39 dogs associated with four Aboriginal communities and screened for infection using PCR and serology. DNA was purified and PCR analyses for piroplasms, Anaplasmataceae family bacteria and haemoplasmas performed. Serum was analysed using a commercial haemoparasite ELISA. Prevalence of infection was compared between communities. Results Seventeen dogs (44%) were infected (PCR positive) with Mycoplasma haemocanis, eight (21%) with ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum’, 20 (51%) with A. platys, and 17 (44%) with B. vogeli. Two dogs were infected with a novel haemoplasma as determined by DNA amplification and sequencing. Two dogs (5%) were serologically positive for Dirofilaria immitis antigens, one (3%) was positive for Ehrlichia canis antibodies and nine (24nbsp;%) were positive for A. platys antibodies. Co-infections were frequent. Haemoplasma prevalence was highest (73%, 16/22) in Central Australia and lowest (22%, 2/9) in Western Australia (p?=?0.017). In contrast, B. vogeli prevalence was low in Central Australia (18%, 4/22) but higher (78%, 7/9) in Western Australia (p?=?0.003). Conclusions This is the first time haemoplasma infections, including a novel species, have been molecularly documented in Australian dogs. The wide regional variation in prevalence of some of the haemoparasite infections detected in this study warrants further investigation.
Various workers, including T. D. Stewart, claim that the aboriginal Americas were relatively disease-free because of the bering Strait cold-screen, eliminating many pathogens, and the paucity of zoonotic infections because of few domestic animals. Evidence of varying validity suggests that precontact Americns had their own strains of treponemic infections, bacillary and amoebic dysenteries, influenza and viral penumonia and other respiratory diseases, salmonellosis and perhaps other food poisoning, various arthritides, some endoparasites such as the ascarids, and several geographically circumscribed diseases such as the rickettsial verruca (Carrion's disease) and New World leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. Questionably aboriginal are tuberculosis and typhus. Accordingly, virtually all the "crowd-type" ecopathogenic diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, typhoid, malaria, measles, pertussis, polio, etc., appear to have been absent from the New World, and were only brought in by White conquerors and their Black slaves. My hypothesis is that native American medical care systems--especially in the more culturally advanced areas--were sufficiently sophisticated to deal with native disease entities with reasonable competence. But native medical systems could not cope with the "crowd-type" disease imports that struck Indian and Eskimos as "virgin-field" populations. Reanalysis of native population losses through a genocidal combination of diease, war, slavery and attendant cultural disruption by Dobyns, Cook and others strongly suggest that traditiona estimates underplayed the death toll by a factor of the general order of ten. This would make for an immediately pre-contact Indian population of some 90-111 million instead of the tradition 8-11 million. Evidence is growing that Indians may have been no more susceptible to new pathogens that are other "virgin soil" populations, and thus their immune systems need not be considered less effective than those in other people. Present-day high mortality rates in Indians of both continents from infectious disease imports may be more socioeconomic than anything else. PMID:793420
To understand the genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates circulating in the aboriginal Sioulin Township, the highest tuberculosis (TB) endemic area in Taiwan, a total of 138 isolates were collected between January 2003 and December 2004 for genotyping. Genotyping consisted of spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping), IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and mgtC and ogt single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) characterizations. Spoligotyping data were compared with those from the fourth international spoligotyping database, SpolDB4. Of 27 resolved spoligotypes, 14 spoligotype patterns matched those found in SpolDB4 and 13 (TW1-13) were identified as novel. The most common among the 14 defined spoligotypes was Beijing ST1 (35.5%, 49/138), followed by Haarlem ST742 (10.9%, 15/138), Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) ST33 (5.8%, 8/138) and Haarlem ST50 (3.6%, 5/138). Of the 13 novel spoligotypes, 5 (TW 6-8, 12 and 13) were identified as "Haarlem-like" lineages according to clade analyses of spoligotyping and RFLP dendrograms. Overall, major spoligotypes found in Sioulin Township were Haarlem and Haarlem-like (39.1%), Beijing (38.4%), and LAM (5.8%) lineages. Interestingly, the results did not indicate any East-African-Indian lineages, which are highly prevalent in Far-East Asia. Our data also contained the first evidence of ST33 (LAM3 lineage) in Asia. This study provides first depiction of molecular epidemiology of M. tuberculosis in this isolated aboriginal population and further elucidation of the global historical expansion of the isolates. PMID:18467190
Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS), questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH) tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.
There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we suggest that TAK such as that of the Malasars may serve toward a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability.
A partnership model was established among key education providers, policy makers, non-government organisations, the local area health service and Aboriginal community controlled organisations aimed at increasing collaboration, skill development, cultural competence and increasing access to mentorship and expertise for Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs). A group of 21 AHWs, within two cohorts, undertook the program between October 2005 and June 2006. A mixed-method evaluation using quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was undertaken prospectively. Knowledge and confidence scores significantly increased for all participants over the course duration. Student evaluation demonstrated a desire for group-based activities and the high value placed on clinical visits. Feedback on both outcome and process measures will inform course delivery and design. PMID:18241157
Objectives The number of children in care of the state continues to grow in BC, Canada with a historical legacy of child apprehension among criminalized and marginalized populations, particularly women of Aboriginal ancestry and sex workers. However, there is a paucity of research investigating child apprehension experiences among marginalized mothers. The objective of the current analysis is to examine the prevalence and correlates of child apprehensions among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Analyses were drawn from the AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access, 2010-present), a prospective cohort of street and off-street SWs, through outreach and semi-annual visits to the research office. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine correlates of child apprehension. Results Of a total of 510 SWs, 350 women who had given birth to at least one child were included in the analyses (median age?=?37 yrs: IQR: 31–44 yrs). The prevalence of child apprehension among mothers was 38.3%, with 37.4% reporting having been apprehended themselves by child welfare services. In multivariable analysis, servicing clients in outdoor public spaces (versus formal sex work establishments or informal indoor settings) (adjusted odds ratio, (aOR)?=?2.73; 95%CI 1.27–5.90), history of injecting drugs (aOR?=?2.53; 95%CI 1.42–4.49), Aboriginal ancestry (aOR?=?1.66; 95%CI 1.01–2.74) were associated with increased odds of child apprehension. Discussion/Conclusions Child apprehension rates are high, particularly among the most marginalized sex workers, including sex workers who use drugs and sex workers of Aboriginal ancestry. Structural reforms to child protection are urgently needed, that support family-based care address the historical legacy of colonization affecting Aboriginal peoples.
