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1

New anthropological data on the Mesolithic communities from Portugal: the shell, middens from Sado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Portuguese Mesolithic communities are commonly related with the shell middens from Muge from which nearly 300 human skeletons\\u000a were recovered. There is, however, another important Mesolithic Portuguese site: the shell middens of the Sado Valley, south\\u000a of Lisbon. Mainly excavated in the 1950s and 1960s by the staff of the National Museum of Archaeology in Lisbon, eleven different\\u000a shell

E. Cunha; C. Umbelino; F. Cardoso

2002-01-01

2

Pollen Record Preservation Processes in the Salem Neck Sewage Plant Shell Midden (19ES471), Salem, Massachusetts, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pollen spectra of sediment inside shell valves that were recovered concave-side-down at the Salem Neck Sewage Plant Shell Midden in Salem, Massachusetts, U.S.A., were compared with those of unprotected midden matrix. The data indicates that shells will preserve prehistoric pollen spectra from the percolating rainwater, free oxygen, and aerobic fungi that move and destroy pollen in archaeological sites that

Gerald K. Kelso; Duncan Ritchie; Nicole Misso

2000-01-01

3

Interspecies comparison of marine reservoir ages at the Kitakogane shell midden, Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apparent 14C ages of human and faunal remains from the Kitakogane shell midden assigned to the Early Jomon period were measured to estimate the reservoir effect on different species. In previous studies, northern fur seal and Japanese deer had showed significant age differences of 860 14C yr, in concordance with the large reservoir ages observed in pre-bomb shells from the western North Pacific. However, the present study suggests that other sedentary marine organisms, including porpoise, Japanese sea lion and scallop, show a smaller reservoir age-offset at 720 14C yr at the same site. The ethology of northern fur seal was probably responsible for this discrepancy because of a larger reservoir age in the Sea of Okhotsk into which they migrated. This suggests the reservoir effect on humans was more complicated than a simple linear mixing between marine and terrestrial reservoirs in the case of the NW Pacific coast. It was suggested that an interspecies comparison of 14C age-offsets could produce more precise estimation of the marine reservoir effect in the past.

Yoneda, Minoru; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi; Hirota, Masashi; Suzuki, Ryo; Uzawa, Kazuhiro; Ohshima, Naoyuki; Dodo, Yukio

2004-08-01

4

An experimental approach for archeological soil micromorphology: building a model for site taphonomy in coastal shell middens of the Beagle Channel (Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are still many archaeological contexts where soil micromorphology has been little applied. Examples of such are anthropic shell deposits, common in coastal settings worldwide. These archaeological sites have complex stratigraphies composed mainly of shell from diverse species of local mollusks and gastropods. They have the peculiarity of being highly porous sediments with a coarse fraction that is dominated by gravel-sized bioclastic remains (shell, fish bones) and a fine fraction composed of organic material (charcoal, organic matter). The use of soil micromorphology in shell deposits was started by the Spanish-Argentinean research team working in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) since 1986. This project focused on excavation of hunter-gatherer sites from the contact period. One of the main objectives was to develop a detailed excavation method for shell middens that maximized the amount of recorded data during archaeological excavation. In this perspective, microstratigraphy was conceived as a fundamental complement for the study of site formation processes, as it would provide with high definition data for identification of shell accumulation episodes, trampling on site, abandonment periods, taphonomic alterations etc. A reference collection of known environmental and anthropic control features, such as hearths, trampling areas, wood ashes from local species, among others, was built to help in the microscopic characterization of archaeological samples. In this work, we analyze this experimental collection and compare it with samples from the Tunel VII archaeological site, located in the northern coast of the Beagle Channel and dated from the 18th-19th centuries. The set of modern samples included: trampling area from an animal pathway; beach deposit; forest litter; soil under the forest; hearths lit in diverse contexts (on the prairie, the beach and from the archaeologist camp site); and experimental burnt valves of Mytilus edulis, the main malacological component of the Tunel VII archaeological site, combusted in a muffle furnace at temperatures from 200 to 800° C. The original archaeological samples from Tunel VII included resin-consolidat columns taken from vaious profiles within the shell midden site. The thin sections analysed here were taken from a profile dug through a passageway that crosses the shell dumping area. The experimental reference collection showed the intense bioturbation of both exposed and buried surfaces, despite the low temperatures that characterize the area, commonly associated to inhibition of biological activity. The same intense bioturbation was observed in the shell midden, were a form of anthrosol develops during abandonment periods of the site. The experimental samples of Mytilus edulis served as reference for identification of burning temperatures reached by the anthropic fires and were useful aids to identify reworked burnt layers as accretion material for the shell midden.

Balbo, Andrea; Suarez Villagran, Ximena; Madella, Marco; Vila, Asumpcio; Estevez, Jordi

2010-05-01

5

Aboriginal Midwifery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will discuss indigenous knowledge and epistemologies of health and well-being as essential practices to improving the health status of Aboriginal communities. These methods will be illustrated through the practice of Aboriginal midwifery and birthing practices currently being revitalized in Aboriginal communities. Indigenous knowledge of health, well-being, medicine, and healing practices have historically sustained the health and well-being of

Amber D. Skye

2010-01-01

6

Aboriginal Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project for high school students in which they create Aboriginal-style paintings using cotton swabs. Discusses the process of creating the works of art in detail. Includes learning objectives, art materials, and a bibliography. (CMK)

Armstrong, Sherry

2003-01-01

7

Aboriginal health.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To inform health care workers about the health status of Canada's native people. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search for articles published from Jan. 1, 1989, to Nov. 31, 1995, with the use of subject headings "Eskimos" and "Indians, North American," excluding specific subject headings related to genetics and history. Case reports were excluded. Material was also identified from a review of standard references and bibliographies and from consultation with experts. STUDY SELECTION: Review and research articles containing original data concerning epidemiologic aspects of native health. Studies of Canadian populations were preferred, but population-based studies of US native peoples were included if limited Canadian information was available. DATA EXTRACTION: Information about target population, methods and conclusions was extracted from each study. RESULTS: Mortality and morbidity rates are higher in the native population than in the general Canadian population. The infant mortality rates averaged for the years 1986 to 1990 were 13.8 per 1000 live births among Indian infants, 16.3 per 1000 among Inuit infants, and only 7.3 per 1000 among all Canadian infants. Age-standardized all-cause mortality rates among residents of reserves averaged for the years 1979 to 1983 were 561.0 per 100,000 population among men and 334.6 per 100,000 among women, compared with 340.2 per 100,000 among all Canadian men and 173.4 per 100,000 among all Canadian women. Compared with the general Canadian population, specific native populations have an increased risk of death from alcoholism, homicide, suicide and pneumonia. Of the aboriginal population of Canada 15 years of age and older, 31% have been informed that they have a chronic health problem. Diabetes mellitus affects 6% of aboriginal adults, compared with 2% of all Canadian adults. Social problems identified by aboriginal people as a concern in their community include substance abuse, suicide, unemployment and family violence. Subgroups of aboriginal people are at a greater-than-normal risk of infectious diseases, injuries, respiratory diseases, nutritional problems (including obesity) and substance abuse. Initial data suggest that, compared with the general population, some subgroups of the native population have a lower incidence of heart disease and certain types of cancer. However, knowledge about contributing factors to the health status of aboriginal people is limited, since the literature generally does not assess confounding factors such as poverty. CONCLUSIONS: Canadian aboriginal people die earlier than their fellow Canadians, on average, and sustain a disproportionate share of the burden of physical disease and mental illness. However, few studies have assessed poverty as a confounding factor. Future research priorities in native health are best determined by native people themselves. PMID:8956834

MacMillan, H L; MacMillan, A B; Offord, D R; Dingle, J L

1996-01-01

8

Midden sites in relation to sea level and paleoecology  

SciTech Connect

Midden shell mounds consisting mainly of shallow marine, estuarine and lagoonal molluscan species are known from the coasts of every continent (except for Antarctica). While principally mid- to late Holocene in age, they date back to late Pleistocene in some glacioisostatic uplift areas (Scandinavia) and even the last interglacial at about 125,000 BP (Southern Africa). Inasmuch as the camp sites would normally be located immediately adjacent to the best shellfish collecting areas, they constitute useful shoreline indicators. Large, complex mounds disclose horizons showing temporary inundation and short-term abandonment. Occupation dates match independent chronologies of sea-level change. Analysis of shell species permits estimation of paleosalinity and paleotemperature, as well as assisting appraisal of general paleoecological setting. It is speculated that an abrupt change in trend of the Flandrian sea-level rise at about 6000 BP (C-14) stabilized the development of large lagoons and estuaries, particularly favorable sites for safe shellfish gathering. Prior to that the frequent and very rapid transgressions created repeatedly displaced (drowned) habitats. Since then man has been able to occupy semi-stable coastal sites, thus contributing to the world-wide post-Neolithic shift away from nomadic economy and towards village way of life.

Fairbridge, R.W.

1985-01-01

9

MONTREAL ABORIGINAL Reference Guide  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 TRAINING AND EDUCATION 13 School Boards (Adult Education Centres and Vocational Training CentresMONTREAL ABORIGINAL Reference Guide Empowering through employability, training and education! Created by the WORKING COMMITTEE ON EMPLOYABILITY-TRAINING-EDUCATION of the MONTREAL URBAN ABORIGINAL

Kambhampati, Patanjali

10

Fossil packrat middens and the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of well-preserved plant remains from ancient packrat (Neotoma) middens have yielded much information on the history of vegetation, fauna and climate from the more arid portions of North America over the past 40,000 years1,2. In most of the modern deserts, woodland or forest communities were present during the last glacial age, the Wisconsin. Radiocarbon dating of packrat midden assemblages

Thomas R. van Devender; Paul S. Martin; Robert S. Thompson; Kenneth L. Cole; A. J. Timothy Jull; Austin Long; Laurence J. Toolin; Douglas J. Donahue

1985-01-01

11

Using packrat middens to assess grazing effects on vegetation change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Research on grazing effects usually compares the same sites through time or grazed and ungrazed sites over the same time period. Both approaches are complicated in arid environments where grazing can have a long undocumented history and landscapes can be spatially heterogenous. This work employs both approaches simultaneously by comparing grazed and ungrazed samples through both time and space using fossil plant macrofossils and pollen from packrat middens. A series of 27 middens, spanning from 995 yr BP to the present, were collected from Glen Canyon in southeastern Utah, USA. These middens detail vegetation change just prior to, and following, the historical introduction of domesticated grazers and also compares assemblages from nearby ungrazable mesas. Pre-grazing middens, and modern middens from ungrazed areas, record more native grasses, native herbs, and native shrubs such as Rhus trilobata, Amelanchier utahensis, and Shepherdia rotundifolia than modern middens from grazed areas. Ordinations demonstrate that site-to-site variability is more important than any temporal changes, making selection of comparable grazed versus ungrazed study treatments difficult. But within similar sites, the changes through time show that grazing lowered the number of taxa recorded, and lessened the pre-existing site differences, homogenizing the resultant plant associations in this desert grassland.

Fisher, J.; Cole, K.L.; Anderson, R. Scott

2009-01-01

12

Archaeologists regularly investi-gate oyster shell middens (piles of  

E-print Network

important. Adult oysters release eggs and sperm into the water and, after fertilization, the fertil- ized and algae), tides and currents can bring silt or sand to smother them, predators to feed on them

Florida, University of

13

Australian Aboriginal suicide: The need for an Aboriginal suicidology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines suicide among Australian Aboriginal peoples, and reviews current directions in suicide prevention. A particular focus is on the apparent differences discovered by other researchers in suicidal behaviour, risk factors, response to prevention programs, as well as cultures, customs and beliefs between the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal population, and between different Aboriginal communities and groups. Despite evidence of such

Terri Elliott-Farrelly

14

Substance Abuse Among Urban Aboriginals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports findings of a study of mental health among urban Aboriginal peoples. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques were used to explore the relationship between substance abuse and physical\\/sexual abuse in a sample of Aboriginal peoples living in an urban community. Open-ended interviews were conducted in a sample of 30 Aboriginals that included Aboriginal social service providers (from health,

Kaháwi J. Jacobs; Kathryn J. Gill

2002-01-01

15

Holocene Vegetation History from Fossil Rodent Middens near Arequipa, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rodent (Abrocoma, Lagidium, Phyllotis) middens collected from 2350 to 2750 m elevation near Arequipa, Peru (16°S), provide an ?9600-yr vegetation history of the northern Atacama Desert, based on identification of >50 species of plant macrofossils. These midden floras show considerable stability throughout the Holocene, with slightly more mesophytic plant assemblages in the middle Holocene. Unlike the southwestern United States, rodent middens of mid-Holocene age are common. In the Arequipa area, the midden record does not reflect any effects of a mid-Holocene mega drought proposed from the extreme lowstand (100 m below modern levels, >6000 to 3500 yr B.P.) of Lake Titicaca, only 200 km east of Arequipa. This is perhaps not surprising, given other evidence for wetter summers on the Pacific slope of the Andes during the middle Holocene as well as the poor correlation of summer rainfall among modern weather stations in the central Andes-Atacama Desert. The apparent difference in paleoclimatic reconstructions suggests that it is premature to relate changes observed during the Holocene to changes in El Niño Southern Oscillation modes.

Holmgren, Camille A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Roque, Jose; Tovar, Oscar; Zeballos, Horacio; Linares, Eliana; Quade, Jay

2001-09-01

16

AFRICAN ABORIGINAL THERAPY  

PubMed Central

No other man in America has so complete a knowledge of the aborigines of South Africa as Dr. Sheppard. For twenty-one years he spent his vacations in their kraals. He is a blood-brother in two tribes, and a chief, and sits on his own mat at tribal councils. His picture of their aboriginal therapy is unique. Imagesp228-ap228-bp229-ap229-bp231-ap232-ap232-bp233-ap235-ap235-b PMID:18010265

Sheppard, Philip A. E.

1920-01-01

17

Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18??S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Holmgren, C.A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J.L.

2008-01-01

18

Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18°S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area.

Holmgren, C.A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J.L.

2008-01-01

19

Aboriginal Education: Fulfilling the Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is at the heart of the struggle of Canada's Aboriginal peoples to regain control over their lives as communities and nations. Based on hearings and research generated by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP), this collection of articles documents recent progress in transforming Aboriginal education to support…

Castellano, Marlene Brant, Ed.; Davis, Lynne, Ed.; Lahache, Louise, Ed.

20

Aboriginal Children: Back to Origins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chairman of the Secretariat of National Aboriginal and Islander Child Care (Australia) discusses the struggle to establish adequate child welfare services and education for aboriginal families and their children. Aboriginal people have resisted acculturation and the influence of racism to preserve their culture, identity, and extended…

Butler, Brian

1993-01-01

21

Aboriginal health--current status.  

PubMed

An analysis of the limited available data confirms that the health status of Australia's Aborigines remains much worse than that of non-Aboriginal Australians. Despite significant improvements over the past decade Aboriginal fetal and infant mortality is still approximately three times that of non-Aborigines. Aboriginal life expectancy remains at least twenty years less than that of the total Australian population. Levels of Aboriginal hospitalisation have declined markedly, but remain well in excess of overall levels, particularly for infants and children. For Aborigines, the reduced overall impact of the communicable diseases has been balanced by a worsening of the "lifestyle" diseases, particularly hypertension, coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Alcohol abuse plays an important role in these diseases, and in the level of accidents and violence amongst Aborigines. The current patterns require a reassessment of Aboriginal health priorities, with more attention being directed at the health problems of Aboriginal adults. Special Aboriginal health programs need to be expanded, and integrated with broad wide-ranging programs aimed at alleviating Aboriginal social inequality. PMID:6397181

Thomson, N

1984-10-01

22

Aboriginal Report - Charting Our Path  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report outlines Aboriginal learner participation and achievement in British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions for the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations leadership, public…

Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

2008-01-01

23

Aboriginal Documentary Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Libraries and Archives Canada "web exhibition recounts first-hand information illustrating the complex and often contentious relationship between the Canadian government and Canada's Aboriginal people from the late 1700s to the mid-20th century." Visitors interested in reading about the importance and meaning of these documentary resources to the aboriginal people, should read the link on the left side menu entitled: "The Resources from an Aboriginal Perspective". Visitors unfamiliar with the current and historical vocabulary used regarding Aboriginal people should refer to the "Glossary" on the left side menu to learn the definitions of such words as "band", "M'tis", "Indian Act", and "First Nation". The "Treaties, Surrenders and Agreements" link contains the following sections: "Essay", "Gallery" and "Database". The Gallery contains images of original treaties that, among other things, ceded vast amounts of land to Canada. Visitors can view one of the treaties that ceded the land of southwestern Ontario north of Lake Erie which originally was part of the Aboriginal people's territory.

24

Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2013-07-01

25

ABORIGINES AND CRICKET: SOME NEW PERSPECTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

7 are just some of the scholars who have explored various aspects of this topic. Some of the issues examined have included: racism in sport pre-1788 Aboriginal 'sport'; greater Aboriginal access to some sports; Aboriginal notions of sport and whether sport has been beneficial or detrimental for Aborigines. Aborigines and cricket is a rich area of research and Mulvaney, Harcourt,

Max Howell; Dave Nade; Vicky Paraschak

26

Molecular analysis of a 11 700-year-old rodent midden from the Atacama Desert, Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

DNA was extracted from an 11 700-year-old rodent midden from the Atacama Desert, Chile and the chloroplast and animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene sequences were analysed to investigate the floral environment surrounding the midden, and the identity of the midden agent. The plant sequences, together with the macroscopic identifications, suggest the presence of 13 plant families and three orders that no longer exist today at the midden locality, and thus point to a much more diverse and humid climate 11 700 years ago. The mtDNA sequences suggest the presence of at least four different vertebrates, which have been putatively identified as a camelid (vicuna), two rodents (Phyllotis and Abrocoma), and a cardinal bird (Passeriformes). To identify the midden agent, DNA was extracted from pooled faecal pellets, three small overlapping fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were amplified and multiple clones were sequenced. These results were analysed along with complete cytochrome b sequences for several modern Phyllotis species to place the midden sequence phylogenetically. The results identified the midden agent as belonging to an ancestral P. limatus. Today, P. limatus is not found at the midden locality but it can be found 100 km to the north, indicating at least a small range shift. The more extensive sampling of modern Phyllotis reinforces the suggestion that P. limatus is recently derived from a peripheral isolate.

Kuch, M.; Rohland, N.; Betancourt, J.L.; Latorre, C.; Steppan, S.; Poinar, H.N.

2002-01-01

27

Excavation of red squirrel middens by grizzly bears in the whitebark pine zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Whitebark pine seeds Pinus albicaulis are an important food of grizzly Ursus arctos horribilis bears wherever whitebark pine is abundant in the contiguous United States of America; availability of seeds affects the distribution of bears, and the level of conflict between bears and humans. Almost all of the seeds consumed by bears are excavated from middens where red squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus have cached whitebark pine cones. 2. Relationships among the occupancy of middens by squirrels, the excavation of middens by bears, and site features were investigated in this study. Data were collected from radio-marked bears and from middens located from line transects on two study sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem. 3. Densities of active middens were positively related to lodgepole pine Pinus contorta basal area and negatively related to steepness of slope. 4. The probability that a midden was occupied by a squirrel (i.e. active) was positively related to lodgepole pine basal area in the surrounding stand, size of the midden and size of the whitebark pine cone crop, and negatively related to elevation and to bear excavation during the previous 2-12 months. 5. The probability that a midden had been excavated by a bear during the previous 12 months was positively related to size of the midden, and to whitebark pine basal area and cone crop, and negatively related to nearness of roads and town sites. 6. The influence of midden size on bear use was attributable to a positive relationship with the number of excavated cones. The positive association between bear excavations and whitebark pine basal area or cone crops was attributable to availability of pine seeds. 7. Grizzly bears would benefit from the minimization of roads and other human facilities in the whitebark pine zone and from increases in the availability of whitebark pine seeds, potentially achieved by increasing the numbers of cone-producing whitebark pine trees, especially in lower elevations of the whitebark pine zone where red squirrels are more abundant.

Mattson, D.J.; Reinhart, D.P.

1997-01-01

28

Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

2010-06-01

29

Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy  

E-print Network

We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

Hamacher, Duane W

2011-01-01

30

Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

2011-07-01

31

High-throughput sequencing of ancient plant and mammal DNA preserved in herbivore middens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of arid palaeoenvironments is often frustrated by the poor or non-existent preservation of plant and animal material, yet these environments are of considerable environmental importance. The analysis of pollen and macrofossils isolated from herbivore middens has been an invaluable source of information regarding past environments and the nature of ecological fluctuations within arid zones. The application of ancient DNA (aDNA) techniques to hot, arid zone middens remains unexplored. This paper attempts to retrieve and characterise aDNA from four Southern Hemisphere fossil middens; three located in hot, arid regions of Australia and one sample from South Africa's Western Cape province. The middens are dated to between 30,490 (±380) and 710 (±70) cal yr BP. The Brockman Ridge midden in this study is potentially the oldest sample from which aDNA has been successfully extracted in Australia. The application of high-throughput sequencing approaches to profile the biotic remains preserved in midden material has not been attempted to date and this study clearly demonstrates the potential of such a methodology. In addition to the taxa previously detected via macrofossil and palynological analyses, aDNA analysis identified unreported plant and animal taxa, some of which are locally extinct or endemic. The survival and preservation of DNA in hot, arid environments is a complex and poorly understood process that is both sporadic and rare, but the survival of DNA through desiccation may be important. Herbivore middens now present an important source of material for DNA metabarcoding studies of hot, arid palaeoenvironments and can potentially be used to analyse middens in these environments throughout Australia, Africa, the Americas and the Middle East.

Murray, Dáithí C.; Pearson, Stuart G.; Fullagar, Richard; Chase, Brian M.; Houston, Jayne; Atchison, Jennifer; White, Nicole E.; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Clarke, Edward; Macphail, Mike; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Haile, James; Bunce, Michael

2012-12-01

32

Shell mound formation in coastal northern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shell mounds are late Holocene deposits typically dominated by a single shell species. In northern Australia these mounds are associated with prograding coastal plains. The largest and most numerous are at Weipa on Cape York Peninsula. Archaeologists claim that these mounds were formed by generations of shellfishing Aborigines. This hypothesis is false because most of the shells from the type-site

Tim Stone

1995-01-01

33

Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) Arctic ground squirrel middens and a squirrel-eye-view of the mammoth-steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii ) middens were recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in association with Sheep Creek-Klondike and Dominion Creek tephras (ca 80 ka) exposed in west-central Yukon. These middens provide plant and insect macrofossil evidence for a steppe-tundra ecosystem during the Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) glacial interval. Midden plant and insect macrofossil data are compared with

Grant D. Zazula; Duane G. Froese; Scott A. Elias; Svetlana Kuzmina; Rolf W. Mathewes

2011-01-01

34

Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) Arctic ground squirrel middens and a squirrel-eye-view of the mammoth-steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii) middens were recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in association with Sheep Creek-Klondike and Dominion Creek tephras (ca 80ka) exposed in west-central Yukon. These middens provide plant and insect macrofossil evidence for a steppe-tundra ecosystem during the Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) glacial interval. Midden plant and insect macrofossil data are compared with those previously published

Grant D. Zazula; Duane G. Froese; Scott A. Elias; Svetlana Kuzmina; Rolf W. Mathewes

2011-01-01

35

ABORIGINAL STRATEGIC PLAN IMPLEMENTATION REPORT  

E-print Network

-and-a-half considerable progress has been made and UBC has become more responsive to the needs of Aboriginal students: student spaces and services at the Longhouses have been redesigned, services across campus have been

Pulfrey, David L.

36

Strengths of Aboriginal Foster Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to identify the strengths of Aboriginal foster parents according to the foster parents themselves.\\u000a A total of 83 Aboriginal foster parents participated in over the phone interviews that included the question “What are the\\u000a main strengths you have as a foster parent?”. Responses to the questions were sorted by the participants and the sorted

Viktoria Ivanova; Jason Brown

2011-01-01

37

Midwifery care for Australian Aboriginal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian Aboriginal women have twice the number of still born babies as Australian non Aboriginal women and have babies who are five times more likely to die within the neonatal period. The perinatal mortality rate is three times higher and the infant mortality is more than five times the overall rate for babies of Australian Aboriginal women compared to Australian

Catherine Bridge

1999-01-01

38

Response to Principal's Vision Statement Aboriginal Council  

E-print Network

. Initiatives such as the Ontario First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Education Policy Framework aim to build on Ontario's Aboriginal Education Strategy to help close the education gap between Aboriginal and non educational strategies that seek to ensure that all Aboriginal students in the province have access

Ellis, Randy

39

HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT: There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. DESIGN AND SETTING: A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. PARTICIPANTS: Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug

Robert S Hogg; Steffanie Strathdee; Thomas Kerr; Evan Wood; Robert Remis

2005-01-01

40

Late Holocene vegetation and historic grazing impacts at Capital Reef National Park reconstructed using fossil packrat middens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Holocene vegetation change from a high desert site in southern Utah was reconstructed using fossil plant macrofossils and pollen from packrat middens. Presettlement middens consistently contained abundant macrofossils of plant species palatable to livestock that are now absent or reduced such as: Ceratoides lanata, Stipa hymenoides, Pinus edulis, and Artemisia spp.. In contrast, species typical of overgrazed range, such

1995-01-01

41

Late Quaternary Biogeographic and Climatic Changes in Western North America: Evidence From Mapped Arrays of Packrat Midden Data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USGS/NOAA North American Packrat Midden Database is a standardized archive of published paleobotanical data derived from packrat middens in western North America. We use midden age, location, and species presence-absence data from this dataset to generate maps illustrating the past occurrence of important woody plant taxa in western North America during the late Quaternary. We explore late Quaternary changes in the distributions of selected plant taxa commonly found in packrat middens and presently associated with western desert ( Carnegiea gigantea), steppe ( Artemisia tridentata-type), woodland (pinyon pines), montane ( Pinus ponderosa), and subalpine ( Pinus flexilis) plant communities. We compare the current geographic and climatic distributions of these taxa with the present-day climates at sites where these taxa have been found in packrat midden macrofossil assemblages. These comparisons suggest that late Pleistocene climates in western North America were generally characterized by cooler-than-present summers and by much greater-than-present mean annual precipitation.

Strickland, L. E.; Thompson, R. S.; Anderson, K. H.; Pelltier, R. T.

2005-12-01

42

ABORIGINAL PEOPLE AND THE MEDIA ?REPORTING ABORIGINAL AFFAIRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN LATE 1985 I WAS AUSTRALIAN ASSOCIATED PRESS'S WESTERN Australian correspondent. While I was in Kununurra, the family of a young Aboriginal man who had died in Broome gaol came to visit. They were desperate. They did not believe the cause of death suggested by the prison and suspected some foul play. For this reason they wanted an independent post

Diana Plater

43

ABORIGINAL AND NON-ABORIGINAL HOMICIDE: 'S AME BUT DIFFERENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

THIS PAPER WILL ADDRESS THE QUESTIONS : 'I N WHAT WAY IS ABORIGINAL homicide different from that in mainstream society?', 'What are our perceptions of its character?', and 'What drives it?'. There are no unproblematic or uncompromised means of understanding such a complex and fraught area: rather, the 'searchlights' of different analytical and political perspectives can ultimately illuminate the overall

David F. Martin

44

Aboriginal Representation: Conflict or Dialogue in the Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research begins with the premise that non-Aboriginal students are challenged by much Aboriginal writing and also challenge its representations as they struggle to re-position themselves in relation to possible meanings within Aboriginal writing. Many non-Aboriginal students come to read an Aboriginal narrative against their understanding of…

Leane, Jeanine

2010-01-01

45

Aboriginal Studies WWW Virtual Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Aboriginal Studies WWW Virtual Library has been now added to the other four WWW Virtual Library systems (Asian Studies, Buddhist Studies, Demography & Population Studies, and Social Sciences) developed and maintained by the Research Schools of Social Sciences & Pacific and Asian Studies at the Australian National University, Canberra.

46

Dark Sparklers: Yidumduma's Aboriginal Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dark Sparklers is a book with over 100 photographs, many of which focus on prehistoric Aboriginal paintings and engravings. It is also, with 30 sky maps, the first properly presented, detailed indigenous astronomy published anywhere in the world. Over 150 extended passages of verbatim quotations from the Senior Elder provide an understanding of indigenous culture seldom given to the outside reader.

Cairns, Hugh; Harney, Bill Yidumduma

2004-06-01

47

Distinct Modes of Transmission of Tuberculosis in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ?20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR)?=?5.98, p<0.0001). MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9%) among southern people, and Beijing (62.5%) and Haarlem (52.9%) among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR) were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (?15%) than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05); MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ?20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p?=?0.01) and aboriginal ethnicity (p?=?0.04) were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy. PMID:25393403

Chang, Jia-Ru; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Yeh, Jun-Jun; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Sun, Jun-Ren; Su, Ih-Jen; Dou, Horng-Yunn

2014-01-01

48

Distinct modes of transmission of tuberculosis in aboriginal and non-aboriginal populations in taiwan.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ?20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR)?=?5.98, p<0.0001). MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9%) among southern people, and Beijing (62.5%) and Haarlem (52.9%) among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR) were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (?15%) than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05); MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ?20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p?=?0.01) and aboriginal ethnicity (p?=?0.04) were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy. PMID:25393403

Chen, Yih-Yuan; Tseng, Fan-Chen; Chang, Jia-Ru; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Yeh, Jun-Jun; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Sun, Jun-Ren; Su, Ih-Jen; Dou, Horng-Yunn

2014-01-01

49

Constructing Seasonal Climograph Overlap Envelopes from Holocene Packrat Midden Contents, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five Neotoma spp. (packrat) middens are analyzed from Sand Canyon Alcove, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado. Plant remains in middens dated at approximately 9870, 9050, 8460, 3000, and 0 14C yr B.P. are used to estimate Holocene seasonal temperature and precipitation values based on modern plant tolerances published by Thompson et al. (1999a, 1999b). Early Holocene vegetation at the alcove shows a transition from a cool/mesic to a warmer, more xeric community between 9050 and 8460 14C yr B.P. Picea pungens, Pinus flexilis, and Juniperus communis exhibit an average minimum elevational displacement of 215 m. Picea pungens and Pinus flexilis are no longer found in the monument. Estimates based on modern plant parameters (Thompson et al., 1999a) suggest that average temperatures at 9870 14C yr B.P. may have been at least 1° to 3°C colder in January and no greater than 3° to 10°C colder in July than modern at this site. Precipitation during this time may have been at least 2 times modern in January and 2 to 3 times modern in July. Discrepancies in estimated temperature and precipitation tolerances between last occurrence and first occurrence taxa in the midden record suggest that midden assemblages may include persisting relict vegetation.

Sharpe, Saxon E.

2002-05-01

50

Aboriginal Languages of Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This WWW Virtual Library site features annotated links to over 130 resources for nearly 40 of Australia's indigenous languages. The resources are categorized by type of resource, language, and region (i.e., Australian state). Included here are links to dictionaries, word lists, complete texts -- some with translations, bilingual education resources, language courses, academic papers, bibliographies, relevant libraries, indigenous songs and sounds, language rights and policy Websites, and more. The resources are succinctly and informatively annotated with graphic icons to represent sites with original text and bibliographies or catalogs as well as dates-of-posting to the directory. Updated in late July, Aboriginal Languages of Australia is created and maintained by David Nathan of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies and sponsored by the Linguistics department of the University of Melbourne.

51

A 16,000 14 C yr B.P. packrat midden series from the USA-Mexico Borderlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and\\/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals:

Camille A. Holmgren; M. Cristina Penalba; Kate Aasen Rylander; Julio L. Betancourt

2003-01-01

52

A 16,000 14C yr B.P. packrat midden series from the USA–Mexico Borderlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.–Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and\\/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals:

Camille A Holmgren; M. Cristina Peñalba; Kate Aasen Rylander; Julio L Betancourt

2003-01-01

53

Spring dynamics of soil carbon, nitrogen, and microbial activity in earthworm middens in a no-till cornfield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworm activity may be an important cause of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of soil properties in agroecosystems.\\u000a Structures known as “earthworm middens,” formed at the soil surface by the feeding and casting activities of some earthworms,\\u000a may contribute significantly to this heterogeneity. We compared the temporal dynamics of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and microbial\\u000a acitivity in Lumbricus terrestris middens and

S. Subler; A. S. Kirsch

1998-01-01

54

Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

Vize, Anne

2009-01-01

55

No Aboriginal Students left Behind in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…

Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia

2005-01-01

56

Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

2013-01-01

57

MEDIATION WITHIN ABORIGINAL COMMUNITIES: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attorney-General in Queensland is attempting to provide resources, services and ideas to Aboriginal people, particularly those on Deed of Grant in Trust (DOGIT) communities to enable them to manage their own disputes in a creative and powerful way. In doing so, the Community Justice Program is mindful of the need for ongoing consultation and liaison with Aboriginal and Torres Strait

Marg O'Donnell

58

Australian Aborigines in Elite Australian Rules Football  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been a substantial growth in the number of Aboriginal players in the Australian Football League over the past decade, issues of structural and institutional racism have not been explored. This investigation of the assignment of players by position revealed marked patterns of difference, which tend to reflect stereotypes about Aboriginal athletes. The results are similar to research

Christopher J. Hallinan; Toni Bruce; Stella Coram

59

Creative thinking instruction for aboriginal children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational responses to the wide-spread failure of indigenous children in Westernised schools have not made the desired impact. In Australia, for example, an appropriate elementary education for many Aboriginal children cannot be guaranteed. Suggestions in the psychological literature that Aboriginal children might experience success in programs that value and promote creative thinking, motivated the design of the present study. This

Stephen M. Ritchie; John Edwards

1996-01-01

60

Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.  

