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Channel Islands archaeologists have documented a diverse array of technologies and subsistence strategies utilized by maritime peoples of the Middle Holocene. Largely missing, however, is a record of shell and bone technologies employed by the occupants of Middle Holocene red abalone middens. Excavations at two heavily eroding red abalone middens on the south coast of San Miguel Island produced several
For 30 years the prevailing viewpoint regarding the retrieval of archaeological faunal material has been: smaller sieve mesh yields more identified taxa. We discuss the findings of sieving experiments from a coastal midden site, in which an assemblage of more than 60,000 fish-bone specimens was successively sieved through 6, 3, and 1-mm mesh sieves. Against expectations, we identified no more
Apparent 14C ages of human and faunal remains from the Kitakogane shellmidden assigned to the Early Jomon period were measured to estimate the reservoir effect on different species. In previous studies, northern fur seal and Japanese deer had showed significant age differences of 860 14C yr, in concordance with the large reservoir ages observed in pre-bomb shells from the
Numerous large and small shellmiddens have been reported throughout the world. An interesting question is when the huge and thick shellmiddens were formed, and how many years were required to build up the whole midden. Shellmiddens contain not only shell fragments but also organic substances such as bones, nuts, acorn, and plant residues, which are suitable substances with which to establish 14C chronology of the middens. We have conducted 14C dating on terrestrial and marine materials collected from two lowland shellmiddens, the Higashimyo site in Japan (the Earliest Jomon period) and the Kimhae site in Korea (the Proto-Three Kingdom period), to establish high precision 14C chronologies and determine the time required for shell accumulation. According to Bayesian analysis of 14C ages from terrestrial samples, accumulation of Midden No. 1 at Higashimyo (altitude from ?1.1 to ?2.3 m a.s.l., ?d = 1.2 m) started at around 8050–7950 cal BP and ended at 7950–7750 cal BP, lasting for ca. 100 cal yr, while accumulation of Midden No. 2 (altitude from ?0.5 to ?2.0 m a.s.l., ?d = 1.5 m) started at around 8050–7800 cal BP and ended at 7800–7650 cal BP, lasting for ca. 200 cal yr. Thus the Midden No. 1 was abandoned a bit earlier than Midden No. 2, but the time range for sediment accumulation overlaps each other. Accumulation at the Kimhae shellmidden (altitude from 5 to 14 m a.s.l., ?d = 9 m) started at around the middle of the 1st C cal BC and ended at around the middle of the 3rd C cal AD, lasting for ca. 250 to 300 cal yr.
The results of bucket-auger sampling at shellmidden sites show that this is an accurate and efficient method for assessing the focus and intensity of local fisheries. The results confirm long-term trends in salmon production identified previously on the basis of excavations at the Namu site, and show the extent of variability in the salmon and herring fisheries at other
There are still many archaeological contexts where soil micromorphology has been little applied. Examples of such are anthropic shell deposits, common in coastal settings worldwide. These archaeological sites have complex stratigraphies composed mainly of shell from diverse species of local mollusks and gastropods. They have the peculiarity of being highly porous sediments with a coarse fraction that is dominated by gravel-sized bioclastic remains (shell, fish bones) and a fine fraction composed of organic material (charcoal, organic matter). The use of soil micromorphology in shell deposits was started by the Spanish-Argentinean research team working in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) since 1986. This project focused on excavation of hunter-gatherer sites from the contact period. One of the main objectives was to develop a detailed excavation method for shellmiddens that maximized the amount of recorded data during archaeological excavation. In this perspective, microstratigraphy was conceived as a fundamental complement for the study of site formation processes, as it would provide with high definition data for identification of shell accumulation episodes, trampling on site, abandonment periods, taphonomic alterations etc. A reference collection of known environmental and anthropic control features, such as hearths, trampling areas, wood ashes from local species, among others, was built to help in the microscopic characterization of archaeological samples. In this work, we analyze this experimental collection and compare it with samples from the Tunel VII archaeological site, located in the northern coast of the Beagle Channel and dated from the 18th-19th centuries. The set of modern samples included: trampling area from an animal pathway; beach deposit; forest litter; soil under the forest; hearths lit in diverse contexts (on the prairie, the beach and from the archaeologist camp site); and experimental burnt valves of Mytilus edulis, the main malacological component of the Tunel VII archaeological site, combusted in a muffle furnace at temperatures from 200 to 800° C. The original archaeological samples from Tunel VII included resin-consolidat columns taken from vaious profiles within the shellmidden site. The thin sections analysed here were taken from a profile dug through a passageway that crosses the shell dumping area. The experimental reference collection showed the intense bioturbation of both exposed and buried surfaces, despite the low temperatures that characterize the area, commonly associated to inhibition of biological activity. The same intense bioturbation was observed in the shellmidden, were a form of anthrosol develops during abandonment periods of the site. The experimental samples of Mytilus edulis served as reference for identification of burning temperatures reached by the anthropic fires and were useful aids to identify reworked burnt layers as accretion material for the shellmidden.
This slide show discusses plant-rich deposits called middens, that are found in caves and rock shelters in the arid southwestern United States. Middens are an amalgamation of plant and animal remains encased in crystallized packrat urine, and can be used to reconstruct past vegetation and climate in the immediate area of the midden deposit. This slide set outlines past climate variability by reconstructing vegetation change in the southwestern US as preserved in packrat middens. The set contains a comprehensive text and accompanying color photographs of middens, packrats, desert vegetation, and laboratory techniques which can be enlarged for better viewing.
There are still many archaeological contexts where soil micromorphology has been little applied. Examples of such are anthropic shell deposits, common in coastal settings worldwide. These archaeological sites have complex stratigraphies composed mainly of shell from diverse species of local mollusks and gastropods. They have the peculiarity of being highly porous sediments with a coarse fraction that is dominated by
Andrea Balbo; Ximena Suarez Villagran; Marco Madella; Asumpcio Vila; Jordi Estevez
American rodent middens have made a more dramatic contribution to understanding past environments and the development of ecological theory than Australian rodent middens. This relates to differences in the natural environment, the landscape histories, the scale and scientific approaches of the researchers. The comparison demonstrates: the power of synoptic perspectives; the value of thorough macrofossil identification in midden analysis and its potential advance in Australia where pollen has dominated analyses, the value of herbaria and reference collections; the potential of environmental databases; the importance of scientific history and 'critical research mass' and; finally, the opportunistic nature of palaeoecological research. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
|Describes an art project for high school students in which they create Aboriginal-style paintings using cotton swabs. Discusses the process of creating the works of art in detail. Includes learning objectives, art materials, and a bibliography. (CMK)|
OBJECTIVE: To inform health care workers about the health status of Canada's native people. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search for articles published from Jan. 1, 1989, to Nov. 31, 1995, with the use of subject headings "Eskimos" and "Indians, North American," excluding specific subject headings related to genetics and history. Case reports were excluded. Material was also identified from a review of standard references and bibliographies and from consultation with experts. STUDY SELECTION: Review and research articles containing original data concerning epidemiologic aspects of native health. Studies of Canadian populations were preferred, but population-based studies of US native peoples were included if limited Canadian information was available. DATA EXTRACTION: Information about target population, methods and conclusions was extracted from each study. RESULTS: Mortality and morbidity rates are higher in the native population than in the general Canadian population. The infant mortality rates averaged for the years 1986 to 1990 were 13.8 per 1000 live births among Indian infants, 16.3 per 1000 among Inuit infants, and only 7.3 per 1000 among all Canadian infants. Age-standardized all-cause mortality rates among residents of reserves averaged for the years 1979 to 1983 were 561.0 per 100,000 population among men and 334.6 per 100,000 among women, compared with 340.2 per 100,000 among all Canadian men and 173.4 per 100,000 among all Canadian women. Compared with the general Canadian population, specific native populations have an increased risk of death from alcoholism, homicide, suicide and pneumonia. Of the aboriginal population of Canada 15 years of age and older, 31% have been informed that they have a chronic health problem. Diabetes mellitus affects 6% of aboriginal adults, compared with 2% of all Canadian adults. Social problems identified by aboriginal people as a concern in their community include substance abuse, suicide, unemployment and family violence. Subgroups of aboriginal people are at a greater-than-normal risk of infectious diseases, injuries, respiratory diseases, nutritional problems (including obesity) and substance abuse. Initial data suggest that, compared with the general population, some subgroups of the native population have a lower incidence of heart disease and certain types of cancer. However, knowledge about contributing factors to the health status of aboriginal people is limited, since the literature generally does not assess confounding factors such as poverty. CONCLUSIONS: Canadian aboriginal people die earlier than their fellow Canadians, on average, and sustain a disproportionate share of the burden of physical disease and mental illness. However, few studies have assessed poverty as a confounding factor. Future research priorities in native health are best determined by native people themselves.
MacMillan, H L; MacMillan, A B; Offord, D R; Dingle, J L
Rodent (Abrocoma, Lagidium, Phyllotis) middens collected from 2350 to 2750 m elevation near Arequipa, Peru (16??S), provide an ???9600-yr vegetation history of the northern Atacama Desert, based on identification of >50 species of plant macrofossils. These midden floras show considerable stability throughout the Holocene, with slightly more mesophytic plant assemblages in the middle Holocene. Unlike the southwestern United States, rodent middens of mid-Holocene age are common. In the Arequipa area, the midden record does not reflect any effects of a mid-Holocene mega drought proposed from the extreme lowstand (100 m below modern levels, >6000 to 3500 yr B.P.) of Lake Titicaca, only 200 km east of Arequipa. This is perhaps not surprising, given other evidence for wetter summers on the Pacific slope of the Andes during the middle Holocene as well as the poor correlation of summer rainfall among modern weather stations in the central AndesAtacama Desert. The apparent difference in paleoclimatic reconstructions suggests that it is premature to relate changes observed during the Holocene to changes in El Nin??o Southern Oscillation modes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.
Holmgren, C. A.; Betancourt, J. L.; Rylander, K. A.; Roque, J.; Tovar, O.; Zeballos, H.; Linares, E.; Quade, J.
Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18??S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holmgren, C. A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J. L.
Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18°S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area.
Holmgren, C. A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J. L.
Recentelijk vonden er parlementsverkiezingen plaats in drie van de vier Visegrad-landen (V4), het Midden-Europese overlegverband van Tsjechië, Slowakije, Hongarije en Polen. In het vierde lid van de Visegrad-landen vonden presidentsverkiezingen plaats na de tragische dood van president Lech Kaczynski, die omkwam bij het vliegtuigongeval in de omgeving van Smolensk op 10 april van dit jaar. Hij was op weg naar
DNA was extracted from an 11 700-year-old rodent midden from the Atacama Desert, Chile and the chloroplast and animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene sequences were analysed to investigate the floral environment surrounding the midden, and the identity of the midden agent. The plant sequences, together with the macroscopic identifications, suggest the presence of 13 plant families and three orders that no longer exist today at the midden locality, and thus point to a much more diverse and humid climate 11 700 years ago. The mtDNA sequences suggest the presence of at least four different vertebrates, which have been putatively identified as a camelid (vicuna), two rodents (Phyllotis and Abrocoma), and a cardinal bird (Passeriformes). To identify the midden agent, DNA was extracted from pooled faecal pellets, three small overlapping fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were amplified and multiple clones were sequenced. These results were analysed along with complete cytochrome b sequences for several modern Phyllotis species to place the midden sequence phylogenetically. The results identified the midden agent as belonging to an ancestral P. limatus. Today, P. limatus is not found at the midden locality but it can be found 100 km to the north, indicating at least a small range shift. The more extensive sampling of modern Phyllotis reinforces the suggestion that P. limatus is recently derived from a peripheral isolate.
Kuch, M.; Rohland, N.; Betancourt, J. L.; Latorre, C.; Steppan, S.; Poinar, H. N.
|Since the beginning of time, Aboriginal people have had a high regard for education. Euro-Canadian contact with Aboriginal peoples has and continues to have devastating effects. The encroachment on their traditional territory has affected the lands and resources forever. Generations of experience within the residential school system have greatly…
This paper reports the survey results of a study of tourists visiting Central Australia. It reports that they ranked attractions based on Australian Aboriginal culture as being less attractive than other activities. The paper suggests that satisfaction ratings with various aspects of the visit to Aboriginal culture are associated with the level of importance that are attributed to those features.
|In Canada, about 100 Aboriginal Head Start (AHS) programs provide Aboriginal preschool children with a start in preparing for elementary school and an understanding of their Native culture. The involvement of parents, communities, and elders is key to the success of AHS. The AHS mission statement and seven guiding principles are presented. (SV)|
This study involved the use of personal interviews of six Aboriginal students at the University of Alberta in the fall of 1999. This article includes a brief literature review of other articles that consider adult Aboriginal people as library patrons and a section on Indigenous knowledge and values. Findings include three main concerns: a lack of Indigenous resources in the
For 30 years the dominant approach to Aboriginal affairs in Australia has been to support cultural recovery and accommodate cultural difference in the expectation that this will enhance Aborigines’ and Torres Strait Islanders’ equality as citizens.This approach has been driven by a dialectic of progressivist desire to ameliorate the effects of earlier colonialist policy and Aboriginalist discourse that assumes isolable
Aboriginal children appear to be more likely to be involved in bullying than non-Aboriginal children. This paper describes part of the "Solid Kids Solid Schools" research process and discusses some of the results from this three year study involving over 260 Aboriginal children, youth, elders, teachers and Aboriginal Indigenous Education Officers…
|Aboriginal children appear to be more likely to be involved in bullying than non-Aboriginal children. This paper describes part of the "Solid Kids Solid Schools" research process and discusses some of the results from this three year study involving over 260 Aboriginal children, youth, elders, teachers and Aboriginal Indigenous Education Officers…
1. Whitebark pine seeds Pinus albicaulis are an important food of grizzly Ursus arctos horribilis bears wherever whitebark pine is abundant in the contiguous United States of America; availability of seeds affects the distribution of bears, and the level of conflict between bears and humans. Almost all of the seeds consumed by bears are excavated from middens where red squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus have cached whitebark pine cones. 2. Relationships among the occupancy of middens by squirrels, the excavation of middens by bears, and site features were investigated in this study. Data were collected from radio-marked bears and from middens located from line transects on two study sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem. 3. Densities of active middens were positively related to lodgepole pine Pinus contorta basal area and negatively related to steepness of slope. 4. The probability that a midden was occupied by a squirrel (i.e. active) was positively related to lodgepole pine basal area in the surrounding stand, size of the midden and size of the whitebark pine cone crop, and negatively related to elevation and to bear excavation during the previous 2-12 months. 5. The probability that a midden had been excavated by a bear during the previous 12 months was positively related to size of the midden, and to whitebark pine basal area and cone crop, and negatively related to nearness of roads and town sites. 6. The influence of midden size on bear use was attributable to a positive relationship with the number of excavated cones. The positive association between bear excavations and whitebark pine basal area or cone crops was attributable to availability of pine seeds. 7. Grizzly bears would benefit from the minimization of roads and other human facilities in the whitebark pine zone and from increases in the availability of whitebark pine seeds, potentially achieved by increasing the numbers of cone-producing whitebark pine trees, especially in lower elevations of the whitebark pine zone where red squirrels are more abundant.
No other man in America has so complete a knowledge of the aborigines of South Africa as Dr. Sheppard. For twenty-one years he spent his vacations in their kraals. He is a blood-brother in two tribes, and a chief, and sits on his own mat at tribal councils. His picture of their aboriginal therapy is unique. Imagesp228-ap228-bp229-ap229-bp231-ap232-ap232-bp233-ap235-ap235-b
Data from the 1991 Census largely confirm earlier projections of the size and structure of the Aboriginal population, although\\u000a the data for Torres Strait Islanders are markedly inconsistent with previous counts. The 1986 and 1991 Censuses mark the first\\u000a intercensal period for decades for which Aboriginal population counts have been consistent. This provides an opportunity,\\u000a taken in this paper, to
Leafy twigs and seeds of juniper are abundant in nine ancient Neotoma middens discovered in low, arid, desert ranges devoid of junipers, near Frenchman Flat, Nevada. Existing vegetation is creosote bush and other desert shrubs. Twelve radiocarbon dates suggest that the middens were deposited between 7800 to more than 40,000 years ago. Dominance of Utah juniper and absence of pinyon pine in most deposits indicates a local Pleistocene woodland climate more arid than the usual pinyon-juniper climate. PMID:17833902
The study of arid palaeoenvironments is often frustrated by the poor or non-existent preservation of plant and animal material, yet these environments are of considerable environmental importance. The analysis of pollen and macrofossils isolated from herbivore middens has been an invaluable source of information regarding past environments and the nature of ecological fluctuations within arid zones. The application of ancient DNA (aDNA) techniques to hot, arid zone middens remains unexplored. This paper attempts to retrieve and characterise aDNA from four Southern Hemisphere fossil middens; three located in hot, arid regions of Australia and one sample from South Africa's Western Cape province. The middens are dated to between 30,490 (±380) and 710 (±70) cal yr BP. The Brockman Ridge midden in this study is potentially the oldest sample from which aDNA has been successfully extracted in Australia. The application of high-throughput sequencing approaches to profile the biotic remains preserved in midden material has not been attempted to date and this study clearly demonstrates the potential of such a methodology. In addition to the taxa previously detected via macrofossil and palynological analyses, aDNA analysis identified unreported plant and animal taxa, some of which are locally extinct or endemic. The survival and preservation of DNA in hot, arid environments is a complex and poorly understood process that is both sporadic and rare, but the survival of DNA through desiccation may be important. Herbivore middens now present an important source of material for DNA metabarcoding studies of hot, arid palaeoenvironments and can potentially be used to analyse middens in these environments throughout Australia, Africa, the Americas and the Middle East.
Murray, Dáithí C.; Pearson, Stuart G.; Fullagar, Richard; Chase, Brian M.; Houston, Jayne; Atchison, Jennifer; White, Nicole E.; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Clarke, Edward; Macphail, Mike; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Haile, James; Bunce, Michael
This report outlines Aboriginal learner participation and achievement in British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions for the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations leadership, public…
Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008
|This report outlines Aboriginal learner participation and achievement in British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions for the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations leadership, public…
Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008
This Libraries and Archives Canada "web exhibition recounts first-hand information illustrating the complex and often contentious relationship between the Canadian government and Canada's Aboriginal people from the late 1700s to the mid-20th century." Visitors interested in reading about the importance and meaning of these documentary resources to the aboriginal people, should read the link on the left side menu entitled: "The Resources from an Aboriginal Perspective". Visitors unfamiliar with the current and historical vocabulary used regarding Aboriginal people should refer to the "Glossary" on the left side menu to learn the definitions of such words as "band", "M'tis", "Indian Act", and "First Nation". The "Treaties, Surrenders and Agreements" link contains the following sections: "Essay", "Gallery" and "Database". The Gallery contains images of original treaties that, among other things, ceded vast amounts of land to Canada. Visitors can view one of the treaties that ceded the land of southwestern Ontario north of Lake Erie which originally was part of the Aboriginal people's territory.
Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.
To date there have been no studies examining complicated grief (CG) in Aboriginal populations. Although this research gap exists, it can be hypothesized that Aboriginal populations may be at increased risk for CG, given a variety of factors, including increased rates of all-cause mortality and death by suicide. Aboriginal people also have a past history of multiple stressors resulting from the effects of colonization and forced assimilation, a significant example being residential school placement. This loss of culture and high rates of traumatic events may place Aboriginal individuals at increased risk for suicide, as well as CG resulting from traumatic loss and suicide bereavement. Studies are needed to examine CG in Aboriginal populations. These studies must include cooperation with Aboriginal communities to help identify risk factors for CG, understand the role of culture among these communities, and identify interventions to reduce poor health outcomes such as suicidal behavior. PMID:22754293
We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one component of a spectrum of chronic disease in Aboriginal Australians. CKD is marked by albuminuria, which predicts renal failure and nonrenal natural death. Rates vary greatly by community and region and are much higher in remote areas. This reflects the heterogeneous characteristics and circumstances of Aboriginal people. CKD is multideterminant, and early-life influences (notably low birth weight), infections (including poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis), metabolic/hemodynamic parameters, and epigenetic/genetic factors probably contribute. CKD is associated intimately with cardiovascular risk. Albuminuria progresses over time, with a high incidence of new onset of pathologic levels of albuminuria in all age groups. All the usual morphologic findings are found in renal biopsy specimens. However, glomerular enlargement is notable in individuals from remote regions, but not those living closer to population centers. Glomerulomegaly probably represents compensatory hypertrophy caused by low nephron number, which probably underlies the accentuated susceptibility to renal disease. In the last decade, health care services have been transformed to accommodate systematic chronic disease surveillance and management. After a relentless increase for 3 decades, rates of Aboriginal people starting renal replacement therapy, as well as chronic disease deaths, appear to be stabilizing in some regions. Official endorsement of these system changes, plus ongoing reductions in the incidence of low birth weight and infections, hold promise for continued better outcomes. PMID:20728257
Hoy, Wendy E; Kincaid-Smith, Priscilla; Hughson, Michael D; Fogo, Agnes B; Sinniah, Rajalingam; Dowling, John; Samuel, Terrence; Mott, Susan A; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Bertram, John F
Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf Aboriginal…
|This paper applies the work of Jacques Lacan, a French psychoanalyst, to decipher the desire of the teacher in Aboriginal education. It argues that the images of Aboriginal people represented in Australian classrooms are effects of the teacher's Imaginary, the Imaginary being one of the three psychoanalytic domains theorised by Lacan over a…
|Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf Aboriginal…
This paper is a letter of understanding between British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) and British Columbia Public School Employers' Association (BCPSEA) in response to Employment Equity for Aboriginal Teachers. The parties recognize that Aboriginal teachers are under-represented in the public education system. The parties are committed to…
Australia's rich inheritance of Aboriginal rock art is now under threat from a rapid growth in tourism. Tourists seek out remote areas of the country where they can experience the ‘real’ Australia and Aboriginal rock art sites are promoted as integral to that ‘outback’ experience. Various management techniques have been used at rock art sites to protect them from tourists
We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent
|A historical overview of Aboriginal education in the Maritime Provinces of Canada reveals that an Aboriginal form of literacy that existed before European contact met all the requirements of a valid literacy and is worthy of respect. Teachers' understanding and valuing of Aboriginal literacy would transform Aboriginal education. (Contains 26…
We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.
Unpublished 1991 Census data show that more than half of Aboriginal marriages involve a non-Aboriginal spouse and that 83\\u000a per cent of resultant children identify as Aboriginal. Out-marriage is therefore a major but so far overlooked influence on\\u000a Aboriginal population growth and regional differences in out-marriage rates are a major cause of higher Aboriginal population\\u000a growth in cities. High and
We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.
This exploratory case study investigated the ways non-Aboriginal teachers of Biology conceive of incorporating Aboriginal perspectives into their delivery of the Biology curriculum in Alberta. The participants in this study were non-Aboriginal Biology teachers teaching in schools with predominantly non-Aboriginal students. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with each of the teacher participants and explored issues and challenges that they face infusing Aboriginal contexts into their teaching. The qualitative data generated were coded using themes developed from a conceptual framework for curriculum implementation. The majority of the teachers saw value in incorporating Aboriginal perspectives but shared concerns due to: unclear definitions of Aboriginal and Aboriginal perspectives; an inadequate knowledge base; and lack of material resources and professional development opportunities. Recommendations to help non-Aboriginal teachers include: better access to and targeted professional development and resources; greater clarification on the definitions of Aboriginal and Aboriginal perspectives; and greater amounts of administrative and governmental support.
Earthworm activity may be an important cause of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of soil properties in agroecosystems.\\u000a Structures known as “earthworm middens,” formed at the soil surface by the feeding and casting activities of some earthworms,\\u000a may contribute significantly to this heterogeneity. We compared the temporal dynamics of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and microbial\\u000a acitivity in Lumbricus terrestris middens and
The purpose of the study was to identify the strengths of Aboriginal foster parents according to the foster parents themselves.\\u000a A total of 83 Aboriginal foster parents participated in over the phone interviews that included the question “What are the\\u000a main strengths you have as a foster parent?”. Responses to the questions were sorted by the participants and the sorted
We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities,\\u000aciting both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of\\u000abright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great\\u000aComets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of\\u000acomets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with\\u000afear, death, omens, malevolent spirits,
|Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…
Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.
This comparative analysis of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal families uses a 1998 Cana- dian study of child maltreatment cases to identify important differences: Aboriginal fam- ilies face worse socioeconomic conditions, are more often investigated because of neglect, less often reported for physical or sexual abuse, and report higher rates of substance abuse. At every decision point in the cases, Aboriginal children
Despite a rich and diverse literature on the revitalization of Indigenous legal traditions and constitutional orders, no one has yet looked at modern Aboriginal constitutions in Canada. This essay draws upon the comparative constitutional design and Aboriginal politics literatures to describe and analyze the texts of 14 Aboriginal constitutions. The findings suggest that these constitutional documents are similar to non-Aboriginal
Geostatistical analyses of 35 plant species from 213 packrat middens with combined records spanning the last 40,000 yr indicate that many presumed winter precipitation-dependent taxa that existed in the Sonoran Desert during the last glaciation were expelled by increasing monsoon precipitation instead of waning cool-season moisture. The statistical influence of excessive monsoon rainfall on the distributions of many species probably
|It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…
|With a focus on the use of technology when evaluating programs for Aboriginal people, this article explores the possibility of using visual and oral computer technology to enhance the incorporation of Aboriginal worldviews in program evaluation. The author situates Aboriginal worldviews, including methods of communication and transmission of…
|As Aboriginal peoples gain more access to schools of social work, the academy needs to respond to their educational needs. This involves incorporating Aboriginal worldviews and research methodologies into social work education. This paper focuses on one definition of worldviews according to Aboriginal epistemology and implements an anti-colonial…
The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, which is usually reported in terms of songs or stories associated with stars and constellations. Here we argue that the astronomical components extend further, and include a search for meaning in the sky, beyond simply mirroring the earth-bound understanding. In particular, we have found that traditional Aboriginal cultures include a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and that this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. We also present evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, and paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts.
|This research begins with the premise that non-Aboriginal students are challenged by much Aboriginal writing and also challenge its representations as they struggle to re-position themselves in relation to possible meanings within Aboriginal writing. Many non-Aboriginal students come to read an Aboriginal narrative against their understanding of…
|Many Americans believe that diversity issues are limited to the United States. The truth is, however, that many cultures struggle to recognize and foster cultural diversity. In this article, the authors have two aims: (1) to recognize various ethnic groups in Taiwan, in particular aboriginal groups; and (2) to inform educators about what they can…
IN LATE 1985 I WAS AUSTRALIAN ASSOCIATED PRESS'S WESTERN Australian correspondent. While I was in Kununurra, the family of a young Aboriginal man who had died in Broome gaol came to visit. They were desperate. They did not believe the cause of death suggested by the prison and suspected some foul play. For this reason they wanted an independent post
|Australia, as far as Aboriginal languages are concerned, is not yet engaged in systematic language planning exercises. This is in contrast to other parts of the world where language planning is institutionalised and enforced. In this paper we chronicle some of the language planning exercises we have observed, been involved in, or have studied of…
Nuclear archaeologists are now working in Australia. They are sifting through the hundreds of thousands of metallic fragments left from the British nuclear tests in South Australia and assessing how to clear up the sites so the land is fit once again for Aboriginal habitation.Twelve British nuclear tests were held in Australia between 1952 and 1957, with the (non?explosive) testing
|Many variables mitigate against a culture-fair test being devised. The Queensland Test--which has been administered to Aboriginal children--is probably fairer than most IQ tests, although it appears to measure the degree of contact with Western culture (implying socio-economic variables) rather than mental and chronological age or cognitive…
One of the main reasons for the high rates of non-attendance of Aboriginal students at school is the correspondingly high rates of suspension and exclusion of these students as part of school discipline. In applying discipline procedures, many teachers display a combination of frustration and cultural ignorance, as illustrated by the teacher's comments in the following previously unpublished recording carried
Diversely sourced degradation products of higher plant lignans were identified in modern and ancient woodrat (Neotoma) middens. The markers indicate extensive chemical modification by intestinal microbial communities of mammals. The observed defunctionalized phenols represent a group of natural products, and their structural elements reveal information about the plant source. The phenols are derived mainly from two precursor types: (1) enterolactone and derivatives from conifer lignans, and (2) 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butane and related compounds from lignans such as nordihydroguaiaretic acid common in Larrea sp. (e.g. creosote bush). PMID:24066519
Zinniker, David A; Holmgren, Camille A; Simoneit, Bernd R T
We examined incidence, prevalence, and correlates of HIV infection in Aboriginal peoples in Canada and found that among most\\u000a risk groups both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants showed similar levels of HIV prevalence. Aboriginal peoples who\\u000a use illicit drugs were found to have higher HIV incidence and prevalence when compared to their non-Aboriginal drug-using\\u000a peers. Aboriginal street youth and female sex
Katrina C. Duncan; Charlotte Reading; Alexandra M. Borwein; Melanie C. M. Murray; Alexis Palmer; Warren Michelow; Hasina Samji; Viviane D. Lima; Julio S. G. Montaner; Robert S. Hogg
Western health professionals often experience difficulties in service delivery to Aboriginal people because of the disparity between Aboriginal and Western health belief systems. This article reviews the literature which considers 'traditional' Aboriginal health beliefs and medical systems. The traditional Aboriginal model of illness causation emphasises social and spiritual dysfunction as a cause of illness. Supernatural intervention is regarded as the main cause of serious illness. There are gender divisions in Aboriginal society that impact on the delivery of Western healthcare. Management strategies such as preventative care, bush medicine, and the role of traditional healers are discussed. These belief systems are considered with particular reference to their interactions and implications with regard to the Western medical system. This information provides a framework to allow improved understanding by health professionals of the health-related decisions made by Aboriginal people. PMID:10732513
: Despite a rich and diverse literature on the revitalization of Indigenous legal traditions and constitutional orders, no one has yet looked at modern Aboriginal constitutions in Canada. This essay draws upon the comparative constitutional design and Aboriginal politics literatures to describe and analyze the texts of 14 Aboriginal constitutions. The findings suggest that these constitutional documents are similar to
This WWW Virtual Library site features annotated links to over 130 resources for nearly 40 of Australia's indigenous languages. The resources are categorized by type of resource, language, and region (i.e., Australian state). Included here are links to dictionaries, word lists, complete texts -- some with translations, bilingual education resources, language courses, academic papers, bibliographies, relevant libraries, indigenous songs and sounds, language rights and policy Websites, and more. The resources are succinctly and informatively annotated with graphic icons to represent sites with original text and bibliographies or catalogs as well as dates-of-posting to the directory. Updated in late July, Aboriginal Languages of Australia is created and maintained by David Nathan of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies and sponsored by the Linguistics department of the University of Melbourne.
Fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii ) middens were recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in association with Sheep Creek-Klondike and Dominion Creek tephras (ca 80 ka) exposed in west-central Yukon. These middens provide plant and insect macrofossil evidence for a steppe-tundra ecosystem during the Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) glacial interval. Midden plant and insect macrofossil data are compared with those previously published for Late Wisconsinan middens dating to ˜25-29 14 C ka BP (MIS 3/2) from the region. Although multivariate statistical comparisons suggest differences between the relative abundances of plant macrofossils, the co-occurrence of steppe-tundra plants and insects (e.g., Elymus trachycaulus , Kobresia myosuroides , Artemisia frigida , Phlox hoodii , Connatichela artemisiae ) provides evidence for successive reestablishment of the zonal steppe-tundra habitats during cold stages of the Late Pleistocene. Arctic ground squirrels were well adapted to the cold, arid climates, steppe-tundra vegetation and well-drained loessal soils that characterize cold stages of Late Pleistocene Beringia. These glacial conditions enabled arctic ground squirrel populations to expand their range to the interior regions of Alaska and Yukon, including the Klondike, where they are absent today. Arctic ground squirrels have endured numerous Quaternary climate oscillations by retracting populations to disjunct "interglacial refugia" during warm interglacial periods (e.g., south-facing steppe slopes, well-drained arctic and alpine tundra areas) and expanding their distribution across the mammoth-steppe biome during cold, arid glacial intervals.
Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Elias, Scott A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Mathewes, Rolf W.
This paper presents the second and third stages of a multivariate taphonomic analysis of the bovid bone assemblage from Dunefield Midden (DFM), a Later Stone Age site on South Africa's west coast. The second stage investigates bovid skeletal element abundance and longbone fragmentation patterns at the site. The third stage integrates these data with bone modification data (Stewart 2010) to
Packrat midden sequences from two caves (elevations 1585 and 2195 m; 5200 and 7200 ft) southwest of the Abajo Mountains in southeast Utah record vegetation changes that are attributed to climatic changes occurring during the last 13,000 years. These data ...
Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of
This paper explores links between international intellectual property rights, indigenous culture and heritage art, the Aboriginal people of Australia, and their importance to tourism in this country. Although Australia is a party to the Berne Convention, it has not enacted domestic laws to protect the moral rights of artists, and exploitation and appropriation of Aboriginal images continues despite litigation. The
In the introduction to this book, the editor notes that it doubles as documentation of a performance given by a north-central Arnhem Land Aboriginal group in Canberra in 1982 and as a catalogue of Aboriginal art exhibited in conjunction with that performance. The ceremony involved a traditional ritual of diplomacy and the reasons for its presentation in Canberra at that
Summary In 1979 land rights were granted to Aboriginal people in the Alligator Rivers Region of Northern Australia. The Aboriginal people leased an area of about 6000 km2 to the Director of National Parks and Wildlife to be managed as a National Park on behalf of all Australians, a gesture without precedent in Australia. Kakadu National Park has a wide
The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…
|For many years, Aboriginal knowledge was invalidated by Western ways of knowing. This collection of papers discusses ways of teaching, ways of knowing, and ways of being that have sustained Aboriginal people for over 500 years. The papers are: "Spirit Writing: Writing Circles as Healing Pedagogy" (Lenore A. Stiffarm); "Pedagogy from the Ethos: An…
|The seminar in this report focused on perspectives, recent developments, directions for improvement, and community involvement with regard to the education of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia. The seminar underscored that there is considerable interest in Aboriginal and Islander education with attention centered on…
Taylor, Sandra C., Ed.; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr., Ed.
This thesis explores the relationship that has developed over the past 200 years between the Aboriginal people and the people of Australia. It looks at the reasons as to why and how Australia remained a “Terra Nullius”, or land belonging to no one, for so long, when in fact it is proven that the Aborigines had been on the land
|The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…
|Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project…
Although there has been a substantial growth in the number of Aboriginal players in the Australian Football League over the past decade, issues of structural and institutional racism have not been explored. This investigation of the assignment of players by position revealed marked patterns of difference, which tend to reflect stereotypes about Aboriginal athletes. The results are similar to research
|The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) is a nonprofit organization established in 1998 with funding from the Canadian Government. Its mission is to support Aboriginal people in building sustainable healing processes that address the legacy of physical and sexual abuse in the residential school system, including intergenerational impacts. AHF…
A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death. Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD, but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of
For many years, Aboriginal knowledge was invalidated by Western ways of knowing. This collection of papers discusses ways of teaching, ways of knowing, and ways of being that have sustained Aboriginal people for over 500 years. The papers are: "Spirit Writing: Writing Circles as Healing Pedagogy" (Lenore A. Stiffarm); "Pedagogy from the Ethos: An…
While inhalant abuse is a significant problem among Canada's Aboriginal (indigenous) people, it is poorly understood. This study was conducted in response to these issues. The authors followed 78 Aboriginal young people who received treatment for inhalant abuse in a program established by the federal government. Data were based on a secondary analysis of case files as well as follow-up
This article analyzes research and legal cases about authorship, authenticity, and intellectual property in Aboriginal art. The concepts of Aboriginality, authenticity, and ownership are used to show the complexities of Aboriginal law, legal copyright, and the moral rights framework. The clan ownership of Dreaming makes Aboriginal artists' relationship different to other artists' individual ownership of their work. Research on this
Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the philosophical basis to conceptualize quality Aboriginal early childhood education. Based on this theoretical
Jane P Preston; Michael Cottrell; Terrance R Pelletier; Joseph V Pearce
|Repeated assessments of literacy skills have shown that Aboriginal students do not achieve at the same level as their non-Aboriginal peers. Many Aboriginal students speak Aboriginal English, a dialect different from the Standard Australian English used in schools. Research shows that it is crucial for educators in bidialectal contexts to be aware…
Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Vanderford, Samantha; Grote, Ellen
|Teacher education is critical to the development of Aboriginal teachers able to ensure success among Aboriginal learners and contribute to the preservation and renewal of Aboriginal communities. In a series of talking circles, six beginning Aboriginal teachers discussed their teacher preparation and their first years of practice. They expressed…
The Canadian education system is failing its Aboriginal students as evidenced by the significant proportion not completing high school. The Aboriginal population has experienced a significantly greater proportion of people living in poverty and higher rates of unemployment than has the non-Aboriginal population. These factors can be linked to the Aboriginal population's lower educational attainment. The research questions in this
Motivated by a shortage of Aboriginal nurses and recurring difficulties in recruitment and retention of Aboriginal peoples in nursing education, a critical ethnography was conducted to examine the experiences of undergraduate Aboriginal nursing students in two Canadian schools of nursing. We conducted audiotaped interviews with Aboriginal nursing students (n=31), Aboriginal nurses (n=5), nursing faculty members (n=24), and individuals who were identified as knowledgeable about the context that might shape the experiences (n=16). Other data sources included reflexive and descriptive fieldnotes from 200 h of fieldwork in classroom and laboratory practice sessions and 135 texts from the participating schools. Nursing textbooks, course syllabi, policies, procedures, clinical evaluation forms and websites were randomly selected and analyzed to explicate how texts shaped the students' experiences. In this paper, we discuss the findings of the study and briefly share our recommendations. PMID:17011675
BACKGROUNDNorthern Territory Aboriginal children hospitalised with acute gastroenteritis have high rates of acidosis, hypokalaemia, and dehydration.AIMSTo determine whether Aboriginal children with and without diarrhoea have greater impairment in intestinal function than non-Aboriginal children, as assessed by increased permeability ratios.METHODSA descriptive study of 124 children (96 Aboriginal and 28 non-Aboriginal) hospitalised with and without diarrhoea. Intestinal permeability was assessed by the
R H Kukuruzovic; A Haase; K Dunn; A Bright; D R Brewster
Using a large-scale representative sample of Canada collected in 1999, this study examined Aboriginal men's elevated risk for violent victimisation relative to non-Aboriginal men. Aboriginal men reported about 2.5 to 3.5 times the risk of intimate partner violence victimisation compared to non-Aboriginal men. Aboriginal men's elevated risk of violence was greatest on some of the most severe forms of violence
Understanding historical news discourse on aboriginal issues is a first step towards situating aboriginal policy matters within a contemporary socio-political context. Using methods of critical discourse analysis, selected newspaper coverage of four ‘flashpoints’ in the history of aboriginal-non-aboriginal relations in Canada is examined. In addition to drawing contrasts between mid-19th and late-20th-century representations of aboriginal people in the media, some
We tested the prey-base hypothesis to determine whether selection of red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) midden sites (cone caches) by American martens (Martes americana) for resting and denning could be attributed to greater abundance of small-mammal prey. Five years of livetrapping at 180 sampling stations in 2 drainages showed that small mammals, particularly red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi) and shrews (Sorex spp.),
A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals: 16,000-10,000 and 4000-0 14C yr B.P. Vegetation along pluvial lake margins consisted of open pinyon-juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis, and a rich understory of C4 annuals and grasses. This summer-flowering understory is also characteristic of modern desert grassland in the Borderlands and indicates at least moderate summer precipitation. P. edulis and J. scopulorum disappeared or were rare in the midden record by 10,670 14C yr B.P. The late Holocene is marked by the arrival of Chihuahuan desert scrub elements and few departures as the vegetation gradually became modern in character. Larrea tridentata appears as late as 2190 14C yr B.P. based on macrofossils, but may have been present as early as 4095 14C yr B.P. based on pollen. Fouquieria splendens, one of the dominant desert species present at the site today, makes its first appearance only in the last millennium. The midden pollen assemblages are difficult to interpret; they lack modern analogs in surface pollen assemblages from stock tanks at different elevations in the Borderlands. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holmgren, C. A.; Penalba, M. C.; Rylander, K. A.; Betancourt, J. L.
A three-stage taphonomic analysis was performed on the small, small-medium and large bovid bone assemblages from Dunefield Midden, an open-air Later Stone Age site on South Africa's west coast. The results of the first stage of the analysis, which focuses on surface and subsurface bone modifications, are presented here. A forthcoming paper will detail the subsequent two stages, in which
BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) may predict subsequent risk of OM. METHODS: 100 Aboriginal and
1. This paper will speak about the painful experiences of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada and their hopes and aspirations for the future. According to William Commandant, Elder from the Algonquian Nation and keeper of the sacred wampum belts, \\
Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical\\u000acomponent, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has\\u000apractical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a\\u000adeep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether\\u000athis astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal\\u000aAustralians. We find several plausible examples of
|The aim of the current paper was to examine the equivalence of the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher rating measure of school readiness, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The current study used an approach, which analyzes the structure and properties of the EDI at the subdomain level. Similar subdomain score distributions…
|This ethnographic study tested the hypothesis that positive social interactions in sport will contribute positively to the Aboriginal identity of urban, Australian Aboriginal children. Nine male and female children aged 11-12 years were observed and interviewed. Significant responses were extracted and meanings were identified and grouped into…
|This paper reports on a Talking Circle of six beginning Aboriginal teachers who discussed their roles as teachers. Participants criticized teacher education programs for not preparing them to teach in ways that are respectful of Aboriginal languages and culture. They discussed the importance of coming to know themselves and their culture. The…
Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie M.
Background Limited research is available on the performance of North American Aboriginal 1 people on the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scales (NCATS) and available research examines parent- child interactions within Aboriginal samples drawn from the USA. Most published normative data on low-income people's performance on the NCATS are also limited to samples drawn from the USA. The purpose of this
...2012-10-01 false Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries...ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS Â§ 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal...
Objectives To conduct an exploratory, comparative study of the utilisation and effectiveness of tobacco cessation quitlines among aboriginal and non?aboriginal Canadian smokers. Setting Population based quitlines that provide free cessation information, advice and counselling to Canadian smokers. Subjects First time quitline callers, age 18?years of age and over, who called the quitline between August 2001 and December 2005 and who completed the evaluation and provided data on their ethnic status (n?=?7082). Main measures Demographic characteristics and tobacco behaviours of participants at intake and follow?up; reasons for calling; actions taken toward quitting, and 6?month follow?up quit rates. Results 7% of evaluation participants in the time period reported aboriginal origins. Aboriginal participants were younger than non?aboriginals but had similar smoking status and level of addiction at intake. Concern about future health and current health problems were the most common reasons aboriginal participants called. Six months after intake aboriginals and non?aboriginals had taken similar actions with 57% making a 24?hour quit attempt. Quit rates were higher for aboriginals than non?aboriginals, particularly for men. The 6?month prolonged abstinence rate for aboriginal men was 16.7% compared with 7.2% for aboriginal women and 9.4% and 8.3% for non?aboriginal men and women, respectively. Conclusions This exploratory analysis showed that even without targeted promotion, aboriginal smokers do call Canadian quitlines, primarily for health related reasons. We also showed that the quitlines are effective at helping them to quit. As a population focused intervention, quitlines can reach a large proportion of smokers in a cost efficient manner. In aboriginal communities where smoking rates exceed 50% and multiple health risks and chronic diseases already exist, eliminating non?ceremonial tobacco use must be a priority. Our results, although exploratory, suggest quitlines can be an effective addition to aboriginal tobacco cessation strategies.
Hayward, Lynda M; Campbell, H Sharon; Sutherland-Brown, Carol
Adopting a structural violence approach, we analyzed 2004 Canadian General Social Survey data to examine Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequalities in postseparation intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Aboriginal women had 4.12 times higher odds of postseparation IPV than non-Aboriginal women (p < .001). Coercive control and age explained most of this inequality. The final model included Aboriginal status, age, a seven-item coercive control index, and stalking, which reduced the odds ratio for Aboriginal status to 1.92 (p = .085) and explained 70.5% of the Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequality in postseparation IPV. Research and action are needed that challenge structural violence, especially colonialism and its negative consequences. PMID:24048189
Pedersen, Jeanette Somlak; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Pulkingham, Jane
|Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…
Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.
Canada has an unprecedented need to increase the number of Aboriginal peoples who undertake and complete postsecondary programs. Endorsing postsecondary education for Aboriginal peoples advocates an invigorating, fortifying future for Aboriginal peoples, their families, and their communities. Additionally, the postsecondary educational…
Essentialism has become a fundament of Aboriginal activism in modern Australia, with the result that informed, first-hand empirical observations of anthropologists who chronicle the deterioration of life in many Australian Aboriginal communities tend not to be taken seriously simply because their authors are not ethnically ‘Aboriginal’. This problem has contributed to a relative absence of analysis of the economic history
This study compares and documents an Aboriginal teacher's panel, an Aboriginal parent's panel, and an Anglo teacher's panel on perceptions of “good” teaching. These panels viewed videotape of three teachers: a Yup'ik Eskimo teacher, an Anglo Australian teacher, and an Aboriginal Australian teacher. The present work replicates Lipka's (1990) study and reports virtually the same findings: Profound differences across cultures
It is impossible to paint a stronger contrast in Australian life chances than the gulf separating Australian Aborigines from European settlers of Anglo?Celtic ancestry. The contrast in their life chances is stark. This article describes how Aborigines fare relative to descendants of the Anglo?Celtic majority. Taking the latter as a standard against which to measure Aboriginal disadvantage, we examine three
In research with urban Aboriginal men, Jean-Paul found that families inherently passed on indigenous cultural values regardless of how explicitly the parents taught these values to their children. Applying circle methodology changes the way Aboriginal cultural identity development research is conceived, emphasizing process and context over product and definition. Using circle methodology to learn about male Aboriginal identity formation in
BACKGROUND: The ideal concept of Aboriginal holistic health is centrally placed in Australian Aboriginal health policies and strategies. Its effective uptake promises, as advocates suggest, reorienting the complex Australian health system to enable health improvements. However, continual reminders assail us that Aboriginal health is shocking, appalling, disastrous, disgraceful and damning. Could incapacity to engage effectively with the concept undermine health
|In British Columbia, K-12 school Aboriginal students' completion rates are far from equivalent to those of their non-Aboriginal peers. In addition, there is a high degree of variability in Aboriginal students' school completion rates across schools and communities. Administrative data associating approximately 1.5 million school census records of…
|Aboriginal/Indigenous education is being increasingly emphasized in Faculties of Education across Canada. Through self-study as an instructor of a mandatory course in Aboriginal education in a Faculty of Education, the author is exploring the use of local, place-based education in the fostering of cross-cultural understanding of Aboriginal and…
|The Canadian education system is failing its Aboriginal students as evidenced by the significant proportion not completing high school. The Aboriginal population has experienced a significantly greater proportion of people living in poverty and higher rates of unemployment than has the non-Aboriginal population. These factors can be linked to the…
|This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…
|Aboriginal literacy programs in Canada are using literacy as a means of reclaiming Aboriginal languages and a positive cultural identity. The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal literacy uses seven ways of knowing, each corresponding to a color. The approach recognizes that spirit, heart, mind, and body equally contribute to a life of…
This is a paper in two parts. In the first part I use two case studies to illustrate the identity politics in which Aboriginal Tasmanians are routinely immersed. In these cases, several authoritative discourses, primarily those of liberal government and state, non-Indigenous popular opinion, and the counter discourse of hegemonic Aboriginality, compete to position them as Aborigines and as citizens.
This paper discusses aspects of traditional Australian Aboriginal nurturance of infants, children, and young people through an exploration of the meaning of certain words selected from Central and Western Desert Aboriginal languages. Connections are drawn between this traditional form of child rearing and Bowlby's theory of attachment. Aspects of traditional Aboriginal methods of nurturing infants, children, and young people, which
Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed regularly from birth to age 2 years. Tympanometry was conducted at routine field follow-up from age 3 months. Routine clinical examination by an ENT specialist was to be done 3 times and hearing assessment by an audiologist twice. TEOAEs were measured at ages <1 and 1–2 months. Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between absent TEOAEs and subsequent risk of OM. Results At routine ENT specialist clinics, OM was detected in 55% of 184 examinations in Aboriginal children and 26% of 392 examinations in non-Aboriginal children; peak prevalence was 72% at age 5–9 months in Aboriginal children and 40% at 10–14 months in non-Aboriginal children. Moderate-severe hearing loss was present in 32% of 47 Aboriginal children and 7% of 120 non-Aboriginal children aged 12 months or more. TEOAE responses were present in 90% (46/51) of Aboriginal children and 99% (120/121) of non-Aboriginal children aged <1 month and in 62% (21/34) and 93% (108/116), respectively, in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children at age 1–2 months. Aboriginal children who failed TEOAE at age 1–2 months were 2.6 times more likely to develop OM subsequently than those who passed. Overall prevalence of type B tympanograms at field follow-up was 50% (n = 78) in Aboriginal children and 20% (n = 95) in non-Aboriginal children. Conclusion The burden of middle ear disease is high in all children, but particularly in Aboriginal children, one-third of whom suffer from moderate-severe hearing loss. In view of the frequently silent nature of OM, every opportunity must be taken to screen for OM. Measurement of TEOAEs at age 1–2 months to identify children at risk of developing OM should be evaluated in a routine health service setting.
There is a current debate about development of the river and wetland systems of tropical Australia. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal residents of tropical river catchment areas have complex values for these systems which are difficult for decision-makers to accommodate. Aboriginal Australians are a large and growing proportion of the population and are also significant landowners, yet there is little information about
Objective To compare the current state of health research on Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youth in Canada. Design A search of published academic literature on Canadian Aboriginal youth health, including a comprehensive review of both non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal youth research, was conducted using MEDLINE and summarized. Methodology A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published over a 10-year period (2000–2010). The search was limited to research articles pertaining to Canadian youth, using various synonyms for “Canada,” “youth,” and “Aboriginal.” Each article was coded according to 4 broad categories: Aboriginal identity, geographic location, research topic (health determinants, health status, health care), and the 12 key determinants of health proposed by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). Results Of the 117 articles reviewed, only 34 pertained to Aboriginal youth, while the remaining 83 pertained to non-Aboriginal youth. The results revealed major discrepancies within the current body of research with respect to the geographic representation of Aboriginal youth, with several provinces missing from the literature, including the northern territories. Furthermore, the current research is not reflective of the demographic composition of Aboriginal youth, with an under-representation of Métis and urban Aboriginal youth. Health status of Aboriginal youth has received the most attention, appearing in 79% of the studies reviewed compared with 57% of the non-Aboriginal studies. The number of studies that focus on health determinants and health care is comparable for both groups, with the former accounting for 62 and 64% and the latter comprising 26 and 19% of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal studies, respectively. However, this review reveals several differences with respect to specific focus on health determinants between the two populations. In non-Aboriginal youth studies, all the 12 key determinants of health of PHAC are explored, whereas in Aboriginal youth studies the health profile remains incomplete and several key determinants and health indicators are neglected. Conclusions The current studies are not reflective of the demographic and geographic profiles of Aboriginal youth in Canada, and they have also failed to provide a comprehensive examination of their unique health needs and concerns compared with studies on non-Aboriginal youth.
Mining the Midden intends to re-frame the sanitary landfill as a new typology of public land containing an embodied energy of cultural and material value. By reconnecting the public with the landfill and seriously exposing its layers of history and then digesting both mined and new waste within an industrial facility of materials recovery and plasma gasification technology waste-to-energy plant. The sequence of experience for a public visitor begins where the waste is transformed to energy and flows in the opposite direction of the trash through the facility and then into the active landfill mining operation which is the large site component of the project. The mine is flanked by the visitor path, which is suspended from the soldier piles of the excavation system and allows the visitor to interpret along the 1/3 mile path their personal connection to the waste stream and the consumption patterns which drive our waste. Interpretation results from multi-sensory experience of the open mine and its connection to the processing structure as one hovers above, through moments of seeing through structural glass lagging directly into the sectional cut of the landfill, and through cultural artifacts harvested by landfill archaeologists which are displayed in rhythm with the structure and lagging. The culmination of the prescribed path is a narrow cut which frames the view of Mt. Rainier in the distance and opens up a visual connection with the remaining majority of the landfill which have up to this point been blocked by the small mountain of trash which they just walked up and through. This thesis intends that by confronting people with the juxtapositions of 2 potentially destructive mounds or mountains, and how we as a culture value and protect land while we simultaneously dump our rubbish on other lands, this experience will make the visitor more conscious of ones personal contribution to our culture of disposable commodities.
Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.
Aboriginal people living in NSW continue to experience greater health risks, poorer health and shorter life expectancies than non-Aboriginal Australians. The NSW Health-funded program, Chronic Care for Aboriginal People, was established from existing initiatives to rethink the way chronic care services were delivered to Aboriginal people in NSW. Refocusing and building on existing projects led to NSW Health providing an evidence base of what was working in Aboriginal communities. A model of care for Aboriginal people with chronic disease has been developed. Recommendations from two evaluations have allowed further improvement for the delivery of chronic care services for Aboriginal people. The Local Health District Service Agreements include relevant indicators and strategic priorities relating to the chronic care program. PMID:22697104
According to Manovich (2001), the database and the narrative are natural enemies, each competing for the same territory of human culture. Aboriginal knowledge traditions depend upon narrative through storytelling and other shared performances. The database objectifies and commodifies distillations of such performances and absorbs them into data…
The syntax of the Australian Aboriginal language Warlpiri has led to two opposing models of non-configurationality: a dual structure hypothesis, which abandons the projection principle for a grammatical architecture that separates constituency and functional representations (Simpson 1983, 1991, Hale 1983, Kroeger 1993), and a pronominal argument hypothesis, which hypothesizes that bound or zero pronominals satisfy the projection principle in such
This paper provides insights into a Canadian gaming organization and its human resources management policies and practices regarding the integration of Aboriginal peoples. The gaming organisation follows a very aggressive human resources strategy that is supported by an agreement between the provincial government and the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations, and supported by unions and the Human Rights Code of
|Australian English shows a number of features that are due to contact between white and indigenous populations and that are taken to signal part of its local distinctiveness. This article discusses a questionnaire that sought to explore whether Australian-English speakers are aware of Aboriginal influences in Australian English. (Author/JL)|
|According to Manovich (2001), the database and the narrative are natural enemies, each competing for the same territory of human culture. Aboriginal knowledge traditions depend upon narrative through storytelling and other shared performances. The database objectifies and commodifies distillations of such performances and absorbs them into data…
Focuses on problems of organization and governance that may follow settlement of Canadian aboriginal land claims. Compares financial problems, cultural issues such as subsistence lifestyles, and intergovernmental relations following the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, and Western Arctic (Inuvialuit)…
|Designed to renew the relationship between the Canadian government and the Aboriginal peoples of Canada, this action plan contains a statement of reconciliation, a statement of renewal, and four key objectives for action. First, renewing partnerships includes community-based healing to address the negative effects of the residential schools…
Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).