BACKGROUND: While it is established that Aboriginal peoples in the prairie provinces of Canada are disproportionately affected by tuberculosis (TB), little is known about the epidemiology of TB either within or across provincial borders. METHODS: Provincial reporting systems for TB, Statistics Canada censuses and population estimates of Registered Indians provided by Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada were used to estimate the overall (2004 to 2008) and pulmonary (2007 to 2008) TB rates in the prairie provinces. The place of residence at diagnosis of pulmonary TB cases in 2007 to 2008 was also documented. RESULTS: The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of TB in Registered Indians was 52.6 per 100,000 person-years, 38 times higher than in Canadian-born ‘others’. Incidence rates in Registered Indians were highest in Manitoba and lowest in Alberta. In Alberta and Saskatchewan, on-reserve rates were more than twice that of off-reserve rates. Rates in the Métis and Registered Indians were similar in Saskatchewan (50.0 and 52.2 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). In 2007 to 2008, approximately 90% of Canadian-born pulmonary TB cases in the prairie provinces were Aboriginal. Outside of one metropolitan area (Winnipeg, Manitoba), most Registered Indian and Métis pulmonary TB cases were concentrated in a relatively small number of communities north of the 53rd parallel. Rates of pulmonary TB in 11 of these communities were >300 per 100,000 person-years. In Manitoba, 49% of off-reserve Registered Indian pulmonary cases were linked to high-incidence reserve communities. INTERPRETATION: The epidemiology of TB among Aboriginal peoples on the Canadian prairies is markedly disparate. Pulmonary TB is highly focal, which is both a concern and an opportunity.
Point-of-care testing (POCT) has a critical niche in rural and remote indigenous Australia where geographic isolation from laboratory services is common, the resultant turnaround of laboratory results is often slow, and the burden of chronic disease is very high. This paper describes a POCT program called Point-of- Care in Aboriginal Hands, which delivers POCT services for chronic disease prevention and
Mark D. S. Shephard; Beryl C. Mazzachi; Anne K. Shephard
The practice of traditional Aboriginal medicine within Australia is at risk of being lost due to the impact of colonisation. Displacement of people from traditional lands as well as changes in family structures affecting passing on of cultural knowledge are two major examples of this impact. Prior to colonisation traditional forms of healing, such as the use of traditional healers, healing songs and bush medicines were the only source of primary health care. It is unclear to what extent traditional medical practice remains in Australia in 2013 within the primary health care setting, and how this practice sits alongside the current biomedical health care model. An extensive literature search was performed from a wide range of literature sources in attempt to identify and examine both qualitatively and quantitatively traditional medicine practices within Aboriginal Australia today. Whilst there is a lack of academic literature and research on this subject the literature found suggests that traditional medicine practice in Aboriginal Australia still remains and the extent to which it is practiced varies widely amongst communities across Australia. This variation was found to depend on association with culture and beliefs about disease causation, type of illness presenting, success of biomedical treatment, and accessibility to traditional healers and bush medicines. Traditional medicine practices were found to be used sequentially, compartmentally and concurrently with biomedical healthcare. Understanding more clearly the role of traditional medicine practice, as well as looking to improve and support integrative and governance models for traditional medicine practice, could have a positive impact on primary health care outcomes for Aboriginal Australia. PMID:23819729
We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to benzathine penicillin for treatment of impetigo in Aboriginal children. Treatment was successful in 7 of 7 children treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 5 of 6 treated with benzathine penicillin. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole achieved microbiological clearance and healing of sores from which beta-hemolytic streptococci and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were initially cultured. PMID:20415992
Tong, Steven Y C; Andrews, Ross M; Kearns, Therese; Gundjirryirr, Rosalyn; McDonald, Malcolm I; Currie, Bart J; Carapetis, Jonathan R
This report presents the process and summative evaluation results from a community-based diabetes prevention and control project implemented in response to the increasing prevalence and impact of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in the Canadian Aboriginal population. The 24-month project targeted the registered Indian population in British Columbia's rural Okanagan region. A participatory approach was used to plan strategies by which
Mark Daniel; Lawrence W. Green; Stephen A. Marion; Diane Gamble; Carol P. Herbert; Clyde Hertzman; Sam B. Sheps
This article illustrates how the Aboriginal female drug user is responded to as an expected offender based on the intersection of her gender, race, and class. Drawing on the findings of a national Canadian study documenting the lived experiences of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit female drug users, we argue that the strengthening of cultural identity can potentially disrupt this expected status at both the individual and social system levels. Within the framework of critical victimology, the challenge then becomes to translate this understanding into praxis. In response, we suggest advancing women’s agency at the individual level in the face of disempowering images and practices related to the offender, the victim, and Aboriginality. For change at the system level, we return to Christie’s notion of the need to dismantle the stereotypical construction of the Aboriginal female drug user. We illustrate both levels of change with an innovative form of knowledge sharing, which aims to evoke transformation with respect to individual and socially constructed conceptualizations of identity.
Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco control personnel. Smoking cessation strategies (n = 74) were brainstormed using 34 interviews, 3 focus groups and a stakeholder workshop. Stakeholders sorted strategies into meaningful groups and rated them on perceived importance and feasibility. A concept map was developed using multi-dimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses. Ten unique clusters of smoking cessation strategies were depicted that targeted individuals, family and peers, community, workplace and public policy. Smoking cessation resources and services were represented in addition to broader strategies addressing social and environmental stressors that perpetuate smoking and make quitting difficult. The perceived importance and feasibility of clusters were rated differently by participants working in health services that were government-coordinated compared with community-controlled. For health service workers within vulnerable populations, these findings clearly implicate a need for contextualized strategies that mitigate social and environmental stressors in addition to conventional strategies for tobacco control. The concept map is being applied in knowledge translation to guide development of smoking cessation programs for AHWs. PMID:23221591
Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark
Serum paraoxonase circulates on a subfraction of high density lipoproteins and appears to use phospholipids on both low and high density lipoprotein particles as a physiological substrate. This functional relationship could explain the reported associations between common variation in the PON1 gene--at codons 55 and 192--and phenotypes related to atherosclerosis and lipoprotein metabolism. We evaluated associations between plasma lipoproteins and PON1 L/M55, PON1 Q/R192 and PON2 A/G148 polymorphisms in samples from two Canadian aboriginal populations, namely the Oji-Cree and the Inuit. In diabetic Oji-Cree, we found that carriers of PON1 M55 had a higher mean plasma triglyceride concentration than non-carriers. In non-diabetic Oji-Cree, we found that carriers of PON1 M55 had higher mean plasma concentrations of total and low density lipoporetein cholesterol and apo B than non-carriers. In Inuit, we found that carriers of PON1 M55 had higher mean plasma concentrations of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol than non-carriers. The other polymorphic markers were not associated with variation in any plasma lipoprotein trait. Thus, the PON1 M55 allele appeared to be associated with deleterious changes in the plasma lipoprotein profile from two independent Canadian aboriginal samples. These results suggest that common variation in PON1 codon 55 is associated with variation of intermediate traits in plasma lipoprotein metabolism in aboriginal Canadians. PMID:10952224
Fanella, S; Harris, S B; Young, T K; Hanley, A J; Zinman, B; Connelly, P W; Hegele, R A
Fluid-dynamic and capillary forces can be used to form nearly perfect, very small spherical shells when a liquid that can solidify is passed through an annular die to form an annular jet. Gravity and certain properties of even the most ideal materials, however, can cause slight asymmetries. The primary objective of the present work is the control of this shell formation process in earth laboratories rather than space microgravity, through the development of facilities and methods that minimize the deleterious effects of gravity, aerodynamic drag, and uncontrolled cooling. The spherical shells thus produced can be used in insulation, recyclable filter materials, fire retardants, explosives, heat transport slurries, shock-absorbing armor, and solid rocket motors.
Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M., Jr.; Bahrami, P. A.; Wang, T. G.
Background Aboriginal Australians experience a disproportionately high burden of alcohol-related harm compared to the general Australian population. Alcohol treatment approaches that simultaneously target individuals and families offer considerable potential to reduce these harms if they can be successfully tailored for routine delivery to Aboriginal Australians. The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) and Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) are two related interventions that are consistent with Aboriginal Australians’ notions of health and wellbeing. This paper aims to describe the process of tailoring CRA and CRAFT for delivery to Aboriginal Australians, explore the perceptions of health care providers participating in the tailoring process, and their experiences of participating in CRA and CRAFT counsellor certification. Methods Data sources included notes recorded from eight working group meetings with 22 health care providers of a drug and alcohol treatment agency and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (November 2009-February 2013), and transcripts of semi-structured interviews with seven health care providers participating in CRA and CRAFT counsellor certification (May 2012). Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise working group meeting notes and interview transcripts were into key themes. Results Modifying technical language, reducing the number of treatment sessions, and including an option for treatment of clients in groups, were key recommendations by health care providers for improving the feasibility and applicability of delivering CRA and CRAFT to Aboriginal Australians. Health care providers perceived counsellor certification to be beneficial for developing their skills and confidence in delivering CRA and CRAFT, but identified time constraints and competing tasks as key challenges. Conclusions The tailoring process resulted in Aboriginal Australian-specific CRA and CRAFT resources. The process also resulted in the training and certification of health care providers in CRA and CRAFT and the establishment of a local training and certification program.
Objective Providing services to rural dwelling minority cultural groups with serious chronic disease is challenging due to access to care and cultural differences. This study aimed to describe service providers’ perspectives on health services delivery for Aboriginal people receiving haemodialysis for end-stage kidney disease in rural Australia. Design Semistructured interviews, thematic analysis Setting A health district in rural New South Wales, Australia Participants Using purposive sampling, 29 renal and allied service providers were recruited, including nephrologists, renal nurses, community nurses, Aboriginal health workers, social workers and managers. Six were Aboriginal and 23 non-Aboriginal. Results Improving cultural understanding within the healthcare system was central to five themes identified: rigidity of service design (outreach, inevitable home treatment failures, pressure of system overload, limited efficacy of cultural awareness training and conflicting priorities in acute care); responding to social complexities (respecting but challenged by family obligations, assumptions about socioeconomic status and individualised care); promoting empowerment, trust and rapport (bridging gaps in cultural understanding, acknowledging the relationship between land, people and environment, and being time poor); distress at late diagnosis (lost opportunities and prioritise prevention); and contending with discrimination and racism (inherent judgement of lifestyle choices, inadequate cultural awareness, pervasive multilevel institutionalised racism and managing patient distrust). Conclusions Service providers believe current services are not designed to address cultural needs and Aboriginality, and that caring for Aboriginal patients receiving haemodialysis should be family focused and culturally safer. An Aboriginal-specific predialysis pathway, building staff cultural awareness and enhancing cultural safety within hospitals are the measures recommended. Increasing patient support for home haemodialysis may improve health and the quality of care outcomes.