PubMed

The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered. PMID:25155236

Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

2014-10-01

61

Using packrat middens to assess how grazing influences vegetation change in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fossil and sub-fossil plant macrofossils and pollen grains found in packrat middens can serve as important proxies for climate and vegetation change in the arid Southwestern United States. A new application for packrat midden research is in understanding post-settlement vegetation changes caused by the grazing of domesticated animals. This work examines a series of 27 middens from Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (GLCA), spanning from 995 yr BP to the present, which detail vegetation during the periods just prior to, and following, the introduction of domesticated grazers. By comparing middens deposited before and after the start of grazing by domesticated sheep and cattle, the effect on the native plant communities through time can be determined. This analysis of change through time is augmented by measurements of change through space by contrasting contemporaneous middens from nearby similar grazed and ungrazed sites. These comparisons are only made possible by the presence of inaccessible ungrazed areas surrounded by steep cliffs. Multivariate ordinations of the plant assemblages from packrat middens demonstrated that even though all middens were selected from similar geologic substrates, soils, and vegetation type, their primary variability was site-to-site. This suggests that selecting comparable grazed versus ungrazed study treatments would be difficult, and that two similar sites several kilometers apart should not be assumed to have been the same prior to grazing without pre-grazing data. But, the changes through time on grazed areas, as well as the differences between grazed and ungrazed areas in the diversity of certain taxonomic groups, both suggest that grazing by domesticated ungulates has had a noticeable effect on the vegetation. The changes seen through time suggested that grazing lowered the number of taxa recorded and lessened the pre-existing differences within sites, homogenizing the resultant plant associations. Late Holocene pre-settlement middens, and modern middens from ungrazed areas, contained more native grasses, skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata), blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata), Utah serviceberry (Amelanchier utahensis), and roundleaf buffaloberry (Shepherdia rotundifolia) than modern middens from grazed areas. Pollen data supported the macrofossil data, recording decreases in pollen of the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae), grass family (Poaceae), and globemallow (Sphaeralcea spp.) from pre- to post-settlement.

Fisher, Jessica F.; Cole, Kenneth L.; Anderson, R. Scott

2006-01-01

62

Plant Functional Variability in Response to Late-Quaternary Climate Change Recorded in Ancient Packrat Middens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses of plant functional traits to environmental variability are of enduring interest because they constrain organism performance and ecosystem function. However, most inferences regarding plant functional trait response to climatic variability have been limited to the modern period. To better understand plant functional response to long-term climate variability and how adjustments in leaf morphology may contribute to patterns of species establishment, persistence, or extirpation, we measured specific leaf area (SLA) from macrofossils preserved in ancient packrat middens collected along the Arizona/New Mexico border, USA. Our record spanned more than 32,000 years and included six woodland and Chihuahuan Desert species: Berberis cf. haematocarpa, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis, Juniperus osteosperma, Larrea tridentata, Prosopis glandulosa and Parthenium incanum. We predicted that regional climatic warming and drying since the late Pleistocene would result in intraspecific decreases in SLA. As predicted, SLA was positively correlated with midden age for three of the six species (L. tridentata, J. osteosperma, B. cf. haematocarpa). SLA was also negatively correlated with December (L. tridentata, J. cf. coahuilensis) or June (B. cf. haematocarpa, J. osteosperma) insolation. A unique record of vegetation community dynamics, plant macrofossils preserved in packrat middens also represent a rich and largely untapped source of information on long-term trends in species functional response to environmental change.

Holmgren, C. A.; Potts, D. L.

2006-12-01

63

Aboriginal spirituality: symbolic healing in Canadian prisons.  

PubMed

Symbolic healing is a complex phenomenon that is still relatively poorly understood. This paper documents a process of symbolic healing which is occurring in Canadian penitentiaries, and which involves Aboriginal offenders in cultural awareness and educational programs. The situation is compounded, however, by the existence of offenders from diverse Aboriginal cultural backgrounds with differing degrees of orientation to Aboriginal and Euro-Canadian cultures. Participants must first receive the necessary education to allow them to identify with the healing symbols so that healing may ensue, and both the healers and the patients must engage in a process of redefining their cultures in search of a common cultural base. PMID:8269714

Waldram, J B

1993-09-01

64

Members of Aboriginal and Torres Strait  

E-print Network

: for example, being fenced off at the pictures; the dog tag system. I am telling the stories, the struggle's Inspection day exposes the controls exercised over Aboriginal people living on missions. The artist explains

Viglas, Anastasios

65

Absent otoacoustic emissions predict otitis media in young Aboriginal children: A birth cohort study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in an arid zone of Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) may predict subsequent risk of OM. METHODS: 100 Aboriginal and

Deborah Lehmann; Peter Jacoby; Dimity Elsbury; Janine Finucane; Annette Stokes; Ruth Monck; Harvey Coates

2008-01-01

66

Some myths in the demography of aboriginal Australians.  

PubMed

The author discusses the proliferation of stereotypes and myths concerning the demography of aboriginal Australians. "In this paper, four of these myths will be discussed, in the hope that a basis for constructive analysis of recent and historical demographic change can be laid." The myths considered pertain to the validity of studying aboriginal societies that have been in contact with non-aboriginal societies, disorder in the aboriginal family, the study of aborigines as a third world population, and the relationship between high fertility and aboriginal poverty. PMID:12280355

Gray, A

1985-11-01

67

Aboriginal Education as Cultural Brokerage: New Aboriginal Teachers Reflect on Language and Culture in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a Talking Circle of six beginning Aboriginal teachers who discussed their roles as teachers. Participants criticized teacher education programs for not preparing them to teach in ways that are respectful of Aboriginal languages and culture. They discussed the importance of coming to know themselves and their culture. The…

Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie M.

2009-01-01

68

Does the EDI Equivalently Measure Facets of School Readiness for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the current paper was to examine the equivalence of the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher rating measure of school readiness, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The current study used an approach, which analyzes the structure and properties of the EDI at the subdomain level. Similar subdomain score distributions…

Muhajarine, Nazeem; Puchala, Chassidy; Janus, Magdalena

2011-01-01

69

Differential Bundle Functioning on Three Achievement Tests: A Comparison of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Items on achievement tests are designed to be equivalent in educational testing situations. That is, the information provided to the student is designed to be the same,regardless of the ethnicity of the examinee. As a result, students of equal ability would be expected to select the same answer regardless of their ethnicity. However, aboriginals and non-aboriginals may use differentcognitive

Christine N. Vandenberghe; Mark J. Gierl

70

Amino acid racemization dating of marine shells: A mound of possibilities  

PubMed Central

Shell middens are one of the most important and widespread indicators for human exploitation of marine resources and occupation of coastal environments. Establishing an accurate and reliable chronology for these deposits has fundamental implications for understanding the patterns of human evolution and dispersal. This paper explores the potential application of a new methodology of amino acid racemization (AAR) dating of shell middens and describes a simple protocol to test the suitability of different molluscan species. This protocol provides a preliminary test for the presence of an intracrystalline fraction of proteins (by bleaching experiments and subsequent heating at high temperature), checking the closed system behaviour of this fraction during diagenesis. Only species which pass both tests can be considered suitable for further studies to obtain reliable age information. This amino acid geochronological technique is also applied to midden deposits at two latitudinal extremes: Northern Scotland and the Southern Red Sea. Results obtained in this study indicate that the application of this new method of AAR dating of shells has the potential to aid the geochronological investigation of shell mounds in different areas of the world. PMID:21776187

Demarchi, Beatrice; Williams, Matt G.; Milner, Nicky; Russell, Nicola; Bailey, Geoff; Penkman, Kirsty

2011-01-01

71

Aboriginal users of Canadian quitlines: an exploratory analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To conduct an exploratory, comparative study of the utilisation and effectiveness of tobacco cessation quitlines among aboriginal and non?aboriginal Canadian smokers. Setting Population based quitlines that provide free cessation information, advice and counselling to Canadian smokers. Subjects First time quitline callers, age 18?years of age and over, who called the quitline between August 2001 and December 2005 and who completed the evaluation and provided data on their ethnic status (n?=?7082). Main measures Demographic characteristics and tobacco behaviours of participants at intake and follow?up; reasons for calling; actions taken toward quitting, and 6?month follow?up quit rates. Results 7% of evaluation participants in the time period reported aboriginal origins. Aboriginal participants were younger than non?aboriginals but had similar smoking status and level of addiction at intake. Concern about future health and current health problems were the most common reasons aboriginal participants called. Six months after intake aboriginals and non?aboriginals had taken similar actions with 57% making a 24?hour quit attempt. Quit rates were higher for aboriginals than non?aboriginals, particularly for men. The 6?month prolonged abstinence rate for aboriginal men was 16.7% compared with 7.2% for aboriginal women and 9.4% and 8.3% for non?aboriginal men and women, respectively. Conclusions This exploratory analysis showed that even without targeted promotion, aboriginal smokers do call Canadian quitlines, primarily for health related reasons. We also showed that the quitlines are effective at helping them to quit. As a population focused intervention, quitlines can reach a large proportion of smokers in a cost efficient manner. In aboriginal communities where smoking rates exceed 50% and multiple health risks and chronic diseases already exist, eliminating non?ceremonial tobacco use must be a priority. Our results, although exploratory, suggest quitlines can be an effective addition to aboriginal tobacco cessation strategies. PMID:18048634

Hayward, Lynda M; Campbell, H Sharon; Sutherland-Brown, Carol

2007-01-01

72

Explaining aboriginal/non-aboriginal inequalities in postseparation violence against Canadian women: application of a structural violence approach.  

PubMed

Adopting a structural violence approach, we analyzed 2004 Canadian General Social Survey data to examine Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequalities in postseparation intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Aboriginal women had 4.12 times higher odds of postseparation IPV than non-Aboriginal women (p < .001). Coercive control and age explained most of this inequality. The final model included Aboriginal status, age, a seven-item coercive control index, and stalking, which reduced the odds ratio for Aboriginal status to 1.92 (p = .085) and explained 70.5% of the Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequality in postseparation IPV. Research and action are needed that challenge structural violence, especially colonialism and its negative consequences. PMID:24048189

Pedersen, Jeanette Somlak; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Pulkingham, Jane

2013-08-01

73

A Handbook for Aboriginal Parents of Children with Special Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To develop this handbook, three Aboriginal teachers gathered extensive data through workshops; questionnaires; and research with Elders, Aboriginal parents, teachers, advocates, and others who work first-hand with children with special needs. The handbook opens by presenting the traditional Aboriginal perspective on disabled children--that they…

Crowchief-McHugh, Daphne; Yellowhorne-Breaker, Kathy; Weasel Fat-White, Freda

74

The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal literacy programs in Canada are using literacy as a means of reclaiming Aboriginal languages and a positive cultural identity. The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal literacy uses seven ways of knowing, each corresponding to a color. The approach recognizes that spirit, heart, mind, and body equally contribute to a life of balance,…

George, Ningwakwe Priscilla

2003-01-01

75

Aboriginal Students' Perspectives on the Factors Influencing High School Completion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Canadian education system is failing its Aboriginal students as evidenced by the significant proportion not completing high school. The Aboriginal population has experienced a significantly greater proportion of people living in poverty and higher rates of unemployment than has the non-Aboriginal population. These factors can be linked to the…

MacIver, Marion

2012-01-01

76

Transnational Understandings of Australian Aboriginal Sporting Migration: Sporting Walkabout  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will examine the impact of Aboriginal sporting participation and movement around the globe. The experiences, influences and inspiration that Aboriginal sporting men and women absorbed while travelling internationally have played a prominent role in changing the perceptions and understanding of Aboriginal people to the wider populace. The later stages of the nineteenth and early twentieth century were a

John Maynard

2009-01-01

77

Aboriginal Students and School Mobility in British Columbia Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In British Columbia, K-12 school Aboriginal students' completion rates are far from equivalent to those of their non-Aboriginal peers. In addition, there is a high degree of variability in Aboriginal students' school completion rates across schools and communities. Administrative data associating approximately 1.5 million school census records of…

Aman, Cheryl

2008-01-01

78

EXPLORING ABORIGINAL FORESTRY AND ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

EXPLORING ABORIGINAL FORESTRY AND ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF COWICHAN TRIBES of Resource Management Title of Research Project: Exploring Aboriginal Forestry and Ecosystem-based Management aboriginal forestry will be required. First Nations share a common desire for control over their forest

79

Hermannsburg Aboriginal land grants in the Northern Territory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Government has granted freehold title over 3,797 square kilometres of their traditional lands to the people of five Aboriginal clans of the Aranda tribe at Hermannsburg in the Northern Territory.The grants are historic as they give some Aboriginal peoples ownership of their tribal homelands and, for the first time in Australia, Aboriginal clan boundaries have been delineated by

G. K. Lindsay

1983-01-01

80

The Concept of Giftedness from an Aboriginal Cultural Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australian Aboriginal adults (n=74) and children (n=103) were interviewed regarding their perspectives on giftedness. Aboriginal culture was found to view giftedness as a consequence of individual ability, commitment, and environmental factors. Research is reported on the specific talents valued by the Aboriginal culture. Suggestions are given for…

Harslett, Mort

1996-01-01

81

Smoking and Other Drug Characteristics of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Prisoners in Australia  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Aim. Although tobacco and alcohol use have declined substantially in the Australian community, substance use among prisoners remains high. The aim was to compare the smoking, drug, and alcohol characteristics, sociodemographic profile, and general health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal male prisoners in a smoking cessation intervention. Design and Methods. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of data from 425 male prisoners who joined a quit smoking trial conducted at 18 correctional centres in NSW and Queensland using data collected by standardised self-report instruments. Results. Average age was 33 years with 15% from Aboriginal descent. Compared to non-Aboriginal prisoners, Aboriginal prisoners were significantly more likely to have left school with no qualifications, to have been institutionalised as a child, to be previously incarcerated, and commenced smoking at a younger age. The tobacco use profile of both groups was similar; most of them had a medium to high level of nicotine dependence, smoked roll your own tobacco, and were “serious” about quitting. Discussion and Conclusion. Despite differences in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and offending history, the smoking characteristics of Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal prisoners were similar. Incarceration offers an opportunity to encourage smoking cessation and reduction of drug use. PMID:24940513

Richmond, Robyn L.; Indig, Devon; Butler, Tony G.; Wilhelm, Kay A.; Archer, Vicki A.; Wodak, Alex D.

2013-01-01

82

Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Characteristics and Survival in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Western Australians  

PubMed Central

Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignancy affecting the oral cavity. While exposures to main risk factors for oral SCC such as smoking and alcohol use are higher amongst the Aboriginal people, little is known about oral cancer in this population. This study aimed to describe characteristics and survival of oral SCC in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Methods: All primary oral SCC cases reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry (WACR) between 1990 and 1999 were analysed with respect to person characteristics including: date of birth, sex and indigenous status; and disease characteristics including: date of biopsy, disease stage and site as well as date of recurrence and date of death. Exclusion criteria included diagnosis not based on incisional or excisional biopsy, diagnosis other than oral SCC or a history of another malignant neoplasm. Results: Aboriginal individuals were more likely to reside in rural areas. No statistically significant differences in oral SCC characteristics and survival were noted between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Conclusion: This study provides new information on person and disease characteristics of Aboriginal Western Australians diagnosed with oral SCC. PMID:25328552

Frydrych, A.M; Slack-Smith, L.M; Parsons, R; Threlfall, T

2014-01-01

83

Shell damage and shell repair in the Antarctic limpet Nacella concinna from King George Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nacella concinna is the most conspicuous macroinvertebrate in the intertidal of King George Island. An important predator, the Kelp gull Larus dominicanus, feeds on Nacella during spring low tides. The gulls deposit empty Nacella shells as regurgitates mainly on roosts on coastal rocks. The regurgitates were found to consist of 40% shell fragments by weight and 60% intact shells. Faeces of Kelp gulls contained much smaller fragments than the regurgitates. Some of the Nacella, particularly those too large to ingest, are handled in the intertidal. The middens are, therefore, inadequate to study size selection by Kelp gulls: the largest Nacella are underrepresented. Seventy-five per cent of the intact Nacella shells from the Larus middens showed one or more shell repairs. Such repairs may be due to unsuccessful attacks by gulls, but more probably they indicate damage caused by rolling ice blocks and stones in the intertidal and shallow subtidal. A number of living Nacella were found stranded on the beach, detached from the rocks. They showed damage along the shell margin and even one Nacella was collected without any shell left. The observed repair frequency of 75% in Nacella was much higher than in other (smaller) intertidal gastropods at Potter Peninsula (3-11%, av. 8%). Comparably high frequencies are observed for instance in tropical intertidal gastropods, where repair is due to heavy unsuccessful crab predation; however, shell-crushing crabs are absent on King George Island. This indicates that palaeontologists should be cautious in ascribing all shell repairs in fossil shells (particularly from tidal environments) to predators. Shell repair in the related Nacella deaurata, collected in a less exposed site at Port Stanley (Falkland Islands), occurred only in 13% of the specimens. Another conspicuous form of shell damage was due to grazing by Nacella on the boring algae living in other Nacella shells. Epigrowth of crustose calcareous algae inhibited such grazing, but in the absence of epigrowth deep hollows were scraped in the shells, the parallel scratches by the radula clearly visible, urging Nacella to repair its shell by producing more shelly material on the inside.

Cadée, Gerhard C.

1999-03-01

84

Absent otoacoustic emissions predict otitis media in young Aboriginal children: A birth cohort study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in an arid zone of Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed regularly from birth to age 2 years. Tympanometry was conducted at routine field follow-up from age 3 months. Routine clinical examination by an ENT specialist was to be done 3 times and hearing assessment by an audiologist twice. TEOAEs were measured at ages <1 and 1–2 months. Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between absent TEOAEs and subsequent risk of OM. Results At routine ENT specialist clinics, OM was detected in 55% of 184 examinations in Aboriginal children and 26% of 392 examinations in non-Aboriginal children; peak prevalence was 72% at age 5–9 months in Aboriginal children and 40% at 10–14 months in non-Aboriginal children. Moderate-severe hearing loss was present in 32% of 47 Aboriginal children and 7% of 120 non-Aboriginal children aged 12 months or more. TEOAE responses were present in 90% (46/51) of Aboriginal children and 99% (120/121) of non-Aboriginal children aged <1 month and in 62% (21/34) and 93% (108/116), respectively, in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children at age 1–2 months. Aboriginal children who failed TEOAE at age 1–2 months were 2.6 times more likely to develop OM subsequently than those who passed. Overall prevalence of type B tympanograms at field follow-up was 50% (n = 78) in Aboriginal children and 20% (n = 95) in non-Aboriginal children. Conclusion The burden of middle ear disease is high in all children, but particularly in Aboriginal children, one-third of whom suffer from moderate-severe hearing loss. In view of the frequently silent nature of OM, every opportunity must be taken to screen for OM. Measurement of TEOAEs at age 1–2 months to identify children at risk of developing OM should be evaluated in a routine health service setting. PMID:18755038

Lehmann, Deborah; Weeks, Sharon; Jacoby, Peter; Elsbury, Dimity; Finucane, Janine; Stokes, Annette; Monck, Ruth; Coates, Harvey

2008-01-01

85

Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) Arctic ground squirrel middens and a squirrel-eye-view of the mammoth-steppe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii) middens were recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in association with Sheep Creek-Klondike and Dominion Creek tephras (ca 80 ka) exposed in west-central Yukon. These middens provide plant and insect macrofossil evidence for a steppe-tundra ecosystem during the Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) glacial interval. Midden plant and insect macrofossil data are compared with those previously published for Late Wisconsinan middens dating to ˜25-29 14C ka BP (MIS 3/2) from the region. Although multivariate statistical comparisons suggest differences between the relative abundances of plant macrofossils, the co-occurrence of steppe-tundra plants and insects (e.g., Elymus trachycaulus, Kobresia myosuroides, Artemisia frigida, Phlox hoodii, Connatichela artemisiae) provides evidence for successive reestablishment of the zonal steppe-tundra habitats during cold stages of the Late Pleistocene. Arctic ground squirrels were well adapted to the cold, arid climates, steppe-tundra vegetation and well-drained loessal soils that characterize cold stages of Late Pleistocene Beringia. These glacial conditions enabled arctic ground squirrel populations to expand their range to the interior regions of Alaska and Yukon, including the Klondike, where they are absent today. Arctic ground squirrels have endured numerous Quaternary climate oscillations by retracting populations to disjunct "interglacial refugia" during warm interglacial periods (e.g., south-facing steppe slopes, well-drained arctic and alpine tundra areas) and expanding their distribution across the mammoth-steppe biome during cold, arid glacial intervals.

Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Elias, Scott A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Mathewes, Rolf W.

2011-08-01

86

Closing the Education Gap: A Case for Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada, a Look at the Aboriginal Headstart Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper raises awareness concerning the education gap between Aboriginal youth and the non-Aboriginal youth population in Canada. It argues that the historical consequences of colonialism that resulted in diminished sense of self-worth, self-determination, and culture have placed Aboriginals at the low-end of the socio-economic strata. This…

Nguyen, Mai

2011-01-01

87

A research review: exploring the health of Canada's Aboriginal youth  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the current state of health research on Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youth in Canada. Design A search of published academic literature on Canadian Aboriginal youth health, including a comprehensive review of both non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal youth research, was conducted using MEDLINE and summarized. Methodology A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published over a 10-year period (2000–2010). The search was limited to research articles pertaining to Canadian youth, using various synonyms for “Canada,” “youth,” and “Aboriginal.” Each article was coded according to 4 broad categories: Aboriginal identity, geographic location, research topic (health determinants, health status, health care), and the 12 key determinants of health proposed by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). Results Of the 117 articles reviewed, only 34 pertained to Aboriginal youth, while the remaining 83 pertained to non-Aboriginal youth. The results revealed major discrepancies within the current body of research with respect to the geographic representation of Aboriginal youth, with several provinces missing from the literature, including the northern territories. Furthermore, the current research is not reflective of the demographic composition of Aboriginal youth, with an under-representation of Métis and urban Aboriginal youth. Health status of Aboriginal youth has received the most attention, appearing in 79% of the studies reviewed compared with 57% of the non-Aboriginal studies. The number of studies that focus on health determinants and health care is comparable for both groups, with the former accounting for 62 and 64% and the latter comprising 26 and 19% of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal studies, respectively. However, this review reveals several differences with respect to specific focus on health determinants between the two populations. In non-Aboriginal youth studies, all the 12 key determinants of health of PHAC are explored, whereas in Aboriginal youth studies the health profile remains incomplete and several key determinants and health indicators are neglected. Conclusions The current studies are not reflective of the demographic and geographic profiles of Aboriginal youth in Canada, and they have also failed to provide a comprehensive examination of their unique health needs and concerns compared with studies on non-Aboriginal youth. PMID:22973569

Ning, Ashley; Wilson, Kathi

2012-01-01

88

Radiographic study of the Broadbeach Aboriginal dentition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study forms part of a larger anthropological investigation of the Ngaraangbal Aboriginal Tribe's ancestral burial ground at Broadbeach, Australia. It examines the dentition, records the associated pathology in a non-invasive manner, and relates this to the likely subsistence diet of the tribe. The Broadbeach osteological collection was returned for reburial in 1985; however, radiographic and photographic records of 36

Mark W. Elvery; Neil W. Savage; Walter B. Wood

1998-01-01

89

Comet and Meteorite Traditions of Aboriginal Australians  

E-print Network

Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

Hamacher, Duane W

2014-01-01

90

Micmac Indians Present Aboriginal Rights Claim  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nova Scotia's Micmac Indian leaders presented their claim for aboriginal rights to the Federal Government April 25, 1977 in an historic and symbolic ceremony on their home ground at the Eskasoni Reserve. The article discusses this event and some of the Micmacs' demands. (NQ)

Northian, 1978

1978-01-01

91

Aboriginal Connections: An Indigenous Peoples Web Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Rob Wesley, this Web directory indexes sites related to Canadian aboriginal, Native American, and international indigenous peoples and cultures. The annotated links are organized by topic, including First Nations, Education, Government, History, and Organizations, among others. What's new, a top 100 listing, and an internal search engine are also provided. Visitors are welcome to submit additional sites for inclusion.

1997-01-01

92

Aboriginal Knowledge Traditions in Digital Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Manovich (2001), the database and the narrative are natural enemies, each competing for the same territory of human culture. Aboriginal knowledge traditions depend upon narrative through storytelling and other shared performances. The database objectifies and commodifies distillations of such performances and absorbs them into data…

Christie, Michael

2005-01-01

93

Rheumatic disease and the Australian Aborigine  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To document the frequency and disease phenotype of various rheumatic diseases in the Australian Aborigine.?METHODS—A comprehensive review was performed of the archaeological, ethnohistorical, and contemporary literature relating to rheumatic diseases in these indigenous people.?RESULTS—No evidence was found to suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), or gout occurred in Aborigines before or during the early stages of white settlement of Australia. Part of the explanation for the absence of these disorders in this indigenous group may relate to the scarcity of predisposing genetic elements, for example, shared rheumatoid epitope for RA, B27 antigen for AS. In contrast, osteoarthritis appeared to be common particularly involving the temporomandibular joint, right elbow and knees and, most probably, was related to excessive joint loading in their hunter gatherer lifestyle. Since white settlement, high frequency rates for rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pyogenic arthritis have been observed and there are now scanty reports of the emergence of RA and gout in these original Australians.?CONCLUSION—The occurrence and phenotype of various rheumatic disorders in Australian Aborigines is distinctive but with recent changes in diet, lifestyle, and continuing genetic admixture may be undergoing change. An examination of rheumatic diseases in Australian Aborigines and its changing phenotype may lead to a greater understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of these disorders.?? PMID:10225809

Roberts-Thomson, R.; Roberts-Thomson, P

1999-01-01

94

Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind  

E-print Network

Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind Canadian Supplement to THE STATE OF THE WORLD'S CHILDREN 2009 #12;© Canadian UNICEF Committee, 2009 Permission to reproduce any part of this publication-8035 info@unicef.ca www.unicef.ca ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS UNICEF is the world's leader for children, working

Northern British Columbia, University of

95

The Duboisia Genus, Australian Aborigines and Suggestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant hallucinogens, such as those of the Duboisia genus called pituri, have been used by tribal elders in Australian aboriginal populations to create managed states of consciousness, to provide their youth with a fast-paced educational experience, and to inculcate values, beliefs and religious tenets. Use of the suggestible states created by such substances (particularly in pubertal initiatory rituals marking the

Marlene Dobkin de Rios; Ronni Stachalek

1999-01-01

96

Brothers Inside: Fathering Workshops with Aboriginal Prisoners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a fathering program that has been operating for a number of years for Aboriginal men in the corrective system. The discussion groups focus on how the men see their role as fathers whilst in jail. The discussions examine ways of changing and developing new skills for them on release. The basis of the program is that just…

Hammond, Craig

2011-01-01

97

Rodent middens reveal episodic, long-distance plant colonizations across the hyperarid Atacama Desert over the last 34,000 years  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim To document the impact of late Quaternary pluvial events on plant movements between the coast and the Andes across the Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Location Sites are located along the lower and upper fringes of absolute desert (1100–2800 m a.s.l.), between the western slope of the Andes and the Coastal Ranges of northern Chile (24–26° S). Methods We collected and individually radiocarbon dated 21 rodent middens. Plant macrofossils (fruits, seeds, flowers and leaves) were identified and pollen content analysed. Midden assemblages afford brief snapshots of local plant communities that existed within the rodents' limited foraging range during the several years to decades that it took the midden to accumulate. These assemblages were then compared with modern floras to determine the presence of extralocal species and species provenance. Results Five middens span the last glacial period (34–21 ka) and three middens are from the last glacial–interglacial transition (19–11 ka). The remaining 13 middens span the last 7000 years. Coastal hyperarid sites exhibit low taxonomic richness in middens at 19.3, 1.1, 1.0, 0.9, 0.5 ka and a modern sample. Middens are also dominated by the same plants that occur today. In contrast, middens dated to 28.1, 21.3, 17.3, 3.7 and 0.5 ka contain more species, including Andean extralocals. Precordillera middens (c. 2700 m) show a prominent increase in plant macrofossil richness, along with the appearance of Andean extralocals and sedges at 34.5 and 18.9 ka. Six younger middens dated to 6.1–0.1 ka are similar to the modern local vegetation. Main conclusions Increased species richness and Andean extralocal plants occurred along the current lower fringes of absolute desert during the last glacial–interglacial transition and late Holocene. The absence of soil carbonates indicates the persistence of absolute desert throughout the Quaternary. Colonization by Andean plants could have been accomplished through long-distance seed dispersal either by animals or floods that originated in the Andes. We postulate that dispersal would have been most frequent during regional pluvial events and associated increases in groundwater levels, forming local wetlands in the absolute desert, and generating large floods capable of crossing the Central Depression.

Diaz, Francisca P.; Latorre, Claudio; Maldonado, Antonio; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, Julio L.

2012-01-01

98

Vegetation invasions into absolute desert: A 45;th000 yr rodent midden record from the Calama–Salar de Atacama basins, northern Chile (lat 22°–24°S)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant macrofossils, percentage abun- dance of grass taxa, fecal-pellet d13 C, and plant-cuticle contents from 49 fossil rodent middens dated by 14 C record changes in lo- cal vegetation and precipitation since 45 ka (calibrated or measured to thousands of calendar years before present) in the cen- tral Atacama Desert (lat 228-248S) of north- ern Chile. The midden sites are

Claudio Latorre; Julio L. Betancourt; Kate A. Rylander; Jay Quade

2002-01-01

99

Arctic ground squirrels of the mammoth-steppe: paleoecology of Late Pleistocene middens (˜24 000 29 450 14C yr BP), Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents paleoecological analyses of 48 fossil arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii) middens (nests and caches) recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in the Klondike region of west-central Yukon Territory. AMS radiocarbon dates and stratigraphic association of middens with Dawson tephra (˜25 300 14C yr BP), indicate these paleoecological data reflect the onset of glacial conditions of early Marine Isotope

Grant D. Zazula; Duane G. Froese; Scott A. Elias; Svetlana Kuzmina; Rolf W. Mathewes

2007-01-01

100

Arctic ground squirrels of the mammoth-steppe: paleoecology of Late Pleistocene middens (?24 000–29 450 14C yr BP), Yukon Territory, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents paleoecological analyses of 48 fossil arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii) middens (nests and caches) recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in the Klondike region of west-central Yukon Territory. AMS radiocarbon dates and stratigraphic association of middens with Dawson tephra (?25300 14C yr BP), indicate these paleoecological data reflect the onset of glacial conditions of early Marine Isotope Stage

Grant D. Zazula; Duane G. Froese; Scott A. Elias; Svetlana Kuzmina; Rolf W. Mathewes

2007-01-01

101

A 16,000 14C yr B.P. packrat midden series from the USA-Mexico Borderlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals: 16,000-10,000 and 4000-0 14C yr B.P. Vegetation along pluvial lake margins consisted of open pinyon-juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis, and a rich understory of C 4 annuals and grasses. This summer-flowering understory is also characteristic of modern desert grassland in the Borderlands and indicates at least moderate summer precipitation. P. edulis and J. scopulorum disappeared or were rare in the midden record by 10,670 14C yr B.P. The late Holocene is marked by the arrival of Chihuahuan desert scrub elements and few departures as the vegetation gradually became modern in character. Larrea tridentata appears as late as 2190 14C yr B.P. based on macrofossils, but may have been present as early as 4095 14C yr B.P. based on pollen. Fouquieria splendens, one of the dominant desert species present at the site today, makes its first appearance only in the last millennium. The midden pollen assemblages are difficult to interpret; they lack modern analogs in surface pollen assemblages from stock tanks at different elevations in the Borderlands.

Holmgren, Camille A.; Peñalba, M. Cristina; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Betancourt, Julio L.