Despite increased primary care services, diarrhoeal disease is a major contributor to morbidity experienced in Australia Aboriginal communties. Most available data is based on hospital admissions, and little is known about community incidence and attitudes. A review of clinic records provides evidence for a minimum of 1.24 episodes\\/year in children below five years. A survey of children in the community
R. N. Ratnaike; M. Collings; S. K. Dorward; R. M. Brogan
Background Previous studies have shown elevated rates of health-related harms among Aboriginal people who use injection drugs such as heroin. Methadone maintenance therapy is one of the most effective interventions to address the harms of heroin injection. We assessed the rate of methadone use in a cohort of opioid injection drug users in Vancouver and investigated whether methadone use was associated with Aboriginal ethnic background. Methods Using data collected as part of the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (May 1996–November 2005), we evaluated whether Aboriginal ethnic background was associated with methadone use using generalized estimating equations and Cox regression analysis. We compared methadone use among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal injection drug users at the time of enrolment and during the follow-up period, and we evaluated the time to first methadone use among people not using methadone at enrolment. Results During the study period, 1603 injection drug users (435 Aboriginal, 1168 non-Aboriginal) were recruited. At enrolment, 54 (12.4%) Aboriginal participants used methadone compared with 247 (21.2%) non-Aboriginal participants (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38–0.73, p < 0.001). Among the 1351 (84.3%) participants who used heroin, Aboriginal people were less likely to use methadone throughout the follow-up period (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45–0.81, p < 0.001). Among people using heroin but who were not taking methadone at enrolment, Aboriginal ethnic background was associated with increased time to first methadone use (adjusted relative hazard 0.60, 95% CI 0.49–0.74, p < 0.001). Interpretation Methadone use was lower among Aboriginal than among non-Aboriginal injection drug users. Culturally appropriate interventions with full participation of the affected community are required to address this disparity.
Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio S.; Li, Kathy; Barney, Lucy; Tyndall, Mark W.; Kerr, Thomas
The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions of collagen extracted from well-preserved archeological fish bones has the potential to provide useful information on fish diets and food web dynamics over time. Previous work on the Turner Farm archaeological site in Penobscot Bay, Gulf of Maine, reveals significant shifts in fish diets have occurred since European colonization (post 1620’s). The objective of the present study was to analyze samples from other archaeological sites within Penobscot Bay to characterize the spatial extent of the isotopic shift measured at Turner Farm. Stratified cod, flounder, and sculpin bones were analyzed from eight coastal middens located approximately 50km apart from one another within Penobscot Bay. The bones were sampled from three time horizons (0kya, 0.5-1kya, and 2.2-2.4kya). All bone samples were demineralized in 0.2M HCl at 4°C for 2 to 7 days and then extracted in 0.25M NaOH at 4°C for 1 to 2 hours. After freeze-drying, the bulk isotopic composition of each sample was analyzed using the EA-IRMS. In all stratigraphic horizons analyzed, cod were more enriched in ?13C and ?15N than sculpin, and flounder were the most depleted in ?13C and ?15N . However, the isotopic offsets between the fish species decreased from 2.4kya to the present. The nitrogen isotope composition was relatively constant over time and space for all species, implying that trophic levels for the fishes analyzed have not changed significantly in Penobscot Bay for the last 2,400 years. The carbon isotope composition also appears to be constant spatially in Penobscot Bay, however, the modern signal was more depleted than the paleo signal in all three species. The difference between the modern and paleo ?13C is ~5‰ for cod and flounder, and ~9‰ for sculpin. These shifts may, in part, be explained by decreases in both primary producer and prey species diversity, as kelp forests replace eelgrass beds in the Gulf of Maine.
Harris, C.; Johnson, B.; Ambrose, W. G.; Bourque, B.; Dostie, P.; Crowley, E.
To meet the unique health needs of Aboriginal peoples (First Nations, Inuit and Métis), it is important to increase and encourage Aboriginal representation in health care. One Federal initiative, the Aboriginal Health Human Resource Initiative (AHHRI) at Health Canada, focuses on: (1) increasing the number of Aboriginal people working in health careers; (2) adapting health care educational curricula to support the development of cultural competencies; and (3) improving the retention of health care workers in Aboriginal communities. A health care system that focuses on understanding the unique challenges, concerns, and needs of Aboriginal people can better respond to this specific population, which suffers disproportionately from ill health in comparison to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. This report examines the supply of Aboriginal health care providers in Canada, based on geographic region, area of residence, Aboriginal identity, and occupation. Findings are drawn from the 1996 and 2001 censuses from Statistics Canada. Quantitative results provide a greater understanding of labour force characteristics of First Nation, Inuit, Métis, and non-Aboriginal health providers. PMID:18447068
This paper presents paleoecological analyses of 48 fossil arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii) middens (nests and caches) recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in the Klondike region of west-central Yukon Territory. AMS radiocarbon dates and stratigraphic association of middens with Dawson tephra (˜25 300 14C yr BP), indicate these paleoecological data reflect the onset of glacial conditions of early Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and terminal MIS 3 (˜24 000 29 450 14C yr BP). Plant macrofossils include at least 60 plant taxa, including diverse graminoids (Poa, Elymus trachycaulus, Kobresia myosuroides), steppe forbs (Penstemon gormanii, Anemone patens var. multifida, Plantago cf. canescens), tundra forbs (Draba spp., Bistorta vivipara), dwarf shrubs (Salix cf. arctica, S. cf. polaris), sage (Artemisia frigida) and rare trees (Picea mariana). Many of these taxa identified in the middens represent the first recorded fossils for these plants in Eastern Beringia and add to our knowledge of the floristic composition of Pleistocene vegetation and biogeography in this region. Fossil beetles include typical members of the Eastern Beringian steppe tundra fauna (Lepidophorus lineaticollis and Connatichela artemisiae) and others suggesting predominantly dry, open habitats. Cache forage selection is suggested by some plant taxa which were particularly frequent and abundant in the middens (Bistorta vivipara, Kobresia myosuroides, Ranunculus spp., Potentilla, Erysimum cf. cheiranthoides, Poa, Carex and Draba). Factors such as proximity of vegetation to burrows and abundance of fruits and seeds per plant were probably important in cache selection. Glacial conditions enabled arctic ground squirrels to form widespread and dense populations in regions such as the Klondike in which they are rare or absent at present. This fossil midden record supports previous hypotheses that suggest arctic ground squirrels evolved in and are well-adapted to the open, steppe tundra vegetation, loessal soils and glacial climates of the mammoth-steppe biome.
Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Elias, Scott A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Mathewes, Rolf W.
This review discusses palliative care and end-of-life models of care for Aboriginal people in the Australian state New South Wales, and considers Aboriginal palliative care needs by reflecting on recent literature and lessons derived from Aboriginal consultation. Aboriginal people in Australia account for a very small proportion of the population, have poorer health outcomes and their culture demonstrates a clear resistance to accessing mainstream health services which are viewed as powerful, isolating and not relevant to their culture, way of life, family and belief systems. Aboriginal people regard their land as spiritual and their culture dictates that an Aboriginal person needs to know their origins, emphasising the value placed on kin and also demonstrating a strong desire to remain within their own country. Currently Aboriginal people tend to not access palliative care services in mainstream facilities; and there is very little data on Aboriginal admissions to palliative care centres. Over the last two decades only two models of palliative care focusing on and developed in Aboriginal communities have been implemented. The seminal contribution to Aboriginal Palliative Care was in the form of a resource kit developed to support palliative care providers to examine their practice for cultural appropriateness for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. The 'living model' coming from this project is adaptive and flexible, enabling implementation in different Aboriginal country as a participative process with community input. The Australian government's National Indigenous Palliative Care Needs Study similarly indicated that Australian empirical research on Aboriginal palliative care service provision is in its infancy, and comprehensive data on the rates of Aboriginal access to palliative care services did not exist. What literature does exist is drawn together in an argument for the development and need for culturally specific Aboriginal palliative care models, which are culturally appropriate, locally accessible and delivered in collaboration and partnership with Aboriginal controlled health services. This is essential because Aboriginal people are a minority cultural group who are disconnected from mainstream health service delivery, and have a sense of cultural isolation when accessing mainstream services. It is preferable that palliative care is delivered in a collaboration between Aboriginal Controlled Health Service and mainstream palliative care services to ensure a dignified end of life for the Aboriginal person. These collaborations and partnerships are fundamental to ensure that a critical mass of Aboriginal clinicians are trained and experienced in end of life care and palliation. Developing palliative care programs within Aboriginal communities and training Aboriginal Health Workers, promoted and developed in partnership with the Aboriginal community, are important strategies to enhance palliative care service provision. Further partnerships should be championed in this collaborative process, acknowledging a need for palliative care models that fit with Aboriginal peoples' community values, beliefs, cultural/ spiritual rituals, heritage and place. PMID:23651262
O'Brien, Anthony P; Bloomer, Melissa J; McGrath, Pam; Clark, Katherine; Martin, Tony; Lock, Mark; Pidcock, Tina; van der Riet, Pamela; O'Connor, Margaret
We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000
Morten Rasmussen; Xiaosen Guo; Yong Wang; Kirk E. Lohmueller; Simon Rasmussen; Anders Albrechtsen; Line Skotte; Stinus Lindgreen; Mait Metspalu; Thibaut Jombart; Toomas Kivisild; Weiwei Zhai; Anders Eriksson; Andrea Manica; Ludovic Orlando; Francisco M. De La Vega; Silvana Tridico; Ene Metspalu; Kasper Nielsen; María C. Ávila-Arcos; J. Víctor Moreno-Mayar; Craig Muller; Joe Dortch; M. Thomas P. Gilbert; Ole Lund; Agata Wesolowska; Monika Karmin; Lucy A. Weinert; Bo Wang; Jun Li; Shuaishuai Tai; Fei Xiao; Tsunehiko Hanihara; George van Driem; Aashish R. Jha; François-Xavier Ricaut; Peter de Knijff; Andrea B. Migliano; Irene Gallego Romero; Karsten Kristiansen; David M. Lambert; Søren Brunak; Peter Forster; Bernd Brinkmann; Olaf Nehlich; Michael Bunce; Michael Richards; Ramneek Gupta; Carlos D. Bustamante; Anders Krogh; Robert A. Foley; Marta M. Lahr; Francois Balloux; Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén; Richard Villems; Rasmus Nielsen; Jun Wang; Eske Willerslev
Abstract ,Fogarty and White (1994) found that Australian Aboriginal university students tend to be more collectively minded,than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Using the Values Survey developed by Schwartz (1992), the present study set out to replicate this finding and to determine whether observed value differences can help to explain the low achievement,levels of Aboriginal students in a university setting. The differences
The paper analyzes the human capital and employment of the urban population in Canada. The paper shows the disparities characterizing the employment structures of aboriginal and non-aboriginal populations; it also analyzes the age-and-gender differences, and the gaps existing between different aboriginal communities. The authors' recommendations made to the agencies involved in the governmental programs on how to improve the employment
Background It is widely recognised that significant discrepancies exist between the health of indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Whilst the reasons are incompletely defined, one potential cause is that indigenous communities do not access healthcare to the same extent. We investigated healthcare utilisation rates in the Canadian Aboriginal population to elucidate the contribution of this fundamental social determinant for health to such disparities. Methods Healthcare utilisation data over a nine-year period were analysed for a cohort of nearly two million individuals to determine the rates at which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations utilised two specialties (Cardiology and Ophthalmology) in Alberta, Canada. Unadjusted and adjusted healthcare utilisation rates obtained by mixed linear and Poisson regressions, respectively, were compared amongst three population groups - federally registered Aboriginals, individuals receiving welfare, and other Albertans. Results Healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginals were substantially lower than those of non-Aboriginals and welfare recipients at each time point and subspecialty studied [e.g. During 2005/06, unadjusted Cardiology utilisation rates were 0.28% (Aboriginal, n?=?97,080), 0.93% (non-Aboriginal, n?=?1,720,041) and 1.37% (Welfare, n?=?52,514), p?=?<0.001]. The age distribution of the Aboriginal population was markedly different [2.7%?65 years of age, non-Aboriginal 10.7%], and comparable utilisation rates were obtained after adjustment for fiscal year and estimated life expectancy [Cardiology: Incidence Rate Ratio 0.66, Ophthalmology: IRR 0.85]. Discussion The analysis revealed that Aboriginal people utilised subspecialty healthcare at a consistently lower rate than either comparatively economically disadvantaged groups or the general population. Notably, the differences were relatively invariant between the major provincial centres and over a nine year period. Addressing the causes of these discrepancies is essential for reducing marked health disparities, and so improving the health of Aboriginal people.
Chung, Helen; Ye, Ming; Hanson, Chris; Oladokun, Oluwaseun; Campbell, Michael J.; Kramer, Gordon; Lehmann, Ordan J.
Canada’s Aboriginal peoples face a number of social and health issues. Research shows that Aboriginal youths are over-represented\\u000a in the criminal justice system and youth forensic psychiatric programmes. Within the literature on sex offending youth, there\\u000a appears to be no published data available to inform clinicians working with adjudicated Aboriginal youth. Therefore, the present\\u000a study examines the background, offence characteristics,
Aboriginal peoples living a traditional lifestyle are potentially exposed to contaminants, such as methylmercury (MeHg), which bioaccumulate in aquatic ecosystems. A preliminary analysis of testing of Canadian indigenous people for MeHg from 1970 to 1992 is outlined. By December 1992,71,842 tests of 38,571 individuals had been carried out in 514 native communities across Canada. Of these, 8,847 individuals (23%) had
The first cases of pseudoexfoliation of the lens to be found in Australian Aborigines are reported. The prevalence rate in the communities in central Australia is 1-3% and for those 61 years and older is 16-3%. Within the limits of our assessment glaucoma was an associated finding in 8-1% of these cases. A high incidence of old trachoma, previous trauma,
In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ? 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ?0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the case in Australia, and along with Gorelli, I encourage WGN readers to get involved in studying meteoritic events in oral traditions. There is a lot of information regarding meteoritical events and phenomena in the literature that is still waiting to be collected and analysed ...and I applaud McBeath for his pursuit to publish this material through the successful Meteor Beliefs Project!
Educational outcomes for Aboriginal students in British Columbia, and Canada in general, are a cause for considerable concern. High dropout rates, low participation, completion and success rates at educational institutions have challenged educators for decades. Solutions have included lowering admission requirements for Aboriginal candidates and…
Internet-based discussion forums provide access to health information and social support, and serve as a resource for others. This investigation analyzed health-oriented Aboriginal Internet discussion forum (Forum A; Forum B) conversations. The findings were framed with Nutbeam's model of health literacy. Discussions within Forum B were centralized around issues of political activism and advocacy regarding Aboriginal health care. Activity in
The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers when raising their grandchildren. Adopting a phenomenological approach, interviews were conducted with 15 Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers who served as primary caregiver to a grandchild or grandchildren. Data were analyzed using Giorgi’s phenomenological method. Four themes emerged from the data analysis, reflecting the parenting experience of
Aboriginal Australian art is enjoying increasing artistic and commercial success in the world art market. The channels of distribution for much of this art move paintings and other artworks from artists in small Aboriginal communities through indigenous corporations, largely White-run galleries and museums, to collectors and tourists. In another sense, however, these art works and the ideas they represent, move
This paper discusses the pre-colonial aboriginal societies that in part established laws, customs, and history through art. The paper cites their artistic mediums and methods and explains that art among the aborigines was used for learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together, and learning to be. The paper describes the role of art…
Differing approaches to Aboriginal art are discussed, including those of the diffusionists, the art critics and the social anthropologists. Regional variations in the art are distinguished with reference to the art of Kimberley, the Western Desert and Pilbara. It is suggested that such regional variations have long been a characteristic of Aboriginal art. Studies of rock art may serve to
Remote and rural Australian Aboriginal children achieve lower standards of numeracy and literacy than their non-Aboriginal peers. The reasons are complex, but extraordinarily high rates of conductive hearing loss (>50%) are, in part, responsible for poor classroom success. In addition to the burden of acute bacterial respiratory illness (highest rates of invasive pneumococcal disease in the literature), chronic disease affects
|This paper discusses the pre-colonial aboriginal societies that in part established laws, customs, and history through art. The paper cites their artistic mediums and methods and explains that art among the aborigines was used for learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together, and learning to be. The paper describes the role of art…
This book contains 13 essays on Canadian Aboriginal literature. Topics include literary criticism, pedagogical issues, and the experiences of Native authors and of faculty teaching Aboriginal literature in mainstream institutions. Entries are: (1) "Natives on Native Literature: What Do We Rightly Write? Or: Shot Headfirst from the Canon" (Anna…
|In this article the author shares his experience visiting two schools that serve Aboriginal children in the state of Queensland, Australia: (1) Cherbourg State School in central Queensland; and (2) Kuranda State School in the Far North. Prior to his visit he had learned somewhat of Australia's troubled history regarding Aboriginal education, a…
The over representation of Aboriginal people in the criminal justice system is very well established. Further, the role of the police as an organ playing a key role in this over representation — as distinct from essentially passive respondents to a presumably criminal Aboriginal population — has also been widely accepted within the field of criminology This article is an
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether contemporary Australian Aboriginal mortality patterns are different from those exhibited by Canadian Registered Indians, New Zealand Maoris, and American Indians and Alaskan natives. Data on Australian Aborigines were procured from published studies conducted in New South Wales, the Northern Territory, Queensland, and Western Australia; while data on Canadian Registered Indians, New
|Some Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk of using substances and developing abuse and dependence disorders. However, not all Aboriginal youth misuse substances and limited research has examined the protective factors conferring against substance use among these youth. The present study aimed to identify protective factors related to the…
Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, and its own ceremonies and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Sadly, the Australian media tend to focus on negative aspects of contemporary Aboriginal culture, and very few non-Aboriginal people in the wider Australian community are aware of the intellectual depth of traditional Aboriginal cultures. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 seemed an excellent opportunity to tell the wider public about Aboriginal astronomy, so that they might understand something of the depth and complexity of traditional Aboriginal cultures. This article describes some of the challenges and successes of this programme, and the impact that this work has had on Australian perceptions of Aboriginal culture, helping to build a bridge across the cultures. It also describes the achievement of an unexpected and unplanned goal: the inclusion of Aboriginal astronomy opened up astronomy to a section of the population who had never before intentionally attended a talk on science.
|This article discusses the implications and complexities of Canada's multicultural policies for aboriginal students in its post-secondary education systems. The author, a Pakistani-Canadian multicultural educator, interviewed an Aboriginal-Canadian multicultural educator, to discuss the cultural differences, divisions, and resistances between…
|Ten years ago, only 10% of the aboriginal students attending the public school of Prince Rupert took down their diploma of secondary studies. Across British Columbia, only 47 percent of the Aboriginal students who entered Grade 8 in 2003 have since completed high school, compared to 79 percent for all students in the province, an inequity that…
Low birth weight predisposes to renal disease in Aboriginal adults. This could be due to reduced nephronnumbers, which might be reflected in lower kidney volumes, at least early in life. In this study we evaluated the association of birth weight with renal volume in 174 children and in adolescents 5 to 18 years old in an Aboriginal community with high
|In Canada, Aboriginal postsecondary enrollment and completion rates are significantly lower than those of non-Aboriginal students. This is most evident in studies involving science and mathematics. The investigation of this issue was informed by focus group discussions with eight participants representing a Blackfoot community. Themes emerging in…
|Government commissions have demonstrated that residential schools' ability to educate aboriginal students was compromised by widespread problems including (a) inadequate curriculum, staffing, instruction time, and parental involvement; (b) racism; (c) prohibition against the use of aboriginal language; and (d) maltreatment. This article uses…
|Educational outcomes for Aboriginal students in British Columbia, and Canada in general, are a cause for considerable concern. High dropout rates, low participation, completion and success rates at educational institutions have challenged educators for decades. Solutions have included lowering admission requirements for Aboriginal candidates and…
The objective of this paper is to summarize the research done by the Centre for the Study of Living Standards (CSLS) on the economic impacts of improving levels of Aboriginal education. Improving the social and economic well-being of the Aboriginal population is not only a moral imperative; it is a sound investment that will pay substantial dividends in the coming
|Traces the history of Aboriginal education in Canada. Focuses on the development of Indian control of Indian education, beginning in the 1960s, and suggests the need for Aboriginal communities to free themselves from an educational system that hasn't worked and develop a local model of education that meets community needs and goals. (SV)|
|Describes the traditions and philosophy behind successful substance abuse treatment strategies used by Aboriginal people in Canada. Discusses how substance abuse treatment strategies which facilitate reconnection to cultural values and traditions enables Aboriginal clients to discover meaning in their lives and promote healing. (Author/GCP)|
Aboriginal families are highly overrepresented in child welfare caseloads. Major reasons for these high rates of involvement include poverty and housing issues, which contribute to per- ceptions of child neglect. In Winnipeg, the city with the highest proportion of Aboriginal peoples in Canada, low-cost housing is concentrated in core neighbourhoods. Homeless youth in these neighbourhoods, who are involved or have
Jason Brown; Dilly Knol; Sonia Prevost-Derbeckerc; Kelly Andrushko
The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour
The objective of this study was to explore HIV testing experiences and service views of Canadian Aboriginal youth in order to provide information for HIV testing services. An exploratory, mixed-method, community-based research design was used for this study. Findings reported here are from 210 survey participants who had experienced an HIV test. Youth were recruited through 11 Aboriginal organizations across
Catherine Worthington; Randy Jackson; Judy Mill; Tracey Prentice; Ted Myers; Susan Sommerfeldt
Aboriginal communities are increasingly turning toward aboriginal tourism development to diversify their economic base, validate their claims related to proprietary rights over traditional lands and re-connect youth with elders and the community to their land and their culture. Oftentimes, these development initiatives are tied to broader community development goals, yet the success of the tourism project is generally measured by
|A Russian woman describes how living in remote Kamchatka helped her develop an aboriginal perspective. Chopping wood, hauling water, gathering food, alternately homeschooling her children and sending them to an ecological school, and interacting with local aboriginal people taught her the importance of conserving natural resources and living in…
The purpose of this case-control study was to identify antenatal and perinatal risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Aboriginal infants in Western Australia (WA). Gases were all Aboriginal infants born in WA from 1980 to 1990 inclusive and classified as dying from SIDS in WA. Controls consisted of a matched group and a random group both selected
L. M. Alessandri; A. W. Read; P. R. Burton; F. J. Stanley
German art history and ethnology have led to a binary reading of art that has inhibited the exhibition of Aboriginal art as contemporary art in the twentieth and early twenty-first century. This thesis addresses the question of how Australian Aboriginal art is displayed in the institutional spaces of art galleries and museums in Germany. I argue that there is an
|There is little research available on binge drinking among the Aboriginal population. Between March and June 2004, 15 Aboriginal persons participated in a semi-structured interview related to their binge drinking behaviors. The majority of participants were women and described a family history of alcoholism and childhood abuse. Factors that…
|This book contains 13 essays on Canadian Aboriginal literature. Topics include literary criticism, pedagogical issues, and the experiences of Native authors and of faculty teaching Aboriginal literature in mainstream institutions. Entries are: (1) "Natives on Native Literature: What Do We Rightly Write? Or: Shot Headfirst from the Canon" (Anna…
|There is a gap in the literature on the experiences of Aboriginal adults who have made the transition into education and employment after moving to an urban community. Staff of three Aboriginal inner-city family services agencies participated in an interview that included the question: What changes do you see in your employment and education?…
Current high levels of morbidity and mortality, and high rates of incarceration among Australian Aboriginal populations are related historically to the separation of Aboriginal people from family and community over 200 years. The paper discusses these events through an analysis of legal and extra-legal forms of power in Victoria, concluding with analysis of current legislation and its effects on urban
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to
Our paper, and the inquiry from which it emerges, is situated in world?wide concern to increase the numbers of Aboriginal teachers in schools. In Canada, the population of Aboriginal young people is rapidly increasing. Yet, at the same time, the gap between the attainment of a university credential in Aboriginal and non?Aboriginal populations is widening. Set against this background and
Mary Young; Brenda Mary Flett; Lucy Joe; Laura Marshall; Dorothy Moore; Khea Paul; Florence Paynter; Jennifer Williams; Janice Huber
|A deliberate policy to separate and forcibly assimilate Aboriginal First Nations children into the mainstream has pervaded every era of Aboriginal history in Canada. Each era saw a new reason to take Aboriginal children away from their homes, placing them in residential schools, foster care, or non-Aboriginal adoptive families. In the words of…
|Our paper, and the inquiry from which it emerges, is situated in world-wide concern to increase the numbers of Aboriginal teachers in schools. In Canada, the population of Aboriginal young people is rapidly increasing. Yet, at the same time, the gap between the attainment of a university credential in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations is…
|Aboriginal people have philosophies with a holistic approach to learning that are imperative to Aboriginal leadership development. The Aboriginal worldview is needed in any long-term education strategies of Aboriginal students to increase the awareness of higher education and to address cultural, financial, and academic barriers. This article…
The thesis addresses the interconnectedness of Aboriginal media practices; historically changing government policies; Aboriginal social and political movements; and the local situations of reserve and urban Aboriginal peoples in Canada. It is premised on the idea that in order to understand the cultural transformations associated with the rise of modern Aboriginal society, it is necessary to assess the development of
The thesis addresses the interconnectedness of Aboriginal media practices; historically changing government policies; Aboriginal social and political movements; and the local situations of reserve and urban Aboriginal peoples in Canada. It is premised on the idea that in order to understand the cultural transformations associated with the rise of modern Aboriginal society, it is necessary to assess the development of
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is an important contributor to the health inequity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This study aims to estimate incidence rates of diabetes and to assess its associations with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among Aboriginal participants in a remote community. METHODS: Six hundred and eighty six (686) Aboriginal Australians aged 20 to 74 years
The article argues that Aboriginal women in urban aboriginal society experience very different oppressions than do white women in urban white society. Aboriginal women believe that their greatest oppression is racism not sexism. When their objective conditions are examined it becomes obvious that this is indeed so. In fact Aboriginal women are statistically better educated and better employed than are
|This article explores how multicultural discourses impact the reception of Aboriginal teachers, and the Aboriginal knowledge, history, and experience they bring into Canadian public schools. The author argues that what happens to Aboriginal teachers in Canadian public schools as they attempt to include Aboriginal content and perspectives is a…
The many Aboriginal and non Aboriginal social workers who work with Aboriginal communities to address health and socioeconomic disadvantage have a key role to play in reducing the continuing inequalities experienced by many Aboriginal clients in Australia. The need for more culturally-responsive practice is well recognised, as historic barriers to effective practice and relationships persist. This paper describes the views
Louise Harms; Jane Middleton; John Whyte; Ian Anderson; Angela Clarke; Judith Sloan; Marita Hagel; Marita Smith
Describes recent trends in bilingual education for aboriginal peoples in northern Siberia, USSR. Discusses teacher education in Siberian aboriginal languages, production of native language textbooks, and efforts to retain and revive northern aboriginal languages. Contains 14 references and specific information on 27 aboriginal languages. (SV)
Livestock was often released onto remote Southern Ocean islands as a food source for shipwreck survivors during the industrial whaling and sealing era. Although animals were put ashore at nearby Isles Kerguelen and Crozet, the historical records make no mention of domesticated livestock ever being set ashore at Heard Island between 1855 and 1882. Here we report a pig ( Sus scrofa) mandible discovered amongst other bones and artefacts in an `elephanters' midden found at Spit Bay, Heard Island. The find provides very strong evidence a live pig was shipped ashore and eaten as part of the sealers meagre provisions. Archaeological investigations of middens at other sealing locations could produce new insights into the dietary habits of these men.
|Explored the relationship among depressive symptoms, anxiety, hopelessness, and suicidal intent in a group of 77 adolescents following a suicide attempt. Results indicate that hopelessness was the only significant predictor of suicide intent in Caucasian patients, and depressed mood was the only significant predictor in the Aboriginal group.…
|This book contains 13 chapters analyzing important practical issues that must be addressed as Aboriginal self-government becomes fully operational in Canada. These issues are related to social problems and policies, criminal justice, community services, education, employment and job training, finance, the land base of government, women's rights…
Packrat (Neotoma spp.) middens are preserved for thousands to tens-of-thousands of years in dry caves and rockshelters in the western USA. Plant remains from these deposits frequently can be identified at the species level and provide excellent material for radiocarbon dating. Accordingly, assemblages of these remains provide detailed well-dated inventories of the plants that grew within a few tens-of-meters of
R. S. Thompson; K. H. Anderson; L. E. Strickland; R. T. Pelltier
We compared two approaches to interpreting dD of cellulose nitrate in pinon pine needles ( Pinus edulis) preserved in packrat middens from central New Mexico, USA. One approach was based on linear regression between modern dD values and climate parameters, and the other on a deterministic isotope model, modified from Craig and Gordon's terminal lake evaporation model that assumes steady-state
Elise Pendall; Julio L. Betancourt; Steven W. Leavitt
Apparently healthy young adult Filipinos (Fil) (resident in the Philippines) non?Aboriginal (non?AA) (resident in Geelong) and Aboriginal Australians (AA) (resident in the North West of Western Australia), 23 subjects in all, had food intake recorded and plasma retinol and ??carotene measured at weekly intervals for four weeks. This enabled the relationships between nutrient intakes and plasma concentrations to be examined
Lucila B. Rabuco; Ingrid H. E. Rutishauser; Mark L. Wahlqvist
|We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we…
Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.
Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia.\\u000a Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists\\u000a which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem
Emilie-Jane Ens; Peter Cooke; Ray Nadjamerrek; Seraine Namundja; Victor Garlngarr; Dean Yibarbuk
This article examines two phenomena of 1930s Victoria: the desire for Aboriginal culture to appear in popular exhibits and centennial celebrations, and visits by members of the public to Lake Tyers Aboriginal Station to view Aboriginal performers and purchase Aboriginal material culture. While different, they are nonetheless connected by a desire to witness the Aborigine as primitive spectacle. They demonstrate
Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (?18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and kitchen middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (?18Oc) values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of ?18Ow values occurring during the years 2007 to 2010. Results show that ?18Ow values were not recorded at very low salinities (< ~19), because the mussels appear to cease growing. This implies that M. edulis ?18Oc values are suitable in reconstructing past meltwater amounts in most cases, but care has to be taken that shells are collected not too close to a glacier, but rather in the mid region or mouth of the fjord. The focus of future research will expand on the geographical and temporal range of the shell measurements by sampling mussels in other fjords in Greenland along a south-north gradient, and by sampling shells from raised shorelines and kitchen middens from prehistoric settlements in Greenland.
Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, M. E.; Mortensen, J.; Rysgaard, S.; Als, T. D.; Wanamaker, A. D., Jr.
The timing and relative contributions of precipitation versus temperature changes is crucial to understanding the tropical hydrological cycle over the central Andes since the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its location on the lee side of the Andes on the western margin of the tropical rainfall belt, the Rio Salado basin receives almost 90% of its scant precipitation during the summer months, depending on upper-air conditions that either favor or suppress transport of moist air masses from the Amazon and Gran Chaco Basins across the Altiplano onto the Pacific slope. Previous results from the central Atacama Desert indicate that century to millennial-scale variability of summer rainfall have been shown to produce dramatic elevational displacements in plant distributions. Plant macrofossils were analyzed in 35 rodent middens from the lower Rio Salado basin that span the last 22,000 calendar years (22 ka). Middens were collected at three different localities, two from between 2950-3050 m with almost exclusively riparian vegetation with sparse low shrubs, and one between 3100-3150 m with diverse dry slope plant communities. Based on the presence of steppe grasses (some of which are found several degrees further north today) and high species richness, we infer wet phases between 17.4-16.4, 11.2-9.6, 7.4-6.7, and 0.7-0.5 ka. Dry phases, characterized by low diversity and/or dominance of riparian species, occurred at 21.9, 14.2 and 4.8-2.3 ka. Summer precipitation variability inferred from Rio Salado middens generally agrees with other midden and lake records throughout the central Andes between 22-10 ka. Increased rainfall inferred from middens dated between 7.4-6.7 ka is in conflict with high Andean lake records which show evidence of severe drought beginning at 8 ka. Increased temperature at the end of the Pleistocene, however, was followed by colonization of the high Andes by considerably more productive plant communities. This may have had a major impact on lake hydrology budgets through increased evaporation, evapotranspiration and decreased surface runoff. Thus, part of the discrepancy between paleoclimate records in the central Andes during the early to middle Holocene could stem from confounding climate factors. Funding: FONDECYT 3030062, NSF-ESH, ICM P02-051-FICM, and CASEB
Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J. L.; Kalin Arroyo, M. T.
The brain volumes of 8 male Australian Aborigines and 11 male Caucasians were determined. Total brain volume was significantly smaller for Aborigines (1199 +/- 84 ml) compared to Caucasians (1386 +/- 98 ml). Significantly smaller volumes were also found for cerebellum, prosencephalon-mesencephalon unit, cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, parieto-occipitotemporal cortex, and hippocampus. Volumes of ponsmedulla oblongata unit (21 +/- 3 ml for Aborigines and 22 +/- 3 ml for Caucasians) and visual cortex (14.9 ml +/- 2.6 ml and 14.6 +/- 2.2 ml, respectively) did not differ significantly. The striate cortex extended further onto the lateral surface of the occipital lobe in Aboriginal brains. The frontal portion of cerebral cortex was larger in Aboriginal than in Caucasian brains. According to the specific growth periods for the areas studied, these differences could be explained by the higher incidence of malnutrition and infectious diseases for Aboriginals during the development of the brain in early childhood, especially after the 6th postnatal month. However, genetic influences cannot be excluded. The results for the visual cortex of Aborigines might represent an adaptation to living conditions in the bush and desert regions of Australia. Images Fig. 1
Klekamp, J; Riedel, A; Harper, C; Kretschmann, H J
Rates of end-stage renal disease in the Aboriginal community have been increasing over the past two decades, particularly in the northern and more remote areas of Australia, and especially in disadvantaged communities. Proteinuria predicts the rate of loss of renal function and is common in young adults and virtually universal in those over 50 years old. Cumulative independent risk factors include low birthweight, recurrent skin infections, adult obesity, diabetes or its precursors, smoking, excessive alcohol intake and a family history of renal disease. A plausible theory is that intrauterine malnutrition permanently reduces total nephron numbers, which are then overworked in adulthood by the metabolic stresses of obesity (from excess alcohol and poor diet), blood pressure and infections, while starved of blood supply through smoking. Although renal disease is often only detected when already established, there are great rewards for active medical intervention. Control of blood pressure (preferentially using angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (AIIRB) in combination) can often stop or even reverse kidney damage, despite ongoing poor diabetic control. Adequately funded kidney health programmes with active Aboriginal Health Worker involvement are enormously cost-effective: tight blood pressure control at least halves the rate of disease progression, and every year of dialysis deferred for one patient could fund the appointment of two more health workers. Addressing the underlying social causes for this epidemic is critical. PMID:15601400
Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles. PMID:18536535
Seventy per cent of Aboriginal students drop out of school before the end of their secondary school years and very few go on to do science at the Higher School Certificate level. As a result of this statistics reveal that only 0.003% of the 9000 university science graduates in 2005 in Australia were of Aboriginal origin. This paper discusses an astronomy project which seeks to improve the scientific literacy of Aboriginal students so as to motivate them to take up careers in science and engineering.
Eleven Aboriginal seniors from Toronto were interviewed in order to explore the meaning of Aboriginal health literacy. Our hypothesis was that cultural knowledge is central to health in this community, and therefore must be included in any definition of Aboriginal health literacy. Information was gathered on what participants knew and wanted to learn about how to become and stay healthy
The devastating effects of European foodstuffs and deprivation of traditional food sources on the diet of Aboriginal people in Australia in the nineteenth century are well known and documented. But interactions between early European settlers and Aboriginal people were often about food sources and records show that Aboriginal people were at first prepared to share their knowledge about edible plants
In arid and semi-arid regions of South America, historical evidence for climate and vegetation change is scarce despite its importance for determining reference conditions and rates of natural variability in areas susceptible to modern desertification. Normal lines of evidence, such as pollen stratigraphies from lakes, are either rare or unobtainable in deserts; studies of late Quaternary vegetation history are few and generally inconclusive. This gap in knowledge may be corrected with discovery and development of fossil rodent middens in rocky environments throughout arid South America. These middens, mostly the work of Lagidium, Phyllotis, Abrocoma and Octodontomys, are rich in readily identifiable plant macrofossils, cuticles and pollen, as well as vertebrate and insect remains. In the North American deserts, more than 2,500 woodrat (Neotoma) middens analyzed since 1960 have yielded a detailed history of environmental change during the past 40,000 years. Preliminary work in the pre-puna, Monte and Patagonian Deserts of western Argentina, the Atacama Desert of northern Chile/southern Peru, the Mediterranean matorral of central Chile, and the Puna of the Andean altiplano suggest a similar potential for rodent middens in South America. Here we borrow from the North American experience to synthesize methodologies and approaches, summarize preliminary work, and explore the potential of rodent midden research in South America.
Using two large-scale representative samples of Canada collected in 1999 and 2004, this study examined Aboriginal women’s\\u000a elevated risk for violent victimization relative to non-Aboriginal women. Aboriginal women had about four times the odds of\\u000a experiencing violence compared to non-Aboriginal women in both surveys. In general, there were fewer differences in the impact\\u000a of risk factors between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal
Aborigines in remote areas of Australia have much higher rates of renal disease, as well as hypertension and cardiovascular disease, than non-Aboriginal Australians. We compared kidney findings in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in one remote region. Glomerular number and mean glomerular volume were estimated with the disector\\/fractionator combination in the right kidney of 19 Aborigines and 24 non-Aboriginal people undergoing
W E Hoy; M D Hughson; G R Singh; R Douglas-Denton; J F Bertram
Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, ceremonies, and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Many share common traditions such as the \\
The report concerns the processing of text collections in 112 aboriginal languages into concordance form as a means of facilitating the linguistic analysis of those languages. A list of the languages for which text collections were processed is included.
Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, ceremonies, and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Many share common traditions such as the "emu in the sky" constellation of dark clouds, and stories about the Sun, Moon , Orion, and the Pleiades. Several use the rising and setting of particular stars to indicate the time to harvest a food source, and some link the Sun and Moon to tides, and even explain eclipses as a conjunction of the Sun and Moon. Thse traditions reveal a depth and complexity of Aboriginal cultures which are not widely appreciated by outsiders. This book explores the wonderful mystical Aboriginal astronomical stories and traditions, and the way in which these are used for practical applications such as navigation and harvesting. It also describes the journey of exploration which is opening Western eyes to this treasury of ancient Aboriginal knowledge.
Between 1945 and the early 1970s, both Indian Health Services in Canada (IHS), and the Alaska Native Health Service (ANS) initiated programs and activities aimed at recruiting and training nurses/nurses aides from Canadian and Alaskan Native communities. In Alaska, the Mt. Edgecumbe Hospital in Sitka acted as a training facility for Alaska Native nurses' aides, while in Canada, the Charles Camsell Hospital served a similar function. These initiatives occurred prior to the devolution of health care to Aboriginal communities. The histories of these two hospitals provide a comparative opportunity to reveal themes related to the history of Aboriginal nurse training and Aboriginal health policies in the north. The paper outlines the structure and function of two main hospitals within the Indian Health and Alaska Native Health Services, discusses the historic training, and role of Aboriginal nurses and caregivers within those systems using both archival and oral history sources. PMID:20533787
Background Aboriginal Australians have a lower rate of utilisation of palliative care services than the general population. This study aimed to explore care providers’ experiences and concerns in providing palliative care for Aboriginal people, and to identify opportunities for overcoming gaps in understanding between them and their Aboriginal patients and families. Methods In-depth, qualitative interviews with urban, rural and remote palliative care providers were undertaken in inpatient and community settings in Western Australia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers with QSR NVivo 10 software used to help manage data. Data analysis was informed by multiple theoretical standpoints, including the social ecological model, critical cultural theories and the ‘cultural security’ framework. Thematic analysis was carried out that identified patterns within data. Results Fifteen palliative care providers were interviewed. Overall they reported lack of understanding of Aboriginal culture and being uncertain of the needs and priorities of Aboriginal people during end-of-life care. According to several participants, very few Aboriginal people had an understanding of palliative care. Managing issues such as anger, denial, the need for non-medical support due to socioeconomic disadvantage, and dealing with crises and conflicts over funeral arrangements were reported as some of the tensions between Aboriginal patients and families and the service providers. Conclusion Early referral to palliative care is important in demonstrating and maintaining a caring therapeutic relationship. Paramount to meeting the needs for Aboriginal patients was access to appropriate information and logistical, psychological and emotional support. These were often seen as essential but additional to standard palliative care services. The broader context of Aboriginal history and historical distrust of mainstream services was seen to impinge on Aboriginal people’s willingness and ability to accept care and support from these services. This context needs to be understood and acknowledged at the system level. More cultural safety training was requested by care providers but it was not seen as replacing the need for an Aboriginal worker in the palliative care team.
The writing of Aboriginal history has never been free of political implications…literature reveals and reinforces the changing hues of dominant social and political ideas, especially relating to race and colonialism. — Ann McGrath and Andrew Markus1 More sophisticated equivalences are starting to be made between works of Aboriginal art and the rest of the objects that inhabit the art world;2
This article examines the topic of problematic art in the Australian Aboriginal art market. For Aboriginal people art plays\\u000a an important social, economic and political role. It has also become a major source of income for many. Thus when the integrity\\u000a of that art is challenged by allegations of fraud and deception it is imperative to explore the veracity of
Background: Aboriginal preschool children across Canada are at increased risk for Early Childhood Caries (ECC) when com- pared with their non-Aboriginal age cohorts. Current research indicates that dental public health programs fail to prevent ECC because intervention often arrives too late. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of the dental hygiene-coordinated pre- natal nutrition program, delivered by community-based nutrition educators on
Herenia P. Lawrence; Marilyn Romanetz; Lynn Rutherford; Lynn Cappel; Darlene Binguis; James B. Rogers
In 2006, the Canadian Helicobacter Study Group identified Aboriginal communities among Canadian population groups most at risk of Helicobacter pylori-associated disease. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize what is known about the H pylori-associated disease burden in Canadian and related Arctic Aboriginal populations to identify gaps in knowledge. Six health literature databases were systematically searched to identify reports on H pylori prevalence in Canadian population groups, or any topic related to H pylori in Canadian Aboriginals, Alaska Natives or Aboriginals of other Arctic regions. Identified reports were organized by subtopic and summarized in narrative form. Key data from studies of H pylori prevalence in defined populations were summarized in tabular form. A few Arctic Aboriginal communities were represented in the literature: two Canadian Inuit; one Canadian First Nation; two Greenland Inuit; one Russian Chutkotka Native; and several Alaska Native studies. These studies uniformly showed elevated H pylori prevalence; a few studies also showed elevated occurrence of H pylori-related diseases and high rates of treatment failure. Based on the evidence, it would be warranted for clinicians to relax the criteria for investigating H pylori and related diseases in patients from Arctic Aboriginal communities, and to pursue post-therapy confirmation of eradication. Additional community-based research is needed to develop public health policies for reducing H pylori-associated health risks in such communities.
Goodman, Karen J; Jacobson, Kevan; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether contemporary Australian Aboriginal mortality patterns are different from those exhibited by Canadian Registered Indians, New Zealand Maoris, and American Indians and Alaskan natives. Data on Australian Aborigines were procured from published studies conducted in New South Wales, the Northern Territory, Queensland, and Western Australia; while data on Canadian Registered Indians, New Zealand Maoris, and American Indians and Alaskan natives were obtained respectively from unpublished tables produced by Health and Welfare Canada, the National Health Statistics Centre, and the Indian Health Service. Mortality patterns were compared by evaluating differences in life expectancy and in age- and cause-specific patterns of death. This analysis demonstrates that although Australian Aborigines, Canadian Registered Indians, New Zealand Maoris, and American Indians and Alaskan natives have similar patterns of high adult mortality, Australian Aborigines are generally characterized by lower life expectancies at birth and higher age- and cause-specific death rates. Overall, these findings suggest that the mortality patterns of Australian Aborigines are strikingly different from those exhibited by the other three indigenous populations and that existing information on risk, psychosocial, and genetic factors does not really explain why Australian Aborigines as compared to these other indigenous groups have such high rates of death and low life expectancy. PMID:1519086
alpha- and beta-thalassaemias and other haemoglobinopathies have not so far been reported in Australian Aborigines. Using a DNA mapping technique, we tested groups of Aborigines for a deletion form of alpha-thalassaemia and found that there was a single alpha-globin gene deletion (-alpha/alpha alpha) in some populations. The alpha-globin gene deletion was detected in Aboriginal DNA samples collected from Kalumburu in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. It was found also in one sample from Mowanjum, near Derby in Western Australia, and in one from Mornington Island in the Gulf of Carpentaria. It was not observed in Aboriginal DNA samples from the central desert. Further analysis of the alpha-globin gene deletion revealed that it was of the 3.7 kilobase (Kb) (-alpha 3.7) type. However, the -alpha 3.7 deletion in the Aborigines is apparently different from that found in southern Papua New Guinea as it is linked to a different zeta-globin gene polymorphism. The presence of this silent alpha-thalassaemia in several populations of Aborigines may be explained in several ways. The most likely is through contact with Macassans or other voyagers from the Indonesian and Southeast Asian areas. PMID:3021094
Yenchitsomanus, P T; Summers, K M; Bhatia, K K; Board, P G
Well-documented health disparities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter referred to as Aboriginal) and non-Aboriginal Australians are underpinned by complex historical and social factors. The effects of colonisation including racism continue to impact negatively on Aboriginal health outcomes, despite being under-recognised and under-reported. Many Aboriginal people find hospitals unwelcoming and are reluctant to attend for diagnosis and treatment, particularly with few Aboriginal health professionals employed on these facilities. In this paper, scientific literature and reports on Aboriginal health-care, methodology and cross-cultural education are reviewed to inform a collaborative model of hospital-based organisational change. The paper proposes a collaborative model of care to improve health service delivery by building capacity in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal personnel by recruiting more Aboriginal health professionals, increasing knowledge and skills to establish good relationships between non-Aboriginal care providers and Aboriginal patients and their families, delivering quality care that is respectful of culture and improving Aboriginal health outcomes. A key element of model design, implementation and evaluation is critical reflection on barriers and facilitators to providing respectful and culturally safe quality care at systemic, interpersonal and patient/family-centred levels. Nurses are central to addressing the current state of inequity and are pivotal change agents within the proposed model. PMID:22530862
Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Thompson, Sandra C; Davidson, Patricia M; Bessarab, Dawn; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms in the D-loop region and the intergenic COII\\/tRNALys 9-bp deletion were examined in 180 individuals from all nine aboriginal Taiwanese groups: Atayal, Saisiat, Bunun, Tsou, Rukai, Paiwan, Ami, Puyuma, and Yami. A comparison of 563-bp sequences showed that there were 61 different sequence types, of which 42 types were specific to respective aboriginal groups. D-loop sequence
translate abstract ideas about multicultural issues and ways,of learning into concrete practices that value learners and their ideas. In this article I provide an account of such a model, a course in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal
Researchers working with Aboriginal Australian partners are confronted with an array of historical, social, and political complexities which make it difficult to come to theoretical and methodological decisions. In this article, we describe a culturally safe and respectful framework that maintains the intellectual and theoretical rigor expected of academic research. As an Aboriginal woman and two non-Aboriginal women, we discuss the arguments and some of the challenges of using grounded theory methods in Aboriginal Australian contexts, giving examples from our studies of Aboriginal empowerment processes. We argue that the ethics of care and responsibility embedded in Aboriginal research methodologies fit well with grounded theory studies of Aboriginal social processes. We maintain that theory development grounded in data provides useful insights into the processes for raising the health, well-being, and prosperity of Aboriginal Australians. PMID:23208201
Background. Cancer education resources for Aboriginal peoples should be respectful of cultural beliefs.Methods. Interviews were conducted with 25 older Aboriginal women in Ontario, Canada to determine their opinions about Internet resources\\u000a on breast cancer. Participants read 2 Web articles on breast cancer: 1 article from a national cancer organization and the\\u000a second from an Aboriginal health department.Results. Aboriginal women better
Background: Despite the high prevalence of obesity and dia- betes in the Canadian Aboriginal population, it is unknown whether the current thresholds for body mass index and waist circumference derived from white populations are ap- propriate for Aboriginal people. We compared the risk of car- diovascular disease among Canadian Aboriginal and Euro- pean populations using the current thresholds for body
Scott A. Lear; Karin H. Humphries; Jiri J. Frohlich; C. Laird Birmingham
The purpose of this study was to make comparisons between Aboriginal residential school survivors' perceptions of health status and overall quality of life, and Aboriginal non-residential school attendees, as well as between non-Aboriginals. Data were obtained from thirty-three questions derived from the 2001 Determinants of Health and Quality of…
Barton, Sylvia S.; Thommasen, Harvey V.; Tallio, Bill; Zhang, William; Michalos, Alex C.
Objective: To determine the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) events in an urban Aboriginal population. Design, setting and participants: Cohort study of 906 Aboriginal people without CHD from 998 who had undergone risk-factor assessment in the Perth Aboriginal Atherosclerosis Risk Study (PAARS) in 1998-1999. PAARS cohort data were electronically linked to a range of databases that included Western Australian
Pamela J Bradshaw; Helman S Alfonso; Judith C Finn; Julie Owen; Peter L Thompson
Within Canada's Aboriginal population, an ongoing health promotion strategy has been the facilitation of community participation in the development and application of health policy. The Calgary Health Region's Aboriginal Community Health Council has provided a setting for involving the local Aboriginal population in health policy and program development for over a decade. This paper represents the results of a case
|Objective: To describe how Aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Semi-structured explanatory model interviews explored Aboriginal women's illness experiences with GDM. Setting and Participants: Twenty-nine self-declared Aboriginal women who had…
Aspects of Aboriginal cultural knowledge\\/perspectives were integrated into the Grade 9 social studies curriculum of a high school in a western Canadian city to appraise the impact on academic achievement, class attendance, and school retention among specific groups of Aboriginal students. The results suggest cautious optimism about increasing academic achievement among these students by integrating Aboriginal perspectives. Significantly, however, the
|Some authors assume that the academic difficulties encountered by Aboriginal students can be partly explained by the discrepancy between teaching methods and Aboriginal learning styles. However, this hypothesis lacks empirical foundations. Using pan-Canadian data, we tried to identify the most efficient teaching methods for Aboriginal students…
|In this article I explore ethical issues in relation to the topic of Aboriginal students who speak a dialect of English. Taking the form of a retrospective inquiry, I draw on data from an earlier study that examined Aboriginal English in the broader context of Aboriginal language loss and revival. Three interrelated ethical issues are discussed:…
|This report provides an update on initiatives, activities and performance information regarding public post-secondary Aboriginal students in British Columbia between 2003-04 and 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations…
Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008
|Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…
|This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…
Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.
|This article explores possibilities for extending aboriginal language education opportunities into the urban domain based on qualitative research in Vancouver, British Columbia. The author argues that aboriginal language revitalization efforts have a place in the city, as demonstrated by emerging language ideologies of urban aboriginal people…
This study compares child welfare services provided to Aboriginal (Indian) and Caucasian children in Canada. The findings suggest that child welfare reports involving Aboriginal children are more likely to be classified as suspected or substantiated than reports for Caucasian children. Aboriginal children also are twice as likely to be placed in foster care. This overrepresentation in out-of-home placement is explained
Objective: Effective partnerships between Aboriginal Health Workers and non-Aboriginal health professionals are essential to achieve Aboriginal health outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate a mentoring workforce development strategy for Aboriginal Health Workers and non-Aboriginal allied health professionals. Methods: Thirty-four Aboriginal Health Workers and non-Aboriginal health professionals were recruited to the mentoring program where they were paired and established a learning relationship for approximately six months. A qualitative evaluation with thirty of the participants was undertaken involving in-depth interviews at the completion of the program. Results: A total of 18 mentoring partnerships were formed across Victoria. The data revealed three key themes in relation to the evaluation of the program: (1) The mentoring program facilitated two-way learning, (2) The Aboriginal Health Workers and non-Aboriginal health professional participants reported being able to meet their identified learning needs through the partnership, (3) The capacity to improve practice was facilitated through readiness to learn and change practice and personal attributes of the participants, as well as organisation and management support. Conclusions: Peer mentoring between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal health workforce was found to be a powerful mechanism to promote two-way learning that has the capacity to meet learning needs and promote practice improvement. Implications: Peer mentoring may be part of a multi-strategy approach to the development of the Aboriginal health workforce. PMID:24090329
Objective: To determine the extent to which the Framingham function predicts the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Aboriginal people. Design and setting: Cohort study in an Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory. Participants: 687 Aboriginal people aged 20-74 years were followed up from a baseline examination in 1992-1995 through to 31 December 2003. Main outcome measure: First CHD
|This study uses data from the child and adult components of the 2001 Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine what factors are related to speaking an Aboriginal language and how speaking an Aboriginal language is related to school outcomes. Even after controlling for child and family factors (age, sex, health status, household income, number…
|This literature survey was conducted to provide information on Aboriginal language learning and teaching in Alberta. Specifically, it provides an overview of the current literature relating to: the language-to-culture connection, aboriginal language pedagogy and instructional practices, and parental and community involvement. The Aboriginal…
Ottmann, Jacqueline; Abel, Jennifer; Flynn, Darin; Bird, Stan
This article explores structural determinants as possible causes of the homelessness of Aboriginal youth in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It includes a brief literature review and provides some of the findings of a recent research project, which implemented an Aboriginal research methodology with homeless youth in To- ronto. These findings point to a strong link between Aboriginal children growing up in
During the 1992 football season, half the clubs in the Australian Football League (AFL) had Aboriginal footballers on their team lists. The Premiers, West Coast Eagles, have always had between three and five Aborigines on their list and one of them, Peter Matera won the Norm Smith Medal for best player in the Grand Final. Aboriginal footballers were key players
The educational gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians is the most significant social policy challenge facing Canada (Richards 2008). This gap is particularly evident in the science fields. Educational institutions are still regarded as mechanisms of colonization by many Aboriginal people. Their "foreign" Eurocentric (or Western)…
|The concept of aboriginal rights has been interpreted in various ways. Too often the general public does not understand fully what is meant by aboriginal rights. This topic has been debated in Parliament since Confederation and the general attitude of the news media has been to overlook it as unimportant. By definition, an aboriginal right is…
|Written in English and French, this paper outlines current Canadian intellectual property legislation as it relates to Aboriginal people in Canada, and provides a general review of the implications and limitations of this legislation for protecting the traditional knowledge of Aboriginal people. An initial discussion of Aboriginal perspectives…
From national statistics, it has been indicated that Canadian Aboriginal youth are overrepresented in lower health demographics than the rest of the national population, suffering from higher rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart problems. When Schinke, Michel, and colleagues (2006) engaged in preliminary research with elite Aboriginal athletes, the participants expressed a cultural struggle related to retaining Aboriginal youth in
Amy T. Blodgett; Robert J. Schinke; Leslee A. Fisher; Hope E. Yungblut; Duke Peltier; Stephen Ritchie; Patricia Pickard
Examines the therapeutic nature of Aboriginal spirituality programs for Aboriginal offenders in Canadian prisons. Discusses benefits in the areas of coping with prison stresses, elders as therapists, culturally specific mental health problems, and Aboriginal identity. Presents a case study of the transformation of one angry young inmate during his…
This article reports some of the preliminary findings of an ongoing participatory research study exploring the provision of health and social services for urban Aboriginal communities in the Okanagan Valley. In particular, the article examines how colonial structures and systems have worked to silence Aboriginal women's voices and how this has affected the ways in which urban Aboriginal women seek
Donna L. M. Kurtz; Jessie C. Nyberg; Susan Van Den Tillaart; Buffy Mills
BACKGROUND: Although the impact of Aboriginal status on HIV incidence, HIV disease progression, and access to treatment has been investigated previously, little is known about the relationship between Aboriginal ethnicity and outcomes associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We undertook the present analysis to determine if Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal persons respond differently to HAART by measuring HIV plasma viral
Viviane D Lima; Patricia Kretz; Anita Palepu; Simon Bonner; Thomas Kerr; David Moore; Mark Daniel; Julio SG Montaner; Robert S Hogg
|There is national recognition of the need to incorporate Aboriginal health issues within the medical school curricula. This study aims to evaluate changes in medical students' knowledge and attitudes about Aboriginal health, and their preparedness to work in Aboriginal communities after attending a 3-hour Aboriginal health seminar. A…
Zhou, Alysia W.; Boshart, Samantha; Seelisch, Jennifer; Eshaghian, Reza; McLeod, Ryan; Nisker, Jeff; Richmond, Chantelle A. M.; Howard, John M.