Comparisons of shell thickness, specific gravity and shell strength (breaking strength and shell deformation under load) for individual loads have been made and correlation coefficients determined. The relationship between egg size, shell strength and shell deformation have been investigated.Shell strength has been correlated with shell thickness and specific gravity, but due to the complex nature of shell strength, it has
Background Paper-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks have promoted a preventive approach to primary care and provided data to support research at the Inala Indigenous Health Service, south-west Brisbane, Australia. Concerns about the limitations of paper-based health checks prompted us to change to a computerised system to realise potential benefits for clinical services and research capability. We describe the rationale, implementation and anticipated benefits of computerised Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks in one primary health care setting. Methods In May 2010, the Inala Indigenous Health Service commenced a project to computerise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child, adult, diabetic, and antenatal health checks. The computerised health checks were launched in September 2010 and then evaluated for staff satisfaction, research consent rate and uptake. Ethical approval for health check data to be used for research purposes was granted in December 2010. Results Three months after the September 2010 launch date, all but two health checks (378 out of 380, 99.5%) had been completed using the computerised system. Staff gave the system a median mark of 8 out of 10 (range 5-9), where 10 represented the highest level of overall satisfaction. By September 2011, 1099 child and adult health checks, 138 annual diabetic checks and 52 of the newly introduced antenatal checks had been completed. These numbers of computerised health checks are greater than for the previous year (2010) of paper-based health checks with a risk difference of 0.07 (95% confidence interval 0.05, 0.10). Additionally, two research projects based on computerised health check data were underway. Conclusions The Inala Indigenous Health Service has demonstrated that moving from paper-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks to a system using computerised health checks is feasible and can facilitate research. We expect computerised health checks will improve clinical care and continue to enable research projects using validated data, reflecting the local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community’s priorities.
A new shell investment was formulated that hardened rapidly enough so that consecutive layers could be applied to a wax pattern without requiring intermediate drying cycles between each layer. This new 'shell casting investment' is a two component system....
Background The goal of this cluster randomized trial is to test the effectiveness of a counseling approach, Motivational Interviewing, to control dental caries in young Aboriginal children. Motivational Interviewing, a client-centred, directive counseling style, has not yet been evaluated as an approach for promotion of behaviour change in indigenous communities in remote settings. Methods/design Aboriginal women were hired from the 9 communities to recruit expectant and new mothers to the trial, administer questionnaires and deliver the counseling to mothers in the test communities. The goal is for mothers to receive the intervention during pregnancy and at their child's immunization visits. Data on children's dental health status and family dental health practices will be collected when children are 30-months of age. The communities were randomly allocated to test or control group by a random "draw" over community radio. Sample size and power were determined based on an anticipated 20% reduction in caries prevalence. Randomization checks were conducted between groups. Discussion In the 5 test and 4 control communities, 272 of the original target sample size of 309 mothers have been recruited over a two-and-a-half year period. A power calculation using the actual attained sample size showed power to be 79% to detect a treatment effect. If an attrition fraction of 4% per year is maintained, power will remain at 80%. Power will still be > 90% to detect a 25% reduction in caries prevalence. The distribution of most baseline variables was similar for the two randomized groups of mothers. However, despite the random assignment of communities to treatment conditions, group differences exist for stage of pregnancy and prior tooth extractions in the family. Because of the group imbalances on certain variables, control of baseline variables will be done in the analyses of treatment effects. This paper explains the challenges of conducting randomized trials in remote settings, the importance of thorough community collaboration, and also illustrates the likelihood that some baseline variables that may be clinically important will be unevenly split in group-randomized trials when the number of groups is small. Trial registration This trial is registered as ISRCTN41467632.
Background Aboriginal children in Canada are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Given that physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, prevention efforts targeting Aboriginal children include interventions to enhance physical activity involvement. These types of interventions require adequate assessment of physical activity patterns to identify determinants, detect trends, and evaluate progress towards intervention goals. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally appropriate interactive computer program to self-report physical activity for Kanien'kehá:ka (Mohawk) children that could be administered in a group setting. This was an ancillary study of the ongoing Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP). Methods During Phase I, focus groups were conducted to understand how children describe and graphically depict type, intensity and duration of physical activity. Sixty-six students (40 girls, 26 boys, mean age = 8.8 years, SD = 1.8) from four elementary schools in three eastern Canadian Kanien'kehá:ka communities participated in 15 focus groups. Children were asked to discuss and draw about physical activity. Content analysis of focus groups informed the development of a school-day and non-school-day version of the physical activity interactive recall (PAIR). In Phase II, pilot-tests were conducted in two waves with 17 and 28 children respectively to assess the content validity of PAIR. Observation, videotaping, and interviews were conducted to obtain children's feedback on PAIR content and format. Results Children's representations of activity type and activity intensity were used to compile a total of 30 different physical activity and 14 non-physical activity response choices with accompanying intensity options. Findings from the pilot tests revealed that Kanien'kehá:ka children between nine and 13 years old could answer PAIR without assistance. Content validity of PAIR was judged to be adequate. PAIR was judged to be comprehensive, acceptable, and enjoyable by the children. Conclusions Results indicate that PAIR may be acceptable to children between nine and 13 years old, with most in this age range able to complete PAIR without assistance. The flexibility of its programming makes PAIR an easily adaptable tool to accommodate diverse populations, different seasons, and changing trends in physical activity involvement.
In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…
The appearance of an inhomogeneous translu- cent material depends substantially on its volumetric variations and their efiects upon subsurface scattering. For e-cient rendering that accounts for both surface mesostructures and volumetric variations of such mate- rials, shell texture functions have precomputed irradi- ance within a volume with respect to incoming illumina- tion, but even with this irradiance data a fair
Reconsiders development and licensing of agreement as a syntactic projection and argues for a productive developmental relation between agreement and the category of focus. Suggests that focus projections are initially selected by a variety of functional heads with real semantic content, then, over time decays into a simple concord shell. Upon…
Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)
Key features of the general purpose event-based-data analysis shell (TAS) for the EOS TPC at LBL are described including the code development/code management procedures used. The architecture is designed with a view towards a distributed and multi-process...
Scientists know that oysters make their shells from crystals but where the crystals are made is still a mystery. A new study in the 09 April 2004 issue of the journal Science suggests that these shell-building crystals are formed in a special class of blood cells that travel to the site of shell formation and unload their crystal cargo.