2003-11-01

102

Late Holocene vegetation and historic grazing impacts at Capital Reef National Park reconstructed using fossil packrat middens  

SciTech Connect

Late Holocene vegetation change from a high desert site in southern Utah was reconstructed using fossil plant macrofossils and pollen from packrat middens. Presettlement middens consistently contained abundant macrofossils of plant species palatable to livestock that are now absent or reduced such as: Ceratoides lanata, Stipa hymenoides, Pinus edulis, and Artemisia spp.. In contrast, species typical of overgrazed range, such as: Chrysothamnus visidiflorus, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and Gutterezia sarothrae, are now more abundant than prior to the historic introduction of grazing animals. Similar changes are evident in the fossil pollen from the packrat middens. Pine and sagebrush pollen is now far lower than prior to settlement, while Salsola sp. is first recorded following settlement. Ordination of the plant records using Detrended Correspondence Analysis demonstrates that the modem assemblages are substantially different from the presettlement assemblages and that the rates of vegetation change accompanying settlement are far greater than any recorded during the previous 5000 years. These results suggest that the plant communities and rates of vegetation change observed during this century are unlike previous natural communities and rates of vegetation change.

Cole, K.L. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

1995-06-01

103

Improvement of maternal Aboriginality in NSW birth data  

PubMed Central

Background The Indigenous population of Australia was estimated as 2.5% and under-reported. The aim of this study is to improve statistical ascertainment of Aboriginal women giving birth in New South Wales. Methods This study was based on linked birth data from the Midwives Data Collection (MDC) and the Registry of Births Deaths and Marriages (RBDM) of New South Wales (NSW). Data linkage was performed by the Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL) for births in NSW for the period January 2001 to December 2005. The accuracy of maternal Aboriginal status in the MDC and RBDM was assessed by consistency, sensitivity and specificity. A new statistical variable, ASV, or Aboriginal Statistical Variable, was constructed based on Indigenous identification in both datasets. The ASV was assessed by comparing numbers and percentages of births to Aboriginal mothers with the estimates by capture-recapture analysis. Results Maternal Aboriginal status was under-ascertained in both the MDC and RBDM. The ASV significantly increased ascertainment of Aboriginal women giving birth and decreased the number of missing cases. The proportion of births to Aboriginal mothers in the non-registered birth group was significantly higher than in the registered group. Conclusions Linking birth data collections is a feasible method to improve the statistical ascertainment of Aboriginal women giving birth in NSW. This has ramifications for the ascertainment of babies of Aboriginal mothers and the targeting of appropriate services in pregnancy and early childhood. PMID:22289717

2012-01-01

104

Background, Offence Characteristics, and Criminal Outcomes of Aboriginal Youth Who Sexually Offend: A Closer Look at Aboriginal Youth Intervention Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada’s Aboriginal peoples face a number of social and health issues. Research shows that Aboriginal youths are over-represented\\u000a in the criminal justice system and youth forensic psychiatric programmes. Within the literature on sex offending youth, there\\u000a appears to be no published data available to inform clinicians working with adjudicated Aboriginal youth. Therefore, the present\\u000a study examines the background, offence characteristics,

Erika Y. Rojas; Heather M. Gretton

2007-01-01

105

Disparities in Healthcare Utilisation Rates for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Albertan Residents, 1997-2006: A Population Database Study  

PubMed Central

Background It is widely recognised that significant discrepancies exist between the health of indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Whilst the reasons are incompletely defined, one potential cause is that indigenous communities do not access healthcare to the same extent. We investigated healthcare utilisation rates in the Canadian Aboriginal population to elucidate the contribution of this fundamental social determinant for health to such disparities. Methods Healthcare utilisation data over a nine-year period were analysed for a cohort of nearly two million individuals to determine the rates at which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations utilised two specialties (Cardiology and Ophthalmology) in Alberta, Canada. Unadjusted and adjusted healthcare utilisation rates obtained by mixed linear and Poisson regressions, respectively, were compared amongst three population groups - federally registered Aboriginals, individuals receiving welfare, and other Albertans. Results Healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginals were substantially lower than those of non-Aboriginals and welfare recipients at each time point and subspecialty studied [e.g. During 2005/06, unadjusted Cardiology utilisation rates were 0.28% (Aboriginal, n?=?97,080), 0.93% (non-Aboriginal, n?=?1,720,041) and 1.37% (Welfare, n?=?52,514), p?=?<0.001]. The age distribution of the Aboriginal population was markedly different [2.7%?65 years of age, non-Aboriginal 10.7%], and comparable utilisation rates were obtained after adjustment for fiscal year and estimated life expectancy [Cardiology: Incidence Rate Ratio 0.66, Ophthalmology: IRR 0.85]. Discussion The analysis revealed that Aboriginal people utilised subspecialty healthcare at a consistently lower rate than either comparatively economically disadvantaged groups or the general population. Notably, the differences were relatively invariant between the major provincial centres and over a nine year period. Addressing the causes of these discrepancies is essential for reducing marked health disparities, and so improving the health of Aboriginal people. PMID:23152770

Chung, Helen; Ye, Ming; Hanson, Chris; Oladokun, Oluwaseun; Campbell, Michael J.; Kramer, Gordon; Lehmann, Ordan J.

2012-01-01

106

Holocene climate change in southernmost South Africa: rock hyrax middens record shifts in the southern westerlies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Africa's southern coastal margin is recognised as being a highly dynamic climatic region that plays a critical role in both regional and global atmospheric and oceanic circulation dynamics. Our understanding of the past dynamics of this system, however, has been limited by the number and nature of datasets available that can be used to infer changes in key climatic parameters in the region. In this paper we present new high resolution ?13C and ?15N data from two independently dated rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) middens from Seweweekspoort in South Africa's Groot Swartberg mountains. These data provide information regarding both past vegetation and hydroclimatic change, and allow a regional integration of available data that explore the long-term dynamics of mid-latitude circulation systems in the African sector of the Southern Hemisphere. Combined, a negative relationship is apparent between temperature and humidity in this area of the southern Cape, and these changes can for the first time be clearly linked to variations in Antarctic sea-ice extent and shifts in the southern westerly storm track. This dynamic is particularly evident between 5 and 7 cal kBP, when a reduction in sea-ice extent and a southward shift of the westerlies are manifested regionally by increased temperatures and a phase of marked aridity.

Chase, Brian M.; Boom, Arnoud; Carr, Andrew S.; Meadows, Michael E.; Reimer, Paula J.

2013-12-01

107

Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, and its own ceremonies and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Sadly, the Australian media tend to focus on negative aspects of contemporary Aboriginal culture, and very few non-Aboriginal people in the wider Australian community are aware of the intellectual depth of traditional Aboriginal cultures. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 seemed an excellent opportunity to tell the wider public about Aboriginal astronomy, so that they might understand something of the depth and complexity of traditional Aboriginal cultures. This article describes some of the challenges and successes of this programme, and the impact that this work has had on Australian perceptions of Aboriginal culture, helping to build a bridge across the cultures. It also describes the achievement of an unexpected and unplanned goal: the inclusion of Aboriginal astronomy opened up astronomy to a section of the population who had never before intentionally attended a talk on science.

Norris, R. P.

2010-10-01

108

Aboriginal reconciliation as religious politics: Secularisation in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterisation of the Australian polity as a strikingly ‘secular’ polity is in certain respects misleading. Australian political debate continues to be marked by a religious element. For example, the language of Aboriginal ‘reconciliation’ had several distinctly Christian resonances and ambiguities, including the difficult relation of justice and forgiveness. This paper considers the Aboriginal reconciliation process in the light of

Michael Phillips

2005-01-01

109

Aboriginal Language Standardisation Project: Progress Report, 2000. Literacy Ontario.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aboriginal Language Standardisation (ALS) Project's task is to develop quality literacy materials in order to help preserve aboriginal languages of Canada. The Canadian Assembly of First Nations, a group of tribal leaders, recently called for the establishment of standards for written and oral languages by approving terminology, developing…

Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities, Toronto. Literacy and Basic Skills Section.

110

Relationships Matter: Supporting Aboriginal Graduate Students in British Columbia, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current Canadian landscape of graduate education has pockets of presence of Indigenous faculty, students, and staff. The reality is that all too often, Aboriginal graduate students are either among the few, or is the sole Aboriginal person in an entire faculty. They usually do not have mentorship or guidance from an Indigenous faculty member…

Pidgeon, Michelle; Archibald, Jo-ann; Hawkey, Colleen

2014-01-01

111

Appropriateness of Outcome-Based Framework for Aboriginal Child Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the appropriateness of outcome-based regulation for Aboriginal child care in British Columbia (BC). Interviews were conducted with 15 key informants selected from five BC regions. Focus groups held in four BC regions included Aboriginal leaders, Elders, policy makers, provincial licensing officers, frontline workers, and parents…

Greenwood, Margo; Shawana, Perry

112

Critical cultural perspectives and health care involving Aboriginal peoples.  

PubMed

Despite a growing body of critical scholarship in nursing, the concept of culture continues to be applied in ways that diminish the significance of power relations and structural constraints on health and health care. In this paper, we take a critical look at how assumptions and ideas underpinning conceptualizations of culture and cultural sensitivity can influence nurses' perceptions of Aboriginal peoples and Aboriginal health. Drawing on examples from our research, we examine how popularized assumptions about culture can shape nurses' views of Aboriginal patients. These assumptions and perceptions require closer scrutiny because of their potential to influence nurses' practice with Aboriginal patients. Our specific aims are to: (a) consider some of the limitations of cultural sensitivity in relation to health care involving Aboriginal peoples; (b) explore how ideas about culture have the potential to become problematic in nursing practice with Aboriginal peoples; and (c) explore the relevance of a 'critical cultural approach' in extending our understanding of culture in relation to Aboriginal peoples' health. We discuss a critical cultural perspective as one way of broadening nurses' understandings about the complexities of culture and the many facets of culture that require critical consideration. In relation to Aboriginal health, this will require nurses to develop greater critical awareness of culture as a relational process, and as necessarily influenced by issues of racism, colonialism, historical circumstances, and the current political climate in which we live. PMID:17026422

Browne, Annette J; Varcoe, Colleen

2006-09-01

113

Cross-Cultural Science Teaching: "Rekindling Traditions" for Aboriginal Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the project "Rekindling Traditions" which illustrates one modest way of addressing the underrepresentation of Aboriginal people in careers related to science, a situation that arises from a colonial type of science education. Integrates Western science content into a local community's Aboriginal Science. (Contains 85 references.)…

Aikenhead, Glen S.

2002-01-01

114

Marginalization, Decolonization and Voice: Prospects for Aboriginal Education in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Canada, Aboriginal people remain highly disadvantaged relative to the general population. Structural factors operate in conjunction with cultural factors and other social practices like racism, such that they cannot be explained away through conventional analysis and isolated interventions. Schooling for Aboriginal people must incorporate and…

Wotherspoon, Terry; Schissel, Bernard

115

Protective Predictors of Alcohol Use Trajectories among Canadian Aboriginal Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk of using substances and developing abuse and dependence disorders. However, not all Aboriginal youth misuse substances and limited research has examined the protective factors conferring against substance use among these youth. The present study aimed to identify protective factors related to the…

Rawana, Jennine S.; Ames, Megan E.

2012-01-01

116

Aboriginal Education at Two Australian Schools: Under One Dream  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the author shares his experience visiting two schools that serve Aboriginal children in the state of Queensland, Australia: (1) Cherbourg State School in central Queensland; and (2) Kuranda State School in the Far North. Prior to his visit he had learned somewhat of Australia's troubled history regarding Aboriginal education, a…

Hones, Donald F.

2005-01-01

117

Developmental gender differences for overhand throwing in Aboriginal Australian children.  

PubMed

In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES > 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and kinematics were recorded in 30 female and male Aboriginal Australian children 6-10 years old. Results indicated the Aboriginal girls and boys were more similar in horizontal ball velocities than U.S. girls and boys. Throwing kinematics between girls and boys were also more similar in Australian Aborigines than U.S. children. Aboriginal girls threw with greater velocities than U.S., German, Japanese, and Thai girls, while the boys were similar across cultures. PMID:21268467

Thomas, Jerry R; Alderson, Jacqueline A; Thomas, Katherine T; Campbell, Amity C; Elliott, Bruce C

2010-12-01

118

The University of Saskatchewan's Aboriginal Equity Access Program in dentistry.  

PubMed

Persons of Aboriginal ancestry are underrepresented in the dental profession in North America. In Canada, the University of Saskatchewan College of Dentistry began a proactive program to recruit, retain, and graduate more Aboriginal students in 1996. This program, entitled the Aboriginal Equity Access Program, has seen the inclusion of twenty-two Aboriginal students in the predoctoral program. This article describes the program and reports on the success of the students enrolled via this route. The primary conclusion is that selection of Aboriginal dental students with lower entry scores--who would not have gained entry if the program did not exist--has not impaired their ability to successfully complete the dental undergraduate program and pass the National Dental Examining Board licensure examination. PMID:24489025

Teplitsky, Paul Elliot; Uswak, Gerald Stephen

2014-02-01

119

Stolen from Our Embrace: The Abduction of First Nations Children and the Restoration of Aboriginal Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A deliberate policy to separate and forcibly assimilate Aboriginal First Nations children into the mainstream has pervaded every era of Aboriginal history in Canada. Each era saw a new reason to take Aboriginal children away from their homes, placing them in residential schools, foster care, or non-Aboriginal adoptive families. In the words of…

Fournier, Suzanne; Crey, Ernie

120

From birchbark talk to digital dreamspeaking: A history of Aboriginal media activism in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis addresses the interconnectedness of Aboriginal media practices; historically changing government policies; Aboriginal social and political movements; and the local situations of reserve and urban Aboriginal peoples in Canada. It is premised on the idea that in order to understand the cultural transformations associated with the rise of modern Aboriginal society, it is necessary to assess the development of

Kathleen Buddle-Crowe

2002-01-01

121

From birchbark talk to digital dreamspeaking: A history of Aboriginal media activism in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis addresses the interconnectedness of Aboriginal media practices; historically changing government policies; Aboriginal social and political movements; and the local situations of reserve and urban Aboriginal peoples in Canada. It is premised on the idea that in order to understand the cultural transformations associated with the rise of modern Aboriginal society, it is necessary to assess the development of

Kathleen Buddle

2001-01-01

122

Social Work with Aboriginal Clients: Perspectives on Educational Preparation and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The many Aboriginal and non Aboriginal social workers who work with Aboriginal communities to address health and socioeconomic disadvantage have a key role to play in reducing the continuing inequalities experienced by many Aboriginal clients in Australia. The need for more culturally-responsive practice is well recognised, as historic barriers to effective practice and relationships persist. This paper describes the views

Louise Harms; Jane Middleton; John Whyte; Ian Anderson; Angela Clarke; Judith Sloan; Marita Hagel; Marita Smith

2011-01-01

123

Letters from Mapoon: colonising Aboriginal gender.  

PubMed

Much information on traditional indigenous society in Australian historiography and anthropology stems from the vast store of eyewitness accounts left by missionaries, settlers and government officials. How cautious does one need to be in using such material? After all that it reveals about the moral and legal universe of its writers, can it speak reliably about traditional society? This article traces the production of knowledge about indigenous gender relations at Cape York Peninsula through a lineage of sources from the 1890s to the 1990s and concludes that unless the assumptions embedded in the primary sources are clearly identified, the discourse on Aboriginal womanhood continues to be a colonising project. PMID:19391305

Ganter, R

1999-01-01

124

Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2014-06-01

125

The Edith and Joy London Foundation: A Concise History  

E-print Network

vegetated area, mainly dunes with coastal heath and scrub. Near the southern boundary there is a small lagoon, Butler's Lagoon, behind the sand dunes. Behind the coastal sand dunes, to the west of the road a PhD thesis entitled "Aboriginal Shell Middens in the Coastal Landscape of New South Wales". Immediate

Botea, Adi

126

Mining the Midden: A Facility for Dynamic Waste Harvesting at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining the Midden intends to re-frame the sanitary landfill as a new typology of public land containing an embodied energy of cultural and material value. By reconnecting the public with the landfill and seriously exposing its layers of history and then digesting both mined and new waste within an industrial facility of materials recovery and plasma gasification technology waste-to-energy plant. The sequence of experience for a public visitor begins where the waste is transformed to energy and flows in the opposite direction of the trash through the facility and then into the active landfill mining operation which is the large site component of the project. The mine is flanked by the visitor path, which is suspended from the soldier piles of the excavation system and allows the visitor to interpret along the 1/3 mile path their personal connection to the waste stream and the consumption patterns which drive our waste. Interpretation results from multi-sensory experience of the open mine and its connection to the processing structure as one hovers above, through moments of seeing through structural glass lagging directly into the sectional cut of the landfill, and through cultural artifacts harvested by landfill archaeologists which are displayed in rhythm with the structure and lagging. The culmination of the prescribed path is a narrow cut which frames the view of Mt. Rainier in the distance and opens up a visual connection with the remaining majority of the landfill which have up to this point been blocked by the small mountain of trash which they just walked up and through. This thesis intends that by confronting people with the juxtapositions of 2 potentially destructive mounds or mountains, and how we as a culture value and protect land while we simultaneously dump our rubbish on other lands, this experience will make the visitor more conscious of ones personal contribution to our culture of disposable commodities.

Allan, Aaron

127

Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage.  

PubMed

We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates. PMID:24751666

Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H

2014-07-01

128

Improving the scientific literacy of Aboriginal students through astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventy per cent of Aboriginal students drop out of school before the end of their secondary school years and very few go on to do science at the Higher School Certificate level. As a result of this statistics reveal that only 0.003% of the 9000 university science graduates in 2005 in Australia were of Aboriginal origin. This paper discusses an astronomy project which seeks to improve the scientific literacy of Aboriginal students so as to motivate them to take up careers in science and engineering.

Bhathal, Ragbir

2011-06-01

129

The missing link in Aboriginal care: resource accounting.  

PubMed

Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles. PMID:18536535

Ashton, C W; Duffie-Ashton, Denise

2008-01-01

130

Problem-Centered and Experimental Mathematics Activities for Aboriginal Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity carried out by aboriginal students that addresses solving a real-life problem that could be linked to number sequence, graph theory, and combinations. Contains 14 references. (ASK)

Seputro, Theresia Tirta

1998-01-01

131

50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...subsistence whaling. (f) No person may sell or offer for sale whale products from whales taken in an aboriginal subsistence hunt, except that authentic articles of Native handicrafts may be sold or offered for sale. (g) No whaling captain shall...

2013-10-01

132

Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy  

E-print Network

1 Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy Ray P. Norris CSIRO Astronomy & Space Science, NSW, Australia Warawara Dept. The International year of Astronomy seemed an excellent opportunity to tell the wider

Norris, Ray

133

Stable Isotopic Shifts in Fish Bones from Multiple Archeological Coastal Middens in Penobscot Bay, Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions of collagen extracted from well-preserved archeological fish bones has the potential to provide useful information on fish diets and food web dynamics over time. Previous work on the Turner Farm archaeological site in Penobscot Bay, Gulf of Maine, reveals significant shifts in fish diets have occurred since European colonization (post 1620’s). The objective of the present study was to analyze samples from other archaeological sites within Penobscot Bay to characterize the spatial extent of the isotopic shift measured at Turner Farm. Stratified cod, flounder, and sculpin bones were analyzed from eight coastal middens located approximately 50km apart from one another within Penobscot Bay. The bones were sampled from three time horizons (0kya, 0.5-1kya, and 2.2-2.4kya). All bone samples were demineralized in 0.2M HCl at 4°C for 2 to 7 days and then extracted in 0.25M NaOH at 4°C for 1 to 2 hours. After freeze-drying, the bulk isotopic composition of each sample was analyzed using the EA-IRMS. In all stratigraphic horizons analyzed, cod were more enriched in ?13C and ?15N than sculpin, and flounder were the most depleted in ?13C and ?15N . However, the isotopic offsets between the fish species decreased from 2.4kya to the present. The nitrogen isotope composition was relatively constant over time and space for all species, implying that trophic levels for the fishes analyzed have not changed significantly in Penobscot Bay for the last 2,400 years. The carbon isotope composition also appears to be constant spatially in Penobscot Bay, however, the modern signal was more depleted than the paleo signal in all three species. The difference between the modern and paleo ?13C is ~5‰ for cod and flounder, and ~9‰ for sculpin. These shifts may, in part, be explained by decreases in both primary producer and prey species diversity, as kelp forests replace eelgrass beds in the Gulf of Maine.

Harris, C.; Johnson, B.; Ambrose, W. G.; Bourque, B.; Dostie, P.; Crowley, E.

2010-12-01

134

Changes in northeast Pacific marine ecosystems over the last 4500 years: evidence from stable isotope analysis of bone collagen from archeological middens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in food web dynamics and ocean productivity over the past 4500 years are investigated using stable isotope analysis of nitrogen and carbon in collagen from animal bones preserved in coastal archeological middens on Sanak Island, along the eastern edge of the Aleutian archipelgo. Samples included Steller sea lions, Harbor seals, Northern fur seals, sea otters, Pacific cod and sockeye

Nicole Misarti; Bruce Finney; Herbert Maschner; Matthew J. Wooller

2009-01-01

135

Anonymous HIV testing in the Canadian aboriginal population.  

PubMed Central

Reported numbers of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases among Canadian aboriginal peoples are currently relatively low. However, any increase in these numbers could have devastating human, social, and economic costs. Education and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus transmission are the most efficient and cost-effective measures available today. This paper discusses the role of anonymous HIV testing in effective HIV prevention in the Canadian aboriginal population. PMID:8828876

Tseng, A. L.

1996-01-01

136

End-of-life issues for aboriginal patients  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To understand some of the cross-cultural issues in providing palliative care to aboriginal patients. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE (1966 to 2005), CINAHL, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and the Aboriginal Health Collection at the University of Manitoba were searched. Studies were selected based on their focus on both general cross-cultural caregiving and, in particular, end-of-life decision making and treatment. Only 39 relevant articles were found, half of which were opinion pieces by experienced nonaboriginal professionals; 14 were qualitative research projects from nursing and anthropologic perspectives. MAIN MESSAGE All patients are unique. Some cultural differences might arise when providing palliative care to aboriginal patients, who value individual respect along with family and community. Involvement of family and community members in decision making around end-of-life issues is common. Aboriginal cultures often have different approaches to telling bad news and maintaining hope for patients. Use of interpreters and various communication styles add to the challenge. CONCLUSION Cultural differences exist between medical caregivers and aboriginal patients. These include different assumptions and expectations about how communication should occur, who should be involved, and the pace of decision making. Aboriginal patients might value indirect communication, use of silence, and sharing information and decision making with family and community members. PMID:17872874

Kelly, Len; Minty, Alana

2007-01-01

137

Sexually transmitted infections/bloodborne viruses in Aboriginal people; understanding the burden of disease and evaluating interventions.  

E-print Network

??Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Aboriginal) Australians are disproportionately affected by sexually transmissible infections (STIs). Notification rates for chlamydia and gonorrhoea are 3-fold and 21-fold… (more)

Graham, Simon

2014-01-01

138

Arctic ground squirrels of the mammoth-steppe: paleoecology of Late Pleistocene middens (˜24 000 29 450 14C yr BP), Yukon Territory, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents paleoecological analyses of 48 fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii) middens (nests and caches) recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in the Klondike region of west-central Yukon Territory. AMS radiocarbon dates and stratigraphic association of middens with Dawson tephra (˜25 300 14C yr BP), indicate these paleoecological data reflect the onset of glacial conditions of early Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and terminal MIS 3 (˜24 000-29 450 14C yr BP). Plant macrofossils include at least 60 plant taxa, including diverse graminoids ( Poa, Elymus trachycaulus, Kobresia myosuroides), steppe forbs ( Penstemon gormanii, Anemone patens var. multifida, Plantago cf. canescens), tundra forbs ( Draba spp., Bistorta vivipara), dwarf shrubs ( Salix cf. arctica, S. cf. polaris), sage ( Artemisia frigida) and rare trees ( Picea mariana). Many of these taxa identified in the middens represent the first recorded fossils for these plants in Eastern Beringia and add to our knowledge of the floristic composition of Pleistocene vegetation and biogeography in this region. Fossil beetles include typical members of the Eastern Beringian steppe-tundra fauna ( Lepidophorus lineaticollis and Connatichela artemisiae) and others suggesting predominantly dry, open habitats. Cache forage selection is suggested by some plant taxa which were particularly frequent and abundant in the middens ( Bistorta vivipara, Kobresia myosuroides, Ranunculus spp., Potentilla, Erysimum cf. cheiranthoides, Poa, Carex and Draba). Factors such as proximity of vegetation to burrows and abundance of fruits and seeds per plant were probably important in cache selection. Glacial conditions enabled arctic ground squirrels to form widespread and dense populations in regions such as the Klondike in which they are rare or absent at present. This fossil midden record supports previous hypotheses that suggest arctic ground squirrels evolved in and are well-adapted to the open, steppe-tundra vegetation, loessal soils and glacial climates of the mammoth-steppe biome.

Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Elias, Scott A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Mathewes, Rolf W.

2007-04-01

139

Keeping the Seventh Fire: Developing an Undergraduate Degree Program for Aboriginal Adult Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brock University (Ontario); an Ontario television station; and the Iroquois, Ojibwa, and Metis Nations are collaborating on the development of an Aboriginal adult education degree program. The clan system was modified for use as a planning tool, elders and other Aboriginal educators were included, and Aboriginal learning styles and perspectives…

Kompf, Michael; Hodson, John

2000-01-01

140

Praxis and community?level sport programming strategies in a Canadian aboriginal reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

From national statistics, it has been indicated that Canadian Aboriginal youth are overrepresented in lower health demographics than the rest of the national population, suffering from higher rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart problems. When Schinke, Michel, and colleagues (2006) engaged in preliminary research with elite Aboriginal athletes, the participants expressed a cultural struggle related to retaining Aboriginal youth in

Amy T. Blodgett; Robert J. Schinke; Leslee A. Fisher; Hope E. Yungblut; Duke Peltier; Stephen Ritchie; Patricia Pickard

2010-01-01

141

Health and Quality of Life of Aboriginal Residential School Survivors, Bella Coola Valley, 2001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to make comparisons between Aboriginal residential school survivors' perceptions of health status and overall quality of life, and Aboriginal non-residential school attendees, as well as between non-Aboriginals. Data were obtained from thirty-three questions derived from the 2001 Determinants of Health and Quality of…

Barton, Sylvia S.; Thommasen, Harvey V.; Tallio, Bill; Zhang, William; Michalos, Alex C.

2005-01-01

142

Problem and pathological gambling in North American Aboriginal populations: a review of the empirical literature.  

PubMed

This literature review attempts to: estimate Aboriginal population prevalence rates for problem and pathological gambling and compare these rates to the general population; determine factors associated with the Aboriginal population problem gambling behaviour; and identify other salient findings and issues. Materials used in the review were drawn from available research literature and bibliographies. There were no time restrictions or study design criteria included in the review. Key words used: Aboriginal, Indians, First Nations, Native, lotteries, gambling, casinos, and gaming. Eleven descriptive studies were identified. Gambling appears to be problematic among Aboriginal people. Aboriginal adolescents have higher rates of problem gambling, as do Aboriginal adults for both problem and pathological gambling than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The odds ratios indicate that the Aboriginal population has a problem gambling behaviour rate 2.2 to 15.69 times higher than the non-Aboriginal population. A number of factors associated with Aboriginal population problem and pathological gambling were identified. Gambling literature specific to the Aboriginal population is limited and there is extensive variation in estimates of their increased risk. Several associated factors were identified but whether these are specific to the Aboriginal population or to all problem and pathological gamblers needs to be determined. More research, particularly qualitative, into these factors is warranted. PMID:11705211

Wardman, D; el-Guebaly, N; Hodgins, D

2001-01-01

143

Comparison of the predictors of alcohol use and misuse among Han and aboriginal students in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare the predictors of alcohol usage between the Han and aboriginal students in Taiwan. Results showed a significant gender difference for alcohol use and problematic drinking in both Han and aboriginal adolescents, with males having a higher prevalence of these problems than females in both groups. Aboriginal adolescents did not show gender differences

Mei-Yu Yeh; I-Chyun Chiang

2005-01-01

144

Aboriginal Teacher Education in British Columbia A Plan for 2006-2011  

E-print Network

: ensure that all pre- service teachers in our programs benefit from learning more about Aboriginal sufficient numbers of Aboriginal pre-service teachers nor have they provided adequate knowledge of Aboriginal education for all pre-service teachers. For these reasons and more, we are committed as an Association to

145

Transformation and Re-Creation: Creating Spaces for Indigenous Theorising in Canadian Aboriginal Studies Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the professional experience of an Anishnabe educator working in various organisations teaching Indigenous knowledge issues in both Aboriginal and primarily non-Aboriginal settings. The reflections span a number of years of teaching Aboriginal worldview and knowledge issues courses and include formal evaluations from both…

McGregor, Deborah

2005-01-01

146

Attitudes of Aboriginal Students to Further Education: An Overview of a Questionnaire Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the attitudes of Aboriginal students concerning their education and their perceptions of their parents' views of education. Questionnaires completed by 473 Aboriginal students in grades 6-10 from 22 urban and rural schools in Western Australia indicated that Aboriginal children had a positive attitude toward their schools and…

Richer, Kaye; Godfrey, John; Partington, Gary; Harslett, Mort; Harrison, Bernard

147

Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

2010-04-01

148

Problems in search of solutions: health and Canadian aboriginals.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to explore the health status of Canadian Aboriginals, along with their perceived community health problems and proposed solutions to these issues. Data are drawn from the 1991 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS), which is a weighted random sample of the Aboriginal population. Comparisons were made with respect to group identity (North American Indian, Métis and Inuit) and geographic location (reserve, urban, rural and North) and across a series of health status and health care use indicators. Analysis reveals that geographic location, as compared with Aboriginal identity, appears to have a large impact with respect to health status and use of physician services. On-reserve Aboriginals, for example, reported a lower likelihood of having seen a physician and were more likely to rank their health as fair or poor. Location also influenced perceived community health problems and solutions. Self-identified problems included drugs, cancer and arthritis, while corresponding solutions included education, counseling and service access. Although the problems and solutions were relatively consistent across space, they too varied in their importance. In general, the results tend to reinforce the determinants of health framework, suggesting that the provision of health services is insufficient to remove health disparities on its own. Instead, broader social-welfare provisions must be considered. PMID:9526726

Newbold, K B

1998-02-01

149

Efficacy of a 3-Hour Aboriginal Health Teaching in the Medical Curriculum: Are We Changing Student Knowledge and Attitudes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is national recognition of the need to incorporate Aboriginal health issues within the medical school curricula. This study aims to evaluate changes in medical students' knowledge and attitudes about Aboriginal health, and their preparedness to work in Aboriginal communities after attending a 3-hour Aboriginal health seminar. A…

Zhou, Alysia W.; Boshart, Samantha; Seelisch, Jennifer; Eshaghian, Reza; McLeod, Ryan; Nisker, Jeff; Richmond, Chantelle A. M.; Howard, John M.

2012-01-01

150

Increasing rates of surgical treatment and preventing comorbidities may increase breast cancer survival for Aboriginal women  

PubMed Central

Background Lower breast cancer survival has been reported for Australian Aboriginal women compared to non-Aboriginal women, however the reasons for this disparity have not been fully explored. We compared the surgical treatment and survival of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women diagnosed with breast cancer in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods We analysed NSW cancer registry records of breast cancers diagnosed in 2001–2007, linked to hospital inpatient episodes and deaths. We used unconditional logistic regression to compare the odds of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women receiving surgical treatment. Breast cancer-specific survival was examined using cumulative mortality curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Of the 27 850 eligible women, 288 (1.03%) identified as Aboriginal. The Aboriginal women were younger and more likely to have advanced spread of disease when diagnosed than non-Aboriginal women. Aboriginal women were less likely than non-Aboriginal women to receive surgical treatment (odds ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.86). The five-year crude breast cancer-specific mortality was 6.1% higher for Aboriginal women (17.7%, 95% CI 12.9-23.2) compared with non-Aboriginal women (11.6%, 95% CI 11.2-12.0). After accounting for differences in age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, spread of disease and surgical treatment received the risk of death from breast cancer was 39% higher in Aboriginal women (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.01-1.86). Finally after also accounting for differences in comorbidities, socioeconomic disadvantage and place of residence the hazard ratio was reduced to 1.30 (95% CI 0.94-1.75). Conclusion Preventing comorbidities and increasing rates of surgical treatment may increase breast cancer survival for NSW Aboriginal women. PMID:24606675

2014-01-01

151

The Australian Aboriginal People: How to Misunderstand Their Science  

E-print Network

Just one generation ago, schoolkids were taught that Aboriginal people couldn't count beyond five, wandered the desert scavenging for food, had no civilization or religion, had no agriculture, couldn't navigate, didn't build houses, and peacefully acquiesced when Western Civilisation rescued them in 1788. How did we get it so wrong? Here I show that traditional Aboriginal people knew a great deal about the sky, knew the cycles of movements of the stars and the complex motions of the sun, moon and planets. I argue that school students studying science today could learn much from the way that pre-contact Aboriginal people used observation to build a self-consistent picture of the world around them, with predictive power and practical applications.

Norris, Ray P

2014-01-01

152

Ongoing transmission of tuberculosis in Aboriginal communities in NSW.  