There is national recognition of the need to incorporate Aboriginal health issues within the medical school curricula. This study aims to evaluate changes in medical students’ knowledge and attitudes about Aboriginal health, and their preparedness to work in Aboriginal communities after attending a 3-hour Aboriginal health seminar. A cross-sectional survey was administered before and after the seminar for Year 1
Alysia W Zhou; Samantha Boshart; Jennifer Seelisch; Reza Eshaghian; Ryan McLeod; Jeff Nisker; Chantelle AM Richmond; John M Howard
Two new packrat midden (Neotoma spp.) chronologies reveal glacial to interglacial changes in vegetation and climate in the Playas and San Simon Valleys in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. The Borderlands, where the states of Arizona and New Mexico intersect with each other and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora, are characterized by several northwest-southeast trending and tilted fault-block ranges separated by closed topographic basins. These basins now contain ephemeral playas, but held pluvial lakes (Animas, Cloverdale, Cochise, Goodsight, Hachita, Palomas, Playas) during the Pleistocene and lesser lakes sporadically in the Holocene. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from middens indicate vegetation along pluvial lake margins consisted of open pinyon-juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis and a rich understory of C4 annuals and grasses. Although both lake and pinyon-juniper expansion across the lowlands have been attributed to greater winter precipitation, the summer-flowering understory, characteristic of modern desert grassland in the Borderlands, indicates at least moderate summer precipitation during the late glacial. The U.S.A.-Borderlands may have been the only area in the western half of the coterminous United States to "green-up" in July and August, and may have offered seasonal refuge from the dry fire season to the north. Late glacial summer precipitation in the Borderlands may explain the concentration of megafauna and paleoindian sites dating from this period in the area. A transition to a warmer, drier climate is inferred from the extirpation of Pinus edulis from the lowlands of the Playas and San Simon Valleys by 10,300 14C yr B.P. The disappearance of pinyon and change to more xeric oak-juniper communities is contemporaneous with other midden sites in the northern Chihuahuan Desert and may have occurred abruptly during the "Clovis-aged Drought" when the water table at nearby Murray Springs dropped to unusually low levels just before 10,900 14C yr B.P. Few middens in our series dated from the middle Holocene (8000 - 4000 14C yr B.P.), a period during which middens are scarce across the Southwest. The gap was previously attributed to hydrologic drought during the middle Holocene and declines in woody perennials and packrat populations. However, beach ridge and lacustrine deposits from Laguna El Fresnal and Laguna Santa Maria indicate wetter than present conditions in the Borderlands during the middle Holocene. The late Holocene is marked by the arrival of Chihuahuan Desert scrub elements and few departures. Desertscrub elements begin to appear by about 4000 14C yr B.P., marking the transition to present-day vegetation. Larrea tridentata and Fouquieria splendens, two of the dominant desert species present at the sites today; both appear later than in surrounding areas.
Holmgren, C. A.; Penalba, M.; Aasen Rylander, K.; Betancourt, J. L.
Descriptions of cosmic impacts and meteorite falls are found throughout Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. In some cases, these texts describe the impact event in detail, sometimes citing the location, suggesting that the events were witnessed. We explore whether cosmic impacts and meteorite falls may have been witnessed by Aboriginal Australians and incorporated into their oral traditions. We discuss the complications and bias in recording and analysing oral texts but suggest that these texts may be used both to locate new impact structures or meteorites and model observed impact events. We find that, while detailed Aboriginal descriptions of cosmic impacts are abundant in the literature, there is currently no physical evidence connecting these accounts to impact events currently known to Western science.
An overview of British legal treatment of aboriginal natives in Australia focuses on land rights and the ownership of mineral resources. After nearly 200 years of denying the rights of aborigines, legislation began in the 1970s to grant traditional tribal lands in the Northern Territory, South Australia, and New South Wales, with similar action imminent in Victoria. The grants confer a right of exclusive occupation, but do not make the land immune from access for mining purposes by authorized persons. Aborigines have more control over access by outsiders for mining purposes than do ordinary land owners, and have the authority to exact payments as a condition of access from mining operators and royalties from the state. Neither the restraints nor the rights are uniform. Hostility on the part of the mining industry is expected to lessen as negotiations proceed.
This article outlines a new social reality of global psycho-pharmaceutical prescribing: the pharmaceutical family, or ;phamily.' Ethnographic case studies from Manitoba, Canada (2002 to 2004) show how pharmaceutical emplotment, involving a synergy between cultural and drug scripts, can have uncanny consequences for vulnerable groups, such as Aboriginal children. Observations and interview transcripts of high prescribing doctors are analyzed to understand the prescribing logic of using psychoactive medication, such as methylphenidate, in young Aboriginal children diagnosed with FASD and/or ADHD. Pharmaceutical narratives are presented in order to show how non-compliance to psychotropic prescribing can further marginalize Aboriginal children and is related to the history of colonial practices in Canada. PMID:19293283
Background: In 2001, Australia introduced a unique 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) 2-, 4-, and 6-month schedule with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) booster for Aboriginal children, and in 2005, 7vPCV alone in a 2-, 4-, and 6-month schedule for non-Aboriginal children. Aboriginal adults are offered 23vPPV but coverage is poor. We investigated trends in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)
Deborah Lehmann; Judith Willis; Carolien Giele; Denise Murphy; Catherine Harrison; Kathy Bayley; Michael Watson; Peter Richmond
The article addresses issues of social power and privilege experienced by Aboriginal students in science classrooms. First, I present a rationale for a cross-cultural science education dedicated to all students making personal meaning out of their science classrooms. Then I describe a practical research and development project, Rekindling Traditions: Cross-Cultural Science & Technology Units, that modestly illustrates cross-cultural science teaching for years 6-11, in which Western and Aboriginal sciences are integrated. This integration is discussed in terms of the Rekindling Traditions units, including the assessment of students.
Abstract Attachment theory has become,one of the most,influential mod- els guiding parent-child relationships in programs of prevention, treatment, and education, including programs for Aboriginal par- ents. However, whether the model can be reliably applied when working,with Aboriginal peoples,has not yet been,established. Studies on attachment,security conducted,with different cultural groups provide a means,of comparing,naturally occurring differ- ences in parenting,practices and socio-emotional environments
First Peoples Child; Raymond Neckoway; Keith Brownlee; Bruno Castellan
On the Island Hvar (Croatia, Mediterranean), the first Neolithic open-air shore site of the Hvar-Lisi?icí Culture—found to the northwest of Vrboska at the western edge of the Maslinica Bay—is reported, in addition to already known cave sites. The first survey of this partially eroded beach site has produced ceramic fragments, marine mollusks, domestic animal bones, numerous chert artifacts or debris,
BACKGROUND. In 2001, Australia introduced a unique 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) 2-, 4-, and 6-month schedule with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) booster for Aboriginal children, and in 2005, 7vPCV alone in a 2-, 4-, and 6-month schedule for non-Aboriginal children. Aboriginal adults are offered 23vPPV but coverage is poor. We investigated trends in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australia (WA). METHODS. Enhanced IPD surveillance has been ongoing since 1996. We calculated IPD incidence rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians before and after introduction of 7vPCV. RESULTS. A total of 1792 cases occurred during the period 1997-2007; the IPD incidence rate was 47 cases per 100,000 population per year among Aboriginal people and 7 cases per 100,000 population per year in non-Aboriginal people. After introduction of 7vPCV, IPD rates among Aboriginal children decreased by 46% for those <2 years of age and by 40% for those 2-4 years of age; rates decreased by 64% and 51% in equivalent age groups for non-Aboriginal children. IPD rates decreased by >30% in non-Aboriginal people 50 years of age but increased among Aboriginal adults (eg, from 59.1 to 109.6 cases per 100,000 population per year among those 30-49 years of age). Although IPD due to 7vPCV serotypes decreased in all age groups, IPD incidence due to non-7vPCV serotypes increased, and it almost doubled among Aboriginal adults 30-49 years of age (from 48.3 to 97.0 cases per 100,000 population per year). Among non-Aboriginal children, 37% of IPD is now due to serotype 19A. CONCLUSIONS. IPD incidence rates have decreased markedly among children and non-Aboriginal adults with a 3-dose infant 7vPCV schedule. However, IPD due to non-7vPCV serotypes has increased and is of particular concern among young Aboriginal adults, for whom an intensive 23vPPV campaign is needed. An immunization register covering all age groups should be established. PMID:20420501
Background Heart disease is a leading cause of the gap in burden of disease between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Our study investigated short- and long-term mortality after admission for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, and examined the impact of the hospital of admission on outcomes. Methods Admission records were linked to mortality records for 60047 patients aged 25–84?years admitted with a diagnosis of AMI between July 2001 and December 2008. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for 30- and 365-day all-cause mortality. Results Aboriginal patients admitted with an AMI were younger than non-Aboriginal patients, and more likely to be admitted to lower volume, remote hospitals without on-site angiography. Adjusting for age, sex, year and hospital, Aboriginal patients had a similar 30-day mortality risk to non-Aboriginal patients (AOR: 1.07; 95% CI 0.83-1.37) but a higher risk of dying within 365?days (AOR: 1.34; 95% CI 1.10-1.63). The latter difference did not persist after adjustment for comorbid conditions (AOR: 1.12; 95% CI 0.91-1.38). Patients admitted to more remote hospitals, those with lower patient volume and those without on-site angiography had increased risk of short and long-term mortality regardless of Aboriginal status. Conclusions Improving access to larger hospitals and those with specialist cardiac facilities could improve outcomes following AMI for all patients. However, major efforts to boost primary and secondary prevention of AMI are required to reduce the mortality gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people.
|This book is an appeal to First Nations leaders in Canada to promote educational integration--a mixing of ideas in which non-Aboriginal people are taught those elements of Native culture and philosophy that support a reverence for the Earth and all living things. The benefits of such an undertaking cannot be overemphasized since the very…
This paper introduces the method used to produce a 3D model of an Aboriginal Rock Art Cave for inclusion in a synthetic environment using the Torque game engine as its user interface. The site chosen for this is an area called \\
During 1995 to 2000 Aboriginal heritage surveys were completed in the Barossa Region. Investigations resulted in the location and recording of seventeen rock art sites. The most recently discovered art is described and shows images of humanoid, animal, reptile or abstract motifs. They are painted, drawn or engraved on rock shelter walls. Most were located near the Tanunda Creek, River
|Discusses the current endangered state of Canada's indigenous languages and the culpability of church and state in this situation. Presents legal and moral reasons why the Government of Canada should enact legislation to protect and revitalize Aboriginal languages. Offers examples of similar legislation enacted in the Northwest Territories and…
|Sense of community (SOC) is central to an individual's psychological wellbeing (Sarason, 1974). Eleven participants, mainly from the North West of Western Australia, took part in semistructured interviews investigating Australian Aboriginal notions of community and SOC. Five key themes emerged from the data. These included: kinship structure,…
Objectives: To review evidence on factors associated with condom use among Aboriginal people and the methodological quality of studies assessing these factors. Methods: A systematic review of published and unpublished literature was undertaken. Searches of databases and indexes were performed and authors were contacted directly. Studies reporting on associations between any independent variables and a condom use outcome were included.
Karen M. Devries; Caroline Free; Natasha Jategaonkar
Researchers have tried to explain the over-representation of Aboriginal peoples in custody by attributing this to more punitive sentencing. A few investigators have discovered harsher sanctions, some have actually found shorter sentences that indicate paternalistic sentencing, but generally better research designs show little evidence of bias once prior criminal history and offence severity are considered. In the US, sentencing research
The witness and cultural impact of meteorite falls and cosmic impacts has been studied extensively in some world cultures, including cultures of Europe, China, and the Middle East. However, ethnographic records and oral traditions of meteorite falls in Aboriginal culture remain relatively unknown to the scientific community. Various Aboriginal stories from across Australia describe meteorite falls with seemingly accurate detail, frequently citing a specific location, including Wilcannia, NSW; Meteor Island, WA; Hermannsburg, NT; McGrath Flat, SA; and Bodena, NSW among others. Most of these falls and impact sites are unknown to Western science. In addition, some confirmed impact structures are described in Aboriginal lore as having cosmic origins, including the Gosse's Bluff and Wolfe Creek craters. This paper attempts to analyse and synthesize the plethora of fragmented historic, archaeological, and ethnographic data that describe meteorite falls and cosmic impacts in the mythologies and oral traditions spanning the 300+ distinct Aboriginal groups of Australia. Where applicable, coordinates of the reputed falls and impacts are cited in order for future inspections of these sights for evidence of meteoritic masterial or impact cratering.
The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF), based in Ottawa (Ontario), works with Canada Native communities to reduce incidents of physical and sexual abuse, children in care, suicide, and incarceration among residential school survivors and their families. This guide has been prepared to help communities evaluate their AHF-funded activities in the…
|Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…
Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a disorder whose cause and pathogenesis is unknown; some familial cases of this disease have been reported. The clinical heterogeneity in HSP may be conferred by a number of genetic loci, including the major histocompatibility complex. The racial and genetic factors responsible for the occurrence of the familial cases of HSP in Taiwan are unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the racial and genetic factors in familial HSP cases in Taiwan. We retrospectively collected the HSP cases in our hospital during 2006 through 2010 and observed that familial HSP cases were only in Taroko Aborigines. Six cases of HSP in 3 Taroko families were found, and their human leukocyte antigens (HLA) were studied in the tissue typing laboratory of our hospital, to determine the possible association with familial HSP cases in Taiwanese Aborigines. Our results suggest an increased frequency of familial HSP cases with HLA-A24 in Taiwanese Taroko Aborigines. We concluded that racial and genetic predisposition was the possible cause for the familial occurrence of and renal involvement in HSP in Taiwanese Aborigines. PMID:23084726
Purpose – In negotiation with diamond enterprises, Aboriginal communities have provided their consent for the diamond mines and have ensured their participation in all diamond projects within their traditional territories. The purpose of this study is to evaluate partnership strategies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Interviews. Findings – Natural resource enterprises support more than 650 Canadian communities and according to industry Canada this
Over the past 25 years, Aboriginal leaders, community advocates, children's and women's health specialists and Canadian government agencies have drawn increasing attention to the perceived need to undertake targeted initiatives to prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in indigenous communities. In pursuit of this goal, a range of prevention campaigns have been undertaken – generally with funding from the State
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in Australian schools continue to have poor education and health outcomes, and the introduction of a new national curriculum may assist in redressing this situation. This curriculum emphasises recommendations which have been circulating in the sector over many years, to require teacher education…
Purpose. Indigenous Peoples are underrepresented in the health professions. This paper examines indigenous identity and the quality and nature of nursing work-life. The knowledge generated should enhance strategies to increase representation of indigenous peoples in nursing to reduce health inequities. Design. Community-based participatory research employing Grounded Theory as the method was the design for this study. Theoretical sampling and constant comparison guided the data collection and analysis, and a number of validation strategies including member checks were employed to ensure rigor of the research process. Sample. Twenty-two Aboriginal nurses in Atlantic Canada. Findings. Six major themes emerged from the study: Cultural Context of Work-life, Becoming a Nurse, Navigating Nursing, Race Racism and Nursing, Socio-Political Context of Aboriginal Nursing, and Way Forward. Race and racism in nursing and related subthemes are the focus of this paper. Implications. The experiences of Aboriginal nurses as described in this paper illuminate the need to understand the interplay of race and racism in the health care system. Our paper concludes with Aboriginal nurses' suggestions for systemic change at various levels.
|In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…
Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.
|One of the major challenges that faces nation-builders in postcolonial societies is the incorporation of subaltern groups, particularly aboriginal peoples, into a collective national project. One vehicle for addressing this challenge is sport with schools being amongst the most important venues. This article offers an empirical study of the role…
A general survey of the aboriginal American Indian cultures of Idaho is given in this book. Most of the anthropological and historical writing on the native peoples of this region are summarized. It does not deal with contemporary Indian cultures, which will be described in a second volume along with their history of contact with Euro-Americans.…
Over 1 million Canadians aged 45-64 provide care to seniors with disabilities or physical limitations, and 70% are also employed - many full-time. Yet often policy assumes that all communities face the same eldercare challenges despite regional and cultural distinctions. This paper highlights what little is known about Aboriginal informal eldercare providers. Trends in health, employment and migration continue to
This paper is a study of one component of the recent and contemporary circulation of cultural objects, the exhibition of Australian Aboriginal acrylic paintings in a French museum. The author argues that the recent emphases on ‘appropriation ‘ and the primitivizing gaze ‘ are not sufficient to understand what happens when such objects circulate. To ask what does happen in
This paper reviews the teaching of Aboriginal languages in the tertiary sector of Australia, looking at the stronger languages taught in the university sector versus those languages under revival that tend to be taught in the TAFE sector. The paper summarises the status of courses offered state by state, and sets the scene with some historical…
The media not only plays a primary role in informing Australians about the issues that affect Indigenous Australians, it also plays a central role in the construction of social discourse on what and who is seen to be Indigenous. This article examines the way Aboriginal issues and identity are portrayed in the contemporary Australian media. In particular, it analyses the
|Personal interviews with clients of the Calgary Indian Friendship Center and two other similar centers established a need for a program to enhance the social functioning of elderly aboriginals in Calgary. The needs focused on lack of transportation, inaccessible or inadequate medical care, isolation, elder abuse, and inadequate housing. The…
At the end of the 20th century, Australia's first Aboriginal court was established to sentence indigenous offenders. Over the last 6 years, a number of different courts, in most of our States and Territories, have become operational. While their style and set up differs to accommodate the interests of the local community, the broader aims are the same - to
|Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in Australian schools continue to have poor education and health outcomes, and the introduction of a new national curriculum may assist in redressing this situation. This curriculum emphasises recommendations which have been circulating in the sector over many years, to require teacher education…
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Canadian family medicine residency programs currently have objectives, staff, and clinical experiences for adequately exposing residents to aboriginal health issues. DESIGN: A one-page questionnaire was developed to survey the details of teaching about and exposure to aboriginal health issues. SETTING: Family medicine programs in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All Canadian family medicine program directors in the 18 programs (16 at universities and two satellite programs) were surveyed between October 1997 and March 1998. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whether programs had teaching objectives for exposing residents to aboriginal health issues, whether they had resource people available, what elective and core experiences in aboriginal health were offered, and what types of experiences were available. RESULTS: Response rate was 100%. No programs had formal, written curriculum objectives for residency training in aboriginal health issues, although some were considering them. Some programs, however, had objectives for specific weekend or day sessions. No programs had a strategy for encouraging enrollment of residents of aboriginal origin. Eleven programs had at least one resource person with experience in aboriginal health issues, and 12 had access to community-based aboriginal groups. Core experiences were all weekend seminars or retreats. Elective experiences in aboriginal health were available in 16 programs, and 11 programs were active on reserves. CONCLUSIONS: Many Canadian family medicine programs give residents some exposure to aboriginal health issues, but most need more expertise and direction on these issues. Some programs have unique approaches to teaching aboriginal health care that could be shared. Formalized objectives derived in collaboration with other family medicine programs and aboriginal groups could substantially improve the quality of education in aboriginal health care in Canada.
Indigenous people suffer substantially more end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), especially Australian Aboriginals. Previous work suggests causal pathways beginning early in life. No studies have shown the prevalence of early markers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in both Indigenous and non-Indigenous children or the association with environmental health determinants – geographic remoteness and socioeconomic disadvantage. Height, weight, blood pressure, and urinary
L Haysom; R Williams; E Hodson; L P Roy; D Lyle; J C Craig
Canadian state. In doing so I highlight specific episodes and grievances that have long festered in this relationship and which, when taken in sum, might be considered to affect the willingness of aboriginal persons to enlist in the armed forces. In addition, I raise cultural issues as well as disproportionate aboriginal representation in the Canadian penal system and their much
This paper draws on our experience as evaluators of the Aboriginal Mental Health Worker Program that has been operating in eight remote communities across the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia, for over four years. The program aimed to fund the placement of Aboriginal Mental Health Workers (AMHWs) in remote community health centres, to work under the clinical leadership
|This report traces the development of initiatives in British Columbia, Canada to provide formal instruction for adults of Aboriginal heritage (also known as native or indigenous peoples), regardless of whether the learner completed secondary school. Activities in public as well as Aboriginal-governed institutions are described. Shorter sections…
Background Previous studies have demonstrated Aboriginals are less likely to receive a renal transplant in comparison to Caucasians however whether this applies to the entire population or specific subsets remains unclear. We examined the effect of age on renal transplantation in Aboriginals. Methods Data on 30,688 dialysis (Aboriginal 2,361, Caucasian 28, 327) patients obtained between Jan. 2000 and Dec. 2009 were included in the final analysis. Racial status was self-reported. Cox proportional hazards, the Fine and Grey sub-distribution method and Poisson regression were used to determine the association between race, age and transplantation. Results In comparison to Caucasians, Aboriginals were less likely to receive a renal transplant (Adjusted HR 0.66 95% CI 0.57-0.77, P?0.0001) however after stratification by age and treating death as a competing outcome, the effect was more predominant in younger Aboriginals (Age 18–40: 20.6% aboriginals vs. 48.3% Caucasians transplanted; aHR 0.50(0.39-0.61), p?0.0001, Age 41–50: 10.2% aboriginals vs. 33.9% Caucasians transplanted; aHR 0.46(0.32-0.64), p?=?0.005, Age 51–60: 8.2% aboriginals vs. 19.5% Caucasians transplanted; aHR0.65(0.49-0.88), p?=?0.01, Age >60: 2.7% aboriginals vs. 2.6% Caucasians transplanted; aHR 1.21(0.76-1.91), P?=?0.4, Age X race interaction p?0.0001). Both living and deceased donor transplants were lower in Aboriginals under the age of 60 compared to Caucasians. Conclusion Younger Aboriginals are less likely to receive a renal transplant compared to their Caucasian counterparts, even after adjustment for comorbidity. Determination of the reasons behind these discrepancies and interventions specifically targeting the Aboriginal population are warranted.
Objectives Recent reports have suggested that Aboriginal and American Indian people are at elevated risk of HIV infection. We undertook the present study to compare socio-demographic and risk variables between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal young (aged 13 – 24 years) injection drug users (IDUs) and characterize the burden of HIV infection among young Aboriginal IDUs. Methods We compared socio-demographic and risk variables between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal young IDUs. Data were collected through the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS). Semi-annually, participants have completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and have undergone serologic testing for HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV). Results To date over 1500 Vancouver IDU have been enrolled and followed, among whom 291 were aged 24 years and younger. Of the 291 young injectors, 80 (27%) were Aboriginal. In comparison to non-Aboriginal youth, Aboriginal youth were more likely to test seropositive for either HIV (20% vs 7%, p=< 0.001) or Hepatitis C virus (HCV) (66% vs 38%, p =< 0.001), be involved in sex work and live in the city's IDU epi-centre at baseline. After 48 months of follow-up, Aboriginal youth experienced significantly higher HIV seroconversion rates than non-Aboriginal youth, 27.8 per ppy (95% CI: 13.4–42.2) vs. 7.0 per ppy (95% CI: 2.3–11.8) respectively (log-rank p = 0.005) and the incidence density over the entire follow-up period was 12.6 per 100 pyrs (CI: 6.49–21.96) and 3.9 per 100 pyrs (CI: 1.8–7.3) respectively. Interpretation These findings demonstrate that culturally relevant, evidence based prevention programs are urgently required to prevent HIV infection among Aboriginal youth.
Miller, Cari L; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Spittal, Patricia M; Kerr, Thomas; Li, Kathy; Schechter, Martin T; Wood, Evan
Aboriginal country, rock and reggae music makers in Central Australian desert communities often portray performances in regional white towns as desirable and rewarding occasions for engagements with a non-indigenous ‘mainstream’. Aboriginal popular music is also often understood as a tool for a marginalised minority to ‘talk back’ to non-Aboriginal powers, or for ‘sharing culture’ to achieve greater cross-cultural understanding. This
Summary We have investigated plasma glucose and immunoreactive insulin responses to 75-g oral glucose in lean, young, full-blood Aboriginal men from urban and rural communities and made comparisons with age- and weight-matched Caucasoids. Fasting glucose concentrations were lower in the rural Aborigines than in the urban Aborigines or the Caucasoids. Plasma glucose concentrations 2 h postprandially were significantly higher in both
The multidimensional nature of renal disease: Rates and associations of albuminuria in an Australian Aboriginal community.BackgroundAn epidemic of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is accompanying the rising rates of hypertension, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease among Aborigines in the Northern Territory of Australia. Incidence rates are now 21 times those of nonAboriginal Australians and are doubling every four years. We
Wendy E. Hoy; John D. Mathews; David A. McCredie; David J. Pugsley; Beverly G. Hayhurst; Megan Rees; Emma Kile; Kate A. Walker; Zhiqiang Wang
Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an\\u000a overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue\\u000a with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted
Sandra C Thompson; Shaouli Shahid; Dawn Bessarab; Angela Durey; Patricia M Davidson
Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc), nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM). Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT) bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1-?3 months and at least one clinical examination for OM by an ear, nose and throat specialist before age 2 years were included in this analysis. Tympanometry to detect middle ear effusion was also performed at 2- to 6-monthly scheduled field visits from age 3 months. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationship between early carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM controlling for environmental factors. Results Carriage rates of Pnc, NTHi and Mcat at age 1-?3 months were 45%, 29% and 48%, respectively, in 66 Aboriginal children and 14%, 5% and 18% in 146 non-Aboriginal children. OM was diagnosed at least once in 71% of Aboriginal children and 43% of non-Aboriginal children. After controlling for age, sex, presence of other bacteria and environmental factors, early nasopharyngeal carriage of NTHi increased the risk of subsequent OM (odds ratio?=?3.70, 95% CI 1.22-11.23) in Aboriginal children, while Mcat increased the risk of OM in non-Aboriginal children (odds ratio?=?2.63, 95% CI 1.32-5.23). Early carriage of Pnc was not associated with increased risk of OM. Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia.