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)
The Bobbert-Vlieger solution to light scattering of a spherical particle suspended above a surface is extended to model the scattering of core-shell structures with anisotropic shell. Numerical modeling demonstrates that ellipsometry has potential to resolve particle shell anisotropy down to 1.8×10(-4) for SiO(2)@Au core-shell particles in air with 50 nm core diameter and 10 nm shell thickness deposited on a silicon Si  substrate with a density of 1???m(-2). Application of the Ibrahim and Bashara criterion for ellipsometer parameter cross correlation identifies variable-angle ellipsometry as a viable experimental approach to separate particle core radius and shell thickness from the shell anisotropy. Ellipsometry is also identified as an alternative technique for determination of liposome anisotropy and for the study of liposome fusion with a substrate in the formation process of supported lipid bilayers. PMID:24561952
North American Aboriginal populations are at increased risk for developing immune-mediated disorders, including autoimmune hepatitis. In the present study, the demographic, clinical, biochemical, serological, radiological and histological features of autoimmune hepatitis were compared in 33 First Nations (FN) and 150 predominantly Caucasian, non-FN patients referred to an urban tertiary care centre. FN patients were more often female (91% versus 71%; P=0.04), and more likely to have low serum albumin (69% versus 36%; P=0.0006) and elevated bilirubin (57% versus 35%; P=0.01) levels on presentation compared with non-FN patients. They also had lower hemoglobin, and complement levels, more cholestasis and higher serum immunoglobulin A levels than non-FN patients (P=0.05 respectively). Higher histological grades of inflammation and stages of fibrosis, and more clinical and radiological evidence of advanced liver disease were observed in FN patients, but the differences failed to reach statistical significance. The results of the present study suggest that in addition to being more common, autoimmune hepatitis may be more severe in FN populations, compared with predominantly Caucasian, non-FN populations. PMID:18925307
Introduction Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have higher rates of disability than non-Indigenous children and are considered doubly disadvantaged, yet there is very little data reflecting prevalence and service access to inform design and delivery of services. Failing to address physical, social, and psychological factors can have life-long consequences and perpetuate longstanding health disparities. Methods A narrative literature review was undertaken to identify peer reviewed literature describing factors impacting on the prevention, recognition, and access to support and management of disability in Indigenous Australian children. Results Twenty-seven peer-reviewed journal articles met inclusion criteria. The majority of articles focused on the hearing loss and learning disabilities consequent of otitis media. Few articles reported data on urban or metropolitan Indigenous populations or described interventions. Individual/community-, provider-, and systems level factors were identified as impacting on recognition and management of disability in young Indigenous children. Conclusions Given the burden of childhood disability, the limited literature retrieved is concerning as this is a barometer of activity and investment. Solutions addressing childhood disability will require collaboration between health, social and educational disciplines as well as an increased investment in prevention, identification and promotion of access.
Collaborative problem solving has increasingly become important in the face of the complexities in the management of resources, including protected areas. The strategy undertaken by Girringun Aboriginal Corporation in north tropical Queensland, Australia, for developing co-management demonstrates the potential for a problem solving approach involving sequential initiatives, as an alternative to the more familiar negotiated agreements for co-management. Our longitudinal case study focuses on the development of indigenous ranger units as a strategic mechanism for the involvement of traditional owners in managing their country in collaboration with government and other interested parties. This was followed by Australia's first traditional use of marine resources agreement, and development of a multi-jurisdictional, land to sea, indigenous protected area. In using a relationship building approach to develop regional scale co-management, Girringun has been strengthening its capabilities as collaborator and regional service provider, thus, bringing customary decision-making structures into play to `care for country'. From this evolving process we have identified the key components of a relationship building strategy, `the pillars of co-management'. This approach includes learning-by-doing, the building of respect and rapport, sorting out responsibilities, practical engagement, and capacity-building.
The clinical, nutritional progress and immunological changes of 30 Aboriginal children admitted to the Alice Springs Hospital with malnutrition and infection, and 11 adequately nourished children admitted with acute infection were studied. The initial toxic phase of infection lasted from six to 21 days during which the mean weight velocity of malnourished children averaged 8-8 g/kg/day. The subsequent period of nutritional rehabilitation was accompanied by a slower weight velocity of 3-7 g/kg/day up to a body weight at discharge of approximately 80% standard weight for age. The principal clinical form of malnutrition was moderate protein calorie malnutrition of marasmic type. All children showed laboratory evidence of persistent immunological stimulation with leukocytosis, elevated numbers of T and B lymphoid cells, raised erythrocyte sedimentation rates and hyperimmunoglobulinaemia. These findings were not significantly changed by short-term antibiotic therapy and nutritional rehabilitation and may indicate an underlying defect resulting in the high rate of reinfection and readmission of these children. PMID:828048
Ford, G W; Belbin, R; Jose, D G; Vorbach, E A; Kirke, D K
An analysis of mtDNA polymorphism in eight populations of aboriginal residents (N = 519) of the Far East has been performed. The majority of haplogroups revealed in the examined groups were of East Eurasian origin. Haplogroup D was revealed in seven populations and its frequency varied from 2.8% in Koryaks to 28.3 and 28.9% in Nanaians and Evenks, respectively. Chukchi and Koryak populations, which belong to the same language family, exhibited haplogroup G, which has the same motive and indicates the genetic kinship of both populations. The presence of East Eurasian haplogroups A and D with a strong predominance of haplogroup A in Chukchi indicates the closer relationship of this population both with Asian and Canadian Eskimos and northern Atapasks on the other side of Bering Strait. The high level of genetic variability was revealed in populations belonging to the Tungus-Manjur group. The high frequency of east Eurasian haplogroups in Nanaians could result from close historical associations with Siberian Evenks. PMID:24450156
Gubina, M A; Girgol'kau, L A; Babenko, V N; Damba, L D; Maksimov, V N; Voevoda, M I
The Kimberley region of northwest Australia contains one of the World's largest collections of rock art characterised by two distinct art forms; the fine featured anthropomorphic figures of the Gwion Gwion or Bradshaw paintings, and broad stroke Wandjina figures. Luminescence dating of mud wasp nests overlying Gwion Gwion paintings has confirmed an age of at least 17,000 yrs B.P. with the most recent dates for these paintings from around the mid-Holocene (5000 to 7000 yrs B.P.). Radiocarbon dating indicates that the Wandjina rock art then emerged around 3800 to 4000 yrs B.P. following a hiatus of at least 1200 yrs. Here we show that a mid-Holocene ENSO forced collapse of the Australian summer monsoon and ensuing mega-drought spanning approximately 1500 yrs was the likely catalyst of this change in rock art. The severity of the drought we believe was enhanced through positive feedbacks triggered by change in land surface condition and increased aerosol loading of the atmosphere leading to a weakening or failure of monsoon rains. This confirms that pre-historic aboriginal cultures experienced catastrophic upheaval due to rapid natural climate variability and that current abundant seasonal water supplies may fail again if significant change in ENSO occurs.