PubMed

This report describes the ongoing transmission of tuberculosis in Aboriginal communities in NSW. From October 2000 to July 2012 there were 30 linked cases of tuberculosis diagnosed in Aboriginal people - 22 in the North Coast area of NSW, with a further three cases in Sydney and five in southern Queensland. It is likely that a range of factors have contributed to this ongoing transmission, including delayed diagnosis, the extensive social connections within the communities affected, and the highly mobile living arrangements of many of those affected. Cases have continued to emerge despite implementation of tuberculosis control measures in line with state and international protocols. Tuberculosis control staff are working in partnership with Aboriginal communities to identify and implement appropriate tuberculosis control strategies. PMID:23849029

Devlin, Sue; Passmore, Erin

2013-07-01

153

Uncanny scripts: understanding pharmaceutical emplotment in the aboriginal context.  

PubMed

This article outlines a new social reality of global psycho-pharmaceutical prescribing: the pharmaceutical family, or ;phamily.' Ethnographic case studies from Manitoba, Canada (2002 to 2004) show how pharmaceutical emplotment, involving a synergy between cultural and drug scripts, can have uncanny consequences for vulnerable groups, such as Aboriginal children. Observations and interview transcripts of high prescribing doctors are analyzed to understand the prescribing logic of using psychoactive medication, such as methylphenidate, in young Aboriginal children diagnosed with FASD and/or ADHD. Pharmaceutical narratives are presented in order to show how non-compliance to psychotropic prescribing can further marginalize Aboriginal children and is related to the history of colonial practices in Canada. PMID:19293283

Oldani, Michael J

2009-03-01

154

Australian Aboriginal Geomythology: Eyewitness Accounts of Cosmic Impacts?  

E-print Network

Descriptions of cosmic impacts and meteorite falls are found throughout Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. In some cases, these texts describe the impact event in detail, sometimes citing the location, suggesting that the events were witnessed. We explore whether cosmic impacts and meteorite falls may have been witnessed by Aboriginal Australians and incorporated into their oral traditions. We discuss the complications and bias in recording and analysing oral texts but suggest that these texts may be used both to locate new impact structures or meteorites and model observed impact events. We find that, while detailed Aboriginal descriptions of cosmic impacts are abundant in the literature, there is currently no physical evidence connecting these accounts to impact events currently known to Western science.

Hamacher, Duane W

2010-01-01

155

A Sealers Midden Provides Evidence a Live Pig ( Sus scrofa) was Taken Ashore at Heard Island During the "Elephanting" Industry (1855-1882)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Livestock was often released onto remote Southern Ocean islands as a food source for shipwreck survivors during the industrial whaling and sealing era. Although animals were put ashore at nearby Isles Kerguelen and Crozet, the historical records make no mention of domesticated livestock ever being set ashore at Heard Island between 1855 and 1882. Here we report a pig ( Sus scrofa) mandible discovered amongst other bones and artefacts in an `elephanters' midden found at Spit Bay, Heard Island. The find provides very strong evidence a live pig was shipped ashore and eaten as part of the sealers meagre provisions. Archaeological investigations of middens at other sealing locations could produce new insights into the dietary habits of these men.

van den Hoff, John; Burton, Harry; Robins, Judith

2012-12-01

156

Racism and health among urban Aboriginal young people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Racism has been identified as an important determinant of health but few studies have explored associations between racism\\u000a and health outcomes for Australian Aboriginal young people in urban areas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross sectional data from participants aged 12-26 years in Wave 1 of the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service's Young People's\\u000a Project were included in hierarchical logistic regression models. Overall mental health, depression

Naomi Priest; Yin Paradies; Paul Stewart; Joanne Luke

2011-01-01

157

Late Quaternary Vegetation History and Paleoclimate of the U.S.A.Mexico Borderlands Region From Two New Packrat Midden Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new packrat midden (Neotoma spp.) chronologies reveal glacial to interglacial changes in vegetation and climate in the Playas and San Simon Valleys in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. The Borderlands, where the states of Arizona and New Mexico intersect with each other and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora, are characterized by several northwest-southeast trending and tilted fault-block ranges separated

C. A. Holmgren; M. Penalba; K. Aasen Rylander; J. L. Betancourt

2003-01-01

158

The distant beat of my father’s drums: Contemporary Aboriginal music and NCI-FM broadcasting, Manitoba, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary Aboriginal music in Manitoba fuses the traditional and modern. Aboriginal songwriters address social and economic\\u000a issues faced by their communities through a variety of genres ranging from country to hip hop. Native Communications Incorporated\\u000a (NCI) is an Aboriginal-owned and operated enterprise that addresses the broadcasting needs of Manitoba’s Aboriginal population.\\u000a It broadcasts a high proportion of contemporary Aboriginal music

John C. Lehr; Julie Bartlett; Jeff Tabvahtah

2006-01-01

159

Implementing a working together model for Aboriginal patients with acute coronary syndrome: an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse working together to improve hospital care.  

PubMed

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) contributes to the disparity in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Improving hospital care for Aboriginal patients has been identified as a means of addressing this disparity. This project developed and implemented a working together model of care, comprising an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse, providing care coordination specifically directed at improving attendance at cardiac rehabilitation services for Aboriginal Australians in a large metropolitan hospital in Melbourne. A quality improvement framework using a retrospective case notes audit evaluated Aboriginal patients' admissions to hospital and identified low attendance rates at cardiac rehabilitation services. A working together model of care coordination by an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse was implemented to improve cardiac rehabilitation attendance in Aboriginal patients admitted with ACS to the cardiac wards of the hospital. A retrospective medical records audit showed that there were 68 Aboriginal patients admitted to the cardiac wards with ACS from 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2011. A referral to cardiac rehabilitation was recorded for 42% of these. During the implementation of the model of care, 13 of 15 patients (86%) received a referral to cardiac rehabilitation and eight of the 13 (62%) attended. Implementation of the working together model demonstrated improved referral to and attendance at cardiac rehabilitation services, thereby, has potential to prevent complications and mortality. PMID:25200319

Daws, Karen; Punch, Amanda; Winters, Michelle; Posenelli, Sonia; Willis, John; MacIsaac, Andrew; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Worrall-Carter, Linda

2014-11-01

160

Aboriginal Radio in Australia: From Dreamtime to Prime Time?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the broadcasting experiences of Aboriginal radio in Australia with respect to the "cultural dependency" of a non-Western group within a Western culture. Finds a variety of problems facing a maturing media in the areas of professionalism, knowledge of audience, and communicational relationship between the majority and minority cultures.…

Browne, Donald R.

1990-01-01

161

Maternal Health in Canadian Aboriginal Communities: Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the direct and indirect consequences of removing birthing practices from communities, Canada is exploring new initiatives to return childbirth to Aboriginal communities. Lessons learned and insights into this major problem can be used internationally to plan efforts to reduce maternal mortality in low-resource countries around the world.

André B. Lalonde; Christine Butt

2009-01-01

162

Experiences of Beginning Aboriginal Teachers in Band-Controlled Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compelling evidence points to the need for higher education, and especially teacher education, to become better informed about the concerns of Aboriginal peoples and to be more responsive to their needs. With this focus in mind, we had conversations with 30 beginning First Nations teachers, graduates of a teacher education program in Saskatchewan,…

Wimmer, Randolph; Legare, Louise; Arcand, Yvette; Cottrell, Michael

2009-01-01

163

Meteorite Falls and Cosmic Impacts in Australian Aboriginal Mythology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The witness and cultural impact of meteorite falls and cosmic impacts has been studied extensively in some world cultures, including cultures of Europe, China, and the Middle East. However, ethnographic records and oral traditions of meteorite falls in Aboriginal culture remain relatively unknown to the scientific community. Various Aboriginal stories from across Australia describe meteorite falls with seemingly accurate detail, frequently citing a specific location, including Wilcannia, NSW; Meteor Island, WA; Hermannsburg, NT; McGrath Flat, SA; and Bodena, NSW among others. Most of these falls and impact sites are unknown to Western science. In addition, some confirmed impact structures are described in Aboriginal lore as having cosmic origins, including the Gosse's Bluff and Wolfe Creek craters. This paper attempts to analyse and synthesize the plethora of fragmented historic, archaeological, and ethnographic data that describe meteorite falls and cosmic impacts in the mythologies and oral traditions spanning the 300+ distinct Aboriginal groups of Australia. Where applicable, coordinates of the reputed falls and impacts are cited in order for future inspections of these sights for evidence of meteoritic masterial or impact cratering.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2009-09-01

164

Understanding Race and Racism in Nursing: Insights from Aboriginal Nurses  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Indigenous Peoples are underrepresented in the health professions. This paper examines indigenous identity and the quality and nature of nursing work-life. The knowledge generated should enhance strategies to increase representation of indigenous peoples in nursing to reduce health inequities. Design. Community-based participatory research employing Grounded Theory as the method was the design for this study. Theoretical sampling and constant comparison guided the data collection and analysis, and a number of validation strategies including member checks were employed to ensure rigor of the research process. Sample. Twenty-two Aboriginal nurses in Atlantic Canada. Findings. Six major themes emerged from the study: Cultural Context of Work-life, Becoming a Nurse, Navigating Nursing, Race Racism and Nursing, Socio-Political Context of Aboriginal Nursing, and Way Forward. Race and racism in nursing and related subthemes are the focus of this paper. Implications. The experiences of Aboriginal nurses as described in this paper illuminate the need to understand the interplay of race and racism in the health care system. Our paper concludes with Aboriginal nurses' suggestions for systemic change at various levels. PMID:22778991

Vukic, Adele; Jesty, Charlotte; Mathews, Sr. Veronica; Etowa, Josephine

2012-01-01

165

Aboriginal Education in Canada: A Plea for Integration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is an appeal to First Nations leaders in Canada to promote educational integration--a mixing of ideas in which non-Aboriginal people are taught those elements of Native culture and philosophy that support a reverence for the Earth and all living things. The benefits of such an undertaking cannot be overemphasized since the very existence…

Friesen, John W.; Friesen, Virginia Lyons

166

Why closing the Aboriginal health gap is so elusive.  

PubMed

A wide gap persists between the health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians despite a recent Federal government commitment to close the gap by 2030. The complex underlying factors include socioeconomic and environmental disadvantage, inadequate education, underemployment, racial prejudice, high-risk health-related behaviours and limited access to clinical services and health promotion programmes. Over recent decades some aspects of Aboriginal health have deteriorated badly, largely from a surge in chronic 'lifestyle' diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney disorders plus the effects of tobacco smoking, alcohol and drug abuse and high rates of violence and trauma. To correct these inequities will require improving many social and environmental factors. These include education, living conditions, vocational training, employment, closer cooperation between government and non-government agencies, access to affordable and nutritious fresh food, with better access to high-quality medical treatment, health promotion and disease prevention programmes. Indigenous people must be encouraged to become more involved in activities to improve their health and have more responsibility for the decision-making processes this will entail. Governments must support these changes to help close the Aboriginal health gap. PMID:25367729

Gracey, M

2014-11-01

167

Aboriginal partnerships in Canada: focus on the Diavik Diamond Mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In negotiation with diamond enterprises, Aboriginal communities have provided their consent for the diamond mines and have ensured their participation in all diamond projects within their traditional territories. The purpose of this study is to evaluate partnership strategies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Interviews. Findings – Natural resource enterprises support more than 650 Canadian communities and according to industry Canada this

Richard Missens; Leo Paul Dana; Robert Anderson

2007-01-01

168

Common health problems in Northern Territory aboriginal children.  

PubMed

Aboriginal children in the Northern Territory suffer health problems similar to children in Third World countries. The major problems are malnutrition, diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infections. Infections in all systems are common and low birth weight due in significant part to poor growth in utero is a major problem in the newborn period. PMID:8141684

Walker, A

1994-01-01

169

Partnering with an Aboriginal Community for Health and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural awareness is a concept that is gaining much attention in health and education settings across North America. This article describes how the concepts of cultural awareness shaped the process and the curriculum of an online health education project called Interprofessional Collaboration: Culturally-informed Aboriginal Health Care. The…

Carter, Lorraine; Rukholm, Ellen

2009-01-01

170

Teacher Education, Aboriginal Studies and the New National Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in Australian schools continue to have poor education and health outcomes, and the introduction of a new national curriculum may assist in redressing this situation. This curriculum emphasises recommendations which have been circulating in the sector over many years, to require teacher education…

Andersen, Clair

2012-01-01

171

Extinct No More: Discourses on Tasmanian Aboriginal Heritage  

E-print Network

associated with the creation, fire, rivers, trees, and the dead. Both Ryan (1996) and McFarlane (2008) describe a story concerning the creation of the first Tasmanian Aboriginal, who possessed a kangaroo tail, in the aftermath of a star god named...

Price, William

2014-05-31

172

Rekindling Warm Embers: Teaching Aboriginal Languages in the Tertiary Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the teaching of Aboriginal languages in the tertiary sector of Australia, looking at the stronger languages taught in the university sector versus those languages under revival that tend to be taught in the TAFE sector. The paper summarises the status of courses offered state by state, and sets the scene with some historical…

Gale, Mary-Anne

2011-01-01

173

Psychological Sense of Community: An Australian Aboriginal Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sense of community (SOC) is central to an individual's psychological wellbeing (Sarason, 1974). Eleven participants, mainly from the North West of Western Australia, took part in semistructured interviews investigating Australian Aboriginal notions of community and SOC. Five key themes emerged from the data. These included: kinship structure,…

Bishop, Brian; Colquhoun, Simon; Johnson, Gemma

2006-01-01

174

Mapping More than Aboriginal Studies: Pedagogy, Professional Practice and Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As undergraduate curriculum is increasingly required to meet a range of intellectual, professional practice and personal learning outcomes, what purpose does Australian Aboriginal Studies have in curriculum? Most Australian universities are currently in the process of developing institution-wide approaches to Indigenous Australian content in…

Norman, Heidi

2014-01-01

175

American Indians of Idaho. Volume 1. Aboriginal Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general survey of the aboriginal American Indian cultures of Idaho is given in this book. Most of the anthropological and historical writing on the native peoples of this region are summarized. It does not deal with contemporary Indian cultures, which will be described in a second volume along with their history of contact with Euro-Americans.…

Walker, Deward E., Jr.

176

Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

2010-01-01

177

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Suicide in Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander suicide has been an issue of national public health and mental health concern for only one decade, having increased dramatically from levels that were very low in the late 1980s to levels of young adult male suicide that are now substantially higher than for the non-indigenous population. In this review the authors socially and historically

Ernest Hunter; Helen Milroy

2006-01-01

178

Aboriginal Language Maintenance, Development, and Enhancement: A Review of Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a general review of literature relating to the maintenance, development, and enhancement of Aboriginal languages in North America, particularly Canada. Drawing primarily on sociolinguistics, several concepts about language usage and change are outlined that are useful for the purposes of thinking about language maintenance. Next,…

Burnaby, Barbara

179

Inequalities in ventilation tube insertion procedures between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in New South Wales, Australia: a data linkage study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Australian Aboriginal children experience earlier, more frequent and more severe otitis media, particularly in remote communities, than non-Aboriginal children. Insertion of ventilation tubes is the main surgical procedure for otitis media. Our aim was to quantify inequalities in ventilation tube insertion (VTI) procedures between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children, and to explore the influence of birth characteristics, socioeconomic background and geographical remoteness on this inequality. Design Retrospective cohort study using linked hospital and mortality data from July 2000 to December 2008. Setting and participants A whole-of-population cohort of 653?550 children (16?831 Aboriginal and 636?719 non-Aboriginal) born in a New South Wales hospital between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2007 was included in the analysis. Outcome measure First VTI procedure. Results VTI rates were lower in Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal children (incidence rate (IR), 4.3/1000 person-years; 95% CI 3.8 to 4.8 vs IR 5.8/1000 person-years; 95% CI 5.7 to 5.8). Overall, Aboriginal children were 28% less likely than non-Aboriginal children to have ventilation tubes inserted (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted rate ratios (RRs) 0.72; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.80). After adjusting additionally for geographical remoteness, Aboriginal children were 19% less likely to have ventilation tubes inserted (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.91). After adjusting separately for private patient/health insurance status and area socioeconomic status, there was no significant difference (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.08 and RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.04, respectively). In the fully adjusted model, there were no significant differences in VTI rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children (RR 1.06; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.19). Conclusions Despite a much higher prevalence of otitis media, Aboriginal children were less likely to receive VTI procedures than their non-Aboriginal counterparts; this inequality was largely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and geographical remoteness. PMID:24285631

Falster, Kathleen; Randall, Deborah; Banks, Emily; Eades, Sandra; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Reath, Jennifer; Jorm, Louisa

2013-01-01

180

Taiwanese aborigines: genetic heterogeneity and paternal contribution to Oceania.  

PubMed

In the present study, for the first time, 293 Taiwanese aboriginal males from all nine major tribes (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Rukai, Paiwan, Saisat, Puyuma, Tsou, Yami) were genotyped with 17 YSTR loci in a attend to reveal migrational patterns connected with the Austronesian expansion. We investigate the paternal genetic relationships of these Taiwanese aborigines to 42 Asia-Pacific reference populations, geographically selected to reflect various locations within the Austronesian domain. The Tsou and Puyuma tribes exhibit the lowest (0.1851) and the highest (0.5453) average total genetic diversity, respectively. Further, the fraction of unique haplotypes is also relatively high in the Puyuma (86.7%) and low in Tsou (33.3%) suggesting different demographic histories. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed several notable findings: 1) the Taiwan indigenous populations are highly diverse. In fact, the level of inter-population heterogeneity displayed by the Taiwanese aboriginal populations is close to that exhibited among all 51 Asia-Pacific populations examined; 2) the asymmetrical contribution of the Taiwanese aborigines to the Oceanic groups. Ami, Bunun and Saisiyat tribes exhibit the strongest paternal links to the Solomon and Polynesian island communities, whereas most of the remaining Taiwanese aboriginal groups are more genetically distant to these Oceanic inhabitants; 3) the present YSTR analyses does not reveal a strong paternal affinity of the nine Taiwanese tribes to their continental Asian neighbors. Overall, our current findings suggest that, perhaps, only a few of the tribes were involved in the migration out of Taiwan. PMID:24613753

Zeng, Zhaoshu; Rowold, Diane J; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Regueiro, Maria; Li, Li; Zhong, Mingxia; Herrera, Rene J

2014-06-01

181

Residents' exposure to aboriginal health issues. Survey of family medicine programs in Canada.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Canadian family medicine residency programs currently have objectives, staff, and clinical experiences for adequately exposing residents to aboriginal health issues. DESIGN: A one-page questionnaire was developed to survey the details of teaching about and exposure to aboriginal health issues. SETTING: Family medicine programs in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All Canadian family medicine program directors in the 18 programs (16 at universities and two satellite programs) were surveyed between October 1997 and March 1998. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whether programs had teaching objectives for exposing residents to aboriginal health issues, whether they had resource people available, what elective and core experiences in aboriginal health were offered, and what types of experiences were available. RESULTS: Response rate was 100%. No programs had formal, written curriculum objectives for residency training in aboriginal health issues, although some were considering them. Some programs, however, had objectives for specific weekend or day sessions. No programs had a strategy for encouraging enrollment of residents of aboriginal origin. Eleven programs had at least one resource person with experience in aboriginal health issues, and 12 had access to community-based aboriginal groups. Core experiences were all weekend seminars or retreats. Elective experiences in aboriginal health were available in 16 programs, and 11 programs were active on reserves. CONCLUSIONS: Many Canadian family medicine programs give residents some exposure to aboriginal health issues, but most need more expertise and direction on these issues. Some programs have unique approaches to teaching aboriginal health care that could be shared. Formalized objectives derived in collaboration with other family medicine programs and aboriginal groups could substantially improve the quality of education in aboriginal health care in Canada. PMID:10065306

Redwood-Campbell, L.; MacDonald, W. A.; Moore, K.

1999-01-01

182

Early chronic kidney disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian children: remoteness, socioeconomic disadvantage or race?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous people suffer substantially more end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), especially Australian Aboriginals. Previous work suggests causal pathways beginning early in life. No studies have shown the prevalence of early markers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in both Indigenous and non-Indigenous children or the association with environmental health determinants – geographic remoteness and socioeconomic disadvantage. Height, weight, blood pressure, and urinary

L Haysom; R Williams; E Hodson; L P Roy; D Lyle; J C Craig

2007-01-01

183

A Guide for Health Professionals Working with Aboriginal Peoples: Executive Summary  

PubMed Central

Objective to provide Canadian health professionals with a network of information and recommendations regarding Aboriginal health. Options health professionals working with Aboriginal individuals and communities in the area of women’s health care. Outcomes improved health status of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Appropriateness and accessibility of women’s health services for Aboriginal peoples. Improved communication and clinical skills of health professionals in the area of Aboriginal health. Improved quality of relationship between health professionals and Aboriginal individuals and communities. Improved quality of relationship between health care professionals and Aboriginal individuals and communities. Evidence recommendations are based on expert opinion and a review of the literature. Published references were identified by a Medline search of all review articles, randomized clinical control trials, meta-analyses, and practice guidelines from 1966 to February 1999, using the MeSH headings “Indians, North American or Eskimos” and “Health.”* Subsequently published articles were brought to the attention of the authors in the process of writing and reviewing the document. Ancillary and unpublished references were recommended by members of the SOGC Aboriginal Health Issues Committee and the panel of expert reviewers. Values information collected was reviewed by the principal author. The social, cultural, political, and historic context of Aboriginal peoples in Canada, systemic barriers regarding the publication of information by Aboriginal authors, the diversity of Aboriginal peoples in Canada, and the need for a culturally appropriate and balanced presentation were carefully considered in addition to more traditional scientific evaluation. The majority of information collected consisted of descriptive health and social information and such evaluation tools as the evidence guidelines of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health exam were not appropriate. Benefits, costs, and harms utilization of the information and recommendations by Canadian health professionals will enhance understanding, communication, and clinical skills in the area of Aboriginal health. The resulting enhancement of collaborative relationships between Aboriginal peoples and their women’s health providers may contribute to health services that are more appropriate, effective, efficient, and accessible for Aboriginal peoples in Canada. The educational process may require an initial investment of time from the health professional. Recommendations Recommendations were grouped according to four themes: sociocultural context, health concerns, cross-cultural understanding, and Aboriginal health resources. Health professionals are encouraged to learn the appropriate names, demographics, and traditional geographic territories and language groups of the various Aboriginal groups in Canada. In addition, sensitivity to the impact of colonization and current socioeconomic challenges to the health status of Aboriginal peoples is warranted. Health services for Aboriginal peoples should take place as close to home as possible. Governmental obligations and policies regarding determination are recognized. With respect to health concerns, holistic definitions of health, based on Aboriginal perspectives, are put forward. Aboriginal peoples continue to experience a disproportionate burden of health problems. Health professionals are encouraged to become familiar with several key areas of morbidity and mortality. Relationships between Aboriginal peoples and their care providers need to be based on a foundation of mutual respect. Gaps and barriers in the current health care system for Aboriginal peoples are identified. Health professionals are encouraged to work with Aboriginal individuals and communities to address these gaps and barriers. Aboriginal peoples require culturally appropriate health care, including treatment in their own languages when possible. This may require interpreters or Aboriginal health advocates.

2013-01-01

184

Understanding the Role of Healing in Aboriginal Communities. Corrections. Aboriginal Peoples Collection = Comprendre le role de la guerison dans les collectivites autochtones. Affaires correctionnelles. Collection sur les autochtones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in English and French, this report presents views of Canadian Aboriginal community members about developing healthy communities. In-depth interviews were conducted with elders, youth, parents, political leaders, victims, offenders, and government employees in five Aboriginal communities, and telephone and mail surveys were conducted in…

Krawll, Marcia B.

185

Successful Transition to School for Australian Aboriginal Children: The 2005 International Focus Issue of Childhood Education Focused on the Education of Aboriginal and Indigenous Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal people have been described as the most educationally disadvantaged group of people within Australia. Their participation rates at all levels of education are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. In an effort to enhance the learning and teaching of Aboriginal students, education systems are seeking appropriate strategies and…

Dockett, Sue; Mason, Terry; Perry, Bob

2006-01-01

186

On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the role and nature of eclipses, comets, meteors, impact events, and certain variable stars. I also test the hypothesis that certain types of stone arrangements have preferred orientations that probably relate to astronomical phenomena. This research shows that Aboriginal astronomical traditions explain the motions of celestial bodies and the relationship between events in the sky and events on Earth. I explore how Aboriginal people perceived and made use of particular astronomical phenomena, such as meteors and comets, and show that Aboriginal people made careful observations of the motions of celestial bodies. I provide evidence that Aboriginal people noticed the change in brightness of particular stars, described the kinematics of eclipses, explained how lunar phases are related to ocean tides, and acknowledged the relationship between meteors, meteorites, impact events, and impact craters. I then show that linear stone arrangements in New South Wales have a preferred orientation to the cardinal points and explore astronomical reasons for this. In the Appendix, I include biographical details of William Edward Stanbridge, one of the first people to write in depth about Aboriginal astronomical traditions, which were compiled from historic records.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2011-12-01

187

"We Are Not Being Heard": Aboriginal Perspectives on Traditional Foods Access and Food Security  

PubMed Central

Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike. PMID:23346118

Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K.

2012-01-01

188

Factors behind HIV testing practices among Canadian Aboriginal peoples living off-reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with HIV testing among Aboriginal peoples in Canada who live off-reserve. Data were drawn for individuals aged 15–44 from the Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2001), which represents a weighed sample of 520,493 Aboriginal men and women living off-reserve. Bivariable analysis and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with individuals

Treena R. Orchard; Eric Druyts; Colin W. McInnes; Ken Clement; Erin Ding; Kimberly A. Fernandes; Aranka Anema; Viviane D. Lima; Robert S. Hogg

2010-01-01

189

Young aboriginals are less likely to receive a renal transplant: a Canadian national study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated Aboriginals are less likely to receive a renal transplant in comparison to Caucasians however whether this applies to the entire population or specific subsets remains unclear. We examined the effect of age on renal transplantation in Aboriginals. Methods Data on 30,688 dialysis (Aboriginal 2,361, Caucasian 28, 327) patients obtained between Jan. 2000 and Dec. 2009 were included in the final analysis. Racial status was self-reported. Cox proportional hazards, the Fine and Grey sub-distribution method and Poisson regression were used to determine the association between race, age and transplantation. Results In comparison to Caucasians, Aboriginals were less likely to receive a renal transplant (Adjusted HR 0.66 95% CI 0.57-0.77, P?Aboriginals (Age 18–40: 20.6% aboriginals vs. 48.3% Caucasians transplanted; aHR 0.50(0.39-0.61), p?aboriginals vs. 33.9% Caucasians transplanted; aHR 0.46(0.32-0.64), p?=?0.005, Age 51–60: 8.2% aboriginals vs. 19.5% Caucasians transplanted; aHR0.65(0.49-0.88), p?=?0.01, Age >60: 2.7% aboriginals vs. 2.6% Caucasians transplanted; aHR 1.21(0.76-1.91), P?=?0.4, Age X race interaction p?Aboriginals under the age of 60 compared to Caucasians. Conclusion Younger Aboriginals are less likely to receive a renal transplant compared to their Caucasian counterparts, even after adjustment for comorbidity. Determination of the reasons behind these discrepancies and interventions specifically targeting the Aboriginal population are warranted. PMID:23317294

2013-01-01

190

The community network: an Aboriginal community football club bringing people together.  

PubMed

There are few empirical studies about the role of Aboriginal sporting organisations in promoting wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to understand the impact of an Aboriginal community sporting team and its environment on the social, emotional and physical wellbeing of young Aboriginal men, and to identify barriers and motivators for participation. A literature review of the impact of sport on the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal participants was conducted. This informed a qualitative study design with a grounded theory approach. Four semistructured interviews and three focus groups were completed with nine current players and five past players of the Fitzroy Stars Football Club to collect data about the social, emotional and physical wellbeing impact of an Aboriginal football team on its Aboriginal players. Results of the interviews were consistent with the literature, with common concepts emerging around community connection, cultural values and identity, health, values, racism and discrimination. However, the interviews provided further detail around the significance of cultural values and community connection for Aboriginal people. The complex nature of social connections and the strength of Aboriginal community networks in sports settings were also evident. Social reasons were just as important as individual health reasons for participation. Social and community connection is an important mechanism for maintaining and strengthening cultural values and identity. Barriers and motivators for participation in Aboriginal sports teams can be complex and interrelated. Aboriginal sports teams have the potential to have a profound impact on the health of Aboriginal people, especially its players, by fostering a safe and culturally strengthening environment and encompassing a significant positive social hub for the Aboriginal community. PMID:25103025

Thorpe, Alister; Anders, Wendy; Rowley, Kevin

2014-10-01

191

Role of the Centre for Aboriginal Studies Policy Commencement Date: 30 November, 2001  

E-print Network

peoples, and that Aboriginal Australians continue to face social and economic disadvantage, accentuated by prejudice, misunderstanding and racism. The University opposes prejudice, racism and harassment in all

192

ACTION CANADA PAPERS on Labrador Mining, Aboriginal Governance and Muskrat Falls  

E-print Network

of the Lower Churchill hydroelectric development. The papers appear in Labrador, Aboriginal governance in Labrador, and the possible development whose objective is to further develop the leadership capabilities

deYoung, Brad

193

Hepatitis B virus genotypes in Mongols and Australian Aborigines.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is spread worldwide. Seven genotypes, A-G, have been described, differing by more than 8% of the genome. In eastern Asia and Oceania genotypes B and C are predominant. However, little is known about genotypes in Mongolia and Australian aborigines. We analysed the preS and S regions of HBV from 9 Mongols and 5 Australian Aborigines. All Mongolian strains were of genotype D and were most similar to Central Asian sequences. All the Australian strains were genetically of serotype ayw3, and could not be reliably classified by the S region analysis, but placed on a separate branch. By preS analysis, they were however clearly of genotype C. The 6-7% nucleotide difference from published Asian genotype C sequences suggests that they diverged from Asian genotype C branch more than 1000 years ago. PMID:11811682

Alestig, E; Hannoun, C; Horal, P; Lindh, M

2001-12-01

194

Diarrhoeal disease: knowledge, attitudes and practices in an aboriginal community.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in an Australian Aboriginal community in South Australia on the knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to diarrhoeal disease. Suggestions were sought on appropriate interventions. Dietary causes (including alcohol), factors relating to drinking water, poor environmental hygiene, infective agents and teething were considered by community member to be important in the causation of diarrhoea. Poor personal and domestic hygiene, and the lack of adequate bathing, toilet and laundry facilities were not considered to be important contributory factors. This may reflect the Aboriginal view of hygiene derived from many years of desert living as nomadic hunter-gatherers. The study provides valuable information to enable the selection of appropriate interventions for the control of diarrhoeal disease in this community. PMID:3203725

Ratnaike, R N; Collings, M T; Ratnaike, S K; Brogan, R M; Gibbs, A

1988-12-01

195

"Rebuilding our community": Hearing silenced voices on Aboriginal youth suicide  

PubMed Central

This paper brings forth the voices of adult Aboriginal First Nations community members who gathered in focus groups to discuss the problem of youth suicide on their reserves. Our approach emphasizes multilevel (e.g., individual, family, and broader ecological systems) factors viewed by participants as relevant to youth suicide. Wheaton’s conceptualization of stressors (1994; 1999) and Evans-Campbell’s (2008) multilevel classification of the impacts of historical trauma are used as theoretical and analytic guides. Thematic analysis of qualitative data transcripts revealed a highly complex intersection of stressors, traumas, and social problems seen by community members as underlying mechanisms influencing heightened levels of Aboriginal youth suicidality. Our multilevel coding approach revealed that suicidal behaviors were described by community members largely as a problem with deep historical and contemporary structural roots as opposed to being viewed as individualized pathology. PMID:24097414

Walls, Melissa L.; Hautala, Dane; Hurley, Jenna

2014-01-01

196

Dietary and Nutritional Study on Aborigines in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dietary and nutritional survey of Taiwan aborigines, Atayals and Paiwans, as a follow-up study, and as a new survey on Yamis who live on an off-shore island, has been carried out recently. Great improvements in the nutritional status of the first two tribes during the last 15 years were observed. They may be attributed to a series of socio-economic

M. L. Chen; C. S. Huang; J. S. Chen

1974-01-01

197

Biogeographic implications of a packrat midden sequence from the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico*1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen packrat ( Neotoma spp.) and two porcupine ( Erethizon dorsatum) middens from 1555 to 1690 m elevation from the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, provide an 18,000-yr vegetation record in the northern Chiuahuan Desert. The vegetation sequence is a mesic, Wisconsin fullglacial (18,000-16,000 yr B.P.) pinyon-juniper-oak woodland; a xeric, early Holocene (ca. 11,000-8000 yr B.P.) juniper-oak woodland; a middle Holocene (ca. 8000-4000 yr B.P.) desert-grassland; and a late Holocene (ca. 4000 yr B.P. to present) Chihuahuan desertscrub. The frequency of spring freezes and summer droughts in the late Wisconsin probably set the northern limits of Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma at about 34°N, or 6° south of today's limit. Rising summer tempratures in the early Holocene eliminated pinyon and other mesic woodland plants from the desert lowlands and allowed the woodland to move upslope. At this time pinyon-juniper woodland and pine forest dominated by Pinus ponderosa probably began their spectacular Holocene expansions to the north. Continued warming in the middle Holocene led to very warm summers with strong monsoons, relatively dry, cold winters, and widespread desert-grasslands. Desertscrub communities in the northern Chihuahuan Desert did not develop until the late Holocene when the biseasonal rainfall shifted slightly back toward the winter, catastrophic winter freezes decreased, and droughts in all seasons increased. The creosote bush desertscrub corridor across the Continental Divide between the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts was probably connected for the first time since the last interglaciation.