While human genetic research promises to deliver a range of health benefits to the population, genetic research that takes place in Indigenous communities has proven controversial. Indigenous peoples have raised concerns, including a lack of benefit to their communities, a diversion of attention and resources from non-genetic causes of health disparities and racism in health care, a reinforcement of "victim-blaming" approaches to health inequalities, and possible misuse of blood and tissue samples. Drawing on the international literature, this article reviews the ethical issues relevant to genetic research in Indigenous populations and considers how some of these have been negotiated in a genomic research project currently under way in a remote Aboriginal community. We consider how the different levels of Indigenous research governance operating in Australia impacted on the research project and discuss whether specific guidelines for the conduct of genetic research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are warranted. PMID:23188401
Kowal, Emma; Pearson, Glenn; Peacock, Chris S; Jamieson, Sarra E; Blackwell, Jenefer M
The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers when raising their grandchildren. Adopting a phenomenological approach, interviews were conducted with 15 Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers who served as primary caregiver to a grandchild or grandchildren. Data were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological method. Four themes emerged from the data analysis, reflecting the parenting experience of grandmothers: using aged bodies to do energetic work: represented the physical effects of raising grandchildren; conflicting emotions: reflected the psychological effects of raising grandchildren; lifelong and privative obligation: described the cultural and societal beliefs of raising grandchildren; and coping strategies for raising grandchildren outlined methods the grandmothers used to cope with parenting their grandchildren. The results of this study offers insights into surrogate parenting within an underresearched group in Taiwan and will enable health care providers to be more aware of the physical, emotional, and social effects of the role of grandparent parenting. PMID:21531857
For thousands of years, Aboriginal Australians burned forests, creating grasslands. Some studies have suggested that in addition to changing the landscape, these burning practices also affected the timing and intensity of the Australian summer monsoon. Different vegetation types can alter evaporation, roughness, and surface reflectivity, leading to changes in the weather and climate. On the basis of an ensemble of experiments with a global climate model, Notaro et al. conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of decreased vegetation cover on the summer monsoon in northern Australia. They found that although decreased vegetation cover would have had only minor effects during the height of the monsoon season, during the premonsoon season, burning-induced vegetation loss would have caused significant decreases in precipitation and increases in temperature. Thus, by burning forests, Aboriginals altered the local climate, effectively extending the dry season and delaying the start of the monsoon season. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047774, 2011)
Conclusions The different myths discussed in this paper are all of current interest and much more may be said for or against them before\\u000a the matters are settled. It would be disappointing if this discussion did not happen.\\u000a \\u000a However, one thing that is clear is the important role of institutional concepts in analysis of demographic change in the\\u000a Aboriginal population. All
We classified diversity in eight new com- plete mitochondrial genome sequences and 41 partial sequences from living Aboriginal Australians into five haplogroups. Haplogroup AuB belongs to global lineage M, and AuA, AuC, AuD, and AuE to N. Within N, we recognize subdivisions, assigning AuA to haplogroup S, AuD to haplogroup O, AuC to P4, and AuE to P8. On available
Sheila M. van Holst Pellekaan; Max Ingman; June Roberts-Thomson; Rosalind M. Harding
Teeth from 38 aboriginal remains of La Palma (Canary Islands) were analyzed for external and endogenous mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and for diagnostic coding positions. Informative sequences were obtained from 30 individuals (78.9%). The majority of lineages (93%) were from West Eurasian origin, being the rest (7%) from sub-Saharan African ascription. The bulk of the aboriginal haplotypes had exact matches in North Africa (70%). However, the indigenous Canarian sub-type U6b1, also detected in La Palma, has not yet been found in North Africa, the cradle of the U6 expansion. The most abundant H1 clade in La Palma, defined by transition 16260, is also very rare in North Africa. This means that the exact region from which the ancestors of the Canarian aborigines came has not yet been sampled or that they have been replaced by later human migrations. The high gene diversity found in La Palma (95.2±2.3), which is one of the farthest islands from the African continent, is of the same level than the previously found in the central island of Tenerife (92.4±2.8). This is against the supposition that the islands were colonized from the continent by island hopping and posterior isolation. On the other hand, the great similarity found between the aboriginal populations of La Palma and Tenerife is against the idea of an island-by-island independent maritime colonization without secondary contacts. Our data better fit to an island model with frequent migrations between islands.
Fregel, Rosa; Pestano, Jose; Arnay, Matilde; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, Jose M; Gonzalez, Ana M
American students currently participating in The University of Notre Dame Australia’s Study Abroad program had a true Australian experience recently when they challenged students from Clontarf Aboriginal College to a game of Australian Rules football.\\u000aThe ‘Yankeroos’, as they call themselves, have been training twice a week over the past three months in preparation for the game. Having been taught
Background Racism has been identified as an important determinant of health but few studies have explored associations between racism and health outcomes for Australian Aboriginal young people in urban areas. Methods Cross sectional data from participants aged 12-26 years in Wave 1 of the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service's Young People's Project were included in hierarchical logistic regression models. Overall mental health, depression and general health were all considered as outcomes with self-reported racism as the exposure, adjusting for a range of relevant confounders. Results Racism was reported by a high proportion (52.3%) of participants in this study. Self-reported racism was significantly associated with poor overall mental health (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.25-5.70, p = 0.01) and poor general health (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.03-4.57, p = 0.04), and marginally associated with increased depression (OR 2.0; 95% CI 0.97-4.09, p = 0.06) in the multivariate models. Number of worries and number of friends were both found to be effect modifiers for the association between self-reported racism and overall mental health. Getting angry at racist remarks was found to mediate the relationship between self-reported racism and general health. Conclusions This study highlights the need to acknowledge and address racism as an important determinant of health and wellbeing for Aboriginal young people in urban areas of Australia.
Background Canada has recognized that Aboriginal and northern communities in the country face unique challenges and that there is a need to expand the assessment of vulnerabilities to climate change to include these communities. Evidence suggests that Canada’s North is already experiencing significant changes in its climate—changes that are having negative impacts on the lives of Aboriginal people living in these regions. Research on climate change and health impacts in northern Canada thus far has brought together Aboriginal community members, government representatives, and researchers and is charting new territory. Methods and Results In this article we review experiences from two projects that have taken a community-based dialogue approach to identifying and assessing the effects of and vulnerability to climate change and the impact on the health in two Inuit regions of the Canadian Arctic. Conclusions The results of the two case projects that we present argue for a multi-stakeholder, participatory framework for assessment that supports the necessary analysis, understanding, and enhancement of capabilities of local areas to respond and adapt to the health impacts at the local level.
The Solid Kids Solid Schools project aimed to capture the unheard voices of Aboriginal children and community members on the issues surrounding ‘bullying’. In an Aboriginal context bullying is different and the outcomes are different, yet mainstream programs are utilized to combat the issue. We need to know how bullying is different for Aboriginal children and young people, why it
Background Because of established links between entrenched poverty and risk of HIV infection, there have long been warnings that HIV/AIDS will disproportionately affect Aboriginal people in Canada. We compared HIV incidence rates among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal injection drug users (IDUs) in Vancouver and studied factors associated with HIV seroconversion among Aboriginal participants. Methods This analysis was based on 941 participants (230 Aboriginal people) recruited between May 1996 and December 2000 who were seronegative at enrolment and had completed at least one follow-up visit. Incidence rates were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify independent predictors of time to HIV seroconversion among female and male Aboriginal IDUs. Results As of May 31, 2001, seroconversion had occurred in 112 (11.9%) of the participants, yielding a cumulative incidence of HIV infection at 42 months of 12.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.3%–15.1%). The cumulative incidence at 42 months was significantly higher among the Aboriginal participants than among the non-Aboriginal participants (21.1% v. 10.7%, p < 0.001). This elevation in risk was present in both female and male Aboriginal IDUs. Among the female Aboriginal IDUs, frequent speedball (combined cocaine and heroin) injection (adjusted relative risk [RR] 3.1; 95% CI 1.4–7.1) and going on binges of injection drug use (adjusted RR 2.3; 95% CI 1.0–5.2) were found to be independent predictors of HIV seroconversion. Among the male Aboriginal IDUs, the independent predictors of seroconversion were frequent speedball injection (adjusted RR 2.9; 95% CI 1.0–8.5) and frequent cocaine injection (adjusted RR 2.5; 95% CI 1.0–6.5). Interpretation In Vancouver, Aboriginal IDUs are becoming HIV positive at twice the rate of non-Aboriginal IDUs. Our findings emphasize the urgent need for an appropriate and effective public health strategy — planned and implemented in partnership with Aboriginal AIDS service organizations and the Aboriginal community — to reduce the harms of injection drug use in this population.
Craib, Kevin J.P.; Spittal, Patricia M.; Wood, Evan; Laliberte, Nancy; Hogg, Robert S.; Li, Kathy; Heath, Katherine; Tyndall, Mark W.; O'Shaughnessy, Michael V.; Schechter, Martin T.
Background: Although Aboriginal adults have a higher risk of end-stage renal disease than non-Aboriginal adults, the incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal children and young adults are not well described. Methods: We calculated age- and sex-specific incidences of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal people less than 22 years of age using data from a national organ failure registry. Incidence rate ratios were used to compare rates between Aboriginal and white Canadians. To contrast causes of end-stage renal disease by ethnicity and age, we calculated the odds of congenital diseases, glomerulonephritis and diabetes for Aboriginal people and compared them with those for white people in the following age strata: 0 to less than 22 years, 22 to less than 40 years, 40 to less than 60 years and older than 60 years. Results: Incidence rate ratios of end-stage renal disease for Aboriginal children and young adults (age < 22 yr, v. white people) were 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40–2.38) for boys and 3.24 (95% CI 2.60–4.05) for girls. Compared with white people, congenital diseases were less common among Aboriginal people aged less than 22 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, 95% CI 0.36–0.86), and glomerulonephritis was more common (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.55–3.07). An excess of glomerulonephritis, but not diabetes, was seen among Aboriginal people aged 22 to less than 40 years. The converse was true (higher risk of diabetes, lower risk of glomerulonephritis) among Aboriginal people aged 40 years and older. Interpretation: The incidence of end-stage renal disease is higher among Aboriginal children and young adults than among white children and young adults. This higher incidence may be driven by an increased risk of glomerulonephritis in this population.
Samuel, Susan M.; Foster, Bethany J.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Crowshoe, Lynden; Alexander, R. Todd; Soo, Andrea; Tonelli, Marcello A.
|Describes an atom-building activity where students construct three-dimensional models of atoms using a styrofoam ball as the nucleus and pom-poms, gum drops, minimarshmallows, or other small items of two different colors to represent protons and neutrons attached. Rings of various sizes with pom-poms attached represent electron shells and…
Background Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) were collected as part of a randomised controlled trial of a multi-component intervention to reduce smoking among male prisoners. Cross-sectional baseline data on CVRF were compared among smoking male prisoners and males of similar age in the general population. Methods 425 smoking prisoners were recruited (n = 407 in New South Wales; 18 in Queensland), including 15% of Aboriginal descent (mean age 33 years; median sentence length 3.6 years). We measured CVRF such as smoking, physical activity, blood pressure, risky alcohol use, symptoms of depression, and low socioeconomic status. Results We found that 39% of prisoners had 3+ CVRF, compared to 10% in a general community sample of most disadvantaged men of a similar age. Significantly more Aboriginal prisoners had 3+ CVRF than non-Aboriginal prisoners (55% vs 36%, p < 0.01) and were twice as likely to have 4+ CVRF (27% vs 12%). In addition to all prisoners in this study being a current smoker (with 70% smoking 20+ cigarettes per day), the prevalence of other CVRF was very high: insufficient physical activity (23%); hypertension (4%), risky drinking (52%), symptoms of depression (14%) and low socioeconomic status (SES) (44%). Aboriginal prisoners had higher levels of risky alcohol use, symptoms of depression, and were more likely to be of low SES. Conclusion Prisoners are at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease compared to even the most disadvantaged in their community and should be the focus of specific public health interventions. Trial Registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN#12606000229572.
|Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…
Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark
|In this study, a group (N=15) of final year non-Aboriginal preservice teachers participated in an elective subject that aimed to raise their awareness about Aboriginal ways of knowing. A vital aspect of the course was developing the preservice teachers' awareness of "relatedness to country" which is a key belief for Aboriginal people. The…
|In 2005, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) released the first report on college Aboriginal programs and services entitled Canadian Colleges and Institutes--Meeting the Needs of Aboriginal Learners. The 2005 report provided an overview of the programs and services offered and described how colleges work with Aboriginal…
|This paper focuses on the complexities of health care in Coober Pedy (South Australia) and the nearby Umoona Aboriginal community, and highlights the vital role of Aboriginal health workers in the implementation of primary health care principles. The Aboriginal population in this "outback" area is characterized by considerable economic problems,…
This paper focuses on the complexities of health care in Coober Pedy (South Australia) and the nearby Umoona Aboriginal community, and highlights the vital role of Aboriginal health workers in the implementation of primary health care principles. The Aboriginal population in this "outback" area is characterized by considerable economic problems,…
Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…
Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark
|In India, the Constitution now includes special educational safeguards for aboriginals (Mohanty, 2003). Aboriginal communities, commonly denoted as "tribal," constitute roughly 8 percent of the total Indian population. In 1960, the Scheduled Area and Scheduled Tribes Commission was established with the aim of integrating the aboriginal people…
|A study explored the school experiences of aboriginal female students (n=5) at Jen-Te Junior College of Medical Nursing and Management School in Miao-Li, Taiwan. The following research questions were addressed: (1) do aboriginal girls feel that their culture and background influences their schooling experiences? (2) what problems do aboriginal…
Background Delayed immunisation and vaccine preventable communicable disease remains a significant health issue in Aboriginal children. Strategies to increase immunisation coverage and timeliness can be resource intensive. In a low cost initiative at the Aboriginal Medical Service Western Sydney (AMSWS) in 2008–2009, a trial of personalised calendars to prompt timely childhood immunisation was undertaken. Methods Calendars were generated during attendances for early childhood immunisations. They were designed for display in the home and included the due date of the next immunisation, a photo of the child and Aboriginal artwork. In a retrospective cohort design, Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data from AMSWS and non-AMSWS providers were used to determine the delay in immunisation and percentage of immunisations on time in those who received a calendar compared to those who did not. Interviews were undertaken with carers and staff. Results Data on 2142 immunisation doses given to 505 children were analysed, utilising pre-intervention (2005–2007) and intervention (2008–2009) periods and a 2 year post-intervention observation period. 113 calendars were distributed (30% of eligible immunisation attendances). Improvements in timeliness were seen at each schedule point for those children who received a calendar. The average delay in those who received a calendar at their previous visit was 0.6 months (95% CI -0.8 to 2.6) after the due date, compared to 3.3 months (95% CI ?0.6 to 7.5) in those who did not. 80% of doses were on time in the group who received a calendar at the preceding immunisation, 66% were on time for those who received a calendar at an earlier point and 57% of doses were on time for those who did not receive a calendar (P<0.0001, Cochran-Armitage trend test). Interview data further supported the value and effectiveness of the calendars as both a prompt to timely immunisations and a community health education project without undue resource implications. Conclusions Personalised calendars can increase the timeliness of immunisations in Aboriginal children. This simple, low cost tool appears practicable and effective in an Aboriginal community setting in improving early childhood vaccination timeliness and has high potential for local adaptation to suit the needs of diverse communities.
The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications for SETI as well.
Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.
A culturally appropriate oral health training course tailored to the needs of rural Aboriginal health workers was developed in Western Australia. The course is taught in three modules ranging from introductory material to comprehensive practical and theoretical knowledge of basic dental health care. The program encourages Aboriginal health workers…
As a wave of babyboomers retire, the upcoming decade will see only a modest expansion in Manitoba’s available workforce, and most of this net increase will depend on job-seeking young Aboriginals. Policy reforms should encourage more Aboriginal students to finish high school. Smart reforms to financial aid for postsecondary education would demonstrate aid availability to students early in their academic
Aboriginal people in remote Australian communities have limited opportunity to participate in the market economy. The Aboriginal arts and craft industry offers an important option to generate cash income and the sustained supply of native plants used in production is vital. We assessed the current harvest of a rainforest tree species commonly used for sculpture, Bombax ceiba. Information from field
Anthony D. Griffiths; Anne Philips; Charles Godjuwa
This paper suggests a life cycle model for aboriginal arts performance in tourism related situations from the perspective of authenticity. It is proposed that aboriginal arts performance is subject to a change and potential revitalisation process which consists of five stages: (1) the primordial state; (2) increasing involvement; (3) situational adaptations; (4) revitalisation; and (5) management for change, conservation or
Many Aboriginal peoples are widely exposed to stress in their lives. This exposure to stress appears linked not only to their contemporary and immediate life circumstances (e.g., marginal economic and at-risk living conditions) but also to their historical, cultural, and political contexts. Recently, diabetes has become prevalent in many Aboriginal communities worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to
Objective To investigate the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and the risk of developing diabetes in Aboriginal Australians. Research design and methods High sensitivity CRP levels were measured in 620 Aboriginal participants aged 20-74 years free from diabetes at baseline in a remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Participants were followed for a median of 11 years to
This paper takes u p the debate kindled by Bo yd Hunter in 'Conspicuous Compassion and Wicked Pr oblems' (2007). The present paper's contention is that just as unemployment is a 'matter of choice' — in the words of Treasury Secretary Ted Ev ans in 1993 — so too is Aboriginal despair. In the case of Aborigines, there is a
Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…
In the guise of equality, citizenship, integration, and policy change, the door has opened to allow the development of Aboriginal early childhood services in Canada. Recognition of the need for early childhood services specific to Aboriginal people did not become prominent until the mid-1980s. A decade later, services came into being. Little time…
Introduction: There is a paucity of intervention programs for Aboriginal girls and many of those that exist are delivered in cul- turally inappropriate ways. Methods: In this paper, we provide an overview of recent research that focused on delivering a sexual health mentorship program that enhanced the voices of Aboriginal youth and was culturally relevant and appropriate to indigenous youth.
A case study of Aboriginal education in Geraldton, Western Australia, looked at the cycle of low educational attainment, unemployment, and poverty; national and state programs to support Aboriginal students and parent involvement; and community attitudes toward existing programs and proposed improvement strategies. A 1-year plan is detailed for…
|A culturally appropriate oral health training course tailored to the needs of rural Aboriginal health workers was developed in Western Australia. The course is taught in three modules ranging from introductory material to comprehensive practical and theoretical knowledge of basic dental health care. The program encourages Aboriginal health…
Aboriginals experience high rates of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and are less likely to receive a kidney transplant from a living donor. We hypothesized that higher rates of hypertension and diabetes in Aboriginal communities would result in fewer potential living donors coming forward and more exclusions for medical reasons. We performed a retrospective study to examine the frequency of potential donor presentation and the reasons for donor exclusion among Aboriginal and Caucasian wait-listed ESRD patients at our center. Three hundred and eighty-five wait-listed patients were studied, including 174 Aboriginals and 211 Caucasians. Time on the waiting list was similar between groups. A similar proportion of Aboriginals and Caucasians had at least one potential donor (40% vs. 46%), and the rate of donor exclusion for medical reasons was also similar (23% vs. 21%). Potential donors to Aboriginals were more likely to be excluded for non-medical reasons (50% vs. 30%; p < 0.0001), of which 96% were because of loss of contact. Waitlisted Aboriginal ESRD patients appear just as likely as Caucasians to have potential living donors initiate evaluation and have a similar rate of donor exclusion because of medical reasons. Further work is required to identify why donors to Aboriginals are more likely to withdraw from the evaluation process. PMID:21919960
There is substantial evidence that Aboriginal youth face serious challenges in schooling, in general, and in literacy development, specifically. Thus, it is essential to design early literacy programmes that engage Aboriginal children and produce positive outcomes. In this article, the authors propose that such programmes include oral storytelling by teachers and students because it is a precursor to reading and
Anne McKeough; Stan Bird; Erin Tourigny; Angela Romaine; Susan Graham; Jackie Ottmann; Joan Jeary
This discussion paper explores interactions among formal learning, informal learning, and life conditions and opportunities experienced by aboriginal people in Canada. The contradictory importance of education for aboriginal people is examined with respect to three related aspects of these relationships. First, the paper summarizes students'…
A qualitative study of 20 caregivers of Aboriginal children with developmental disabilities revealed that caregivers continue to be guided by values rooted in traditional Aboriginal societies where all children were considered gifts of the Creator. The lives of vulnerable children had purpose, they were treated with respect, and the self-growth of the caregiver was connected to care of the child.
|This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…
Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.
|In response to the enduring "deficit" approach to the educational attainment of Aboriginal students in North America, we hypothesized that academic underperformance is related to a cultural mismatch between Aboriginal students' cultural background, which emphasizes connectedness and interdependence, and the mainstream White model of education,…
Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Flores, Heidi; Ponizovskiy, Vladimir; Ranney, John D.; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Russo, Natalie; Burack, Jacob A.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in three different ethnic groups in eastern Taiwan. The study was performed among Han Chinese, aboriginal Ami and aboriginal Atayal in six rural villages. Inhabitants aged 40 years and over were invited to participate. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was
Hsin-Dean Chen; Cheng-Kuang Shaw; Wen-Ping Tseng; Hsing-I Chen; Ming-Liang Lee
|The concept of Aboriginal leadership often results in debate. The fundamental question raised is if Australian Aboriginal people are equal members of a pluralistic society that is based on co-operation and consensuses then how can you have a leader? Consequently who determines leadership or is a leader someone that in effect is more equal than…
|Objectives: To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Methods: Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured…
|The stress and anxiety of new teachers is a pervasive problem that impacts upon teacher preparation and retention. Although new mainstream teacher concerns and experiences have been readily discussed in the literature, the same attention has not been invested for new Aboriginal teachers. In Ontario, Canada, in excess of 60% of the Aboriginal…
Cherubini, Lorenzo; Niemczyk, Ewelina; Hodson, John; McGean, Sarah
|A critical race analysis could provide both Aboriginal students and their university student advisors with knowledge to understand and potentially challenge the effects and processes of racialization that have historically, legally, and politically divided Aboriginal communities and families. Coalition and alliances can be made within and across…
|Many Canadian universities report an under-representation of Aboriginal scholars in their professoriate. Employment equity policy seeks to redress the under-representation of marginalized groups in the Canadian workforce, including Aboriginal peoples. This article presents the findings of a case study which sought to examine, from the perspective…
|This article reports on a recent study about Outward Bound Canada's Giwaykiwin program for Aboriginal youth. A key finding that emerged from the study was the need to design contemporary Aboriginal education programs based on a recognition of the evolution of Indigenous cultures and languages in close relationship with specific geographical…
|This paper relates findings from learning circles held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, with urban Aboriginal men. The purpose of the circles was to determine how an Aboriginal cultural identity is formed in urban spaces. Education settings were mentioned by the research participants as a significant contribution to their cultural identity…
Among Aboriginal peoples in Canada, mercury pollution has had an impact on social and cultural well being, both at the community level and among individual members within the community, even when there are no provable direct health effects. This paper explores the link between mercury pollution and social and cultural disruption in Canadian Aboriginal communities. It demonstrates how factors such
This paper takes advantage of 2006 Census data, the Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) to highlight some basic demographic trends among Older Aboriginal Peoples, their health status and their use of health services in the first part of this paper. In the second part of the paper, we connect the findings to what has
Mark W. Rosenberg; Kathi Wilson; Sylvia Abonyi; Adam Wiebe; Kelsey Beach; Robert Lovelace
|In recent years the idea of Aboriginal nationalism has been creeping into public language in Canada through the widespread use of the term "First Nation." The idea that Aboriginal peoples are "Nations," not just "cultures," has also begun to influence the Canadian government, the courts, and the study of law and political science. The principle…
The current discourses on human trafficking in Canada do not take into account domestic trafficking, especially of Aboriginal girls. Notwithstanding the alarmingly high number of missing, murdered and sexually exploited Aboriginal girls, the issue continues to be portrayed more as a problem of prostitution than of sexual exploitation or domestic trafficking. The focus of this study is to examine the
This study explored HIV vaccine acceptability and strategies for culturally appropriate dissemination among sexually diverse Aboriginal peoples in Canada, among those at highest HIV risk. We conducted four focus groups (n=23) with Aboriginal male (1) and female (1) service users, peer educators (1) and service providers (1) in Ontario, Canada. Transcripts were analysed with narrative thematic techniques from grounded theory,
SUMMARY This study involved the use of personal interviews of six Aboriginal students at the University of Alberta in the fall of 1999. This article includes a brief literature review of other articles that consider adult Aboriginal people as library patrons and a section on Indigenous knowledge and values. Findings include three main concerns: a lack of Indigenous resources in
This study explored HIV vaccine acceptability and strategies for culturally appropriate dissemination among sexually diverse Aboriginal peoples in Canada, among those at highest HIV risk. We conducted four focus groups (n=23) with Aboriginal male (1) and female (1) service users, peer educators (1) and service providers (1) in Ontario, Canada. Transcripts were analysed with narrative thematic techniques from grounded theory,
|The aim of this descriptive study was to compare the report profiles of Caucasian, Aboriginal, and other visible minority children whose cases were assessed by child protective services in Canada. The results show that children of Aboriginal ancestry and from visible minority groups are selected for investigation by child protective services 1.77…
|Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…
Aim: To identify factors that affect rheumatic fever prophylaxis for remote-living Aboriginal patients, and to determine the proportion who received adequate prophylaxis. Design and setting: Interview (with analysis based on principles of grounded theory) of patients with a history of rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease and their relatives, and health service providers in a remote Aboriginal community; audit of
Zinta Harrington; David P Thomas; Bart J Currie; Joy Bulkanhawuy
Although there has been a substantial growth in the number of Aboriginal players in the Australian Football League over the past decade, issues of structural and institutional racism have not been explored. This investigation of the assignment of players by position revealed marked patterns of difference, which tend to reflect stereotypes about Aboriginal athletes. The results are similar to research
Serum vitamin B6 (pyridoxal), folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured in blood samples from 293 Western Australian Aborigines living in the Cundeelee and Meekatharra areas. Twenty-one per cent of males and 25% of females from the Cundeelee area had a low serum pyridoxal compared with 39% and 31% respectively from the Meekatharra area. Twelve per cent of Aborigines below
Does being successful at school mean the same thing for all children? In Australia, research posits that Aboriginal Australian, Anglo Australian, and immigrant Australian children embrace different learning goals (i.e., mastery, performance, or social) according to their culture. In this study, a 38-item inventory was used to measure similarities and differences between Aboriginal (n = 496), Anglo (n = 1,173),
Dennis M. McInerney; John Hinkley; Martin Dowson; Shawn Van Etten
Child sexual abuse (CSA), a prevalent problem across cultures and coun- tries, threatens the well-being of victims, their families, and communities. Reports on the rates of CSA among Aboriginal people in Canada differ on the extent of this problem in the communities, with some studies reporting epidemic rates of sexual exploitation of Aboriginal children. Careful analy- sis and interpretation is
This paper1 attempts to explain the vulnerability of aboriginal people to involvement in the criminal justice system in Canada. It argues that one of the most important factors is a decline in interdependency among people in aboriginal communities. This has come about as the result of historical processes (such as colonisation and the creation of the reserve system) which have
BACKGROUND: The goal of this cluster randomized trial is to test the effectiveness of a counseling approach, Motivational Interviewing, to control dental caries in young Aboriginal children. Motivational Interviewing, a client-centred, directive counseling style, has not yet been evaluated as an approach for promotion of behaviour change in indigenous communities in remote settings. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Aboriginal women were hired from the
Rosamund Harrison; Jacques Veronneau; Brian Leroux
In response to the enduring "deficit" approach to the educational attainment of Aboriginal students in North America, we hypothesized that academic underperformance is related to a cultural mismatch between Aboriginal students' cultural background, which emphasizes connectedness and interdependence, and the mainstream White model of education,…
Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Flores, Heidi; Ponizovskiy, Vladimir; Ranney, John D.; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Russo, Natalie; Burack, Jacob A.