McGowan, Hamish; Marx, Samuel; Moss, Patrick; Hammond, Andrew
It has been suggested that in addition to genetic factors, fetal and post-natal growth influence cognition in early adulthood. However, most studies have been in developed populations, so it is unclear if the same findings would be seen in other, less developed, settings, and have used testing tools not applicable to an Australia Aboriginal population. This study investigated the relationships between cognitive function in early adulthood and birth weight and contemporary height. Simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT) and working memory (WM) were assessed using the CogState battery. A significant association was seen between birth weight and SRT in early adulthood, but not with the other two cognitive measures. Urban dwellers had significantly shorter SRT and CRT than their remote counterparts. Contemporary body mass index and maternal age were associated with CRT. Only fetal growth restriction was associated with WM, with greater WM in those with restricted growth. No associations were seen with contemporary height. These results suggest that fetal growth may be more important than the factors influencing post-natal growth in terms of cognition in early adulthood in this population, but that the associations may be inconsistent between cognitive outcomes. Further research is required to identify whether similar associations are seen in other, similar, populations and to assess why differences in cognitive outcome measures are seen. PMID:24901664
This paper explores the relationship between place and health inequity as experienced by Aboriginal youth living in Winnipeg, Canada. Between 2010 and 2011, a team of youth (N = 8) associated with a community-based Aboriginal youth arts program undertook a participatory community mapping process in order to link their personal health geographies to their right to the city. The results demonstrated several ways in which place, mobility, and boundaries affected their health experiences and, in turn, reflected their perceptions of health inequity. The study confirms that urban spaces can produce, and are produced by, highly racialized geographies that work to socially isolate, segregate, and immobilize Aboriginal youth while concomitantly increasing their exposure to higher risks to their health and well being. PMID:23514744
The objective of this inquiry simulation is to investigate the issues concerning the fate of the Shell Island Resort, which is in danger of being destroyed by a migrating inlet, and then debate the future of this and other oceanfront structures threatened by coastal erosion. As students engage in their investigation, they are asked to identify the social, political, and scientific issues with which different stakeholders must deal. They will place themselves into the role of one of the stakeholders. The site lists the stakeholders and provides several sources of information for each. After reviewing the resources, students will prepare a statement to decide what should be the next course of action regarding the Shell Island Resort. Students then will present statements in a debate to decide the future of the resort.
A number of issues involving the postbuckling of doubly-curved panels exposed to a non-uniform temperature field and subjected to a system of mechanical loads are considered in this paper. Effects played by transverse shear, initial geometric imperfections, membrane and thickness-wise temperature gradient, tangential edge constraints, linear/non-linear elastic foundation are incorporated and their implications on the non-linear response behavior of shells are discussed. Issues related with the delay of the occurrence of the snap-through buckling, alleviation of its intensity and even with its removal are addressed and remarks on conditions rendering a curved panel insensitive to initial geometric imperfections are included. Results on small vibration of shells about sub- and post-critical ranges are provided and structural modeling issues playing a non-negligible role towards a reliable prediction of the postbuckling behavior of shells under complex loading conditions are discussed. Results on non-linear response of flat reinforced panels subjected to thermomechanical loads are also presented. Finally, problems not covered by this article are briefly indicated.
Introduction Tobacco smoking is a very significant behavioural risk factor for the health of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, and is embedded as a social norm. With a focus on women of childbearing age, and men of similar age, this project aims to determine how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers assess smoking risks and how these assessments contribute to their intentions to quit. The findings from this pragmatic study should contribute to developing culturally targeted interventions. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional study using quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 120 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members aged 18–45?years will be recruited at community events and through an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Participants will be interviewed using a tablet computer or paper survey. The survey instrument uses modified risk behaviour scales, that is, the Risk Behaviour Diagnosis (RBD) scale and the Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) (adapted from the Risk Acceptance Ladder) to determine whether attitudes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers to health risk messages are predictors of intentions to quit smoking. The questionnaire will be assessed for face and content validity with a panel of Indigenous community members. The internal consistency of the RBD subscales and their patterns of correlation will be explored. Multivariate analyses will examine predictors of intentions to quit. This will include demographics such as age, gender, nicotine dependence, household smoking rules and perceived threat from smoking and efficacy for quitting. The two risk-assessment scales will be examined to see whether participant responses are correlated. Ethics and dissemination The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council Ethics Committee and university ethics committees approved the study. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and a community report will be disseminated by the ACCHS, and at community forums. Note about terminology We use the term Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, except where previous research has reported findings from only one group for example, Aboriginal people. Indigenous is used here to refer to Indigenous peoples in the international context, and issues, policies or systems, for example, Indigenous health, Indigenous tobacco control.
Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R
The energy spectra of the antimony isotope 109Sb in the sdgh shell are calculated in the nuclear shell model approach by using the CD-Bonn nucleon-nucleon interaction. The modified Drexel University parallel shell model code (DUPSM) was used for the calculations with maximum Hamiltonian dimension of 762 253 of 5.14% sparsity. The energy levels are compared to the recent experimental results. The calculations were done on the Cyborg Parallel Cluster System at Drexel University.