Van Devender, Thomas R.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Wimberly, Mark

1984-11-01

198

Childhood Cryptosporidium infection among aboriginal communities in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Cryptosporidium is a coccidian parasite that is prevalent worldwide, some species of which cause morbidity in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. The prevalence and predictors of Cryptosporidium infection, and its effect on nutritional status, have recently been explored among 276 children (141 boys and 135 girls, aged 2–15?years) in aboriginal (Orang Asli) villages in the Malaysian state of Selangor. Faecal smears were examined by the modified Ziehl–Neelsen staining technique while socio–economic data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements. Cryptosporidium infection, which was detected in 7·2% of the aboriginal children, was found to be significantly associated with low birthweight (?2·5?kg), being part of a large household (with more than seven members) and prolonged breast feeding (>2?years). The output of a binary logistic regression confirmed that large household size was a significant predictor of Cryptosporidium infection (giving an odds ratio of 2·15, with a 95% confidence interval of 1·25–5·02). Cryptosporidium infection is clearly a public-health problem among the aboriginal children of Selangor, with person-to-person the most likely mode of transmission. PMID:21396250

Al-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; 'Azlin, M Y; Fatmah, M S; Norhayati, M

2011-01-01

199

Aboriginal birth cohort (ABC): a prospective cohort study of early life determinants of adiposity and associated risk factors among Aboriginal people in Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal people living in Canada have a high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To better understand the pre and postnatal influences on the development of adiposity and related cardio-metabolic factors in adult Aboriginal people, we will recruit and follow prospectively Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their children – the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study. Methods/design We aim to recruit 300 Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their newborns from the Six Nations Reserve, and follow them prospectively to age 3 years. Key details of environment and health including maternal nutrition, glucose tolerance, physical activity, and weight gain will be collected. At birth, cord blood and placenta samples will be collected, as well as newborn anthropometric measurements. Mothers and offspring will be followed annually with serial measurements of diet and physical activity, growth trajectory, and adiposity. Discussion There is an urgent need to understand maternal and child factors that underlie the early development of adiposity and type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal people. The information generated from this cohort will assist the Six Nations community in developing interventions to prevent early adiposity in Aboriginal children. PMID:23800270

2013-01-01

200

Conceptualising bullying in an Aboriginal context as reported by the Yamaji community, to inform the development of a bullying prevention program that is culturally sensitive to the needs of Aboriginal students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solid Kids Solid Schools project aimed to capture the unheard voices of Aboriginal children and community members on the issues surrounding ‘bullying’. In an Aboriginal context bullying is different and the outcomes are different, yet mainstream programs are utilized to combat the issue. We need to know how bullying is different for Aboriginal children and young people, why it

Juli Coffin

2010-01-01

201

Association of breastfeeding with asthma in young Aboriginal children in Canada  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the factors associated with asthma in young Aboriginal children. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the association of demographic, environmental and early life factors with asthma in young Aboriginal children in Canada. METHODS: The 2006 Aboriginal Children’s Survey was conducted among off-reserve Aboriginal children zero to six years of age to obtain information on Aboriginal children’s development and well-being. The prevalence of asthma in Aboriginal children was obtained from the parental report of asthma as diagnosed by a health care professional. RESULTS: The prevalence of reported asthma among off-reserve Aboriginal children zero to six years of age (n=14,170) was 9.4%. Asthma prevalence in both exclusively breastfed children (6.8%) and ever but not exclusively breastfed children (9.0%) was significantly lower than that in nonbreastfed children (11.0%). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, exclusive breastfeeding was protective of asthma compared with nonbreastfeeding (OR 0.59 [95% CI 0.44 to 0.78]). Older age groups, male sex, having two or more older siblings, low birth weight, day care attendance and ear infection were significant risk factors for asthma. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asthma among young Aboriginal children zero to six years of age living off reserve was slightly lower than that reported for all other Canadian children. Breastfeeding, especially exclusively breastfeeding, was protective of asthma in Aboriginal children, which is consistent with what has been observed in non-Aboriginal children in Canada. Public health interventions intended for reducing asthma incidence in young Aboriginal children should include breastfeeding promotion programs. PMID:23248799

Ye, Ming; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

2012-01-01

202

Cardiovascular risk among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal smoking male prisoners: inequalities compared to the wider community  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) were collected as part of a randomised controlled trial of a multi-component intervention to reduce smoking among male prisoners. Cross-sectional baseline data on CVRF were compared among smoking male prisoners and males of similar age in the general population. Methods 425 smoking prisoners were recruited (n = 407 in New South Wales; 18 in Queensland), including 15% of Aboriginal descent (mean age 33 years; median sentence length 3.6 years). We measured CVRF such as smoking, physical activity, blood pressure, risky alcohol use, symptoms of depression, and low socioeconomic status. Results We found that 39% of prisoners had 3+ CVRF, compared to 10% in a general community sample of most disadvantaged men of a similar age. Significantly more Aboriginal prisoners had 3+ CVRF than non-Aboriginal prisoners (55% vs 36%, p < 0.01) and were twice as likely to have 4+ CVRF (27% vs 12%). In addition to all prisoners in this study being a current smoker (with 70% smoking 20+ cigarettes per day), the prevalence of other CVRF was very high: insufficient physical activity (23%); hypertension (4%), risky drinking (52%), symptoms of depression (14%) and low socioeconomic status (SES) (44%). Aboriginal prisoners had higher levels of risky alcohol use, symptoms of depression, and were more likely to be of low SES. Conclusion Prisoners are at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease compared to even the most disadvantaged in their community and should be the focus of specific public health interventions. Trial Registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN#12606000229572. PMID:21985524

2011-01-01

203

Improving immunisation timeliness in Aboriginal children through personalised calendars  

PubMed Central

Background Delayed immunisation and vaccine preventable communicable disease remains a significant health issue in Aboriginal children. Strategies to increase immunisation coverage and timeliness can be resource intensive. In a low cost initiative at the Aboriginal Medical Service Western Sydney (AMSWS) in 2008–2009, a trial of personalised calendars to prompt timely childhood immunisation was undertaken. Methods Calendars were generated during attendances for early childhood immunisations. They were designed for display in the home and included the due date of the next immunisation, a photo of the child and Aboriginal artwork. In a retrospective cohort design, Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data from AMSWS and non-AMSWS providers were used to determine the delay in immunisation and percentage of immunisations on time in those who received a calendar compared to those who did not. Interviews were undertaken with carers and staff. Results Data on 2142 immunisation doses given to 505 children were analysed, utilising pre-intervention (2005–2007) and intervention (2008–2009) periods and a 2 year post-intervention observation period. 113 calendars were distributed (30% of eligible immunisation attendances). Improvements in timeliness were seen at each schedule point for those children who received a calendar. The average delay in those who received a calendar at their previous visit was 0.6 months (95% CI -0.8 to 2.6) after the due date, compared to 3.3 months (95% CI ?0.6 to 7.5) in those who did not. 80% of doses were on time in the group who received a calendar at the preceding immunisation, 66% were on time for those who received a calendar at an earlier point and 57% of doses were on time for those who did not receive a calendar (P<0.0001, Cochran-Armitage trend test). Interview data further supported the value and effectiveness of the calendars as both a prompt to timely immunisations and a community health education project without undue resource implications. Conclusions Personalised calendars can increase the timeliness of immunisations in Aboriginal children. This simple, low cost tool appears practicable and effective in an Aboriginal community setting in improving early childhood vaccination timeliness and has high potential for local adaptation to suit the needs of diverse communities. PMID:23786829

2013-01-01

204

Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

2013-01-01

205

Aboriginal Perspective on Education: A Vision of Cultural Context within the Framework of Social Studies. Literature/Research Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature and research review was conducted to provide an Aboriginal perspective to the work of the Western Canadian Protocol Social Studies K-12 Project. The Project is a positive step toward rebuilding cooperative relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples, and will also provide the students of western Canada with an…

Cardinal, Phyllis

206

Enough Bad News! Remote Social Health & Aboriginal Action in a Harsh Environment--Coober Pedy in South Australia's "Outback."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the complexities of health care in Coober Pedy (South Australia) and the nearby Umoona Aboriginal community, and highlights the vital role of Aboriginal health workers in the implementation of primary health care principles. The Aboriginal population in this "outback" area is characterized by considerable economic problems,…

Brice, G.; And Others

207

Contextual Factors That Support Developmental Transitions: An International Perspective with Examples from Aboriginal/First Nations Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of contextual factors in providing quality early care and education services, focusing on program models from Aboriginal/First Nation settings in four countries. Methods included a search of published literature from mainstream and Aboriginal sources, an electronic search of unique Royal Commission on Aboriginal

Colbert, Judith A.

208

"We Learn A Lot from Mr. Hart": A Qualitative Study of an Effective Teacher of Aboriginal Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile of an effective teacher of Aboriginal Australian students was constructed based on research on the teaching of Aboriginal students. Using the profile as a framework, this paper reports on an ethnographic study of an effective teacher in action with Aboriginal students. The study consisted of semi-participative observation of a teacher of…

Harslett, Mort; Godfrey, John; Harrison, Bernard; Partington, Gary; Richer, Kaye

209

Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians’ perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers’ (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs’ views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). Methods A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006 - September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. Results CSPs’ lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients’ limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient–provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people’s distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff, providing appropriate cultural training for CSPs, cancer education for Aboriginal stakeholders, continuity of care, avoiding use of medical jargon, accommodating patients’ psychosocial and logistical needs, and in-service coordination. Conclusion Individual CSPs identified challenges in cross-cultural communication and their willingness to accommodate culture-specific needs within the wider health care system including better communication with Aboriginal patients. However, participants’ comments indicated a lack of concerted effort at the system level to address Aboriginal disadvantage in cancer outcomes. PMID:24188503

2013-01-01

210

Aboriginal Education with Anti-Racist Education: Building Alliances across Cultural and Racial Identity Politics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A critical race analysis could provide both Aboriginal students and their university student advisors with knowledge to understand and potentially challenge the effects and processes of racialization that have historically, legally, and politically divided Aboriginal communities and families. Coalition and alliances can be made within and across…

St. Denis, Verna

2007-01-01

211

Creating Inclusive Space for Aboriginal Scholars and Scholarship in the Academy: Implications for Employment Equity Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many Canadian universities report an under-representation of Aboriginal scholars in their professoriate. Employment equity policy seeks to redress the under-representation of marginalized groups in the Canadian workforce, including Aboriginal peoples. This article presents the findings of a case study which sought to examine, from the perspective…

Roland, Karen A.

2011-01-01

212

Disturbances and Dislocations: Understanding Teaching and Learning Experiences in Australian Aboriginal Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A White Australian professor of a class on Indigenous women's dance has her Aboriginal sister-in-law conduct workshops on Indigenous dance. The classroom dynamics resulting from the complex power relationships (teacher as White woman, Aboriginal family member, and students) disturbs Western paradigms. The responsibility of "safely delivering"…

Mackinlay, Elizabeth

2001-01-01

213

Design and implementation of a dental caries prevention trial in remote Canadian Aboriginal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The goal of this cluster randomized trial is to test the effectiveness of a counseling approach, Motivational Interviewing, to control dental caries in young Aboriginal children. Motivational Interviewing, a client-centred, directive counseling style, has not yet been evaluated as an approach for promotion of behaviour change in indigenous communities in remote settings. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Aboriginal women were hired from the

Rosamund Harrison; Jacques Veronneau; Brian Leroux

2010-01-01

214

Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

2012-01-01

215

Giibinenimidizomin: Owning Ourselves--Critical Incidents in the Attainment of Aboriginal Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explored the facilitation and hindrance of Aboriginal identity attainment and developed a scheme of categories to describe what facilitates and hinders cultural identity among Canadian Aboriginal adults living in British Columbia. Twelve individuals, interviewed using the critical incident technique, were asked to describe observable…

Goodwill, Alanaise O.; McCormick, Rod

2012-01-01

216

Aboriginal peoples, health and healing approaches: the effects of age and place on health.  

PubMed

For demographic reasons and as a result of a number of high profile health incidents in recent years, much of the health research and policy focus is on the younger cohorts of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. A critical examination of recent demographic trends reveals, however, that older cohorts of the Aboriginal population are increasing at a faster rate than younger cohorts, primarily due to improvements in life expectancy and declining fertility rates. Yet, there are surprisingly few health studies that have recognized the aging of the Aboriginal population. The overall goal of this paper is to examine differences in health status, use of conventional health care and traditional approaches to healing between older and younger cohorts of the Aboriginal population as well as to examine the importance of age as a determinant of health and health care use. Using data from the 2001 Statistics Canada Aboriginal Peoples Survey and contingency tables and logistic regression, the results demonstrate that older Aboriginal people face unique challenges - e.g. loss of traditional approaches to healing, geographic isolation, identity politics, constitutional and legal divisions within the Aboriginal community - with respect to their health and access to health services. These outcomes result from a colonial past and contemporary policies that affect all Aboriginal people. PMID:21036444

Wilson, Kathi; Rosenberg, Mark W; Abonyi, Sylvia

2011-02-01

217

The Changing Face of Aboriginal Education in Rural and Northern Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Canada Natives have experienced many educational changes. Their traditional education and culture were negated by Euro-Western schooling, leaving Aboriginal people in a deficit position without a strong voice for many years. Only recently have Aboriginal people strengthened their voice in calling for their cultural values and beliefs to be the…

Antone, Eileen M.

2003-01-01

218

UP FRONT AND BEYOND THE CENTRE LINEAustralian Aborigines in Elite Australian Rules Football  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been a substantial growth in the number of Aboriginal players in the Australian Football League over the past decade, issues of structural and institutional racism have not been explored. This investigation of the assignment of players by position revealed marked patterns of difference, which tend to reflect stereotypes about Aboriginal athletes. The results are similar to research

Christopher J. Hallinan; Toni Bruce; Stella Coram

1999-01-01

219

Community Development and Research. Aboriginal Peoples Collection = Developpement Communautaire et Recherches. Collection sur les Autochtones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides Canadian Aboriginal communities with information and resources for carrying out participatory action research and applying the results to community development. Presented in English and French, the report is based on a literature review and a 2-day focus group involving 14 community development experts, Aboriginal community…

Ministry of the Solicitor General, Ottawa (Ontario).

220

Perceived community environment and physical activity involvement in a northern-rural Aboriginal community  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Ample evidence shows that regular physical activity (PA) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is beginning to emerge linking PA to the physical environment but little is known about the relationship between remote rural environments and PA involvement in Aboriginal peoples. This

Allison M. Kirby; Lucie Lévesque; Virginia Wabano; Jennifer Robertson-Wilson

2007-01-01

221

Sexual Abuse in Canadian Aboriginal Communities: A Broad Review of Conflicting Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child sexual abuse (CSA), a prevalent problem across cultures and coun- tries, threatens the well-being of victims, their families, and communities. Reports on the rates of CSA among Aboriginal people in Canada differ on the extent of this problem in the communities, with some studies reporting epidemic rates of sexual exploitation of Aboriginal children. Careful analy- sis and interpretation is

Delphine Collin-Vézina; Jacinthe Dion

222

'We've fallen into the cracks': Aboriginal women's experiences with breast cancer through photovoice.  

PubMed

Despite some recognition that Aboriginal women who have experienced breast cancer may have unique health needs, little research has documented the experiences of Aboriginal women from their perspective. Our main objective was to explore and to begin to make visible Aboriginal women's experiences with breast cancer using the qualitative research technique, photovoice. The research was based in Saskatchewan, Canada and participants were Aboriginal women who had completed breast cancer treatment. Although Aboriginal women cannot be viewed as a homogeneous group, participants indicated two areas of priority for health-care: (i) Aboriginal identity and traditional beliefs, although expressed in diverse ways, are an important dimension of breast cancer experiences and have relevance for health-care; and (ii) there is a need for multidimensional support which addresses larger issues of racism, power and socioeconomic inequality. We draw upon a critical and feminist conception of visuality to interrogate and disrupt the dominant visual terrain (both real and metaphorical) where Aboriginal women are either invisible or visible in disempowering ways. Aboriginal women who have experienced breast cancer must be made visible within health-care in a way that recognizes their experiences situated within the structural context of marginalization through colonial oppression. PMID:19906281

Poudrier, Jennifer; Mac-Lean, Roanne Thomas

2009-12-01

223

Didgeridoo Playing and Singing to Support Asthma Management in Aboriginal Australians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…

Eley, Robert; Gorman, Don

2010-01-01

224

Resting Lightly on Mother Earth: The Aboriginal Experience in Urban Educational Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the differential educational experiences of Aboriginal peoples in urban centers--primarily in Canada, but also in Australia and the United States. Major themes of the book are maintenance of individual and collective Aboriginal identity, the impact on that identity of disconnection from the land, spirituality as the key to…

Ward, Angela; Bouvier, Rita

225

Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest planning: a framework for recording Aboriginal resource and social values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aboriginal Forest Planning Process (AFPP) was developed to integrate indigenous and western forest management approaches. The AFPP is a participatory decision-making tool designed to enhance co-management of the John Prince Research Forest (JPRF) in central interior British Columbia, Canada and to elicit goals, objectives, criteria, and indicators of sustainable forest management from the JPRFs Aboriginal partners. Analysis of community

Melanie K. Karjala; Erin E. Sherry; Stephen M. Dewhurst

2004-01-01

226

Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.  

PubMed

Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities. PMID:25265360

Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

2014-10-01

227

Aboriginal, Anglo, and Immigrant Australian Students' Motivational Beliefs About Personal Academic Success: Are There Cultural Differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does being successful at school mean the same thing for all children? In Australia, research posits that Aboriginal Australian, Anglo Australian, and immigrant Australian children embrace different learning goals (i.e., mastery, performance, or social) according to their culture. In this study, a 38-item inventory was used to measure similarities and differences between Aboriginal (n = 496), Anglo (n = 1,173),

Dennis M. McInerney; John Hinkley; Martin Dowson; Shawn Van Etten

1998-01-01

228

Development of Oral Health Training for Rural and Remote Aboriginal Health Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A culturally appropriate oral health training course tailored to the needs of rural Aboriginal health workers was developed in Western Australia. The course is taught in three modules ranging from introductory material to comprehensive practical and theoretical knowledge of basic dental health care. The program encourages Aboriginal health workers…

Pacza, Tom; Steele, Lesley; Tennant, Marc

2001-01-01

229

American Indian and Alaska Native Aboriginal Use of Alcohol in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of Aboriginal production and use of alcohol prior to white contact reveals that alcohol use originated in Central America and rapidly diffused to northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. However, Aboriginal alcohol use was generally controlled and supervised during ceremonies, and only after white contact did alcohol use…

Abbott, Patrick J.

1996-01-01

230

Working Together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health and Wellbeing Principles and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of suitable resources to educate and assist health professionals to work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experiencing social and emotional wellbeing issues and mental health conditions, across all life stages. Further, those resources currently used by clinicians in mental health have little cross-cultural validity. The purpose of Working Together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

Nola Purdie; Pat Dudgeon; Roz Walker

2010-01-01

231

An Aboriginal family and community healing program in metropolitan Adelaide: description and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and evaluates the process, impacts and outcomes of an Aboriginal Family and Community Healing (AFCH) Program based in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. The evaluation used participatory action oriented methodology, mixed methods and multiple data sources. The AFCH comprised complex and dynamic activities for Aboriginal men, women and youth built around community engagement, and hosted by the regional

Inge Kowanko; Terry Stewart; Charmaine Power; Rosalie Fraser; Ida Love; Trevor Bromley

232

An Overview of the Development of Aboriginal Early Childhood Services in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the guise of equality, citizenship, integration, and policy change, the door has opened to allow the development of Aboriginal early childhood services in Canada. Recognition of the need for early childhood services specific to Aboriginal people did not become prominent until the mid-1980s. A decade later, services came into being. Little time…

Greenwood, Margo

233

A Grounded Theory of New Aboriginal Teachers' Perceptions: The Cultural Attributions of Medicine Wheel Teachings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The stress and anxiety of new teachers is a pervasive problem that impacts upon teacher preparation and retention. Although new mainstream teacher concerns and experiences have been readily discussed in the literature, the same attention has not been invested for new Aboriginal teachers. In Ontario, Canada, in excess of 60% of the Aboriginal

Cherubini, Lorenzo; Niemczyk, Ewelina; Hodson, John; McGean, Sarah

2010-01-01

234

DNA on Loan: Issues to Consider when Carrying Out Genetic Research with Aboriginal Families and Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current research milieu where genetic etiology is considered a critical component in the discovery of pathogenesis, aboriginal families and communities affected with genetic conditions may be considered as research participants. However, because of concerns about the impact of genetic information and historical harmful research practices, some aboriginal communities have considerable unease when faced with this prospect. Therefore, in

Laura Arbour; Doris Cook

2006-01-01

235

Pathways to Equality: Hearings on Access to Public Education for Aboriginal People. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal people are not benefiting from the British Columbia school system, as evidenced by their poor performance on basic skills tests, overrepresentation in special education, and low high school completion rates. The British Columbia Human Rights Commission feels that Aboriginal students do not receive an equal education. Through research,…

British Columbia Human Rights Commission, Vancouver.

236

Aboriginal communities in the Canadian North rely heavily on traditional food. Tradi-  

E-print Network

Aboriginal communities in the Canadian North rely heavily on traditional food. Tradi- tional food, and is harvested sustainably. Traditional food has played an imperative role in the health of aboriginal people traditional food species, with moose, caribou, whitefish, spruce hen and jackfish eaten most frequently

Edwards, Thomas W.D.

237

Theory and Research on Bullying and Racism from an Aboriginal Australian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…

Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter

2012-01-01

238

An examination of stress among Aboriginal women and men with diabetes in Manitoba, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a series of focus groups were conducted to gain an understanding of the nature of stress among Canadian Aboriginal women and men living with diabetes. Specifically, attention was given to the meanings Aboriginal peoples with diabetes attach to their lived experiences of stress, and the major sources or causes of stress in their lives. The key common

Yoshi Iwasaki; Judith Bartlett; John O'neil

2004-01-01

239

Late Quaternary Vegetation History and Paleoclimate of the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands Region From Two New Packrat Midden Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new packrat midden (Neotoma spp.) chronologies reveal glacial to interglacial changes in vegetation and climate in the Playas and San Simon Valleys in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. The Borderlands, where the states of Arizona and New Mexico intersect with each other and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora, are characterized by several northwest-southeast trending and tilted fault-block ranges separated by closed topographic basins. These basins now contain ephemeral playas, but held pluvial lakes (Animas, Cloverdale, Cochise, Goodsight, Hachita, Palomas, Playas) during the Pleistocene and lesser lakes sporadically in the Holocene. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from middens indicate vegetation along pluvial lake margins consisted of open pinyon-juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis and a rich understory of C4 annuals and grasses. Although both lake and pinyon-juniper expansion across the lowlands have been attributed to greater winter precipitation, the summer-flowering understory, characteristic of modern desert grassland in the Borderlands, indicates at least moderate summer precipitation during the late glacial. The U.S.A.-Borderlands may have been the only area in the western half of the coterminous United States to "green-up" in July and August, and may have offered seasonal refuge from the dry fire season to the north. Late glacial summer precipitation in the Borderlands may explain the concentration of megafauna and paleoindian sites dating from this period in the area. A transition to a warmer, drier climate is inferred from the extirpation of Pinus edulis from the lowlands of the Playas and San Simon Valleys by 10,300 14C yr B.P. The disappearance of pinyon and change to more xeric oak-juniper communities is contemporaneous with other midden sites in the northern Chihuahuan Desert and may have occurred abruptly during the "Clovis-aged Drought" when the water table at nearby Murray Springs dropped to unusually low levels just before 10,900 14C yr B.P. Few middens in our series dated from the middle Holocene (8000 - 4000 14C yr B.P.), a period during which middens are scarce across the Southwest. The gap was previously attributed to hydrologic drought during the middle Holocene and declines in woody perennials and packrat populations. However, beach ridge and lacustrine deposits from Laguna El Fresnal and Laguna Santa Maria indicate wetter than present conditions in the Borderlands during the middle Holocene. The late Holocene is marked by the arrival of Chihuahuan Desert scrub elements and few departures. Desertscrub elements begin to appear by about 4000 14C yr B.P., marking the transition to present-day vegetation. Larrea tridentata and Fouquieria splendens, two of the dominant desert species present at the sites today; both appear later than in surrounding areas.

Holmgren, C. A.; Penalba, M.; Aasen Rylander, K.; Betancourt, J. L.

2003-12-01

240

Characteristics and outcome of type 2 diabetes in urban Aboriginal people: the Fremantle Diabetes Study.  

PubMed

We analysed data from Aboriginal patients with type 2 diabetes recruited to the community-based Fremantle Diabetes Study and compared them with those from the Anglo-Celt participants. Diabetes prevalence among Aboriginal people in the Fremantle area was more than double that of Anglo-Celts and the average age at diagnosis was 14 years or younger. Glycaemic control, urinary albumin :creatinine and the proportion of smokers were all higher in the Aboriginal group and there was evidence of lower diabetes-related quality of life and high rates of disability at a young age. The Aboriginal patients died 18 years or younger than their Anglo-Celt counterparts. Specialized, culturally-sensitive and sustainable programmes are urgently needed to improve the management of diabetes in urban Aboriginal communities. PMID:17199846

Davis, T M E; McAullay, D; Davis, W A; Bruce, D G

2007-01-01

241

The interaction of ethnicity and chronic disease as risk factors for osteoporotic fractures: a comparison in Canadian Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Efforts to develop global methods for absolute fracture risk prediction are currently limited by uncertainty over the validity of these models in non-White populations. Aboriginal Canadians have higher fractures rates than non-Aboriginals. This analysis examined the interaction of ethnicity with diabetes mellitus, disease comorbidity and substance abuse as possible explanatory variables.Methods  A retrospective, population-based matched cohort study of fracture rates was

W. D. Leslie; S. Derksen; H. J. Prior; L. M. Lix; C. Metge; J. O’Neil

2006-01-01

242

Disentangling the impacts of geography and Aboriginality on serious road transport injuries in New South Wales.  

PubMed

Aboriginal people in Australia have higher rates of transport injury than non-Aboriginal people, but a greater proportion of Aboriginal people live in rural or remote areas where risk of these injuries is higher. This paper investigated the contributing effect of geography on the relationship between Aboriginality and road transport injury rates in the state of New South Wales. Linked hospital admission and mortality records for individuals for the years 2001-2007 were grouped into distinct injury events. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to examine disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people clustered within geographic areas of residence. Overall, Aboriginal people had higher rates of road transport injuries (IRR: 1.18, 95% CIs: 1.09-1.28). However, there was no significant difference when geographic clustering was taken into account (IRR: 1.00, 95% CIs: 0.96-1.04). This effect was further influenced by mode of transport for the injury, with Aboriginal people having higher rates of pedestrian (IRR: 1.96, 95% CIs: 1.75-2.19) and lower rates of motorcycle (IRR: 0.64, 95% CIs: 0.59-0.70) injuries in all almost all local areas, while there was no systematic pattern across geographic areas for small vehicle injuries (IRR: 1.01, 95% CIs: 0.94-1.08). Geography plays an important role in the population disparity of road transport injuries between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and has a differential impact for different types of road transport injury. Exploring how individual and geographic factors influence patterns of disparity allows for clearer targeting of future intervention strategies. PMID:23474235

Falster, Michael O; Randall, Deborah A; Lujic, Sanja; Ivers, Rebecca; Leyland, Alastair H; Jorm, Louisa R

2013-05-01

243

"It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Results Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. Conclusions The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation among Aboriginal girls and women. It is critical to acknowledge Aboriginal identity and culture as a source of empowerment; and to recognise the role of persistent marginalization in contributing to the high prevalence and initiation of smoking. PMID:22152218

2011-01-01

244

The Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service: a decade of achievement in the health of women and babies in NSW.  

PubMed

The Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service was established to improve the health of Aboriginal women during pregnancy and decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality for Aboriginal babies. The Service is delivered through a continuity-of-care model, where midwives and Aboriginal Health Workers collaborate to provide a high quality maternity service that is culturally sensitive, women centred, based on primary health-care principles and provided in partnership with Aboriginal people. An evaluation of the Service found that the program is achieving its goals in relation to the provision of antenatal and postnatal care and has demonstrated improvements in perinatal morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:22697102

Murphy, Elisabeth; Best, Elizabeth

2012-06-01

245

Shell Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)

Atkinson, Bill

1982-01-01

246

HIV testing experiences of Aboriginal youth in Canada: service implications.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explore HIV testing experiences and service views of Canadian Aboriginal youth in order to provide information for HIV testing services. An exploratory, mixed-method, community-based research design was used for this study. Findings reported here are from 210 survey participants who had experienced an HIV test. Youth were recruited through 11 Aboriginal organizations across Canada, including AIDS service organizations, health centers, community organizations, and friendship centers. Youth who had tested for HIV ranged in age from 15 to 30 years of age (20% were <20), and came from First Nations (75%), Metis (14%), and Inuit (9%) backgrounds. Participants lived in all provinces and one territory. Over half (62%) were female. While the majority of survey respondents indicated at their last HIV test they had been treated with care (80%), respect (77%), or kindness (76%), some reported being treated with hostility (19%), fear (12%), discrimination (11%), avoidance (10%), or being treated in a bored way (15%). When asked about information they had received, 28% of survey respondents could not remember; 23% said they were not given any information, and 24% said their questions were not answered. Emotional reactions to testing ranged from anxiety/apprehension (64% of survey respondents) to being "calm" (19%). When asked for suggestions to improve testing services, participants indicated emotional support, compassion, professional yet personable services, and personalized HIV information were important. Study results suggest that to facilitate HIV testing for Aboriginal youth, testing services and counseling must be respectful, compassionate, non-judgmental, and culturally responsive in order to provide emotional support and HIV information that is meaningful and memorable. PMID:20635240

Worthington, Catherine; Jackson, Randy; Mill, Judy; Prentice, Tracey; Myers, Ted; Sommerfeldt, Susan

2010-10-01

247

Songlines and navigation in Wardaman and other Australian Aboriginal cultures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the songlines and navigation of the Wardaman people, and place them in context by comparing them with corresponding practices in other Aboriginal Australian language groups, using previously-unpublished information and also information drawn from the literature. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, enabling the transmission of oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. In many cases, songlines on the Earth are mirrored by songlines in the sky, enabling the sky to be used as a navigational tool, both by using it as a compass and by using it as a mnemonic.