The book describes the setting, objectives, program, evaluation and achievement of six innovative action-research early childhood education projects for Aboriginal Australian children, traces various previous attempts to provide education, and provides an historical background of the estimated 140,000 Aboriginal people who make up 1% of…
Most Aboriginal people in Australia lack the background qualifications to enter higher education courses in science and mathematics. In 1984, the Western Australian Institute of Technology (WAIT) (now Curtin University of Technology) developed a project which created and evaluated bridging courses for Aboriginal people seeking to gain access into…
For demographic reasons and as a result of a number of high profile health incidents in recent years, much of the health research and policy focus is on the younger cohorts of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. A critical examination of recent demographic trends reveals, however, that older cohorts of the Aboriginal population are increasing at a faster rate than younger
Background: The customary medicinal plant knowledge possessed by the Australian Aboriginal people is a significant resource. Published information on it is scattered throughout the literature, in heterogeneous data formats, and is scattered among various Aboriginal communities across Australia, due to a multiplicity of languages. This ancient knowle dge is at risk due to loss of biodiversity, cultural impact and the
Increasing the number of Aboriginal students graduating from university is a goal of many Canadian universities. Realizing this goal may present challenges to the orientation and methodology of university curricula that have been developed without consideration of the traditional epistemologies of Aboriginal peoples. In this article, three scholars in the Faculty of Education at the University of Victoria take up
A White Australian professor of a class on Indigenous women's dance has her Aboriginal sister-in-law conduct workshops on Indigenous dance. The classroom dynamics resulting from the complex power relationships (teacher as White woman, Aboriginal family member, and students) disturbs Western paradigms. The responsibility of "safely delivering"…
The bibliography lists published works relating to Aboriginal stories which have been labelled by non-Aboriginal Australians with a variety of terms: myths or mythology, legends, fairy tales, superstitions, fables, traditions, stories, dreamtime stories, narratives or even ghost stories. Preference is now given to the use of the term ‘dreaming stories’. For a discussion of the various definitions and classifications of
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal children in Canada are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Given that physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, prevention efforts targeting Aboriginal children include interventions to enhance physical activity involvement. These types of interventions require adequate assessment of physical activity patterns to identify determinants, detect trends, and evaluate progress towards intervention
This article examines the role of Aborigines in Mary Gilmore's development of an Australian national identity based on the interrelations between natural environment, prominent historical figures, pre?industrial narratives and motifs associated with the settler frontier, Anzac and a distinctive literature and art. She romanticised the early settlers and held ideas inspired by Christianity. Gilmore called for the appropriation of Aboriginal
Summary Purpose: To discuss cultural safety to critique the provision of culturally appropriate maternity services to remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in Australia. Procedure: The literature and policies around 'culture' and 'cultural safety' are discussed and applied to the provision of maternity services to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in remote areas of Australia. Findings: The current
Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation. PMID:23248805
Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Beach, Jeremy; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan
In this study, a series of focus groups were conducted to gain an understanding of the nature of stress among Canadian Aboriginal women and men living with diabetes. Specifically, attention was given to the meanings Aboriginal peoples with diabetes attach to their lived experiences of stress, and the major sources or causes of stress in their lives. The key common
This article describes some of the risks and challenges faced by Aboriginal youth living in Canadian cities. It evaluates four current drug prevention\\/education programs for this group and other at-risk youth. The lessons learned from these strategies lead to a proposal for a reflective education approach directed toward opening meaningful dialogue about drugs and alcohol with urban Aboriginal youths in
Background: Aboriginal populations worldwide face increasing rates of suicide. Despite this recurring observation, little research has emerged from Aboriginal settings. Aims: This paper describes the psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of 30 consecutive adult suicides from four First-Nations communities in Quebec, Canada. Method: Psychological autopsies guided by the LEDS with family members of the deceased. Results: Suicide among this group is
Australian Aboriginal children experience early, persistent and severe middle ear infections. We conducted a review of the medical literature that addressed acute otitis media (AOM) in Australian Aboriginal children. Comparisons were made with the recent guidelines on the diagnosis and management of AOM prepared by the American Academies of Pediatrics and Family Physicians (AAP & AAFP 2004). Otitis media in
P. S. Morris; A. J. Leach; S. Halpin; G. Mellon; G. Gadil; C. Wigger; G. Mackenzie; C. Wilson; E. Gadil; P. Torzillo
|This book examines the differential educational experiences of Aboriginal peoples in urban centers--primarily in Canada, but also in Australia and the United States. Major themes of the book are maintenance of individual and collective Aboriginal identity, the impact on that identity of disconnection from the land, spirituality as the key to…
Current high levels of morbidity and mortality, and high rates of incarceration among Australian Aboriginal populations are related historically to the attempted separation of Aboriginal people from family and community. The paper discusses these events through an analysis of legal and extra-legal forms of power in the late 19th century in Victoria, and through an analysis of the workings of
This study explores the potential of intertidal Protothaca staminea shells as high-resolution geochemical archives of environmental change in a coastal upwelling region. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were analyzed by excimer laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at sub-weekly temporal resolution in shells growing ˜1 mm per month. Growth patterns of a modern P. staminea shell from Humboldt Bay, California, collected in December 1999 made it possible to infer a lifespan from 1993 to 1998. Growth hiatuses in the shell may have excluded records of extreme events. Mg/Ca ratios appeared to be partly controlled by water temperature; the correlation coefficient between temperature and Mg/Ca was r = 0.71 in one of four growth increments. Significant year-to-year differences in the sensitivity of Mg/Ca to temperature in P. staminea could not be explained, however. Sr/Ca ratios appeared to be more closely related to shell growth rate. Oxygen isotopes, measured at 2-week temporal resolution in the same shell, did not show a clear relation to local temperature in summer, possibly because temperatures were higher and less variable at the King Salmon mudflat, where the shell was collected, than in the main channel of Humboldt Bay, where water properties were monitored. Negative shell ? 13C values (<-0.5‰) marked spring and summer coastal upwelling events. The Mg contents of P. staminea middenshells dated to ˜3 ka and ˜9 ka were significantly lower than in the modern shell. This may have resulted from degradation of a Mg-rich shell organic matrix and precluded quantitative interpretation of the older high-resolution records. Elevated ? 13C values in the ˜3 ka shell suggested that the individual grew in highly productive or stratified environment, such as a shallow coastal embayment or lagoon.
In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities. PMID:22218266
Aboriginal children’s well-being is vital to the health and success of our future nations. Addressing persistent and current Aboriginal health inequities requires considering both the contexts in which disparities exist and innovative and culturally appropriate means of rectifying those inequities. The present article contextualizes Aboriginal children’s health disparities, considers ‘determinants’ of health as opposed to biomedical explanations of ill health and concludes with ways to intervene in health inequities. Aboriginal children experience a greater burden of ill health compared with other children in Canada, and these health inequities have persisted for too long. A change that will impact individuals, communities and nations, a change that will last beyond seven generations, is required. Applying a social determinants of health framework to health inequities experienced by Aboriginal children can create that change.
Background Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Results Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. Conclusions The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation among Aboriginal girls and women. It is critical to acknowledge Aboriginal identity and culture as a source of empowerment; and to recognise the role of persistent marginalization in contributing to the high prevalence and initiation of smoking.
The night sky played an important role in the social structure, oral traditions, and cosmology of the Arrernte and Luritja Aboriginal cultures of Central Australia. A component of this cosmology relates to meteors, meteorites, and impact craters. This paper discusses the role of meteoritic phenomena in Arrernte and Luritja cosmology, showing not only that these groups incorporated this phenomenon in their cultural traditions, but that their oral traditions regarding the relationship between meteors, meteorites and impact structures suggests the Arrernte and Luritja understood that they are directly related.
Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals. Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews explored participants' beliefs about cancer and experiences of cancer care and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Information from interviews relevant to hospital services including and building design was extracted. Findings Relationships and respect emerged as crucial considerations of participants although many aspects of the hospital environment were seen as influencing the delivery of care. Five themes describing concerns about the hospital environment emerged: (i) being alone and lost in a big, alien and inflexible system; (ii) failure of open communication, delays and inefficiency in the system; (iii) practicalities: costs, transportation, community and family responsibilities; (iv) the need for Aboriginal support persons; and (v) connection to the community. Conclusions Design considerations and were identified but more important than the building itself was the critical need to build trust in health services. Promotion of cultural safety, support for Aboriginal family structures and respecting the importance of place and community to Aboriginal patients are crucial in improving cancer outcomes.
The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking prevention program. A grade 4 classroom in the second school received a standard smoking prevention program delivered in this jurisdiction. Children in each classroom were tested pre- and post-intervention to measure attitude changes about smoking. There was a significant reduction in intentions to smoke among Aboriginal children who received the culturally sensitive smoking prevention program. The small overall sample size precluded a direct comparison of the efficacy of the culturally sensitive and standard programs. The present findings suggest a smoking prevention program that has been culturally adapted for Aboriginal children may reduce future smoking intentions among Aboriginal grade 4 students. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which school smoking prevention programs adapted to respect the long-standing use of tobacco in Aboriginal cultural traditions may be more effective than standard programs in reaching Aboriginal youth. PMID:22875472
Background Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression, experience, manifestations and consequences of emotional distress and depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia. Methods Utilizing a grounded theory approach, in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 theoretically sampled young, middle aged and senior Aboriginal men and traditional healers. Analysis was conducted by a single investigator using constant comparison methods. Results Depressive symptoms were common and identifiable, and largely consistent with symptom profiles seen in non-Aboriginal groups. For Aboriginal men, depression was expressed and understood as primarily related to weakness or injury of the spirit, with a lack of reference to hopelessness and specific somatic complaints. The primary contributors to depression related to the loss of connection to social and cultural features of Aboriginal life, cumulative stress and marginalisation. Conclusions Depression and depressive symptomatology clearly exists in Aboriginal men, however its determinants and expression differ from mainstream populations. Emotions were understood within the construction of spirit, Kurunpa, which was vulnerable to repetitive and powerful negative social forces, loss, and stress across the life course, and served to frame the physical and emotional experience and expression of depression.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a growing inequity in tobacco use, susceptibility to future smoking, and quit attempts among Off-Reserve Aboriginal (ORA) youth in Canada relative to Non-Aboriginal youth. Current smoking, susceptibility to future smoking and quit attempts were examined among a nationally representative sample of ORA and Non-Aboriginal Canadian youth. Data are from cross-sectional surveys of 88,661 respondents in Grades 6 to 9 across the 2004, 2006 and 2008 survey waves of the Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). At each wave, ORA youth were more likely to be current smokers (overall OR = 3.91, 95% CI 3.47 to 4.41), to be susceptible to future smoking (overall OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.48), and less likely to have ever made a quit attempt compared to Non-Aboriginal youth (overall OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.96). Although susceptibility to future smoking declined for Non-Aboriginal youth, the prevalence of susceptibility remained stable among ORA youth. The percentage of ORA youth reporting making a quit attempt increased, however, current smoking rates among ORA youth did not decline. These findings suggest that the disparity in susceptibility to future tobacco use among ORA and Non-Aboriginal youth has increased over time. Despite increased rates of quit attempts, current smoking rates remain significantly higher among ORA youth. Tobacco control programs for Aboriginal youth should be a public health priority. PMID:23429753
Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Burkhalter, Robin; Brown, K Stephen
Rates of end-stage renal disease among Australian Aboriginal people have been increasing over the past 2 decades, particularly in the northern and more remote areas of Australia, and especially in disadvantaged communities. Proteinuria predicts the rate of loss of kidney function; it is common in young adults and virtually universal in those over 50 years of age. Cumulative independent risk factors include low birth weight, recurrent skin infections, adult obesity, diabetes or its precursors, smoking, excessive alcohol intake, and a family history of renal disease. A plausible theory is that intrauterine malnutrition permanently reduces total nephron numbers, which are then overworked in adulthood by the metabolic stresses of obesity (from excess alcohol and poor diet), by higher blood pressures, and by infections, while starved of blood supply because of smoking. Although kidney disease is often only detected when already well established, active medical intervention offers great rewards. Control of blood pressure (preferentially using angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (AIIRBs) in combination) can often stop or even reverse kidney damage, even if ongoing diabetes control is poor. Adequately funded kidney health programs with active Aboriginal health worker involvement are enormously cost-effective: tight blood pressure control at least halves the rate of disease progression, and every year of dialysis deferred for 1 patient could fund the appointment of 2 health workers. Addressing the underlying social causes for this epidemic is critical. PMID:15719338
Objective: To investigate under-recording of Aboriginal people in hospital data from New South Wales (NSW), Australia, define algorithms for enhanced reporting, and examine the impact of these algorithms on estimated disparities in cardiovascular and injury outcomes. Methods: NSW Admitted Patient Data were linked with NSW mortality data (2001-2007). Associations with recording of Aboriginal status were investigated using multilevel logistic regression. The number of admissions reported as Aboriginal according to six algorithms was compared with the original (unenhanced) Aboriginal status variable. Age-standardised admission, and 30- and 365-day mortality ratios were estimated for cardiovascular disease and injury. Results: Sixty per cent of the variation in recording of Aboriginal status was due to the hospital of admission, with poorer recording in private and major city hospitals. All enhancement algorithms increased the number of admissions reported as Aboriginal, from between 4.1% and 37.8%. Admission and mortality ratios varied markedly between algorithms, with less strict algorithms resulting in higher admission rate ratios, but generally lower mortality rate ratios, particularly for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: The choice of enhancement algorithm has an impact on the number of people reported as Aboriginal and on estimated outcome ratios. The influence of the hospital on recording of Aboriginal status highlights the importance of continued efforts to improve data collection. Implications: Estimates of Aboriginal health disparity can change depending on how Aboriginal status is reported. Sensitivity analyses using a number of algorithms are recommended. PMID:24090327
Background Despite the high prevalence of smoking among Aboriginal youth, there is a paucity of research related to tobacco use and other risk behaviours among Aboriginal youth living off-reserve in Canada. We used data from the national Youth Smoking Survey to characterize non-traditional tobacco use, exposure to second-hand smoke, and alcohol and drug use among Aboriginal youth living off-reserve. We examined whether these youth were at increased health risk compared with non-Aboriginal youth. Methods We examined cigarette smoking behaviour, use of other tobacco products, use of alcohol and other drugs, and exposure to second-hand smoke among 2620 Aboriginal youth living off-reserve and 26 223 non-Aboriginal youth in grades 9 to 12 who participated in the 2008/09 Youth Smoking Survey. Results The prevalence of current smoking among the Aboriginal youth was more than double that among non-Aboriginal youth (24.9% v. 10.4%). Aboriginal youth also had a higher prevalence of regular exposure to second-hand smoke at home (37.3% v. 19.7%) and in cars (51.0% v. 30.3%). Aboriginal youth were more likely than non-Aboriginal youth to be current smokers, to be regularly exposed to second-hand smoke, to have tried marijuana and other illicit drugs, and to engage in binge drinking. They were less likely than non-Aboriginal youth to have tried to quit smoking. Interpretation Current national estimates of smoking, and alcohol and illicit drug use among youth underestimate the prevalence of these behaviours among Aboriginal youth living off-reserve. Our findings highlight the need for culturally appropriate prevention and cessation policies and programs for this at-risk population.
Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Burkhalter, Robin
High resolution records of past sea surface temperature (SST) are not as common in mid to high latitudes as they are in tropical areas. In higher latitude regions, proxy data preserved in marine mollusk shells, often found in archaeological shellmiddens, could potentially provide these critical records. One promising candidate is the Purple Olive Snail Olivella biplicata, a marine mollusk with an aragonite shell that occurs in subtidal to shallow intertidal zones along the eastern Pacific coast in large quantities. The ubiquity of the snail spatially (from Baja California to British Colombia) and temporally makes it an ideal candidate for study. Previous studies have shown seasonal changes in isotopic signatures from O. biplicata (Eerkens et al 2005, 2007, 2010), however high resolution trace elemental analysis has not been conducted. We measured stable isotope (?18O and ?13C) and trace element (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca) composition in two modern shells collected in La Jolla, California and two archaeological shells from ~AD1410 to AD1500 excavated on San Miguel Island (Channel Islands, California). The shells were micromilled along growth lines at 100-150 ?m intervals. The resulting powder was analyzed for stable isotopes and trace elements by IRMS and HR-ICPMS respectively. The modern shell data was compared to instrumental SST records from the Scripps Pier. ?18O data from modern O. biplicata follows monthly trends in SST, though fractionation due to biological effects leads to an offset from isotopic equilibrium values. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca measurements on modern shells allow us to test the viability of these as additional proxies that could help us deconvolve SST from salinity effects. Archaeological sample measurements are utilized to assess the possible effects of early diagenesis on shell geochemistry. Given that a single shell can record nearly a decade of SSTs at monthly resolution and that the species can be found in archaeological sites dating back 10,000 years B.P., O. biplicata has great potential to increase our understanding of high latitude climate.
Nye, J. W.; Ferguson, J. E.; Johnson, K. R.; Kennett, D. J.
In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today. PMID:22545265
Results show that the drawings attributed to the Aboriginal "artist" produced more positive impressions and were rated more highly on the semantic differential. This research was presented at the Rocky Mountain Psychological Convention, Denver, Colorado, April, 1978. (Author)
The study findings reported in this issue by Dr. Harriet L. MacMillan and associates (see pages 1569 to 1578) demonstrate that aboriginal people in Canada bear a disproportionate burden of illness compared with the general population. In this editorial the author examines some of the factors that have contributed to this situation, such as poverty, cultural barriers and jurisdictional problems. The way forward lies in supporting the aspirations of aboriginal people for self-determination. Aboriginal people in Canada need to recognize and use their own professional human resources and to adopt more responsibility for improving the health status of their communities. At the same time, there is a need for greater acceptance by aboriginal people of existing initiatives for health promotion and disease prevention.
Aboriginal burning in Australia has long been assumed to be a "resource management" strategy, but no quantitative tests of this hypothesis have ever been conducted. We combine ethnographic observations of contemporary Aboriginal hunting and burning with satellite image analysis of anthropogenic and natural landscape structure to demonstrate the processes through which Aboriginal burning shapes arid-zone vegetational diversity. Anthropogenic landscapes contain a greater diversity of successional stages than landscapes under a lightning fire regime, and differences are of scale, not of kind. Landscape scale is directly linked to foraging for small, burrowed prey (monitor lizards), which is a specialty of Aboriginal women. The maintenance of small-scale habitat mosaics increases small-animal hunting productivity. These results have implications for understanding the unique biodiversity of the Australian continent, through time and space. In particular, anthropogenic influences on the habitat structure of paleolandscapes are likely to be spatially localized and linked to less mobile, "broad-spectrum" foraging economies. PMID:18809925
Bliege Bird, R; Bird, D W; Codding, B F; Parker, C H; Jones, J H
The challenge to transfer the health care of Aboriginal peoples of Canada from non-Aboriginal to predominantly Aboriginal health professionals, requires preliminary innovative approaches in post-secondary education. Described in this paper, is the background, development and progress to date of the Integrated Nursing Access Program (INAP) for Aboriginal students, and its phenomenological approach to curriculum design. Traditional indigenous knowledge and methodologies are embedded in process learning and university-level program activities. Learning in this INAP Bachelor of Nursing program occurs over three years, during which time students complete high school requirements together with some first year nursing courses. The program is followed by three additional years of exclusive baccalaureate level nursing education. To date, students have successfully completed the first half of this program. PMID:20361858
Orchard, Carole A; Didham, Paula; Jong, Cathy; Fry, June
This product contains final experimental estimates of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous), non-Indigenous and total populations of Australia at 30 June 2006, for various geographies.
An Art\\/Ethnography binary informs a range of discursive engagements with Australian Aboriginal art. Ethnography is usually associated with colonialism, primitivism and regarded as circumscribing the art, while Art is posited as unequivocally progressive and good. This article will discuss the activities of various Indigenous and non-Indigenous actors in the Aboriginal art world, and explore the way the Art\\/Ethnography binary’s reiteration
Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events. PMID:22730152
Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda
Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented to improve communication on all levels and reduce systemic barriers operating within the health system.
We examined the genetic associations of the G-2548A polymorphism in the promoter of the leptin (LEP) gene and the Gln223Arg (Q223R) polymorphism of the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene with obesity. Two hundred twenty-six obese aboriginal subjects (BMI ? 27 kg\\/m2) and 182 aboriginal subjects with normal weight (BMI BMI ? 27 kg\\/m2). There was no difference in genotypic frequency of
Tsu-Nai Wang; Meng-Chuan Huang; Wen-Tsan Chang; Albert Min-Shan Ko; Eing-Mei Tsai; Chih-Shan Liu; Chien-Hung Lee; Ying-Chin Ko
Background: Heavy kava use in Aboriginal commun- ities has been linked to various health effects, including anecdotes of sudden cardiac deaths. Aims: To examine associations between kava use and potential health effects. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out within a kava-using east Arnhem Land Aboriginal community in tropical northern Australia. One-hundred-and-one adults who were current, recent or non-users of
A. R. Clough; S. P. Jacups; Z. Wang; C. B. Burns; R. S. Bailie; S. J. Cairney; A. Collie; T. Guyula; S. P. McDonald; B. J. Currie
Objective: To identify issues and concepts to guide the development of culturally appropriate mental health promotion strategies with Aboriginal populations and communities in Canada.Methods: We review recent literature examining the links between the history of colonialism and government interventions (including the residential school system, out-adoption, and centralised bureaucratic control) and the mental health of Canadian Aboriginal peoples.Results: There are high
Aboriginal Canadians experience a disproportionate burden of ill-health and have endured a history of racism in accessing and using health care. Meanwhile, this population is rapidly growing, resulting in an urgent need to facilitate better quality of living and dying in many ways, including through enhancing (cultural) access to palliative care. In this article, we report the findings from a qualitative case study undertaken in rural British Columbia, Canada through exploring the perceptions of Aboriginal palliative care in a region identified as lacking in formal palliative care services and having only a limited Aboriginal population. Using interview data collected from 31 formal and informal palliative care providers (May-September 2008), we thematically explore not only the existing challenges and contradictions associated with the prioritisation and provision of Aboriginal palliative care in the region in terms of (in)visibility but also identify the elements necessary to enhance such care in the future. The implications for service providers in rural regions are such that consideration of the presence of small, and not always 'visible', populations is necessary; while rural care providers are known for their resilience and resourcefulness, increased opportunities for meaningful two-way knowledge exchange with peers and consultation with experts cannot be overlooked. Doing so will serve to enhance culturally accessible palliative care in the region in general and for Aboriginal peoples specifically. This analysis thus contributes to a substantial gap in the palliative care literature concerning service providers' perceptions surrounding Aboriginal palliative care as well as Aboriginal peoples' experiences with receiving such care. Given the growing Aboriginal population and continued health inequities, this study serves to not only increase awareness but also create better living and dying conditions in small but incremental ways. PMID:20500225
The spread of industrial civilizations has been particularly traumatic for the last remaining hunter-gatherer societies. Manifestations\\u000a of this include expatriation from ancestral lands, sickness, poverty, and environmental degradation. Northern Australia has\\u000a been no exception despite remaining a stronghold of Aboriginal cultures and still containing vast areas of relatively intact\\u000a landscapes. Most Aboriginal people reside in remote settlements where they remain
Fay H. Johnston; Susan P. Jacups; Amy J. Vickery; David M. J. S. Bowman
Among Aboriginal peoples in Canada, mercury pollution has had an impact on social and cultural well being, both at the community\\u000a level and among individual members within the community, even when there are no provable direct health effects. This paper\\u000a explores the link between mercury pollution and social and cultural disruption in Canadian Aboriginal communities. It demonstrates\\u000a how factors such
An irrepressibly popular musical phenomenon, hip-hop is close to spoken word and focuses on lyrics with a message, reviving local traditions of song that tell histories, counsel listeners, and challenge participants to outdo one another in clever exchanges. A hip-hop music-making program in Edmonton, Canada, successfully reengages at-risk Aboriginal youth in school with high levels of desertion and helps them establish a healthy sense of self and of their identity as Aboriginals. PMID:20391618
Despite recent health gains for Australian Aboriginal people their significantly poorer health status compared with that of non-Aboriginal Australians remains significant. Within the context of high levels of mortality and morbidity, research highlights significant barriers to timely health-care, access and safe use of prescribed and over-the-counter medicines. The risks to Aboriginal people's health due to unsafe medication use are preventable. The purpose of this article is to present the findings from qualitative research focused on Aboriginal people's knowledge, use and experience of over-the-counter analgesics. The study was conducted in the north-western metropolitan area of Adelaide, which has the largest urban Aboriginal population in South Australia. The employment of an Aboriginal Elder as Cultural Advisor enabled engagement with Aboriginal participants. Purposive 'snow ball' sampling was used to recruit participants for four focus groups [n = 30] and one participant opting for a personal semi-structured interview. Participants worked with the researchers to develop the findings and formulate recommendations. The 25 women and 6 men, aged 20-80 years reported various chronic medical conditions. Focus groups/interview elicited accounts of critical issues concerning safe selection and use of over-the-counter analgesics. Serious health risks were evident due to limited knowledge about safe analgesic use and over-reliance on information from family, friends and advertising. Extremely poor access was reported by participants to culturally and linguistically appropriate information, education and advice from a range of doctors and other health professionals including Aboriginal health workers. PMID:23387500
Cusack, Lynette; de Crespigny, Charlotte; Wilson, Coral
Across diverse ecosystems, greater climatic variability tends to increase wildfire size, particularly in Australia, where alternating wet–dry cycles increase vegetation growth, only to leave a dry overgrown landscape highly susceptible to fire spread. Aboriginal Australian hunting fires have been hypothesized to buffer such variability, mitigating mortality on small-mammal populations, which have suffered declines and extinctions in the arid zone coincident with Aboriginal depopulation. We test the hypothesis that the relationship between climate and fire size is buffered through the maintenance of an anthropogenic, fine-grained fire regime by comparing the effect of climatic variability on landscapes dominated by Martu Aboriginal hunting fires with those dominated by lightning fires. We show that Aboriginal fires are smaller, more tightly clustered, and remain small even when climate variation causes huge fires in the lightning region. As these effects likely benefit threatened small-mammal species, Aboriginal hunters should be considered trophic facilitators, and policies aimed at reducing the risk of large fires should promote land-management strategies consistent with Aboriginal burning regimes.
Bliege Bird, Rebecca; Codding, Brian F.; Kauhanen, Peter G.
The observations were done during expeditions to tribes of Indonesian aborigines on the islands of New Guinea/Irian Jaya (Korowai-tribe) and Borneo/Kalimantan (Benuaq-tribe). Neither the Korowai people, who are still living under stone age-like circumstances in up to 30 m high tree-houses, nor the Benuaq people of Borneo, being already influenced by missionary men, do treat injuries or wounds by traditional healers. All the "internal" disorders, not being suffered by injuries, are diagnosed and treated in certain ceremonies, during which the healer tries to get in contact to the spirits triggering the disease. The idea is to know the reason of the disorder caused by demons, though the patient can be treated with bringing offerings or confirmations. This way of treating is due to the image of a magic-demoniac relationship between patient and his disease. PMID:10929635
Background Aboriginal Australians experience a higher risk of diabetes than the general Australian population. In this paper, we conducted a nested case-control study to determine whether the presence of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria is associated with the development of diabetes among diabetes-free Aboriginal people at baseline. Methods Urine albumin to creatinine ratios (ACRs) were obtained from 882 Aboriginal people aged 20-74
Procedures suggested by Triandis et al. (1982) were used to examine the auto-and heterostereotypes of Aboriginal- and Anglo-Australian adolescents. The sample included 90 Aboriginal- and 260 Anglo-Australian grade 9 and 11 students. Each student responded to schedules that included attributes arranged on bipolar scales. The attributes were selected only after extensive discussions with Aboriginal- and Anglo-Australian adults. The heterostereo-type that
Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal cultural practices and beliefs may promote and protect Aboriginal health in an urban environment. PMID:23702204
Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul
Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH) is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11-17. 55% were male and 45% female. Discussion SEARCH is built on strong community partnerships, under Aboriginal leadership, and addresses community priorities relating to a number of under-researched areas. SEARCH will provide a unique long-term resource to investigate the causes and trajectories of health and illness in urban Aboriginal children and to identify potential targets for interventions to improve health.