Summary \\u000a \\u000a Background: Taiwan is endemic for viral hepatitis infections. A field survey was performed in the isolated aborigines in Hualien, eastern\\u000a Taiwan, to investigate the geographic and ethnic variations in hepatitis epidemiology.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods: From 1996 to 1998, blood was drawn from 1,748 subjects from two southern Ami and two northern Atayal villages for serum markers\\u000a of hepatitis A,
H. H. Lin; Y. H. Li; J. H. Yu; Y. W. Wang; A. C. Lua; L. C. Huang; S. C. Huang; M. L. Lee
Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single greatest contributor to the gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Our objective is to determine if holistic CVD risk assessment, introduced as part of the new Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Adult Health Check (AHC), results in better identification of elevated CVD risk, improved delivery of preventive care for CVD and improvements in the CVD risk profile for Aboriginal adults in a remote community. Methods Interrupted time series study over six years in a remote primary health care (PHC) service involving Aboriginal adults identified with elevated CVD risk (N = 64). Several process and outcome measures were audited at 6 monthly intervals for three years prior to the AHC (the intervention) and three years following: (i) the proportion of guideline scheduled CVD preventive care services delivered, (ii) mean CVD medications prescribed and dispensed, (iii) mean PHC consultations, (iv) changes in participants' CVD risk factors and estimated absolute CVD risk and (v) mean number of CVD events and iatrogenic events. Results Twenty-five percent of AHC participants were identified as having elevated CVD risk. Of these, 84% had not been previously identified during routine care. Following the intervention, there were significant improvements in the recorded delivery of preventive care services for CVD (30% to 53%), and prescription of CVD related medications (28% to 89%) (P < 0.001). Amongst participants there was a 20% relative reduction in estimated absolute CVD risk (P = 0.004) following the intervention. However, there were no significant changes in the mean number of PHC consultations or mean number of CVD events or iatrogenic events. Conclusions Holistic CVD risk assessment during an AHC can lead to better and earlier identification of elevated CVD risk, improvement in the recorded delivery of preventive care services for CVD, intensification of treatment for CVD, and improvements in participants' CVD risk profile. Further research is required on strategies to reorient and restructure PHC services to the care of chronic illness for Aboriginal peoples in remote areas for there to be substantial progress in decreasing excess CVD related mortality.
Objective: To estimate the cost of completing all chronic care tasks recommended by the Central Australian Rural Practitioners Association Standard Treatment Manual (CARPA STM) for patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design and setting: The study was conducted at a health service in a remote Central Australian Aboriginal community between July 2010 and May 2011. The chronic care tasks required were ascertained from the CARPA STM. The clinic database was reviewed for data on disease prevalence and adherence to CARPA STM guidelines. Recommended tasks were observed in a time-and-motion study of clinicians' work. Clinicians were interviewed about systematic management and its barriers. Expenditure records were analysed for salary and administrative costs. Main outcome measures: Diabetes and CKD prevalence; time spent on chronic disease care tasks; completion of tasks recommended by the CARPA STM; barriers to systematic care identified by clinicians; and estimated costs of optimal primary care management of all residents with diabetes or CKD. Results: Projected annual costs of best-practice care for diabetes and CKD for this community of 542 people were $900 792, of which $645 313 would be met directly by the local primary care service. Estimated actual expenditure for these conditions in 2009-10 was $446 585, giving a projected funding gap of $198 728 per annum, or $1733 per patient. High staff turnover, acute care workload and low health literacy also hindered optimal chronic disease care. Conclusion: Barriers to optimal care included inadequate funding and workforce issues. Reduction of avoidable hospital admissions and overall costs necessitates adequate funding of primary care of chronic disease in remote communities. PMID:24938349
Gador-Whyte, Andrew P; Wakerman, John; Campbell, David; Lenthall, Sue; Struber, Janet; Hope, Alex; Watson, Colin
Background The unmet needs of cancer survivors in rural, remote, and aboriginal communities are largely unexplored. We explored potential differences between rural survivors (rss) in 4 general population (gp) and 4 First Nations (fn) communities. Methods We approached 4 gp and 4 fn rs communities to participate in a mixed-methods project. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (hads) and the Survivor Unmet Needs Survey (suns) and provided demographic information. Each question on the suns can be scored from 0 to 4, with 0 representing “no unmet need” and 4 representing “very high unmet need.” A directed approach to content analysis of focus group and interview data was used to triangulate the hads and suns results. Results We prospectively accrued 23 fn rss and 56 gp rss for this study. More fn rss had borderline or abnormal anxiety (5% vs. 21%, p = 0.02). Compared with gp rss, fn rss had higher unmet needs scores in all categories: Information (2.29 vs. 0.8, p < 0.001), Work and Financial (1.66 vs. 0.5, p < 0.001), Access and Continuity of Health Care (1.83 vs. 0.44, p < 0.001), Coping and Sharing (2.22 vs. 0.62, p < 0.001), and Emotional (2.12 vs. 0.63, p < 0.001). The qualitative findings provided examples and insight into the unmet needs experienced by rss. Conclusions First Nations rss had significantly higher anxiety and unmet needs compared with their gp rs counterparts. In addition, different qualitative themes were identified in the groups. Our findings support the development of tailored approaches to survivorship for these populations.
What would motivate high school students to donate valuable summer vacation time to do science research?--the opportunity to make a difference! The Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group (SCWIG) was formed to identify and promote needed conservation practices within a local watershed, and turned to the high school science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality. Since 2002, for the past three summers, in this ongoing project, students collect water quality data and report their findings to the three involved community organizations.
...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions Â§ 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having...
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions Â§ 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having...