Norris, Ray P.; Harney, Bill Yidumdum

2014-07-01

248

Building Atoms Shell by Shell.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an atom-building activity where students construct three-dimensional models of atoms using a styrofoam ball as the nucleus and pom-poms, gum drops, minimarshmallows, or other small items of two different colors to represent protons and neutrons attached. Rings of various sizes with pom-poms attached represent electron shells and…

Sussman, Beverly

1993-01-01

249

Chlamydia among Australian Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people attending sexual health services, general practices and Aboriginal community controlled health services  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia infections are notified at much higher rates in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people compared to non-Indigenous people. The Australian Collaboration Chlamydia Enhanced Sentinel Surveillance System (ACCESS) was established to complement population-based surveillance. Methods We describe patient demographics, completeness of recording of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (‘Aboriginal’) status, chlamydia testing rates and positivity rates from the Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHSs), General Practice (GP) clinics and Sexual Health Services (SHSs) networks in ACCESS during 2009. Data were extracted from electronic medical records of each participating health service for consultations with patients aged 16–29 years and for chlamydia testing and positivity. Results Data were included from 16–29 year olds attending six ACCHSs (n?=?4,950); 22 SHSs (n?=?20,691) and 25 GP clinics (n?=?34,462). Aboriginal status was unknown for 79.3% of patients attending GP clinics, 4.5% attending SHSs and 3.8% of patients attending ACCHSs. Chlamydia testing rates among Aboriginal patients were 19.8% (95%CI:18.6%-21.0%) at ACCHSs, 75.5% (95% CI:72.5%-78.4%) at SHSs and 4.3% (95% CI: 2.6%-6.6%) at GP clinics. Positivity rates were highest in Aboriginal patients tested at SHSs at 22.7% (95% CI:19.5%-26.2%), followed by 15.8% (95% CI:3.8%-43.4%) at GP clinics and 8.6% at ACCHSs (95% CI:7.9%-12.4%). This compared with non-Indigenous patients positivity rates at SHSs of 12.7% (95% CI:12.2-13.2%); 8.6% (7.2%-11.3%) at GP clinics and 11.3% at ACCHSs (95% CI:15.4%-24.9%). Conclusions Higher chlamydia positivity in Aboriginal people across a range of clinical services is reflected in national notification data. Targeted efforts are required to improve testing rates in primary care services; to improve identification of Aboriginal patients in mainstream services such as GP clinics; and to better engage with young Aboriginal Australians. PMID:24981418

2014-01-01

250

Not just bricks and mortar: planning hospital cancer services for Aboriginal people  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals. Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews explored participants' beliefs about cancer and experiences of cancer care and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Information from interviews relevant to hospital services including and building design was extracted. Findings Relationships and respect emerged as crucial considerations of participants although many aspects of the hospital environment were seen as influencing the delivery of care. Five themes describing concerns about the hospital environment emerged: (i) being alone and lost in a big, alien and inflexible system; (ii) failure of open communication, delays and inefficiency in the system; (iii) practicalities: costs, transportation, community and family responsibilities; (iv) the need for Aboriginal support persons; and (v) connection to the community. Conclusions Design considerations and were identified but more important than the building itself was the critical need to build trust in health services. Promotion of cultural safety, support for Aboriginal family structures and respecting the importance of place and community to Aboriginal patients are crucial in improving cancer outcomes. PMID:21401923

2011-01-01

251

Disease patterns among Canadian aboriginal children. Study in a remote rural setting.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe disease patterns among children in an isolated aboriginal community, and to compare them with patterns found among other aboriginal and non-aboriginal Canadian children. DESIGN: Retrospective review of logbooks and patient charts extracted from nursing station records for all visits to the community's nursing station between April 1, 1990, and March 31, 1991. SETTING: An isolated aboriginal community located in northwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: All aboriginal children younger than 5 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disease-specific incidence per 100 person-years by age, sex, and season. RESULTS: Upper and lower respiratory tract infections, skin conditions, otitis media, and chickenpox were the leading causes of illness. Except for chickenpox, these illnesses occurred at a significantly higher rate among infants than among children 1 to 4 years old. No important differences were found by sex for any condition, except asthma where boys predominated. Autumn and winter seasonal patterns were most evident for respiratory tract infections. The rate of illness for most conditions was higher than that reported among other aboriginal and non-aboriginal Canadian children. CONCLUSIONS: The illnesses most frequently seen in these children are respiratory tract infections and skin conditions. Etiologic factors are likely to be related to multiple interacting forces (both environmental and genetic) and require further investigation. PMID:9789667

Harris, S. B.; Glazier, R.; Eng, K.; McMurray, L.

1998-01-01

252

Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children  

PubMed Central

In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many women, substance abuse offers a means of coping with trauma, such as childhood abuse, partner violence, and, for Aboriginal women, the intergenerational effects of colonization. In this paper, we review treatment issues for Aboriginal mothers with substance use problems and their children. We discuss gender-specific issues in substance abuse, the need for women-specific treatment, the impact of substance abuse on children and parenting, the additional risks for Aboriginal women and children, and the need for integrated programs (those that integrate pregnancy-, parenting-, and child-related services with women-specific addiction treatment). We describe New Choices as an example of an integrated program, review research on existing treatment for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues, and describe Sheway as a promising integrated program for Aboriginal women with substance abuse issues and their young children. There are few treatment programs specifically for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues and their children and very little research on their effectiveness. Based on our review of existing evidence, we offer recommendations for future research and practice. PMID:24976814

Niccols, Allison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

2014-01-01

253

'Doing the hard yards': carer and provider focus group perspectives of accessing Aboriginal childhood disability services  

PubMed Central

Background Despite a high prevalence of disability, Aboriginal Australians access disability services in Australia less than non-Aboriginal Australians with a disability. The needs of Aboriginal children with disability are particularly poorly understood. They can endure long delays in treatment which can impact adversely on development. This study sought to ascertain the factors involved in accessing services and support for Aboriginal children with a disability. Methods Using the focus group method, two community forums, one for health and service providers and one for carers of Aboriginal children with a disability, were held at an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS) in the Sydney, metropolitan area of New South Wales, Australia. Framework analysis was applied to qualitative data to elucidate key issues relevant to the dimensions of access framework. Independent coding consistency checks were performed and consensus of analysis verified by the entire research team, several of whom represented the local Aboriginal community. Results Seventeen health and social service providers representing local area government and non-government-funded health and social service organisations and five carers participated in two separate forums between September and October 2011. Lack of awareness of services and inadequate availability were prominent concerns in both groups despite geographic proximity to a major metropolitan area with significant health infrastructure. Carers noted racism, insufficient or non-existent services, and the need for an enhanced role of ACCHSs and AHWs in disability support services. Providers highlighted logistical barriers and cultural and historical issues that impacted on the effectiveness of mainstream services for Aboriginal people. Conclusions Despite dedicated disability services in an urban community, geographic proximity does not mitigate lack of awareness and availability of support. This paper has enumerated a number of considerations to address provision of disability services in an urban Australian Aboriginal community including building expertise and specialist capacity within Aboriginal Health Worker positions and services. Increasing awareness of services, facilitating linkages and referrals, eliminating complexities to accessing support, and working with families and Aboriginal community organisations within a framework of resilience and empowerment to ensure a relevant and acceptable model are necessary steps to improving support and care for Aboriginal children with a disability. PMID:23958272

2013-01-01

254

Understanding inequalities in access to health care services for aboriginal people: a call for nursing action.  

PubMed

We present findings from an Access Research Initiative to reduce health disparities and promote equitable access with Aboriginal peoples in Canada. We employed Indigenous, interpretive, and participatory research methodologies in partnership with Aboriginal people. Participants reported stories of bullying, fear, intimidation, and lack of cultural understanding. This research reveals the urgent need to enhance the delivery of culturally appropriate practices in emergency. As nurses, if we wish to affect equity of access, then attention is required to structural injustices that act as barriers to access such as addressing the stigma, stereotyping, and discrimination experienced by Aboriginal people in this study. PMID:25102218

Cameron, Brenda L; Carmargo Plazas, Maria Del Pilar; Salas, Anna Santos; Bourque Bearskin, R Lisa; Hungler, Krista

2014-01-01

255

The "fire stick farming" hypothesis: Australian Aboriginal foraging strategies, biodiversity, and anthropogenic fire mosaics  

PubMed Central

Aboriginal burning in Australia has long been assumed to be a “resource management” strategy, but no quantitative tests of this hypothesis have ever been conducted. We combine ethnographic observations of contemporary Aboriginal hunting and burning with satellite image analysis of anthropogenic and natural landscape structure to demonstrate the processes through which Aboriginal burning shapes arid-zone vegetational diversity. Anthropogenic landscapes contain a greater diversity of successional stages than landscapes under a lightning fire regime, and differences are of scale, not of kind. Landscape scale is directly linked to foraging for small, burrowed prey (monitor lizards), which is a specialty of Aboriginal women. The maintenance of small-scale habitat mosaics increases small-animal hunting productivity. These results have implications for understanding the unique biodiversity of the Australian continent, through time and space. In particular, anthropogenic influences on the habitat structure of paleolandscapes are likely to be spatially localized and linked to less mobile, “broad-spectrum” foraging economies. PMID:18809925

Bliege Bird, R.; Bird, D. W.; Codding, B. F.; Parker, C. H.; Jones, J. H.

2008-01-01

256

Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.  

PubMed

In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today. PMID:22545265

Balint, Ruth

2012-01-01

257

Experimental Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, Jun 2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This product contains final experimental estimates of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous), non-Indigenous and total populations of Australia at 30 June 2006, for various geographies.

Statistics, Australian B.

258

Shell width Three bumps  

E-print Network

Shell width Three bumps Five spines Female (left) and male (right) green crab shell undersides Green crab shell color Green crabs can be identified by their unique shell shape. Adults can have shells up to four inches across in width. Green crab diagram: Tim Sullivan. Green crab with hand & green

259

Healing Traditions: Culture, Community and Mental Health Promotion with Canadian Aboriginal Peoples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify issues and concepts to guide the development of culturally appropriate mental health promotion strategies with Aboriginal populations and communities in Canada.Methods: We review recent literature examining the links between the history of colonialism and government interventions (including the residential school system, out-adoption, and centralised bureaucratic control) and the mental health of Canadian Aboriginal peoples.Results: There are high

Laurence Kirmayer; Cori Simpson; Margaret Cargo

2003-01-01

260

Lifestyle Variables, Nontraditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and the Metabolic Syndrome in an Aboriginal Canadian Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine lifestyle factors associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to explore the relationships between MetS and non-traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors [adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and serum amyloid A (SAA)] in an isolated Aboriginal Canadian community.Research Methods and Procedures: Data were obtained from 360 non-diabetic adults participating in a population-based study of Aboriginal Canadians. Fasting

Juan Liu; T. Kue Young; Bernard Zinman; Stewart B. Harris; Philip W. Connelly; Anthony J. G. Hanley

2006-01-01

261

Working Together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health and Wellbeing Principles and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of suitable resources to educate and assist health professionals to work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experiencing social and emotional wellbeing issues and mental health conditions, across all life stages. Further, those resources currently used by clinicians in mental health have little cross-cultural validity.\\u000aThe purpose of Working Together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

Nola Purdie; Pat Dudgeon; Roz Walker

2010-01-01

262

Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented to improve communication on all levels and reduce systemic barriers operating within the health system. PMID:23497140

2013-01-01

263

Acts of Sovereignty: The Aboriginal Tent Embassy and the Politics of Reconciliation in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their co-authored chapter, “Acts of Sovereignty: The Aboriginal Tent Embassy and the Politics of Reconciliation in Australia,” Andrew Schaap and Paul Muldoon ask how the 1972 aboriginal tent “embassy” protests in Canberra inform our understanding of the “agonic relation of colonial governance vis-à-vis indigenous resistance” in Australia. The claim to indigenous sovereignty, which activists insist was never ceded to

Andrew Schaap; Paul Muldoon

264

Youth empowerment and information and communication technologies: a case study of a remote Australian Aboriginal community  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of a ‘digital divide’, Aboriginal groups in Australia, as internationally, are increasingly using information and\\u000a communication technologies (ICTs) to maintain their cultures, communicate, archive knowledge, empower their communities, develop\\u000a skills and generate income. Each community uses the technologies differently in accordance with their particular needs and\\u000a the opportunities available. The use of ICTs in Aboriginal youth empowerment is

Guy Singleton; Maria Fay Rola-Rubzen; Kado Muir; Deeva Muir; Murray McGregor

2009-01-01

265

Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.  

PubMed

We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods. PMID:24549409

Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

2014-03-01

266

Contemporary racism in australia: the experiences of Aborigines.  

PubMed

In recent decades, social psychologists have suggested that contemporary racism is more subtle in nature than it had been in previous times. However, such theorizing has been from the perspective of the perpetrators. The present study follows a small number of other studies that have focused on the perspective of the victims of racism. It investigated the experiences of racism reported by 34 Aboriginal Australians during semi-structured, open-ended interviews. The data suggest that racism is experienced commonly and frequently by the participants and that much of it is overt or old-fashioned rather than subtle and modern. It is argued that if the data are reflective of what happens in intergroup encounters, social scientists may have embraced the theories of modern racism too readily. This may have contributed to the maintenance of social institutions that impact negatively on the minority populations in the community. PMID:15273002

Mellor, David

2003-04-01

267

Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia  

PubMed Central

Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location. PMID:22577401

Parker, E. J.; Misan, G.; Shearer, M.; Richards, L.; Russell, A.; Mills, H.; Jamieson, L. M.

2012-01-01

268

Aboriginal hunting buffers climate-driven fire-size variability in Australia's spinifex grasslands  

PubMed Central

Across diverse ecosystems, greater climatic variability tends to increase wildfire size, particularly in Australia, where alternating wet–dry cycles increase vegetation growth, only to leave a dry overgrown landscape highly susceptible to fire spread. Aboriginal Australian hunting fires have been hypothesized to buffer such variability, mitigating mortality on small-mammal populations, which have suffered declines and extinctions in the arid zone coincident with Aboriginal depopulation. We test the hypothesis that the relationship between climate and fire size is buffered through the maintenance of an anthropogenic, fine-grained fire regime by comparing the effect of climatic variability on landscapes dominated by Martu Aboriginal hunting fires with those dominated by lightning fires. We show that Aboriginal fires are smaller, more tightly clustered, and remain small even when climate variation causes huge fires in the lightning region. As these effects likely benefit threatened small-mammal species, Aboriginal hunters should be considered trophic facilitators, and policies aimed at reducing the risk of large fires should promote land-management strategies consistent with Aboriginal burning regimes. PMID:22689979

Bliege Bird, Rebecca; Codding, Brian F.; Kauhanen, Peter G.

2012-01-01

269

The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH): study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH) is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11-17. 55% were male and 45% female. Discussion SEARCH is built on strong community partnerships, under Aboriginal leadership, and addresses community priorities relating to a number of under-researched areas. SEARCH will provide a unique long-term resource to investigate the causes and trajectories of health and illness in urban Aboriginal children and to identify potential targets for interventions to improve health. PMID:20507632

2010-01-01

270

Mental health and Victorian Aboriginal people: what can data mining tell us?  

PubMed

Nationally, Aboriginal people experience high levels of psychological distress, primarily due to trauma from colonisation. In Victoria, Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) provide many services to support mental health. The aim of the present study was to improve understanding about Victorian Aboriginal people and mental health service patterns. We located four mental health administrative datasets to analyse descriptively, including Practice Health Atlas, Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Service (AODTS), Kids Helpline and Close The Gap Pharmaceutical Scheme data. A large proportion of the local Aboriginal population (70%) were regular ACCHO clients; of these, 21% had a mental health diagnosis and, of these, 23% had a Medicare Mental Health Care Plan (MHCP). There were higher rates of Medicare MHCP completion rates where general practitioners (GPs) had mental health training and the local Area Mental Health Service had a Koori Mental Health Liaison Officer. There was an over-representation of AODTS episodes, and referrals for these episodes were more likely to come through community, corrections and justice services than for non-Aboriginal people. Aboriginal episodes were less likely to have been referred by a GP or police and less likely to have been referrals to community-based or home-based treatment. There was an over-representation of Victorian Aboriginal calls to Kids Helpline, and these were frequently for suicide and self-harm reasons. We recommend primary care mental health programs include quality audits, GP training, non-pharmaceutical options and partnerships. Access to appropriate AODTS is needed, particularly given links to high incarcerations rates. To ensure access to mental health services, improved understanding of mental health service participation and outcomes, including suicide prevention services for young people, is needed. PMID:25053190

Adams, Karen; Halacas, Chris; Cincotta, Marion; Pesich, Corina

2014-10-01

271

Biomes of western North America at 18,000, 6000 and 0 14C yr BP reconstructed from pollen and packrat midden data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new compilation of pollen and packrat midden data from western North America provides a refined reconstruction of the composition and distribution of biomes in western North America for today and for 6000 and 18,000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP). Modern biomes in western North America are adequately portrayed by pollen assemblages from lakes and bogs. Forest biomes in western North America share many taxa in their pollen spectra and it can be difficult to discriminate among these biomes. Plant macrofossils from packrat middens provide reliable identification of modern biomes from arid and semiarid regions, and this may also be true in similar environments in other parts of the world. However, a weighting factor for trees and shrubs must be used to reliably reconstruct modern biomes from plant macrofossils. A new biome, open conifer woodland, which includes eurythermic conifers and steppe plants, was defined to categorize much of the current and past vegetation of the semiarid interior of western North America. At 6000 14C yr BP, the forest biomes of the coastal Pacific North-west and the desert biomes of the South-west were in near-modern positions. Biomes in the interior Pacific North-west differed from those of today in that taiga prevailed in modern cool/cold mixed forests. Steppe was present in areas occupied today by open conifer woodland in the northern Great Basin, while in the central and southern Rocky Mountains forests grew where steppe grows today. During the mid-Holocene, cool conifer forests were expanded in the Rocky Mountains (relative to today) but contracted in the Sierra Nevada. These differences from the forests of today imply different climatic histories in these two regions between 6000 14C yr BP and today. At 18,000 14C yr BP, deserts were absent from the South-west and the coverage of open conifer woodland was greatly expanded relative to today. Steppe and tundra were present in much of the region now covered by forests in the Pacific North-west.

Thompson, R. S.; Anderson, K. H.

2000-01-01

272

'Beats the alternative but it messes up your life': Aboriginal people's experience of haemodialysis in rural Australia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Australian Aboriginal people have at least eight times the incidence of end-stage kidney disease, requiring dialysis, as the non-Aboriginal population. Provision of health services to rural Aboriginal people with renal disease is challenging due to barriers to access and cultural differences. We aimed to describe the experiences of Aboriginal people receiving haemodialysis in rural Australia, to inform strategies for improving renal services. Design A qualitative design incorporating: Indigenist research methodology and Community Based Participatory Research principles. In-depth interviews used a ‘yarning’ and storytelling approach. Thematic analysis was undertaken and verified by an Aboriginal Community Reference Group. Setting A health district in rural New South Wales, Australia. Participants Snowball sampling recruited 18 Aboriginal haemodialysis recipients. Results Six themes emerged which described the patient journey: ‘The biggest shock of me life,’ expressed the shock of diagnosis and starting the dialysis; ‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life,’ explained how positive attitudes to treatment develop; ‘Family is everything’, described the motivation and support to continue dialysis; ‘If I had one of them nurses at home to help me’, depicted acute hospital settings as culturally unsafe; ‘Don't use them big jawbreakers’, urged service providers to use simple language and cultural awareness; ‘Stop ‘em following us onto the machine’, emphasised the desire for education for the younger generations about preventing kidney disease. An Aboriginal interpretation of this experience, linked to the analysis, was depicted in the form of an Aboriginal painting. Conclusions Family enables Aboriginal people to endure haemodialysis. Patients believe that priorities for improving services include family-centred and culturally accommodating healthcare systems; and improving access to early screening of kidney disease. Inclusion of Aboriginal patients in cultural education for renal staff is recommended. Providing opportunities for patients to educate young Aboriginal people about kidney disease prevention may be highly effective and empowering. PMID:25231493

Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

2014-01-01

273

Responding to Sexual Abuse: Developing a Community-Based Sexual Abuse Response Team in Aboriginal Communities. Aboriginal Peoples Collection, Technical Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual addresses the issue of sexual abuse in Canadian aboriginal communities, and advocates a community sexual abuse response team approach in building a viable solution to the problem. The manual introduces the main issues and problems relevant to a community sexual response team. Chapter 1 looks at the cultural and historical past of…

Ministry of the Solicitor General, Ottawa (Ontario).

274

The Aboriginal Motif in Children's Literature. Proceedings of a National Seminar Held at the University of Tasmania Tasmania, Australia, September 25-27, 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This seminar on the Aboriginal motif in children's literature was opened by critic Walter McVitty with a paper entitled "The Presentation of Australian Aborigines and Their Culture in Children's Literature: A Brief Overview." In "Some Thoughts on the Aborigine as Presented in Children's Literature," Queensland author Bill Scott stressed the need…

Herr, Twila A. J., Ed.

275

Developing an Exploratory Framework Linking Australian Aboriginal Peoples' Connection to Country and Concepts of Wellbeing  

PubMed Central

Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Country) and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships) and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism) factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples’ health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples’ wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples’ health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation. PMID:23435590

Kingsley, Jonathan; Townsend, Mardie; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Bolam, Bruce

2013-01-01

276

Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.  

PubMed

Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. PMID:24161085

Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

2013-11-01

277

Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in aboriginal peoples of Taiwan, 2006-2011.  

PubMed

Previous research revealed a 6-fold higher incidence of tuberculosis (TB) amongst aborigines compared to Han Chinese in Taiwan. To investigate the reasons for this disparity, we genotyped Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains obtained from members of different aboriginal tribes in different geographical regions of Taiwan by using molecular methods. In total, 177 isolates of MTB collected from patients at four hospitals in Taiwan from January 2006 to December 2011 were analysed by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. The most prevalent strains in the eastern and central regions of Taiwan were Beijing (45.7% in eastern) and Haarlem (39.1% in eastern, 37.1% in central) lineages, whereas in southern regions the most prevalent strains were EAI (47.7%) and Haarlem (20.5%) lineages. The high prevalence of EAI in southern Taiwan aborigines may be closely associated with Austronesian culture. This study provides a first overview of the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in aboriginal populations in Taiwan. The high prevalences of certain MTB lineages within aboriginal sub-populations suggest that transmission of MTB may have been restricted to close contacts. PMID:24370561

Chen, Yih-Yuan; Chang, Jia-Ru; Huang, Wei-Feng; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Yeh, Jun-Jun; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Jang, Chang-Sheng; Sun, Jun-Ren; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Su, Ih-Jen; Dou, Horng-Yunn

2014-04-01

278

The connection between type 2 diabetes and erectile dysfunction in Taiwanese aboriginal males.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing global epidemic, especially among aboriginal Taiwanese. This study aimed to identify the relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED), markers of endothelial function, serum testosterone level and type 2 DM in aboriginal Taiwanese. Data were obtained from a baseline survey of 240 aboriginal adults. Their demographic data, presence of type 2 DM, markers of endothelial function, serum testosterone and ED status were assessed. The mean age of the samples was 51.62±7.76 years. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 total score had a mean of 21.99±2.34 and a median of 23; 134 participants had ED (55.8%). The results showed an increased risk of ED for participants with type 2 DM and lower serum testosterone level. Among the predictors of ED, type 2 DM, lower serum free testosterone and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were significantly independent factors. Interleukin-6 had a negative relationship with ED. The study results suggest there is a strong association between type 2 DM and erectile function among aboriginal Taiwanese that is similar to the general population. This study also supports the idea that type 2 DM, markers of endothelial function and serum testosterone may provide warning signs of ED and, at the same time, an opportunity for early intervention for aboriginal adult male. PMID:25078051

Shi, M-D; Chao, J-K; Ma, M-C; Chiang, S-K; Chao, I-C

2014-11-01

279

Initiation and duration of breastfeeding in an aboriginal community in south western Sydney.  

PubMed

The Gudaga Study is a prospective, longitudinal birth cohort study of Australian urban Aboriginal children. Mothers of Aboriginal infants were recruited using a survey of all mothers admitted to the maternity ward of an outer urban hospital in Sydney. These data established initiation rates among Gudaga infants and those of non-Aboriginal infants born locally (64.7% and 75.2%, respectively) and factors associated with breastfeeding. Older (relative risk, 1.24; confidence interval, 1.01-1.44), more educated (relative risk, 1.30; confidence interval, 1.11-1.48) mothers who intended to breastfeed (relative risk, 2.22; confidence interval, 2.12-2.3) were more likely to breastfeed. Smokers (relative risk, 0.72) and mothers of Aboriginal infants (relative risk, 0.78) were less likely to initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding rates for Gudaga infants dropped rapidly, with 26.3% breastfeeding at 2 months. Local health services providers can benefit from such information as they target relevant prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal services for Aboriginal mothers and their infants. PMID:21788654

Craig, Pippa L; Knight, Jennifer; Comino, Elizabeth; Webster, Vana; Pulver, Lisa Jackson; Harris, Elizabeth

2011-08-01

280

'Talk, talk, cry, laugh': learning, healing and building an Aboriginal workforce to address family violence.  

PubMed

Sexual abuse and family violence are widespread and under-reported phenomena for which Aboriginal victims face even greater barriers to asking for and receiving assistance than do others in the community. There is a need for strategies to address abuse without disempowering and alienating Aboriginal people. A program developed by the New South Wales Health Education Centre Against Violence is addressing this issue at the same time as contributing towards a strengthened Aboriginal health workforce. The training program which is a 1-year qualification course has grown from a 52% rate of graduation in its first 6 years to 92%. Three practices in the classroom have contributed to this success. These are: (i) recognition of the emotional impact of the training and its links to participants own histories; (ii) providing space to address participants negative prior educational experiences; and (iii) further developing content on the recent sociopolitical history of Aboriginal people. These practices have strengthened this successful course, which is building a skilled workforce to provide accessible, culturally sensitive services for Aboriginal people experiencing abuse. PMID:23237329

Lauw, Marlene L; Spangaro, Jo; Herring, Sigrid; McNamara, Lorna D

2013-02-01

281

Changing discourses in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health research, 1914-2014.  

PubMed

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people strongly assert that health research has contributed little to improving their health, in spite of its obvious potential. The health concerns of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were largely ignored in early research published in the MJA, which reflected broader colonial history and racial discourses. This began to change with the demise of scientific racism, and changed policies and political campaigns for equal treatment of Indigenous people after the Second World War. In response to pressure from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and organisations, in parallel to broader political struggles for Indigenous rights since the 1970s, there have been significant and measurable changes to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health research. Many of these changes have been about the ethics of health research. Increasingly, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander researchers, communities and organisations are now controlling and decolonising health research to better meet their needs, in collaboration with non-Indigenous researchers and research organisations. PMID:25047769

Thomas, David P; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Tsey, Komla

2014-07-01

282

Aboriginal community controlled health services: leading the way in primary care.  

PubMed

The national Closing the Gap framework commits to reducing persisting disadvantage in the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia, with cross-government-sector initiatives and investment. Central to efforts to build healthier communities is the Aboriginal community controlled health service (ACCHS) sector; its focus on prevention, early intervention and comprehensive care has reduced barriers to access and unintentional racism, progressively improving individual health outcomes for Aboriginal people. There is now a broad range of primary health care data that provides a sound evidence base for comparing the health outcomes for Indigenous people in ACCHSs with the outcomes achieved through mainstream services, and these data show: models of comprehensive primary health care consistent with the patient-centred medical home model; coverage of the Aboriginal population higher than 60% outside major metropolitan centres; consistently improving performance in key performance on best-practice care indicators; and superior performance to mainstream general practice. ACCHSs play a significant role in training the medical workforce and employing Aboriginal people. ACCHSs have risen to the challenge of delivering best-practice care and there is a case for expanding ACCHSs into new areas. To achieve the best returns, the current mainstream Closing the Gap investment should be shifted to the community controlled health sector. PMID:24938346

Panaretto, Kathryn S; Wenitong, Mark; Button, Selwyn; Ring, Ian T

2014-06-16

283

Establishing a Community-Controlled Multi-Institutional Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Health Council (QAIHC) lead and govern the Centre for Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE), which has a focus on circulatory and associated conditions in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The CCRE is a partnership between QAIHC and Monash University, the Queensland University of…

Pearce, Leilani; Fredericks, Bronwyn

2007-01-01

284

Aboriginal Business Capacity Building Programs in the Central Interior of British Columbia: A Collaborative Project between the University and Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal communities in Canada are typically marginalized, have very low employment participation rates, and have limited economic infrastructure. The downturn in global economies further marginalized these communities. The University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC) Continuing Studies department piloted an Aboriginal and Small Business…

Kunkel, Titi; Schorcht, Blanca; Brazzoni, Randall

2011-01-01

285

Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

2001-01-01

286

Understanding, beliefs and perspectives of Aboriginal people in Western Australia about cancer and its impact on access to cancer services  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite a lower overall incidence, Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared with the non-Aboriginal population as manifested by higher mortality and lower 5-year survival rates. Lower participation in screening, later diagnosis of cancer, poor continuity of care, and poorer compliance with treatment are known factors contributing to this poor outcome. Nevertheless, many deficits remain in understanding the

Shaouli Shahid; Lizzie Finn; Dawn Bessarab; Sandra C Thompson

2009-01-01

287

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, Volume 14, Number 2 (July, 2011): in press Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy  

E-print Network

magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon caused by the moon blocking the sun. Keywords: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy; Eclipse - Solar, Lunar

Norris, Ray

288

Paleoclimatic significance of ??D and ??13C values in pinon pine needles from packrat middens spanning the last 40,000 years  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared two approaches to interpreting ??D of cellulose nitrate in pinon pine needles (Pinus edulis) preserved in packrat middens from central New Mexico, USA. One approach was based on linear regression between modem ??D values and climate parameters, and the other on a deterministic isotope model, modified from Craig and Gordon's terminal lake evaporation model that assumes steady-state conditions and constant isotope effects. One such effect, the net biochemical fractionation factor, was determined for a new species, pinon pine. Regressions showed that ??D values in cellulose nitrate from annual cohorts of needles (1989-1996) were strongly correlated with growing season (May-August) precipitation amount, and ??13C values in the same samples were correlated with June relative humidity. The deterministic model reconstructed ??D values of meteoric water used by plants after constraining relative humidity effects with ??13C values; growing season temperatures were estimated via modem correlations with ??D values of meteoric water. Variations of this modeling approach have been applied to tree-ring cellulose before, but not to macrofossil cellulose, and comparisons to empirical relationships have not been provided. Results from fossil pinon needles spanning the last ~40,000 years showed no significant trend in ??D values of cellulose nitrate, suggesting either no change in the amount of summer precipitation (based on the transfer function) or ??D values of meteoric water or temperature (based on the deterministic model). However, there were significant differences in ??13C values, and therefore relative humidity, between Pleistocene and Holocene.

Pendall, E.; Betancourt, J. L.; Leavitt, S. W.

1999-01-01

289

Time to bring down the twin towers in poor Aboriginal hospital care: addressing institutional racism and misunderstandings in communication.  

PubMed

Improvements in Aboriginal health have been slow. Research demonstrates ongoing discrimination towards Aboriginal Australians based on race, including in health services, leads to poor health outcomes. Using an eclectic methodology based on observations and discussions with health practitioners experienced in working with Aboriginal patients, this paper identifies how cross-cultural misunderstandings undermine the quality of care to Aboriginal patients in hospital and offers suggestions for improving practice. It also explores the concept of institutional racism and challenges doctors to reflect on their role in perpetuating power imbalances. We argue that physicians and healthcare providers need to do more than just deliver evidence-based interventions, by critically reflecting on their own attitudes to and practices with Aboriginal Australians and work collectively to effect systemic change which creates a more inclusive and safe environment for all people accessing healthcare. PMID:22032537

Durey, A; Thompson, S C; Wood, M

2012-01-01

290

Aboriginal Astronomical Traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 1: Nyeeruna and the Orion Story  

E-print Network

Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE (1859-1951) recorded the daily lives, lore, and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as "The Orion Story", stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of "The Orion Story", including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

Leaman, Trevor M

2014-01-01

291

Influences of indigenous language on spatial frames of reference in Aboriginal English  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.

Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

2014-06-01

292

Overseas-trained doctors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services: many unanswered questions.  

PubMed

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services are heavily dependent on overseas-trained doctors (OTDs). These OTDs are increasingly from countries with variable English language and educational equivalency compared with locally trained doctors. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services create particular demands for all doctors, such as negotiating "cultural domains" and acknowledging the contribution of Aboriginal health workers. Little is known about the roles and experience of OTDs in health service provision in Indigenous communities. Barriers to effective research into the experience of OTDs include privacy legislation and a lack of standardised data. Researching the narratives of OTDs in Indigenous health services offers an opportunity to explore the diversity and complexity of the cultural interfaces in health service provision. PMID:17516902

Arkles, Rachelle S; Hill, Peter S; Pulver, Lisa R Jackson

2007-05-21

293

Environmental agreements, EIA follow-up and aboriginal participation in environmental management: The Canadian experience  

SciTech Connect

During the last decade a number of environmental agreements (EAs) have been negotiated in Canada involving industry, government and Aboriginal peoples. This article draws on the Canadian experience to consider the potential of such negotiated agreements to address two issues widely recognised in academic and policy debates on environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental management. The first relates to the need to secure indigenous participation in environmental management of major projects that affect indigenous peoples. The second and broader issue involves the necessity for specific initiatives to ensure effective follow-up of EIA. The Canadian experience indicates that negotiated environmental agreements have considerable potential to address both issues. However, if this potential is to be realized, greater effort must be made to develop structures and processes specifically designed to encourage Aboriginal participation; and EAs must themselves provide the financial and other resource required to support EIA follow-up and Aboriginal participation.

O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran [Department of Politics and Public Policy, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Brisbane, Nathan, Queensland 4111 (Australia)]. E-mail: Ciaran.Ofaircheallaigh@griffith.edu.au

2007-05-15

294

Aboriginal astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia. Part 1: Nyeeruna and 'The Orion Story'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE recorded the daily lives, lore and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as 'The Orion Story', stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of 'The Orion Story', including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

2014-07-01

295

The differential influence of contextual risks on psychosocial functioning and participation of Australian aboriginal youth.  