Objectives Lifetime risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important yardstick by which policy makers, clinicians and the general public can assess and promote the awareness and prevention of CHD. The lifetime risk in Aboriginal people is not known. Using a cohort with up to 20?years of follow-up, we estimated the lifetime risk of CHD in Aboriginal people. Design A cohort study. Setting A remote Aboriginal region. Participants 1115 Aboriginal people from one remote tribal group who were free from CHD at baseline were followed for up to 20?years. Main outcome measures During the follow-up period, new CHD incident cases were identified through hospital and death records. We estimated the lifetime risks of CHD with and without adjusting for the presence of competing risk of death from non-CHD causes. Results Participants were followed up for 17?126 person-years, during which 185 developed CHD and 144 died from non-CHD causes. The average age at which the first CHD event occurred was 48?years for men and 49?years for women. The risk of developing CHD increased with age until 60?years and then decreased with age. Lifetime cumulative risk without adjusting for competing risk was 70.7% for men and 63.8% for women. Adjusting for the presence of competing risk of death from non-CHD causes, the lifetime risk of CHD was 52.6% for men and 49.2% for women. Conclusions Lifetime risk of CHD is as high as one in two in both Aboriginal men and women. The average age of having first CHD events was under 50?years, much younger than that reported in non-Aboriginal populations. Our data provide useful knowledge for health education, screening and prevention of CHD in Aboriginal people.
We examine mortality and fertility patterns of aboriginal (primarily Evenki and Keto) and Russian (i.e., nonaboriginal) populations from the Baykit District of Central Siberia for the period 1982-1994. Mortality rates in the aboriginal population of Baykit are substantially greater than those observed in the Russians and are comparable to levels recently reported for other indigenous Siberian groups. Infant mortality rates average 48 per 1000 live births among Baykit aboriginals, three times greater than the Russians of the district (15 per 1000 births) and more than double the rates for Inuit and Indian populations of Canada. Similarly, crude death rates of the Baykit aboriginals are twice as high as those observed in either the Baykit Russians or the Canadian aboriginal populations (13 vs 6-7 deaths per 1000 individuals). Birth rates of the indigenous population of Baykit are higher than those of the Russians (33 vs. 15 births per 1000 individuals) but are comparable to those of Canadian aboriginal groups. Violence and accidents are the leading causes of adult male mortality in both ethnic groups, whereas circulatory diseases have emerged as the prime cause of death in women. The greater male mortality resulting from violence and accidents is a widely observed cross-cultural phenomenon. The emergence of circulatory diseases as a major mortality risk for women, however, appears to be linked to specific lifestyle changes associated with Soviet reorganization of indigenous Siberian societies. Marked declines in mortality and increases in fertility were observed in the Baykit aboriginal population during the mid to late 1980s with the government's implementation of anti-alcohol policies. The decline in mortality, however, was largely erased during the early 1990s, as the region became increasingly isolated and marginalized following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Demographic trends in the Baykit District suggest that because the indigenous groups have become more isolated, many are returning to a more traditional subsistence lifestyle. PMID:9164050
Development and evolution of Microsoft Office and Microsoft Windows shells is based in general on the special methodology of Software creation and implementation such as macros, subroutine, custom commands and specialized features. This methodology of Microsoft Software shells is analyzed. The universal methodology of Adaptable Software creation is proposed. Present result evaluates from (Tod-08.1)3 which is an evolution of the
|Papers from the conference on the education of Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders include: "English Language and Numeracy Program for Aboriginal Students" (Alison Jarred); "The Aboriginal Identity Course: A Midstream Evaluation" (Simon Vaughan); "Making the Curriculum Your Own: The Senior Girls at Lajamanu School Read Glenyse…
Australian National Languages and Literacy Inst., Deakin.
The purpose of this study is to examine the differences in major health trajectories between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. We hypothesize that community conditions affect child health even when child and family characteristics are considered. In order to test this hypothesis, we identify a model of Aboriginal child health that consists of three broad conceptual categories of health determinants: community
Despite the increasing urbanization of the Aboriginal population in Canada over the past 50years, most municipalities have not developed services and programs designed to meet their unique social and cultural needs. Faced with numerous health and social problems, the Aboriginal population is mainly forced to rely on the non-Aboriginal social services sector. However, little is known about the extent to
The major purpose of this paper is to examine how 'race' and racialization operate in health care. To do so, we draw upon data from an ethnographic study that examines the complex issues surrounding health care access for Aboriginal people in an urban center in Canada. In our analysis, we strategically locate our critical examination of racialization in the 'tension of difference' between two emerging themes, namely the health care rhetoric of 'treating everyone the same,' and the perception among many Aboriginal patients that they were 'being treated differently' by health care providers because of their identity as Aboriginal people, and because of their low socio-economic status. Contrary to the prevailing discourse of egalitarianism that paints health care and other major institutions as discrimination-free, we argue that 'race' matters in health care as it intersects with other social categories including class, substance use, and history to organize inequitable access to health and health care for marginalized populations. Specifically, we illustrate how the ideological process of racialization can shape the ways that health care providers 'read' and interact with Aboriginal patients, and how some Aboriginal patients avoid seeking health care based on their expectation of being treated differently. We conclude by urging those of us in positions of influence in health care, including doctors and nurses, to critically reflect upon our own positionality and how we might be complicit in perpetuating social inequities by avoiding a critical discussion of racialization. PMID:18425710
Sexual abuse and family violence are widespread and under-reported phenomena for which Aboriginal victims face even greater barriers to asking for and receiving assistance than do others in the community. There is a need for strategies to address abuse without disempowering and alienating Aboriginal people. A program developed by the New South Wales Health Education Centre Against Violence is addressing this issue at the same time as contributing towards a strengthened Aboriginal health workforce. The training program which is a 1-year qualification course has grown from a 52% rate of graduation in its first 6 years to 92%. Three practices in the classroom have contributed to this success. These are: (i) recognition of the emotional impact of the training and its links to participants own histories; (ii) providing space to address participants negative prior educational experiences; and (iii) further developing content on the recent sociopolitical history of Aboriginal people. These practices have strengthened this successful course, which is building a skilled workforce to provide accessible, culturally sensitive services for Aboriginal people experiencing abuse. PMID:23237329
Lauw, Marlene L; Spangaro, Jo; Herring, Sigrid; McNamara, Lorna D
The goal of this exploratory community-based participatory action research project was twofold: to determine how urban Aboriginal youth identify their health needs within a culturally centred model of health and wellness, and to create new knowledge and research capacity by and with urban Aboriginal youth and urban Aboriginal health-care providers. A mixed-method approach was employed to examine these experiences using talking circles and a survey. The study contributes to anticolonial research in that it resists narratives of dis(ease) put forth through neocolonial research paradigms.A key focus was the development of strategies that address the aspirations of urban Aboriginal youth, laying foundations upon which their potential in health and wellness can be nurtured, supported, and realized. The study contributes to a new narrative of the health of urban Aboriginal youth within a culturally centred and culturally safe framework that acknowledges their strong connection to their Indigenous lands, languages, and traditions while also recognizing the spaces between which they move. PMID:23923726
The aim of this descriptive study was to compare the report profiles of Caucasian, Aboriginal, and other visible minority children whose cases were assessed by child protective services in Canada. The results show that children of Aboriginal ancestry and from visible minority groups are selected for investigation by child protective services 1.77 times more frequently than are children in the general population. Physical abuse is reported and substantiated more often for Asian children, whereas neglect is chiefly an issue with Aboriginal and black children. Child vulnerability factors and parental and housing risk factors alone cannot explain the higher substantiation percentages, except for Aboriginal children, for whom the risks are higher than for the other groups. The individual and family profiles of Asian and black children appear to be significantly less of a burden than those of Aboriginals and Caucasians. These results may reflect a certain degree of racial bias in the identification and reporting of maltreatment cases to child protective services and in decisions about the substantiation of maltreatment. PMID:18972932
Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Country) and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships) and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism) factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples’ health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples’ wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples’ health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation.
Kingsley, Jonathan; Townsend, Mardie; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Bolam, Bruce
Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples' relationship to their traditional land (known as Country) and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships) and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism) factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples' health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples' wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples' health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation. PMID:23435590
Kingsley, Jonathan; Townsend, Mardie; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Bolam, Bruce
Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. PMID:24161085
Aboriginal communities in Canada are typically marginalized, have very low employment participation rates, and have limited economic infrastructure. The downturn in global economies further marginalized these communities. The University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC) Continuing Studies department piloted an Aboriginal and Small Business…
BACKGROUND: It is unclear why some children with acute otitis media (AOM) have poor outcomes. Our aim was to describe the clinical course of AOM and the associated bacterial nasopharyngeal colonisation in a high-risk population of Australian Aboriginal children. METHODS: We examined Aboriginal children younger than eight years who had a clinical diagnosis of AOM. Pneumatic otoscopy and video-otoscopy of
Katherine B Gibney; Peter S Morris; Jonathan R Carapetis; Susan A Skull; Heidi C Smith-Vaughan; Elizabeth Stubbs; Amanda J Leach
BACKGROUND: Middle ear disease (otitis media) is common and frequently severe in Australian Aboriginal children. There have not been any recent large-scale surveys using clear definitions and a standardised middle ear assessment. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of middle ear disease (otitis media) in a high-risk population of young Aboriginal children from remote communities in
Peter S Morris; Amanda J Leach; Peter Silberberg; Gabrielle Mellon; Cate Wilson; Elizabeth Hamilton; Jemima Beissbarth
While the number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in higher education in Australia has doubled in recent years, the gap between their attainment and the attainment of other Australians has remained consistent. It is essential to elucidate the factors that promote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students' academic success, not in order to justify the exclusion of these
Kristie Daniel DiGregorio; Sally Farrington; Susan Page
Objective: To investigate the barriers that prevent Aboriginal people with disabilities from accessing rehabilitation services. Study Design: Qualitative study with assistance from a local community research partner. Setting: A predominately Aboriginal town in Australia. Participants: Sixteen service providers from the local town, 8 from the nearest regional town, and 4 local people with disabilities. Main Outcome Measures: Data were categorized
Objectives: To examine the distribution of C-reactive protein (CRP) values in Aboriginal Australians and its relation to age and gender. Methods: High sensitivity CRP levels were measured in 954 Aboriginal participants aged 5-74 years. Fractional polynomial regressions were used to explore the relationship between CRP and age. Results: CRP values changed with age and reached its lowest level around 10
|Education is a fundamental right of all people but, for the Canadian Aboriginal community it is particularly critical for overcoming historical disadvantages. This document reports on a review of barriers to equal education for Aboriginal people. Key barriers to educational equity include issues of control, keepers of knowledge (teachers versus…
This paper tries to review and reassess the tribal situation with special reference to the tribal women in India and Australia. It is an attempt to locate the 'Aboriginal woman' question in the context of women's movement in both countries. In Australia the women's movement, on the whole, has not been successful in incorporating Aboriginal women into its concerns and
Reduction in natural death and renal failure from a systematic screening and treatment program in an Australian Aboriginal community.BackgroundAustralian Aborigines in remote areas are experiencing an epidemic of renal and cardiovascular disease. In November 1995, we introduced a renal and cardiovascular treatment program into the Tiwi community, which has a three- to fivefold increase in death rates and a recent
Wendy E. Hoy; Zhiqiang Wang; Philip R. A. Baker; Angela M. Kelly
|Aboriginal communities in Canada are typically marginalized, have very low employment participation rates, and have limited economic infrastructure. The downturn in global economies further marginalized these communities. The University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC) Continuing Studies department piloted an Aboriginal and Small Business…
This thesis examined Aboriginal views on nuclear fuel waste management in Canada and assessed the concerns and issues Aboriginal people are likely to voice at future interactions and deliberations in the next siting phase. A content analysis method was used to examine the entire public record produced during the 1996\\/1997 Federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel hearings held on the Environmental
This article discusses and analyses the physically, spiritually and mentally destructive and disruptive components of colonial education on Aboriginal peoples in Canada from a historical and contemporary perspective. Included in this analysis is a critical examination of the ways in which indigenous education and epistemologies have been subjugated and ignored, and recommendations on how Aboriginal worldviews can be introduced in
Improvements in Aboriginal health have been slow. Research demonstrates ongoing discrimination towards Aboriginal Australians based on race, including in health services, leads to poor health outcomes. Using an eclectic methodology based on observations and discussions with health practitioners experienced in working with Aboriginal patients, this paper identifies how cross-cultural misunderstandings undermine the quality of care to Aboriginal patients in hospital and offers suggestions for improving practice. It also explores the concept of institutional racism and challenges doctors to reflect on their role in perpetuating power imbalances. We argue that physicians and healthcare providers need to do more than just deliver evidence-based interventions, by critically reflecting on their own attitudes to and practices with Aboriginal Australians and work collectively to effect systemic change which creates a more inclusive and safe environment for all people accessing healthcare. PMID:22032537
Equal access and participation issues are at the forefront of the current disability advocacy movement. Disabled people worldwide are demanding a change in attitudes and policies reflecting their inherent right as citizens to full participation in society. The inequalities faced by the Canadian Aboriginal community with disabilities are magnified by unique socioeconomic, political, environmental, and cultural barriers. The current rate of disability in the Canadian Aboriginal population (31%) is double the national rate. The existing system available to Aboriginal people with special needs has often resulted in an unaccountable and ineffective web of service delivery. This paper documents various aspects of the existing structure of service delivery and the potential barriers to independent living for adults with disabilities living in remote First Nations communities in Northern Manitoba, Canada. Possible advantages and drawbacks to service provision in health transfer from the federal government to First Nation control are explored. PMID:10093377
This study investigated the differential influence of contextual risks for positive psychosocial functioning and participation in education or employment in a representative sample of 12- to 17-year-old Aboriginal youth (N = 674) using data drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS) 2000-2002. The authors modeled the influence of 3 empirical risk measures (risk factor, cumulative risk, and single risks) on positive psychosocial functioning and participation in education or employment. Results showed different risks for different developmental outcomes. Single sociodemographic risks were associated with reduced likelihood of positive psychosocial functioning, whereas cumulative risk and composite Family Health and Community Risk measures were associated with reduced likelihood of participation in education or employment. Methodological issues and implications for interventions to support young Aboriginal people's adaptation are discussed. PMID:24164518
Hopkins, Katrina D; Taylor, Catherine L; Zubrick, Stephen R
In this article, we consider how the broad context of Aboriginal people's lives can shape their experience and understanding of their HIV diagnosis. We conducted interviews across Canada with 72 Aboriginal people living with HIV who also reported feelings of depression. Consistent with what has been found in previous studies, participants responded to their HIV diagnosis with shock, disbelief, and often anger. Prior depression, drug and alcohol use, multiple losses, stigma, and social isolation also shaped how participants experienced their diagnosis. We consider how the history of colonization of Aboriginal communities in Canada relates to the experience of HIV diagnosis, and end with a discussion of the service implications of our findings. PMID:23539094
Within Canada's Aboriginal population, an ongoing health promotion strategy has been the facilitation of community participation in the development and application of health policy. The Calgary Health Region's Aboriginal Community Health Council has provided a setting for involving the local Aboriginal population in health policy and program development for over a decade. This paper represents the results of a case study to identify the Council's strategies for this work. Data sources included documents, such as meeting minutes and other reports; key informant interviews with past and present Council members and health region representatives; and participant observation of Council functions. Although direct membership in the Council provided a core approach for representing the community, other strategies were actively utilized to involve the public. These included building links and partnerships with community organizations, networking, consultation activities and the identification of special needs groups. PMID:16399168
During the last decade a number of environmental agreements (EAs) have been negotiated in Canada involving industry, government and Aboriginal peoples. This article draws on the Canadian experience to consider the potential of such negotiated agreements to address two issues widely recognised in academic and policy debates on environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental management. The first relates to the need to secure indigenous participation in environmental management of major projects that affect indigenous peoples. The second and broader issue involves the necessity for specific initiatives to ensure effective follow-up of EIA. The Canadian experience indicates that negotiated environmental agreements have considerable potential to address both issues. However, if this potential is to be realized, greater effort must be made to develop structures and processes specifically designed to encourage Aboriginal participation; and EAs must themselves provide the financial and other resource required to support EIA follow-up and Aboriginal participation.
O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran [Department of Politics and Public Policy, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Brisbane, Nathan, Queensland 4111 (Australia)]. E-mail: Ciaran.Ofaircheallaigh@griffith.edu.au
This study examines facial tissue depth in Canadian Aboriginal children. Using ultrasound, measurements were taken at 19 points on the faces of 392 individuals aged 3-18 years old. The relationships between tissue thickness, age, and sex were investigated. A positive linear trend may exist between tissue thickness and age for Aboriginal females and males at multiple points. No points show significant differences in facial tissue depth between males and females aged 3-8 years old; seven points show significant differences in facial tissue depth between males and females aged 9-13 years old; and five points show significant differences in facial tissue depth between males and females aged 14-18 years old. Comparisons were made with White Americans and African Nova Scotians. These data can assist in 3-D facial reconstructions and aid in establishing an individual's identity. Previously, no data existed for facial tissue thickness in Canadian Aboriginal populations. PMID:23822728
Peckmann, Tanya R; Manhein, Mary H; Listi, Ginesse A; Fournier, Michel
Aboriginal Australia encompasses a diverse range of cultures, each of which has developed in a distinct landscape and environment. Most cultures cultivate their own astronomy as a response to the surrounding environmental conditions. This work is a study of the accounts of Aboriginal astronomy that have been recorded over the last two hundred years. An in depth review of the main contributors to the subject, their unique biases and their influence over Aboriginal astronomy is examined. Many of the common perceptions of Aboriginal astronomy are based on stories that were recorded over a hundred years ago and have been misinterpreted several times during the course of the last century. These errors are investigated and corrected. In total, the ethnographers and anthropologists recorded over five hundred stories and they are brought together here for the first time. Stories originate from every region in Australia and cover many objects and phenomena in the night sky. Each story is classified according to the object, location and source, allowing a direct comparison of related material. The aim of this research is to demonstrate where the differences and similarities arise within three distinct areas of Australia; the tropical north, the central desert and the temperate south. The analysis of the material focuses on each object individually and how it was perceived in each of the three environmental zones. The main themes discussed centre around the characters involved in each of the stories, how they are depicted in the sky and in the creation of Aboriginal constellations. The results of the analysis demonstrate the close connection between the land and the sky in the Aboriginal world and that in many areas of Australia the sky is simply a reflection of the land.
Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules.
Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.
Assuring participant confidentiality in illicit drugs research has raised legal questions and challenges both for researchers and ethics committees. There are similar challenges for clinicians. To study cannabis use in Aboriginal people in Arnhem Land (Northern Territory), a risk-management approach was successful. Aboriginal participants were informed in their own language that confidentiality could not be assured if they disclosed information about illegal behaviours. Researchers avoided questions of intrinsic interest to law enforcement. Relationships between researchers and study participants and the integrity of the study were preserved. These considerations have relevance for clinicians as well as researchers dealing with the influence of illicit behaviours on health. PMID:18190418
This article presents an overview of culture as treatment, by recognizing the impact that culture has on treatment along with the specific rituals, customs, and meanings related to healing. Attention must be given to the Aboriginal heritage, including various concepts of metaphysics, spirituality, medicines, government, oral history, and language. A pedagogical underpinning of illness and healing is better cared for through cultural messaging and learning that is related to the complex historical legacy of Aboriginal societies, and therefore, culture provides important diverse contributions to current treatment and wellness programs. PMID:20506971
A study of the modes of occlusion of permanent teeth among Australian Aborigines was conducted at the University of Adelaide\\u000a Faculty of Dentistry. From 1951 to 1971, 1,708 intra-oral plaster molds were taken at longitudinal changes from 444 Aborigines\\u000a leading a traditional lifestyle in Northern Australia. Comparisons and analyses then were made with molds of modern Japanese.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1) \\u000a In contrast
Sen Nakahara; Masashi Takahashi; Grant C. Townsend
We present evidence that the Boorong Aboriginal people of northwestern Victoria observed the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae in the nineteenth century and incorporated this event into their oral traditions. We identify this star, as well as others not specifically identified by name, using descriptive material presented in the 1858 paper by William Edward Stanbridge in conjunction with early southern star catalogues. This identification of a transient astronomical event supports the assertion that Aboriginal oral traditions are dynamic and evolving, and not static. This is the only definitive indigenous record of Eta Carinae's outburst identified in the literature to date.
In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way such behavior is defined in an Aboriginal context. A continuation of certain "traditional" cultural forms of self-harm behavior was evident in participant definitions, notably the practice of female hair cutting, also described as a mourning ritual, which appears to serve as a marker both to the individual and others. PMID:19527158
The International Workshop "Ethical Issues in Health Research among Circumpolar Indigenous Peoples" was held in Inuvik on June 2-3, 1995 (1). Its purpose was to bring together researchers, representatives of aboriginal organizations and First Nations leaders to discuss problems in the current ethical review process and to develop new frameworks which would increase community participation in the research process. The paper summarizes some of the ethical and political issues involved in developing such frameworks. It describes developments which have occurred since the Inuvik workshop reflecting the changing process of ethical review and new relationships between researchers, participants and aboriginal communities. PMID:10429342
|Despite a plethora of writings on Australian Aboriginal education (Craven, 1998; Fanshawe, 1999; LeRoux & Dunn, 1997; Malcolm, 1998; Malin, 1998; Morgan & Slade, 1998; Partington, 1998; Russell, 1999; Stewart, 1999), little has dealt with teacher perceptions of how Indigenous students learning in comparison with non-Indigenous students. This is…
Cooper, Tom J.; Baturo, Annette R.; Warren, Elizabeth; Doig, Shani M.
This paper provides a thematic review of the literature on cancer in Aboriginal people in Australia, focusing on experiences in diagnosis, treatment and care as well as addressing sociocultural factors to guide the public health response to poorer treatment outcomes. A search of both medical and social scientific databases for journal articles published between 1995 and 2006 show that cancer
The purpose of this study was to understand how urban-residing Aboriginal adolescent-parent dyads (n = 11) jointly constructed and acted on goals and strategies with their social supports (n = 17) to facilitate the adolescents' career development. A modified protocol following the qualitative action-project method was used. A discrete joint…
Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.; Stevens, Alison; Spence, Wayne; Deyell, Stewart; Easterbrook, Adam; Brokenleg, Martin
This paper discusses programs that are being offered for young people in particular Aboriginal young people at the Riverina Juvenile Justice Centre, which are designed to assist them in breaking the crime cycle and in re-integrating into their communities. The programs aim to provide a seamless service, both from within the centre and the community. The paper focuses on the
The major purpose of this paper is to examine how ‘race’ and racialization operate in health care. To do so, we draw upon data from an ethnographic study that examines the complex issues surrounding health care access for Aboriginal people in an urban center in Canada. In our analysis, we strategically locate our critical examination of racialization in the ‘tension
In the mid-twentieth century many Aboriginal Australians moved to live in Australian cities in search of life opportunities that were not available to them in rural areas. This article explores the life history narratives of three Indigenous people who were brought to live in Sydney as children during this period. It considers the processes by…
Background: Few studies have looked specifically at the outcomes of cardiac valve replacement for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in developing or indigenous populations. Aims: To describe outcomes of cardiac valve replacement in patients with rheumatic heart disease living in urban and rural communities in northern Australia. Methods: Retrospective chart review with some prospective follow-up of 81 consecutive patients, predominantly aboriginal,
Jonathan R. Carapetis; Jennifer R. Powers; Bart J. Currie; John F. Sangster; Alistair Begg; Dale A. Fisher; Charles J. Kilburn; James N. C. Burrow
A molecular technique (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) was used to characterize group A streptococcal (GAS) strains among 194 isolates from 55 swabs from 12 Australian Aboriginal children and adults with multiple pyoderma lesions. Ninety-three percent of the lesions contained only one strain of GAS, but 8 of 12 individuals were infected with more than one strain. We conclude that
JONATHAN CARAPETIS; DON GARDINER; BART CURRIE; ANDJOHN D. MATHEWS
The Australian Government plans to rehabilitate the former nuclear weapons testing ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia and to allow access to the areas for the Pitjantjatjara (Aboriginal) people who are the traditional owners of the land. The major radiological hazard posed by reoccupation of the ranges arises from inhalation of residual plutonium. The committed effective dose that
Peter N. Johnston; Keith H. Lokan; Geoffrey A. Williams
This article investigates the interactions between identity and career aspirations among Taiwanese Aborigines and American Indians. While many similarities exist between the two indigenous groups, several differences remain as well. In comparing the identity issue between these two groups, this study shows that American Indians generally live in a…
The authors conducted a study of an aboriginal community to determine if kidney func-tion had been affected by the chronic ingestion of uranium in drinking water from the community's drilled wells. Uranium concentrations in drinking water varied from < 1 to 845 ppb. This nonin-vasive study relied on the measurement of a combination of urinary indicators of kidney function and
Maria L. Limson Zamora; Jan M. Zielinski; Gerry B. Moodie; Renato A. F. Falcomer; Wendy C. Hunt; Kevin Capello
|A summer school in Science and Technology was held in January 2008 for nineteen Indigenous students commencing year 11 who were identified as having high academic potential in science and mathematics. Known as the Aboriginal Summer School for Excellence in Technology and Science (ASSETS) the summer school was held at the Australian Science and…
The Meadow Lake Tribal Council (MLTC) (Saskatchewan) and the University of Victoria (British Columbia) developed a bicultural postsecondary training curriculum in early childhood care and development that incorporated both Euro-Western and Aboriginal knowledge. Since the MLTC sought curricula using representative Cree and Dene cultures rather than…
Learning a second dialect entails learning new schemas, and in some cases learning a whole new set of language schemas as well as cultural schemas. Most Australian Aboriginal children live in a bicultural and bidialectal context. They are exposed, to a greater or lesser extent, to the discourse of Australian English and internalise some of its…
This bibliography is primarily a listing of works by current or former members of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines and Islanders Branch (SIL-AAIB), but also lists works by non SIL-AAIB members that are included in publications edited and/or published by the organization. Unpublished works are not included, with the…
|The authors explored the relationship between measures of self-belief, behavioural development, and academic achievement in Canadian Aboriginal children. Standardized measures of intelligence are unable to consistently predict academic achievement in students from indigenous populations. Exploring alternative factors that may be both predictive…
|The purpose of the present study was to explore the prior educational and employment experiences of staff members in urban Aboriginal human services agencies. A total of 44 individuals employed by one of three community sites within one Canadian inner city generated 85 unique responses to the question: "What were your employment and education…
This paper reflects on the issue of who determines the women's health research agenda and is based on my experiences while working as a female general practitioner in remote communities with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The higher birth rates in these communities mask subfertility or infertility. In many of these communities there are high rates of sexually transmitted
A summer school in Science and Technology was held in January 2008 for nineteen Indigenous students commencing year 11 who were identified as having high academic potential in science and mathematics. Known as the Aboriginal Summer School for Excellence in Technology and Science (ASSETS) the summer school was held at the Australian Science and…
The aboriginal people of Taiwan, who are believed to be of Indonesian or Proto-Malayan stock currently occupy mountainous areas in the eastern two-thirds of the island. The combined population of the nine principal tribes is approximately 200,000; a tenth...
This paper examines homophily and networking within Aboriginal activism in Townsville, North Queensland, Australia, focusing on the daily demonstrations held outside the manslaughter trial of Police Officer Senior-Sergeant Chris Hurley. At this trial, I witnessed a concerted effort by movement activists to avoid homophily (the principle that people who share certain characteristics will interact more often and more closely with