Summary Social capital, as an asset or a resource for resilience, can be a characteristic of the community or the individual. As an individual asset, social capital consists of a person’s relationships to available social resources. As a characteristic of communities, it consists of attributes such as trust, reciprocity, collective action, and participation. Closely related to community social capital is the concept of collective efficacy. Some social networks, however, can be violent, repressive, bigoted, or otherwise destructive. Resilience is also a characteristic of both individuals and communities. This means that the relationship between social capital and resilience is four-dimensional. In discussing each of these dimensions, we highlight the ability of resilience research to link evidence on community social capital with individual data and the recognition that individuals can be resilient even if the communities they live in have low or even negative social capital. Recommendations for future research include greater attention to the social capital potential of Aboriginal spirituality, more comparison of urban-rural differences in social capital, and a better understanding of the factors that underlie Aboriginal youth resilience where social capital is defective.
The origins of aboriginal Australians and their relationship with New Guineans and neighboring Southeast Asians remains controversial. We have studied the alpha-globin haplotype composition of an aboriginal tribe from central Australia, to address some of the ambiguities of previous studies. Australians have a haplotype repertoire that is shared with New Guinea highlanders, a fact that strongly supports a common origin of these two populations. Further, Australians and New Guinea highlanders have a different set of alpha haplotypes from Southeast Asians and a lower genetic diversity. This, coupled with the presence of many locally specific central Australian haplotypes, suggests that much of the original diversity was lost in a population bottleneck prior to or during the early colonization of Sahul and that subsequent recovery of diversity has been accompanied by the generation of new haplotypes. These conclusions contrast with some previous genetic studies suggesting links between Australians, coastal New Guineans, and present-day Southeast Asians. Much of this discrepancy appears to be due to more recent Southeast Asian admixture on the north coast of Australia.
Roberts-Thomson, J. M.; Martinson, J. J.; Norwich, J. T.; Harding, R. M.; Clegg, J. B.; Boettcher, B.
This paper explores principles of international law for managing nonsovereign marine minerals under conditions of severe chronic global shortage - which herein is defined as existing whenever exploitation consistently exceeds natural rates of renewal restoration. The main data source lies in how man has managed shortage in the past, where the most fertile ground is found in the ways of the natural societies of pre-Neolithic man and contemporary hunter-gatherer bands. The result has a broader compass than the original goal namely the means (a) to restore ecological balance to man's relationship to his resource environment, and (b) to achieve universal fairness of individual access to the global patrimony. These goals may be realized without sudden disruption of the international community of sovereign States or its economic system of laissez-faire capitalism. The means to these ends posit the readoption of aboriginal Ethics to order the adaptive relationship of man to man and of man to Nature, including the revitalization of the original social compact of reciprocal rights and obligations among all individuals. The turn to aboriginal Ethics suggests a series of proposals for managing global shortage implemented by economic incentives and penalties which are compatible with the ways of contemporary international society.
The main components of Mollusc shells are carbonate minerals: calcite and aragonite. ACC is present in larval stages. Calcite and aragonite can be secreted simultaneously by the mantle. Despite the small number of varieties, the arrangement of the mineral components is diverse, and dependant upon the taxonomy. They are also associated with organic components much more diverse, the diversity of which reflects the large taxonomic diversity. From TGA analyses, the organic content (water included) is high (>5% in some layers). The biomineralisation process is not a passive precipitation process, but is strongly controlled by the organism. The biological-genetic control is shown by the constancy of the arrangement of the layers, the mineralogy and the microstructure in a given species. Microstructural units (i.e. tablets, prisms etc.) have shapes that do not occur in non-biogenic counterparts. Nacreous tablets, for example, are flattened on their crystallographic c axis, which is normally the axis of maximum growth rate for non-biogenic aragonite. Morever, their inner structure is species-specific: the arrangements of nacreous tablets in Gastropoda - Cephalopoda, and in Bivalvia differ, and the inner arrangement of the nacreous tablets is different in ectocochlear and endocochlear Cephalopoda. The organic-mineral ratios also differ in the various layers of a shell. Differences in chemical composition also demonstrates the biological-genetic control: for example, aragonite has a low Sr content unknown in non-biogenic samples; two aragonitic layers in a shell have different Sr and Mg contents, S is higher in calcitic layers. Decalcification releases soluble (SOM) and insoluble (IOM) organic components. Insoluble components form the main part of the intercrystalline membranes, and contain proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. Soluble phases are present within the crystals and the intercrystalline membranes. These phases are composed of more or less glycosylated proteins and polysaccharides, with a large range of molecular weights. Proteins are rich in acidic aminoacids (aspartic and glutamic acids). Sugars are usually sulphated, and very acidic. Several hundreds of proteins and sugars are present in the SOM. The compositions of IOM and SOM are characteristic for each layer present in a shell. Topographical relationships of mineral and organic components are visible at different scales of observation. SEM images of etched surfaces display the growth line rhythmicity and concordance between adjacent microstructural units. EPMA maps show similar chemical growth lines in various structures. Whatever the taxa, the average thickness of growth lines is about 2-3 µm, indicating an inner biological rhythm, not dependant on the environmental conditions. Such growth lines are observed in deep sea molluscs at depth where diurnal changes in light and temperature are absent. However, the role of the environment is shown by larger periodicities. Sulphur deserves a special interest, because it is associated with the organic matrices. Electrophoretic data have shown that acidic sulphated sugars are abundant in some layers. XANES analyses confirm these results. New microscopic techniques allow us to obtain images at a submicrometer scale. AFM images show that all the microstructural units (i.e. tablets, prisms etc.), calcite or aragonite, are composed of small sub-spherical granules with a diameter typically of about 50 nm. These granules are surrounded by a thin cortex (about 8 nm) of organic and/or amorphous material, and are organo-composite material as shown by phase images. They do not have crystalline shapes, despite the fact that the units they build are often monocrystalline. Molecular biology and genetic studies confirm that the control of the biomineralisation process is exerted at the scale of the whole organism: the expression of genes encoding major shell matrix proteins clearly indicates a regular separation of calcite and aragonite secretory activity. The main control on the structural and compositional features of mollusc she
Dauphin, Y.; Cuif, J. P.; Salomé, M.; Williams, C. T.