PubMed

This study investigated the differential influence of contextual risks for positive psychosocial functioning and participation in education or employment in a representative sample of 12- to 17-year-old Aboriginal youth (N = 674) using data drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS) 2000-2002. The authors modeled the influence of 3 empirical risk measures (risk factor, cumulative risk, and single risks) on positive psychosocial functioning and participation in education or employment. Results showed different risks for different developmental outcomes. Single sociodemographic risks were associated with reduced likelihood of positive psychosocial functioning, whereas cumulative risk and composite Family Health and Community Risk measures were associated with reduced likelihood of participation in education or employment. Methodological issues and implications for interventions to support young Aboriginal people's adaptation are discussed. PMID:24164518

Hopkins, Katrina D; Taylor, Catherine L; Zubrick, Stephen R

2013-10-01

296

Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by???90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who are developing mental illnesses or are in a mental health crisis. PMID:24467923

2014-01-01

297

The CIET Aboriginal Youth Resilience Studies: 14 Years of Capacity Building and Methods Development in Canada  

PubMed Central

CIET started supporting Canadian Aboriginal community-based researchers of resilience in 1995. An evolving approach to Aboriginal resilience used a combination of standard instruments and questionnaires of local design. Over the years, CIET measured personal assets like sense of coherence, spirituality, knowledge, pride in one’s heritage, mastery or self-efficacy, self-esteem, low levels of distress, involvement in traditional ways and activities, church attendance. Other indicators reflected the social dimension of resilience: feeling supported; parental care and support; parental monitoring, attitudes, and example; peer support; and support from the wider community. Pride in one’s heritage, self-esteem, low distress, and mastery were measurable personal assets of resilient Aboriginal youth in a variety of cultures and circumstances. Early efforts to link resilience with specific features of culture or spirituality did not meet with success — largely reflecting failure to ask the right questions. Parental care and support, parental monitoring, parental attitudes, and parental example clearly supported the resilient Aboriginal youth in most settings. But peers are an even stronger influence, critical in relation to different types of behaviour from smoking to drinking to substance abuse to violence, unsafe sex, and suicidal tendencies. More generally, having someone to confide in, to count on in times of crisis, someone to give advice and someone who makes one feel cared for are important factors in youth resilience and something that communities can help to provide even where the family is not the support it should be and where peers are more of a hindrance than a help. CIET currently supports three resilience research projects involving Aboriginal youth in Canada: suicide prevention, reduction of HIV risk, and reduction of domestic violence. The latest resilience measurement tools include enculturation and revised approaches to Aboriginal spirituality. PMID:20862230

Andersson, Neil

2010-01-01

298

Voting with their feet - predictors of discharge against medical advice in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal ischaemic heart disease inpatients in Western Australia: an analytic study using data linkage  

PubMed Central

Background Discharge Against Medical Advice (DAMA) from hospital is associated with adverse outcomes and is considered an indicator of the responsiveness of hospitals to the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, the indigenous people of Australia. We investigated demographic and clinical factors that predict DAMA in patients experiencing their first-ever inpatient admission for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The study focuses particularly on the differences in the risk of DAMA in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients while also investigating other factors in their own right. Methods A cross-sectional analytical study was undertaken using linked hospital and mortality data with complete coverage of Western Australia. Participants included all first-ever IHD inpatients (aged 25–79 years) admitted between 2005 and 2009, selected after a 15-year clearance period and who were discharged alive. The main outcome measure was DAMA as reflected in the hospital record. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine disparities in DAMA between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients, adjusting for a range of demographic and clinical factors, including comorbidity based on 5-year hospitalization history. A series of additional models were run on subgroups of the cohort to refine the analysis. Ethics approval was granted by the WA Human Research and the WA Aboriginal Health Ethics Committees. Results Aboriginal patients comprised 4.3% of the cohort of 37,304 IHD patients and 23% of the 224 DAMAs. Emergency admission (OR=5.9, 95% CI 2.9-12.2), alcohol admission history (alcohol-related OR=2.9, 95% CI 2.0-4.2) and Aboriginality (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5) were the strongest predictors of DAMA in the multivariate model. Patients living in rural areas while attending non-metropolitan hospitals had a 50% higher risk of DAMA than those living and hospitalised in metropolitan areas. There was consistency in the ORs for Aboriginality in the different multivariate models using restricted sub-cohorts and different Aboriginal identifiers. Sex, IHD diagnosis type and co-morbidity scores imparted different risks in Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal patients. Conclusions Understanding the risks and reasons for DAMA is important for health system policy and proactive management of those at risk of DAMA. Improving care to prevent DAMA should target unplanned admissions, rural hospitals and young men, Aboriginal people and those with alcohol and mental health comorbidities. PMID:23962275

2013-01-01

299

U of Manitoba program delivers care to natives, hope to aboriginal students.  

PubMed Central

In northern Manitoba and the Northwest Territories, aboriginal communities receive their medical care via a network of nursing stations run by the J.A. Hildes Northern Medical Unit at the University of Manitoba. Most care is provided by nurse practitioners and local health care staff, supported by weekly visits from Winnipeg-based physicians and weekend telephone consultations. It is hoped that more aboriginal students will eventually choose medicine as a career and return to live and work in their communities. The CMA helps support this goal through a bursary program for native students. Images p1610-a p1611-a PMID:8956842

Square, D

1996-01-01

300

Formation of Gaseous Shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HI observations have revealed in several shell galaxies the presence of gaseous shells slightly displaced from the stellar shells radially, in the outward direction. We propose a mechanism to form this gaseous shells, based on the well-known phase-wrapping process of the companion matter in a merger, with nearly radial orbits. The mechanism relies on the existence of a clumpy interstellar matter, and on dynamical friction experienced by the companion core.

Combes, F.; Charmandaris, V.

301

Professional Pathways of Aboriginal Early Childhood Teachers: Intersections of Community, Indigeneity, and Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little information is available about the employment trajectories of Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander peoples pursuing university professional qualifications. This article describes a context in which cultural space, issues of identity, pragmatics of employment, family and community and a bureaucratic regulatory environment intersect to…

Fleet, Alma; Wechmann, Kerrie; Whitworth, Ryan

2012-01-01

302

An lmmersive Interactive Experience of Contemporary Aboriginal ~ance at the National ~useum of Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a dcscription of a walk- through experience of Aboriginal dance in the Welcome area of the Gallery of First Australians (GFA) at the new National Museum of Australia (NMA). The experience is an immersive multimedia environment with a perceptual user interface that extracts footstep fcatures in real-time from 32 square metres of vibration sensitive carpet. Six network

Stephen Bm-rass

303

Project Research on the Achievement of Aboriginal Students in Reserve Schools: A Success or Disappointment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the move to self-governance and the dismantling of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC), there is a need to know if Aboriginal education systems are providing superior, adequate, marginal, or unsatisfactory standards of education for their students. A study of 165 First Nations students attending a K-10 First Nations school sought to…

Mason, Nelson

304

Cultural Practices of Pedagogy: Literacy Contexts for Young Aboriginal Students in Inner & Outer Regional Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 6-year-old Australian Aboriginal student has trouble understanding the dominant cultural mores concerning sharing food or its use as a reward in school. Literacy not only entails how to read and write identifiable genres of texts, but also requires strategic knowledge of how to read social situations and institutional rule systems. (Contains 35…

Clancy, Susan; Simpson, Lee

2001-01-01

305

Aboriginal Environmental Wisdom, Stewardship, and Sustainability: Lessons from the Walpole Island First Nations, Ontario, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generally speaking, environmental education teaching, research, and practice have been informed by the traditions of western, Euro-centric culture. In this context indigenous perspectives are often marginalized, maligned, and perceived to be unscientific and therefore inferior. This essay adds to the growing body of literature exploring aboriginal

Beckford, Clinton L.; Jacobs, Clint; Williams, Naomi; Nahdee, Russell

2010-01-01

306

Using Digital Technologies to Address Aboriginal Adolescents' Education: An Alternative School Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how digital technologies were introduced in a collaborative literacy intervention to address a population long underserved by traditional schools: the Aboriginals of Canada. Design/methodology/approach: Situated within a critical ethnographic project, this paper examines how digital technologies…

Pirbhai-Illich, Fatima; Turner, K. C. Nat; Austin, Theresa Y.

2009-01-01

307

An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief…

Dion, Jacinthe; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; De La Sablonniere, Mireille; Philippe-Labbe, Marie-Pierre; Giffard, Tania

2010-01-01

308

The Development of Cross-Cultural Relations with a Canadian Aboriginal Community through Sport Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is…

Schinke, Robert J.; Hanrahan, Stephanie J.; Eys, Mark A.; Blodgett, Amy; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen Douglas; Pheasant, Chris; Enosse, Lawrence

2008-01-01

309

Gathering information to develop palliative care programs for Alaska's Aboriginal peoples.  

PubMed

Over an eight-year period, the authors conducted focus groups in six Alaska Aboriginal communities. They sought information about traditional ways of caring for the dying, current values and preferences surrounding death, the kind of support caregivers need, and how a palliative care program could assist families caring for loved ones in the community. Focus groups are a standard qualitative research tool for gathering information when a new program or service is planned. However, for Alaska's Aboriginal people living in remote settings, the standard focus group design is not useful. That design was modified to reflect cultural norms and communication methods while adhering to standards of qualitative research. Communities selected represented different groups of Alaska's Indigenous people; 84 Aboriginal elders participated. Culturally modified focus groups yielded rich and useful information about historical and traditional practices surrounding death. Participants also vocalized expectations and concerns regarding their own eventual deaths. The process of conducting six different focus groups throughout Alaska yielded valuable information about community engagement in Aboriginal communities. PMID:20402181

Decourtney, Christine A; Branch, P Kay; Morgan, Karen M

2010-01-01

310

Teaching for Equity? What Teachers Say about Their Work in Aboriginal Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policies to ensure education equity and programs to foster educational advancement among Aboriginal people have been in place for several years in most Canadian jurisdictions. Despite of the successes brought about by these policies, questions about just how much has been accomplished, and how best to secure desired results, remain matters of…

Wotherspoon, Terry

2007-01-01

311

Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

Jorgensen, Robyn

2012-01-01

312

A Controversial Reform in Indigenous Education: The Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines a controversial initiative in Indigenous education: the establishment of the Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy (CYAAA). The article provides a brief description of the Academy's three campuses and their communities and considers: the circumstances of its creation, including the role of Noel Pearson and Cape York…

McCollow, John

2012-01-01

313

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander kids and bikes: socio-cultural factors and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study sought to document young Indigenous people's bike riding practices, explore cultural factors shaping those practices and consider ways those practices might put them at risk. Methods: Ninety five Townsville Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander school students participated in face to face interviews or focus groups, and completed quizzes and questionnaires on their bike riding behaviour, knowledge of

Malcolm Vick

314

Further Applications of Linguistics to Australian Aboriginal Contexts. Occasional Papers Number 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These papers represent applications of linguistics in Australian Aboriginal contexts, not only from a language viewpoint, but encompassing the interactions of language, society, politics, and culture. They include: "Loanwords: Ours or Theirs?" (Velma J. Leeding); "We Spell It 'Gooniyandi'" (David Street and Topsy Chestnut); "An Orthography Chosen…

McKay, G. R., Ed.; Sommer, B. A., Ed.

315

Influences of Indigenous Language on Spatial Frames of Reference in Aboriginal English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as "in front" and "behind." Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian…

Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

2014-01-01

316

Cultural self-efficacy of Canadian nursing students caring for aboriginal patients with diabetes.  

PubMed

Cultural self-efficacy refers to how capable one feels functioning in culturally diverse situations. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of cultural self-efficacy among nursing students, specifically in relation to individuals of Aboriginal ancestry. The authors examined the extent to which intercultural anxiety, intercultural communication, and experience with persons of Aboriginal ancestry predicted two aspects of cultural self-efficacy, namely, knowledge and skills. In this correlational study, non-Aboriginal Canadian nursing students (N = 59) completed a survey assessing these variables. Overall, cultural self-efficacy was rated as moderate by nursing students. Regression analyses indicated that greater intercultural communication skills and experience with persons of Aboriginal ancestry were significant unique predictors of higher cultural knowledge self-efficacy. Greater intercultural communication and lower intercultural anxiety significantly predicted higher cultural skills self-efficacy. The results provide direction to nursing programs interested in facilitating higher levels of cultural self-efficacy among nursing students. PMID:22477719

Quine, Allisson; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D; Alberts, Nicole M

2012-07-01

317

Teachers Make a Difference to the Study of Aboriginal Music in NSW  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australian Indigenous music and culture are in the foreground when Australia celebrates itself in international contexts but their inclusion in the school curriculum is sporadic. In New South Wales (NSW), high school music teachers are responsible for educating students about Aboriginal music(s) and culture(s) within a mandatory focus on…

Power, Anne; Bradley, Margaret

2011-01-01

318

Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art Ray P. Norris1,2  

E-print Network

). The constellation is called Djulpan in the Yolngu language, and the three stars of Orion's belt are associated oral traditions. For example, in many Aboriginal cultures the European constellation of Orion a kingfish, which corresponds to Orion's sword (ibid). Similarly, the cluster of stars known to Europeans

Norris, Ray

319

A community-based sports massage course for Aboriginal health workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective : To pilot a community-based and owned sports massage course for Aboriginal health workers (AHWs). Design : Descriptive, pilot educational intervention study. Setting : Rural, Indigenous Australian community. Subjects : AHWs working in a rural community. Main outcome measures : Cultural and logistical acceptability of the program to AHWs. Results : The course was delivered within a culturally acceptable

Dein Vindigni; Lynne Parkinson; Bruce Walker; Darren A. Rivett; Steve Blunden; Janice Perkins

2005-01-01

320

The Development of Cross-Cultural Relations With a Canadian Aboriginal Community Through Sport Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is our story of how positive cross-cultural relations developed in stages

Robert J. Schinke; Stephanie J. Hanrahan; Mark A. Eys; Amy Blodgett; Duke Peltier; Stephen Douglas Ritchie; Chris Pheasant; Lawrence Enosse

2008-01-01

321

Cassava and Carrying Capacity in Aboriginal Puerto Rico: Revisiting the Taino Downfall at Conquest  

Microsoft Academic Search

How many aborigines lived in late Borikén (modern Puerto Rico) at the inception of the Spanish conquest? The question has raised much controversy both because of the lack of primary data and the disparate research approaches employed by practitioners of different academic disciplines. However, available surrogate sources of information make possible a heuristic model of former population, grounded in the

Francisco Watlington

2009-01-01

322

Self-Beliefs and Behavioural Development as Related to Academic Achievement in Canadian Aboriginal Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explored the relationship between measures of self-belief, behavioural development, and academic achievement in Canadian Aboriginal children. Standardized measures of intelligence are unable to consistently predict academic achievement in students from indigenous populations. Exploring alternative factors that may be both predictive…

Baydala, Lola; Rasmussen, Carmen; Birch, June; Sherman, Jody; Wikman, Erik; Charchun, Julianna; Kennedy, Merle; Bisanz, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

323

BETEL QUID CHEWING AND RISK OF ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES AMONG ABORIGINES IN EASTERN TAIWAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that substance abuse during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the use of alcohol, ciga- rettes, betel quid, and drugs among pregnant aboriginal women and to assess the risk of adverse effects of betel quid use on birth outcomes in eastern Taiwan. Of a total

Mei-Sang Yang; Tieh-Chi Chung; Ming-Jen Yang; Te-Yao Hsu; Ying-Chin Ko

2001-01-01

324

Morality, duty, and the arts in health: A project on Aboriginal underage pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underage pregnancy in the Aboriginal population of Australia represents a serious set of physical, social, and mental problems. The shifts that have taken place in the population make-up of the communities due to this birth pattern are having detrimental effects on the well-being of individuals and families, including a destabilising of the sense of identity and belonging. The paper looks

Patrick Fuery; Roger Smith; Kym Rae; Rachel Burgess; Kelli Fuery

2009-01-01

325

The Decolonizing Journey of the Aboriginal Health Centre and Living Rock Ministries: Partnering in Revolutionary Love  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative case study looks at a partnership between the Aboriginal Health Centre and Living Rock Ministries. I explore what makes for a humanizing partnership between two communities when one has historically been oppressed, and the other has historically held positions of dominance within the same context. It is crucial to this study that we understand the colonial culture and

Gillian Matheson

2007-01-01

326

The birthing experiences of rural Aboriginal women in context: implications for nursing.  

PubMed

It has been established that the birthing experiences and outcomes of rural women are shaped by poverty, isolation, limited economic opportunities, and diminishing maternity services. We lack research into how these dynamics are compounded by intersecting forms of oppression faced by Aboriginal women, to impact on their birthing experiences and outcomes. The findings of this study of rural Aboriginal maternity care in 4 communities in British Columbia show how diminishing local birthing choices and women's struggles to exert power, choice, and control are influenced by centuries of colonization. The research questions focus on rural Aboriginal women's experiences of birthing and maternity care in this neocolonial context and their desire for supportive birthing environments. A community-based participatory and ethnographic design was employed. Individual interviews, focus groups, and participant observation were the primary data sources. Although the women's experiences in each community were shaped by distinct histories and traditions, economics, politics, and geographies, the impacts of colonization and medical paternalism and the struggle for control of women's bodies during birth intersect, placing additional stress on women. The implications for nurses of accounting for the intersecting dynamics that shape Aboriginal women's experiences and birth outcomes are discussed. PMID:22435311

Brown, Helen; Varcoe, Colleen; Calam, Betty

2011-12-01

327

If Reindeer Could Fly: Dreams and Real Solutions for Aboriginal Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the real solutions to the problems of Aboriginal children in Canada that seem so numerous--impacts of residential school, poverty, poor housing, racism, and over-representation in child welfare care. These are complex issues, but the author has come to believe that the most promising responses, at least in…

Blackstock, Cindy

2007-01-01

328

Navigating Two Worlds: Experiences of Counsellors Who Integrate Aboriginal Traditional Healing Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is revival in the use of traditional healing among Canadian Aboriginal communities and the therapeutic benefits of these practices have received much research attention. An argument is repeatedly made for incorporating indigenous healing into clinical interventions, yet recommendations on how this may be accomplished are lacking. The present…

Oulanova, Olga; Moodley, Roy

2010-01-01

329

Anim. Behav., 1996, 51, 327344 Social organization in the aboriginal house mouse, Mus spretus Lataste  

E-print Network

Anim. Behav., 1996, 51, 327­344 Social organization in the aboriginal house mouse, Mus spretus Lataste: behavioural mechanisms underlying the spatial dispersion of competitors JANE L. HURST, SUSAN HALL, and static defensive postures, rather than persistent pursuit and flight. Intruders were strongly attracted

Nottingham, University of

330

Using the Environment in Mathematics and Science Teaching: An African and Aboriginal Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strong case is made in this paper for the effective utilisation of the learner's environment for science and mathematics teaching in African, rural, and Aboriginal societies. Dwelling on the rich cultural heritage of indigenous, traditional, and rural settings, the paper attempts to explain why, and show how this heritage can be advantageously tapped and transferred to modern day mathematics

Anthony N. Ezeife

2003-01-01

331

Digital Songlines: The Use of Modern Communication Technology by an Aboriginal Community in Remote Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mid-1980s the AUSSAT satellite brought television and radio to remote Australia for the first time. There was concern amongst Aboriginal communities that the imposition of mass media without consultation could result in permanent damage to culture and language. However, over the years, the Warlpiri people have adopted modern communication technology including radio, video making, locally produced television, and

Lydia Buchtmann

2000-01-01

332

Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and…

Niccols, Alison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

2010-01-01

333

An Outlier's Dream: Improving Post-Secondary Education Opportunities for Aboriginal Inmates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conversation with a John Howard Society volunteer prompts the author to reflect on how to improve educational opportunities for his incarcerated Aboriginal peers. He relates his personal experience of completing an undergraduate degree while in prison, highlighting the ways in which the prison environment has shaped his learning process. After…

Wilson, Vernon

2013-01-01

334

Bureaucratic Impediments to Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Empowerment, Self-Determination & Self-Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the context of current social policy and analyzes the bureaucratic impediments to achieving greater coordination of programs and services for Australia's Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. Specifically, the paper demonstrates how a "national commitment" involving bureaucratic rationality and imperatives continues to…

Stewart, Ian; And Others

335

Our plants, our land: bridging aboriginal generations through cross-cultural plant workshops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in subsistence practices have negatively affected the social and economic structure of aboriginal communities across the Arctic. This has resulted in fewer opportunities for the transmission of traditional knowledge (TK). This article provides two case studies of how researchers can assist northern communities in TK transmission and provide a venue for science and TK to meet, thereby fostering a

Alain Cuerrier; Ashleigh Downing; Jill Johnstone; Luise Hermanutz; Laura Siegwart Collier

2012-01-01

336

Liver transplantation outcomes for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders.  

PubMed

An increased liver disease burden has been reported for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (ATSIs) in Australia; however, few proceed to liver transplantation (LT). We aimed to compare overall survival and graft survival after LT between ATSI and non-ATSI populations, assess the factors influencing survival within ATSIs, and finally examine the proportion of ATSIs undergoing LT. This study was a retrospective review of the Australia and New Zealand Liver Transplant Registry from 1985 to 2012 and examined consecutive primary LT performed in Australia. Overall and graft survival were compared between ATSI and non-ATSI groups. The Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) was used to calculate the remoteness of individuals. There were 3493 primary LT performed, and 45 patients (1.3%; 14 children and 31 adults) were ATSIs. The median (range) ages of the ATSI children and adults at the time of LT were 9.6 (0.2-15.3) years and 44.5 (19.5-65.5) years, respectively. There were 10 deaths in the ATSI cohort. The median (range) overall survival was similar for ATSI and non-ATSI children [6.5 (0.1-23.5) years versus 9.0 (0-28.2) years, P?=?0.9] and adults [7.1 (0.1-15.7) years versus 6.3 0-26.7) years, P?=?0.8]. The cumulative graft survival was similar for ATSI and non-ATSI children (P?=?0.8) and adults (P?=?0.8). High ARIA scores [hazard ratio (HR)?=?1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.01-1.53, P?=?0.03] in children and blood group O (HR?=?3.8, 95% CI?=?1.1-12.7, P?=?0.03) in adults predicted worse outcomes for ATSIs. Although ATSIs accounted for 4.7% and 1.8% of the Australian pediatric and adult populations, respectively, they represented only 2.2% of pediatric LT recipients (?(2) ?=?8.2, P?=?0.004) and 1.1% of adult LT recipients (?(2) ?=?7.9, P?=?0.005). In conclusion, overall survival and graft survival after LT are comparable in ATSIs and non-ATSIs. There is a trend toward increased death/retransplantation in ATSIs from remote areas. ATSI children and adults appear to be underrepresented in the Australian LT population. PMID:24753233

Chinnaratha, Mohamed A; Chelvaratnam, Uthayanan; Stuart, Katherine A; Strasser, Simone I; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Gow, Paul; Adams, Leon A; Wigg, Alan J

2014-07-01

337

Marine Climate Archives across the Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age Transition from Viking and Medieval Age Shells, Orkney, Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proxy records reconstructing marine climatic conditions across the transition between the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; ~900-1350 AD) and Little Ice Age (LIA; ~1350-1850) are strongly biased towards decadal to annual resolution and summer/growing seasons. Here we present new archives of seasonal variability in North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) from shells of the European limpet, Patella vulgata, which accumulated in Viking and medieval shell and fish middens at Quoygrew on Westray, Orkney. SST was reconstructed at submonthly resolution using oxygen isotope ratios preserved in shells from the 12th and mid 15th centuries (MCA and LIA, respectively). MCA shells recorded warmer summers and colder winters by ~2 degrees C relative to the late 20th Century (1961-1990). Therefore, seasonality was higher during the MCA relative to the late 20th century. Without the benefit of seasonal resolution, SST averaged from shell time series would be weighted toward the fast-growing summer season, resulting in the conclusion that the early MCA was warmer than the late 20th century by ~1°C. This conclusion is broadly true for the summer season, but not true for the winter season. Higher seasonality and cooler winters during early medieval times may result from a weakened North Atlantic Oscillation index. In contrast, the LIA shells have a more a variable inter-annual pattern. Some years record cooler summers and winters relative to the MCA shells and late 20th century, whereas other years record warmer summers and cooler winters similar to the MCA shells. Our findings provide a new test for the accuracy of seasonal amplitudes resulting from paleoclimate model experiments.

Surge, D. M.; Barrett, J. H.

2013-12-01

338

Fluctuating shells under pressure  

PubMed Central

Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules. PMID:23150558

Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.

2012-01-01

339

A 'cold-case' review of historic aboriginal and European-Australian encounters with toxic blooms of cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Interest in preserving the cultural knowledge of Aboriginal Australians continues to rise. Various studies have erupted which aim to redefine knowledge that was once lost or obscured in writing and hitherto ignored. Recognising and acknowledging the traditional Aboriginal knowledge of the Australian environment helps to strengthen Aboriginal identity and gives credibility to the rising paradigm of ecotechnology in historic pre-European Australia. This review aims to establish knowledge of a traditional awareness of factors leading towards eutrophication in water resource management. Journals from pioneering explorers were examined for evidence of cyanobacterial blooms and examples of Aboriginal water resource management practices that aimed at avoiding health threats from poor water quality. Some cultural practices, focused on water resource management, are discussed with brief mentioned of the Waugal. It is concluded that in some cases the incorporation of scientific laws into mythology is a form of conceptual modelling compatible with science if examined carefully. PMID:22777052

Sadgrove, Nicholas John

2012-09-01

340

Responding to racism: Insights on how racism can damage health from an urban study of Australian Aboriginal people  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006\\/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism

Anna M. Ziersch; Gilbert Gallaher; Fran Baum; Michael Bentley

2011-01-01

341

Tracking ancient pathways to a modern epidemic: Diabetic end-stage renal disease in Saskatchewan aboriginal people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking ancient pathways to a modern epidemic: Diabetic end-stage renal disease in Saskatchewan aboriginal people.BackgroundSaskatchewan aboriginal people are experiencing an epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and diabetic end-stage renal disease (DESRD). The purpose of these investigations was to study the role of the intrauterine environment in the emergence of these diseases.MethodsEpidemiologic studies were carried out using data from the

Roland F. Dyck

2005-01-01

342

Discovery Collection: Oyster Shells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oyster Shells is one of the AMNH Education Department's many collections of specimens and artifacts gathered the world over by explorers and scientists. In its online Discovery Collection form, Oyster Shells includes photographs of 15 specimens with classification and distribution details, an interactive key that guides you through specimen identification, an activity where students select and identify a specimen photograph using the interactive identification key and an Educator's Guide with suggestions for how to use the Oyster Shells Discovery Collection in the classroom.

Breslof, Lisa; Schiller, William

343

The Ilgarijiri Project: A collaboration between Aboriginal communities and radio astronomers in the Murchison Region of Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international radio astronomy initiative known as the Square Kilometre Array is a cutting-edge science project, aimed atdramatically expanding our vision and understanding of the Universe. The $2billion+ international project is being shared between Southern Africa and Australia. The Australian component, centred in the Murchison region of Western Australia, is based upon collaboration with Aboriginal communities. A collaborative project called "Ilgarijiri- Things Belonging to the Sky" shared scientific and Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky. Through a series of collaborative meetings and knowledge sharing, the Ilgarijiri project developed and showcased Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky, via an international touring Aboriginal art exhibition, in Australia, South Africa, the USA and Europe. The Aboriginal art exhibition presents Aboriginal stories relating to the night sky, which prominently feature the 'Seven Sisters' and the 'Emu', as well as the collaborative experience with radio astronomers. The success of the Ilgarijiri collaborative project is based upon several principles, which can help to inform and guide future cultural collaborative projects.

Goldsmith, John

2014-07-01

344

Gender Differences in HIV and Hepatitis C Related Vulnerabilities Among Aboriginal Young People Who Use Street Drugs in Two Canadian Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Vulnerability to HIV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection for indigenous populations worldwide must be contextualized in experiences of current and past trauma. Aboriginal women entrenched in poverty face further gender-specific harms which place them at increased risk for HIV infection.Methods: This study was cross-sectional and based on a community-based sample of Aboriginal young people (Métis, Aboriginal, First Nations,

Azar Mehrabadi; Katharina Paterson; Margo Pearce; Sheetal Patel; Kevin J. P. Craib; Akm Moniruzzaman; Martin T. Schechter; Patricia M. Spittal

2008-01-01

345

Food-purchasing behaviour in an Aboriginal community. 1. Results of a survey.  

PubMed

Attempts to improve the nutritional status of Aboriginal people through nutritional education programs should be informed by an understanding of contemporary patterns of food procurement, preparation and distribution. This paper describes the results of a survey of food-purchasing behaviour in a central-Australian Aboriginal community. Every transaction occurring in each food outlet in the community over a two-week period was recorded and the data analysed. The results show that women play a much greater role than men in food purchasing, that there is a significant recourse to takeaway foods, that there is a cycle of expenditure determined by distribution of pension and Community Development Employment Project cheques, and that children have sufficient disposable income to be able to provision themselves from the food outlets, so that much of their food consumption is not determined by adult members of their family. PMID:8068798

Rowse, T; Scrimgeour, D; Knight, S; Thomas, D

1994-03-01

346

Using participatory action research to prevent suicide in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.  

PubMed

The National Empowerment Project is an innovative Aboriginal-led community empowerment project that has worked with eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities across Australia over the period 2012-13. The aim of the Project was to develop, deliver and evaluate a program to: (1) promote positive social and emotional well-being to increase resilience and reduce the high reported rates of psychological distress and suicide among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; and (2) empower communities to take action to address the social determinants that contribute to psychological distress, suicide and self-harm. Using a participatory action research approach, the communities were supported to identify the risk factors challenging individuals, families and communities, as well as strategies to strengthen protective factors against these challenges. Data gathered during Stage 1 were used to develop a 12-month program to promote social and emotional well-being and build resilience within each community. A common framework, based on the social and emotional well-being concept, was used to support each community to target community-identified protective factors and strategies to strengthen individual, family and community social and emotional well-being. Strengthening the role of culture is critical to this approach and marks an important difference between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous mental health promotion and prevention activities, including suicide prevention. It has significant implications for policy makers and service providers and is showing positive impact through the translation of research into practice, for example through the development of a locally run empowerment program that aims to address the social determinants of health and their ongoing negative impact on individuals, families and communities. It also provides a framework in which to develop and strengthen culture, connectedness and foster self-determination, through better-informed policy based on community-level holistic responses and solutions as opposed to an exclusive focus on single-issue deficit approaches. PMID:25310135

Cox, Adele; Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher; Kelly, Kerrie; Scrine, Clair; Walker, Roz

2014-10-01

347

Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among\\u000a pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance\\u000a abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many\\u000a women, substance abuse

Alison Niccols; Colleen Anne Dell; Sharon Clarke

2010-01-01

348

Towards, wellbeing : Creative inquiries into an experiential arts-based healing practice in Aboriginal contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project is located in the context of Aboriginal health and education, and in particular, emotional and social wellbeing, recognising the critical need for effective mental health services and resilient, well-trained workers in the field of mental health.\\u000aMental health is understood to include a broad spectrum of conditions with extreme and chronic mental illness at one end and

Judith Christian Miller

2008-01-01

349

mtDNA variation of aboriginal Siberians reveals distinct genetic affinities with Native Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mtDNA variation of 411 individuals from 10 aboriginal Siberian populations was analyzed in an effort to delineate the relationships between Siberian and Native American populations. All mtDNAs were characterized by PCR amplification and restriction analysis, and a subset of them was characterized by control region sequencing. The resulting data were then compiled with previous mtDNA data from Native Americans

A. Torroni; T. G. Schurr; M. F. Cabell; D. C. Wallace; R. I. Sukernik; Y. B. Starikovskaya; M. H. Crawford; A. G. Comuzzie

1993-01-01

350

The importance of delayed cord clamping for Aboriginal babies: a life-enhancing advantage.  

PubMed

Third stage management has typically focused on women and postpartum haemorrhage. Clamping and cutting the umbilical cord following the birth of the baby has continued to be a routine part of this focus. Active versus physiological management of third stage is generally accepted as an evidence-based plan for women to avoid excessive blood loss. Other considerations around this decision are rarely considered, including the baby's perspective. This paper provides a review of the literature regarding timing of clamping and cutting of the umbilical cord and related issues, and discusses the consequences for babies and in particular *Aboriginal babies. Iron stores in babies are improved (among other important advantages) if the cord is left to stop pulsating for 3 min before being clamped. Such a simple measure of patience and informed practice can make a long lasting difference to a baby's health and for Aboriginal babies this advantage can be critical in the short and the long term for their development and wellbeing. To achieve much needed reductions in infancy anaemia and essential increases in infant survival, delayed cord clamping and cutting is recommended for all Aboriginal babies. PMID:18993126

Weckert, Rosemary; Hancock, Heather

2008-12-01

351

Hepatitis C Virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal Peoples of North America  

PubMed Central

Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), are “broken spirit” diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases. PMID:23342378

Rempel, Julia D.; Uhanova, Julia

2012-01-01

352

Whole-Genome Genetic Diversity in a Sample of Australians with Deep Aboriginal Ancestry  

PubMed Central

Australia was probably settled soon after modern humans left Africa, but details of this ancient migration are not well understood. Debate centers on whether the Pleistocene Sahul continent (composed of New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania) was first settled by a single wave followed by regional divergence into Aboriginal Australian and New Guinean populations (common origin) or whether different parts of the continent were initially populated independently. Australia has been the subject of relatively few DNA studies even though understanding regional variation in genomic structure and diversity will be important if disease-association mapping methods are to be successfully evaluated and applied across populations. We report on a genome-wide investigation of Australian Aboriginal SNP diversity in a sample of participants from the Riverine region. The phylogenetic relationship of these Aboriginal Australians to a range of other global populations demonstrates a deep common origin with Papuan New Guineans and Melanesians, with little evidence of substantial later migration until the very recent arrival of European colonists. The study provides valuable and robust insights into an early and important phase of human colonization of the globe. A broader survey of Australia, including diverse geographic sample populations, will be required to fully appreciate the continent's unique population history and consequent genetic heritage, as well as the importance of both to the understanding of health issues. PMID:20691402

McEvoy, Brian P.; Lind, Joanne M.; Wang, Eric T.; Moyzis, Robert K.; Visscher, Peter M.; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila M.; Wilton, Alan N.

2010-01-01

353

Factors affecting the quality of antenatal care provided to remote dwelling Aboriginal women in northern Australia.  

PubMed

Objective: there is a significant gap in pregnancy and birth outcomes for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women compared with other Australian women. The provision of appropriate and high quality antenatal care is one way of reducing these disparities. The aim of this study was to assess adherence to antenatal guidelines by clinicians and identify factors affecting the quality of antenatal care delivery to remote dwelling Aboriginal women. Setting and design: a mixed method study drew data from 27 semi-structured interviews with clinicians and a retrospective cohort study of Aboriginal women from two remote communities in Northern Australia, who gave birth from 2004-2006 (n=412). Medical records from remote health centres and the regional hospital were audited. Measurements and findings: the majority of women attended antenatal care and adherence to some routine antenatal screening guidelines was high. There was poor adherence to local guidelines for follow-up of highly prevalent problems including anaemia, smoking, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted infections. Multiple factors influenced the quality of antenatal care. Key conclusions and implications for practice: the resourcing and organisation of health services and the beliefs, attitudes and practices of clinicians were the major factors affecting the quality of care. There is an urgent need to address the identified issues in order to achieve equity in women's access to high quality antenatal care with the aim of closing the gap in maternal and neonatal health outcomes. PMID:23809580

Bar-Zeev, Sarah; Barclay, Lesley; Kruske, Sue; Kildea, Sue

2014-03-01

354

Genes and environment in type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis in aboriginal Canadians.  

PubMed

The incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) among aboriginal people in northern Ontario has tripled over the past 20 years. This is inextricably linked to the remarkably high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in these native communities. Approximately 40% of the Oji-Cree of northern Ontario have typical obesity-related type 2 diabetes, which represents a drastic increase from virtually unreportable levels 50 years ago. The Oji-Cree have a private mutation in the HNF1A gene, namely G319S, which is absent from other ethnic groups and aboriginal populations. The most compelling reasons that HNF1A S319 is a diabetes-susceptibility allele are its consistent statistical association with the presence and severity of diabetes. Also, HNF1A S319 has specificity and positive predictive values of 97% and 95%, respectively, for the development of diabetes in the Oji-Cree by 50 years of age. This makes the HNF1A G319S genotype the most specific predictive genetic test for diabetes in any human population. HNF1A S319 has all the attributes of a thrifty allele in the Oji-Cree. It is possible that the recent increase in CHD in the aboriginal people of northern Ontario is the result of the expression of diabetes susceptibility due to HNF1A S319 as a consequence of rapid changes in environment and lifestyle. PMID:11286643

Hegele, R A

2001-05-01

355

Nutrition and health (1948) of Aborigines in settlements in Arnhem Land, northern Australia.  

PubMed

During the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land in 1948, a nutritionist (Margaret McArthur), a medical officer (Brian Billington), a biochemist (Kelvin Hodges) and also the 'flying dentist' (John Moody) observed the nutrition and health of Aborigines in the settlements on Groote Eylandt, at Yirrkala and at Oenpelli, Northern Territory. The results of their research were published in the Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land Volume 2 Anthropology and Nutrition. (Melbourne University Press, 1960). Although seasonal and regional variations in food supply were a constant problem for nomadic Aborigines living on 'bush tucker' gathered from marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, the variety of food provided a well-balanced diet according to the international recommendations of 1948. In contrast, improvements in the 1948 diet of Aborigines in the settlements were strongly recommended. 1 An increase in the quantity of food given to older children and adolescents. 2 Regular distribution of fresh fruit and vegetables throughout the year from settlement gardens. 3 Regular supplies of fish, meat and other animal products, particularly for children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating mothers. 4 Increased production of milk and greater care in its handling. 5 Greater use of whole grain cereals in preference to refined products. PMID:24394450

McArthur, M; Billington, B P; Hodges, K T; Specht, R L

2000-09-01

356

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander worldviews and cultural safety transforming sexual assault service provision for children and young people.  

PubMed

Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both "victim" and "those who sexually harm others" services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between "victims" and "those who sexually harm" services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

Funston, Leticia

2013-09-01

357

Strategic approaches to enhanced health service delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness confront multiple challenges that contribute to their poor health outcomes, and to the health disparities that exist in Australian society. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to care and support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. Methods Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n-16) and family carers (n?=?3). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and the transcripts were analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified and these were used to inform the key findings of the study. Results Participants reported both negative and positive influences that affected their health and well-being. Among the negative influences, they identified poor access to culturally appropriate health services, dislocation from cultural support systems, exposure to racism, poor communication with health care professionals and economic hardship. As a counter to these, participants pointed to cultural and traditional knowledge as well as insights from their own experiences. Participants said that while they often felt overwhelmed and confused by the burden of chronic illness, they drew strength from being part of an Aboriginal community, having regular and ongoing access to primary health care, and being well-connected to a supportive family network. Within this context, elders played an important role in increasing people’s awareness of the impact of chronic illness on people and communities. Conclusions Our study indicated that non-Indigenous health services struggled to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. To address their complex needs, health services could gain considerably by recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients have a wealth of cultural knowledge at their disposal. Strategies to ensure that this knowledge is integrated into care and support programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness should achieve major improvements. PMID:22682035

2012-01-01

358

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People  

PubMed Central

Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

Funston, Leticia

2013-01-01

359

LIt.search: fast tracking access to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health literature.  

PubMed

Objective To develop and validate a PubMed search filter, LIt.search, that automatically retrieves Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health literature and to make it publicly accessible through the Lowitja Institute website. Methods Search filter development phases included: (1) scoping of the publication characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Start Islander literature; (2) advisory group input and review; (3) systematic identification and testing of MeSH and text word terms; (4) relevance assessment of the search filter's retrieved items; and (5) translation for use in PubMed through the web. Results Scoping study analyses demonstrated complexity in the nature and use of possible search terms and publication characteristics. The search filter achieved a recall rate of 84.8% in the full gold standard test set. To determine real-world performance, post-hoc assessment of items retrieved by the search filter in PubMed was undertaken with 87.2% of articles deemed as relevant. The search filter was constructed as a series of URL hyperlinks to enable one-click searching. Conclusion LIt.search is a search tool that facilitates research into practice for improving outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and is publicly available on the Lowitja Institute website. What is known about this topic? Health professionals, researchers and decision makers can find it difficult to retrieve published literature on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health easily, effectively and in a timely way. What does this paper add? This paper describes a new web-based searching tool, LIt.search, which facilitates access to the relevant literature. What are the implications for practice? Ready access to published literature on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health reduces a barrier to the use of this evidence in practice. LIt.search encourages the use of this evidence to inform clinical judgement and policy and service decision-making as well as reducing the burdens associated with searching for community practitioners, academics and policy makers. PMID:25109618

Tieman, Jennifer J; Lawrence, Mikaela A; Damarell, Raechel A; Sladek, Ruth M; Nikolof, Arwen

2014-11-01

360

Social accountability in action: University-community collaboration in the development of an interprofessional Aboriginal health elective.  

PubMed

A survey of the health professional curriculum at the University of British Columbia revealed a need for improvements in education relating to Aboriginal health. At the same time, interprofessional education has been increasingly viewed as an essential aspect of sustainable health care reform. Interprofessional approaches to education and community practice have the potential to contribute to improvements in access to care, as well as health professional recruitment in underserved communities. While the benefits of interprofessional approaches have been identified, there are few published examples of the application of interprofessional learning and care in Aboriginal communities. This article describes the co-development by university and community partners of an accredited interprofessional, practice-based Aboriginal health course. Seed funding for this course was originally granted in November 2004 for a demonstration project led by the UBC Faculty of Medicine from a national Primary Health Care Renewal initiative focused on Social Accountability, namely "Issues of Quality and Continuing Professional Development: Maintenance of Competence" (referred to as CPDiQ project). This article presents findings from the development and implementation of this innovative course, run as a pilot during the summer of 2006 in two Aboriginal communities in British Columbia, Canada. Recommendations for integrating Aboriginal perspectives and foregrounding principles of social accountability in interprofessional health curricula are highlighted. In addition, successes and challenges are described related to garnering administrative and curricular support among the various health disciplines, interprofessional scheduling, and fostering cross-discipline understanding and communication. PMID:19005955

Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Ho, Kendall; Lauscher, Helen Novak; Liman, Yolanda; Stacy, Elizabeth; Woollard, Robert; Buote, Denise

2008-01-01

361

Name That Shell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The way a firework shell is designed and assembled determines the shape and color of a firework display. Choose a video clip and try to identify each firework variety in this interactive activity from the NOVA Web site.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2004-01-29

362

Educational Perspectives on Indigenous Country Music: Review Article of Clinton Walker's Buried Country: The Story of Aboriginal Country Music (Annandale, NSW: Pluto Press, 2000) and associated multimedia resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Songs are not divided from contemporary Aboriginal life; they just bleed out of it as a creative response to more than two centuries of powerlessness. Buried Country is a multimedia resource on Aboriginal 'country' music, an essential resource for educational and public libraries. The product of a half decade of research, it includes a book (divided into four equal parts,

Robin Ryan

2001-01-01

363

Parents' Personal and Cultural Beliefs Regarding Young ChildrenA Cross-Cultural Study of Aboriginal and Euro-Canadian Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental beliefs about desired socialization goals and the reasons why these goals were important were examined among Aboriginal and European Canadian mothers. These beliefs were examined on personal (desired by mothers for their own children) and cultural (perceived to be desired by mothers from each cultural group) levels; 50 Aboriginal and 51 European Canadian mothers of preschoolers were interviewed regarding

Charissa S. L. Cheah; Valery Chirkov

2008-01-01

364

Mind, body, spirit: co-benefits for mental health from climate change adaptation and caring for country in remote Aboriginal Australian communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evident and unresolved health disparity between Aboriginal and other Australians istestamenttoahistoryofsystematicdisenfranch- isement. Stigma, lack of appropriate services and the expense of delivering services in remote set- tings make it impossible to adequately address mental health needs, including suicide, solely using a mainstream medical approach. Nor do mainstream approaches accommodate the rela- tionship between Aboriginal health and connect- edness to

Helen L. Berry; James R. A. Butler; Paul Burgess; Ursula G. King; Komla Tsey; Yvonne L. Cadet-James; C. Wayne; Rigby H

2010-01-01

365

Sea level rise or shallow-water midden deposition? Archaeopedology at the Seminole Rest archaeological site, coastal East-Central Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentological and faunal studies at the Seminole Rest archaeological site on the Atlantic coast of Volusia County, FL, addressed the question of whether construction of the large shell mound at the site began on dry land or in the shallow waters of Mosquito Lagoon. Particle-size analysis defined a sand body beneath the hardshell clam mound, which is bordered by mucky

Sylvia Scudder

2003-01-01

366

'Give us the full story': overcoming the challenges to achieving informed choice about fetal anomaly screening in Australian Aboriginal communities.  

PubMed

This cross-cultural qualitative study examined the ethical, language and cultural complexities around offering fetal anomaly screening in Australian Aboriginal communities. There were five study sites across the Northern Territory (NT), including urban and remote Aboriginal communities. In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2009 and August 2010, and included 35 interviews with 59 health providers and 33 interviews with 62 Aboriginal women. The findings show that while many providers espoused the importance of achieving equity in access to fetal anomaly screening, their actions were inconsistent with this ideal. Providers reported they often modified their practice depending on the characteristics of their client, including their English skills, the perception of the woman's interest in the tests and assumptions based on their risk profile and cultural background. Health providers were unsure whether it was better to tailor information to the specific needs of their client or to provide the same level of information to all clients. Very few Aboriginal women were aware of fetal anomaly screening. The research revealed they did want to be offered screening and wanted the 'full story' about all aspects of the tests. The communication processes advocated by Aboriginal women to improve understanding about screening included community discussions led by elders and educators. These processes promote culturally defined ways of sharing information, rather than the individualised, biomedical approaches to information-giving in the clinical setting. A different and arguably more ethical approach to introducing fetal anomaly screening would be to initiate dialogue with appropriate groups of women in the community, particularly young women, build relationships and utilise Aboriginal health workers. This could accommodate individual choice and broader cultural values and allow women to discuss the moral and philosophical debates surrounding fetal anomaly screening prior to the clinical encounter and within their own cultural space. PMID:23337828

Wild, Kayli; Maypilama, Elaine Lawurrpa; Kildea, Sue; Boyle, Jacqueline; Barclay, Lesley; Rumbold, Alice

2013-12-01

367

General Practitioner Supervisor assessment and teaching of Registrars consulting with Aboriginal patients - is cultural competence adequately considered?  

PubMed Central

Background General Practitioner (GP) Supervisors have a key yet poorly defined role in promoting the cultural competence of GP Registrars who provide healthcare to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people during their training placements. Given the markedly poorer health of Indigenous Australians, it is important that GP training and supervision of Registrars includes assessment and teaching which address the well documented barriers to accessing health care. Methods A simulated consultation between a GP Registrar and an Aboriginal patient, which illustrated inadequacies in communication and cultural awareness, was viewed by GP Supervisors and Medical Educators during two workshops in 2012. Participants documented teaching points arising from the consultation which they would prioritise in supervision provided to the Registrar. Content analysis was performed to determine the type and detail of the planned feedback. Field notes from workshop discussions and participant evaluations were used to gain insight into participant confidence in cross cultural supervision. Results Sixty four of 75 GPs who attended the workshops participated in the research. Although all documented plans for detailed teaching on the Registrar’s generic communication and consultation skills, only 72% referred to culture or to the patient’s Aboriginality. Few GPs (8%) documented a plan to advise on national health initiatives supporting access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. A lack of Supervisor confidence in providing guidance on cross cultural consulting with Aboriginal patients was identified. Conclusions The role of GP Supervisors in promoting the cultural competence of GP Registrars consulting with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients could be strengthened. A sole focus on generic communication and consultation skills may lead to inadequate consideration of the health disparities faced by Indigenous peoples and of the need to ensure Registrars utilise health supports designed to decrease the disadvantage faced by vulnerable populations. PMID:25115609

2014-01-01

368

[Isolation of an aboriginal bacterial community capable of utilizing cyanide, thiocyanate, and ammonia from metallurgical plant wastewater].  

PubMed

An aboriginal bacterial community capable of degrading cyanide (10 mg/l) and thiocyanate (2 g/l) and eliminating ammonia (120 mg/l) had been isolated from recycled water samples after blast-furnace gas purification of a metallurgical plant wastewater. It was shown that the optimal conditions for this bacterial community were as follows: temperature, 34 degrees C; pH, 8.8-9.0; available organic matter concentration (glucose equivalent), 5 g/l; and dissolved O2 concentration, 8-10 mg/l. This aboriginal community was formed by the bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. PMID:18822775

Grigor'eva, N V; Smirnova, Iu V; Terekhova, S V; Karava?ko, G I

2008-01-01

369

High risk alcohol-related trauma among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory  

PubMed Central

High risk drinking is linked with high rates of physical harm. The reported incidence of alcohol - related trauma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Northern Territory is the highest in the world. Facial fractures are common among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. They are often linked with misuse of alcohol in the Northern Territory and are frequently secondary to assault. This review focuses on alcohol-related trauma in the Territory and draws attention to an urgent need for preventative health approach to address this critical issue. PMID:22862897

2012-01-01

370

Nutritional impacts of a fruit and vegetable subsidy programme for disadvantaged Australian Aboriginal children.  

PubMed

Healthy food subsidy programmes have not been widely implemented in high-income countries apart from the USA and the UK. There is, however, interest being expressed in the potential of healthy food subsidies to complement nutrition promotion initiatives and reduce the social disparities in healthy eating. Herein, we describe the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy programme on the nutritional status of a cohort of disadvantaged Aboriginal children living in rural Australia. A before-and-after study was used to assess the nutritional impact in 174 children whose families received weekly boxes of subsidised F&V organised through three Aboriginal medical services. The nutritional impact was assessed by comparing 24 h dietary recalls and plasma carotenoid and vitamin C levels at baseline and after 12 months. A general linear model was used to assess the changes in biomarker levels and dietary intake, controlled for age, sex, community and baseline levels. Baseline assessment in 149 children showed low F&V consumption. Significant increases (P< 0.05) in ?-cryptoxanthin (28.9 nmol/l, 18%), vitamin C (10.1 ?mol/l, 21%) and lutein-zeaxanthin (39.3 nmol/l, 11%) levels were observed at the 12-month follow-up in 115 children, although the self-reported F&V intake was unchanged. The improvements in the levels of biomarkers of F&V intake demonstrated in the present study are consistent with increased F&V intake. Such dietary improvements, if sustained, could reduce non-communicable disease rates. A controlled study of healthy food subsidies, together with an economic analysis, would facilitate a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits of subsidising healthy foods for disadvantaged Aboriginal Australians. PMID:23742751

Black, Andrew P; Vally, Hassan; Morris, Peter; Daniel, Mark; Esterman, Adrian; Karschimkus, Connie S; O'Dea, Kerin

2013-12-01

371

Culturally Competent Service Provision Issues Experienced By Aboriginal People Living With HIV/AIDS  

PubMed Central

Cultural identity is an important factor in how well Aboriginal people respond to HIV/AIDS prevention or, once diagnosed with HIV or AIDS, how it affects their health care. This study explores the cultural skills among service providers who see Aboriginal people living with HIV/AIDS (APHAs) and the perspectives of APHAs. The purpose is to better understand the wellness needs of APHAs and how culturally competent care affects health service access and use. Data collection included face-to-face semi-structured interviews with APHAs and focus groups/interviews with community-based and primary health professionals in five regions of Canada. Interviews and focus groups were voice-recorded, verbatim transcribed, and coded using Atlas.ti® software. Thirty-five APHAs and fifty-two service providers were reached. Two key themes were noticed: Active addictions are a major obstacle to adherence to HIV drug regimes. Half of APHA participants said addictions are a major factor. A similar portion noted intensified substance use was an initial coping strategy when diagnosed. A slightly smaller portion noted that addictions were dealt with soon after diagnosis in order to begin antiretroviral treatment. Service providers who inform, encourage, and support APHAs’ choices are viewed as “culturally competent.”Addictions and HIV must be “treated together,” reflecting a holistic worldview of Aboriginal people. Programs that integrate addiction treatment with HIV/AIDS and service providers who encourage and support APHA’s choices are viewed as “wise practice” models by both sets of study participants offering some convergence and a set of five wise practices are identified. PMID:20835301

Barlow, Kevin; Loppie, Charlotte; Jackson, Randy; Akan, Margaret; MacLean, Lynne; Reimer, Gwen

2010-01-01

372

Effect of periodontal therapy on arterial structure and function among aboriginal australians: a randomized, controlled trial.  

PubMed

Observational studies and nonrandomized trials support an association between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Both diseases occur frequently in Aboriginal Australians. We hypothesized that nonsurgical periodontal therapy would improve measures of arterial function and structure that are subclinical indicators of atherosclerotic vascular disease. This parallel-group, randomized, open label clinical trial enrolled 273 Aboriginal Australians aged ?18 years with periodontitis. Intervention participants received full-mouth periodontal scaling during a single visit, whereas controls received no treatment. Prespecified primary end points measured 12-month change in carotid intima-media thickness, an indicator of arterial structure, and 3- and 12-month change in pulse wave velocity, an indicator of arterial function. ANCOVA used complete case data to evaluate treatment group differences. End points could be calculated for 169 participants with follow-up data at 3 months and 168 participants at 12 months. Intima-media thickness decreased significantly after 12 months in the intervention group (mean reduction=-0.023 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.038 to -0.008] mm) but not in the control group (mean increase=0.002 [95% CI, -0.017 to 0.022] mm). The difference in intima-media thickness change between treatment groups was statistically significant (-0.026 [95% CI, -0.048 to -0.003] mm; P=0.03). In contrast, there were no significant differences between treatment groups in pulse wave velocity at 3 months (mean difference, 0.06 [95% CI, -0.17 to 0.29] m/s; P=0.594) or 12 months (mean difference, 0.21 [95% CI, -0.01 to 0.43] m/s; P=0.062). Periodontal therapy reduced subclinical arterial thickness but not function in Aboriginal Australians with periodontal disease, suggesting periodontal disease and atherosclerosis are significantly associated. PMID:24958498

Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; O'Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Cai, Tommy Y; Anstey, Nicholas M; Sullivan, David R; Wang, Hao; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

2014-10-01

373

The transfer and implementation of an Aboriginal Australian wellbeing program: a grounded theory study  

PubMed Central

Background The concepts and standard practices of implementation, largely originating in developed countries, cannot necessarily be simply transferred into diverse cultural contexts. There has been relative inattention in the implementation science literature paid to the implementation of interventions targeting minority Indigenous populations within developed countries. This suggests that the implementation literature may be bypassing population groups within developed countries who suffer some of the greatest disadvantage. Within the context of Aboriginal Australian health improvement, this study considers the impact of political and cultural issues by examining the transfer and implementation of the Family Wellbeing program across 56 places over a 20-year period. Methods A theoretical model of program transfer was developed using constructivist-grounded theory methods. Data were generated by conducting in-depth interviews with 18 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal research respondents who had been active in transferring the program. Data were categorised into higher order abstract concepts and the core impetus for and process of program transfer were identified. Results Organizations transferred the program by using it as a vehicle for supporting inside-out empowerment. The impetus to support inside-out empowerment referred to support for Aboriginal people's participation, responsibility for and control of their own affairs, and the associated ripple effects to family members, organizations, communities, and ultimately reconciliation with Australian society at large. Program transfer occurred through a multi-levelled process of embracing relatedness which included relatedness with self, others, and structural conditions; all three were necessary at both individual and organizational levels. Conclusions Similar to international implementation models, the model of supporting inside-out empowerment by embracing relatedness involved individuals, organizations, and interpersonal and inter-organizational networks. However, the model suggests that for minority Indigenous populations within developed countries, implementation approaches may require greater attention to the empowering nature of the intervention and its implementation, and multiple levels of relatedness by individuals and organizations with self, others, and the structural conditions. Key elements of the theoretical model provide a useful blueprint to inform the transfer of other empowerment programs to minority Indigenous and other disadvantaged populations on a case-by-case basis. PMID:24171867

2013-01-01

374

Branes in Supernova Shells  

E-print Network

This paper is firstly intended to review shortly the most recent developments and ideas resulting from the necessity of having a scale at which gravitation to unify the other fundamental forces. With the declared intention of predicting an {\\it in situ} distinct possibility for Kaluza-Klein gravitons formation in the supernova shell we are using state of the art simulations \\citep{langer,ud1,ud2,ud3} for massive stellar winds to infer that the supernova shock which will hit such winds will meet a non-isotropic and non-homogeneous matter distribution with a very distinct geometry. By linking this to the mechanism of particle shock acceleration at cosmic ray energies (Fermi acceleration) and the related spallation in the wind shell, the result is the creation of proper conditions for Kaluza-Klein gravitons formation in the supernova shell from neutrino secondary particles (cosmic ray spallation products) interacting with $\\sim 10^{18}$ eV cosmic rays.

A. S. Popescu

2005-05-25

375

Project EARTH-12-SHELL4: Shell Geoscience Laboratory  

E-print Network

) This studentship is funded by Shell and is part of a larger Shell-supported research project on shale-gas shale in many conventional hydrocarbon seals, and they may also be a factor in shale gas reservoirs. Whilst

Henderson, Gideon

376

Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock into the receiving room housed in the 1965 concrete block addition. - J.C. Lore Oyster House, 14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

377

Yaitya tirka madlanna warratinna: exploring what sexual health nurses need to know and do in order to meet the sexual health needs of young Aboriginal women in Adelaide.  

PubMed

Young Aboriginal women are consistently identified as having poorer health outcomes and access to sexual health services than non-Indigenous Australians. Yet the literature is particularly silent on what sexual health nurses need to know and do in order to work well with young urban Aboriginal women. This paper reports on a qualitative pilot study undertaken by a non-Indigenous nurse in Adelaide. The participatory action research methods used in this study were sensitive to the history of problems associated with research in Aboriginal communities. A reference group of Elder Aboriginal women and Aboriginal health workers guided all aspects of the study. A partnership approach between the researcher and the Reference Group ensured that the methods, analysis, and final report were culturally safe. Three groups participated in this study: Elders and Aboriginal health workers; young Aboriginal women, and sexual health nurses. All participants acknowledged the importance of nurses being clinically competent. However, the overarching finding was a lack of a clear model of cultural care to guide health service delivery. Three interrelated themes emerged from the data to support this contention. These were: the structural and personal importance of establishing and maintaining trustworthy relationships between nurses, Aboriginal health workers and Elders; the recognition that Aboriginal culture does exist, and is important in urban areas; and the importance of gender considerations to understanding urban women's health business. A partnership approach was recommended as a way to use these findings to develop a transparent cultural model of care. Further research is currently being undertaken to progress this agenda. PMID:18074767

Kelly, Janet; Luxford, Yoni

2007-07-01

378

Continuing education needs and barriers for public health nurses in Aboriginal townships in Taitung, Taiwan.  

PubMed

In the fast-changing arena of health care, it is important for public health nurses (PHNs) to receive professional training through continuing education (CE) to maintain practice competencies in the community. However, little information is currently known about needs for and barriers to CE for PHNs in role transition; therefore, the aim of this study was to identify CE needs and barriers for 21 PHNs in four Taitung Aboriginal townships where density of Aborigines is the highest in Taiwan. Focus group interviews were used to collect data. Interview data were then analyzed using the four step processes of data analysis suggested by Webb and Kevern (2001). The results indicated that CE for PHNs in Taitung was limited. Community assessment, psychological consultation, gerontological care, palliative care, statistical analysis and interpretation, and emergency care were identified by PHNs as CE needs. For CE barriers, about 98% of the PHNs indicated that long distance traveling was the main barrier. Family factors and inadequate support from administrative leaders were the next. It is concluded that establishing local nursing schools, using the Internet to provide CE, and planning computer systematic education courses may reduce barriers for PHNs in Taitung county. PMID:14685936

Chang, Wen-Yin; Tseng, Ing-Jy; Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu; Wang, Mei-Yeh

2003-12-01

379

A 150-Year Conundrum: Cranial Robusticity and Its Bearing on the Origin of Aboriginal Australians  

PubMed Central

The origin of Aboriginal Australians has been a central question of palaeoanthropology since its inception during the 19th Century. Moreover, the idea that Australians could trace their ancestry to a non-modern Pleistocene population such as Homo erectus in Southeast Asia have existed for more than 100 years, being explicitly linked to cranial robusticity. It is argued here that in order to resolve this issue a new program of research should be embraced, one aiming to test the full range of alternative explanations for robust morphology. Recent developments in the morphological sciences, especially relating to the ontogeny of the cranium indicate that character atomisation, an approach underpinning phylogenetic reconstruction, is fraught with difficulties. This leads to the conclusion that phylogenetic-based explanations for robusticity should be reconsidered and a more parsimonious approach to explaining Aboriginal Australian origins taken. One that takes proper account of the complex processes involved in the growth of the human cranium rather than just assuming natural selection to explain every subtle variation seen in past populations. In doing so, the null hypothesis that robusticity might result from phenotypic plasticity alone cannot be rejected, a position at odds with both reticulate and deep-time continuity models of Australian origins. PMID:21350636

Curnoe, Darren

2011-01-01

380

Nuclear Shell Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal features of the several shell models now under discussions are described briefly. The magnetic moments of odd nuclei have been interpreted as (a) supporting an extreme single particle model (Schmidt limits) and (b) as generally consistent with a uniform model (Margenau-Wigner limits). The evidence is consistent with a composite interpretation based on (a) the approximate validity of the

Eugene Feenberg

1950-01-01

381

Shell Creek Summers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

2005-01-01

382

Shell Higher Olefins Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

Lutz, E. F.

1986-01-01

383

From Cultural Brokers to Shared Care: The Changing Position of Literacy for Aboriginal Health Workers in Central Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of aboriginal health workers in rural Australia has varied according to the interests of governments, indigenous groups, the medical field, and the workers. These interest groups have positioned workers as cultural brokers, primary health workers, community developers, and professionals in shared care. The question of English literacy has not…

Willis, Eileen

1999-01-01

384

A Cross-Cultural Examination of Aboriginal and European Canadian Mothers' Beliefs regarding Proactive and Reactive Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine the maternal beliefs and practices regarding preschool children's proactive and reactive aggression, within a cross-cultural framework. Participants included 30 Aboriginal and 45 European Canadian mothers of preschoolers who provided their emotional reactions, causal attributions, socialization…

Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Sheperd, Kelly A.

2011-01-01

385

Resistance through Re-Presenting Culture: Aboriginal Student Filmmakers and a Participatory Action Research Project on Health and Wellness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on a participatory research project designed to promote student use of digital video to explore conceptions of health and wellness. We have viewed aspects of student resistance through the cultural perspectives that guide the Aboriginal education programs involved with the study. In presenting this piece, we have experimented…

Riecken, Ted; Conibear, Frank; Michel, Corrine; Lyall, John; Scott, Tish; Tanaka, Michele; Stewart, Suzanne; Riecken, Janet; Strong-Wilson, Teresa

2006-01-01

386

Boyfriends, Babies and Basketball: Present Lives and Future Aspirations of Young Women in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the aspirations of a group of young women in a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory of Australia. It examines how their hopes and expectations are influenced by the reality of their everyday lives and the extent to which they are able to influence the course of their lives and become agents for change in their…

Senior, Kate A.; Chenhall, Richard D.

2012-01-01

387

Entrepreneurship among The Orang Asli Proto-Malays (A Malaysian Aboriginal Tribe) In Rompin, Pahang: Are they progressing in entrepreneurship?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is believed to be the first study of entrepreneurship among the aboriginal Orang Asli Proto- Malays tribe in Malaysia. The study aims to uncover: the characteristics of Proto-Malays (Jakun and Semelai tribes) who have diverged from their traditional paths to venture into entrepreneurship; the impact of cultural factors on their progress as entrepreneurs, and the effectiveness of government-organised development

Abu Bakar; Sedek Bin; Abdul Jamak

388

Cultural mediation in cancer diagnosis and end of life decision?making: The experience of Aboriginal patients in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the process of cultural mediation in end of life care of Aboriginal people in urban hospitals. It summarises interview and observational data on the experience of ten Canadians from First Nations communities who were receiving palliative care for renal cancers and other forms of end stage renal disease. Parallel interviews were conducted with members in their families,

Joseph M. Kaufert

1999-01-01

389

Mental Health Promotion as a Prevention and Healing Tool for Issues of Youth Suicide in Canadian Aboriginal Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the appropriateness of using mental health promotion as a prevention and healing tool for Canadian Aboriginal youth dealing with issues of suicide. Strengths of mental health promotion in the context of this population include its emphasis on community-wide approaches, consideration of root causes of mental health issues, recognition of culture as a protective factor, and integration of

Rachel L. Wortzman

2009-01-01

390

‘The most sickening piece of snobbery I have ever heard‘: Race, radio listening, and the ‘aboriginal question’ in Blue Hills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio played an important role in the construction of Australia's ‘imagined community’, transcending spatial boundaries and fostering the development of audiences who were fluent in radio's storytelling tools. This article explores the ways Australian radio audiences of the 1950s responded to Gwen Meredith's representations of Aboriginality, whiteness, intermarriage and assimilation in her long?running ABC radio serial ‘Blue Hills’. Through an

Michelle Arrow

2007-01-01

391

Key Factors for the Development of a Culturally Appropriate Interactive Multimedia Informative Program for Aboriginal Health Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research aims to create and evaluate a model for a culturally appropriate, interactive, multimedia and informative health program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers that aims to improve the capacity to independently control their learning within an attractive learning environment. The research also aims to provide…

El Sayed, Faeka; Soar, Jeffrey; Wang, Zoe

2012-01-01

392

Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of…

Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

2011-01-01

393

Boyfriends, babies and basketball: present lives and future aspirations of young women in a remote Australian Aboriginal community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the aspirations of a group of young women in a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory of Australia. It examines how their hopes and expectations are influenced by the reality of their everyday lives and the extent to which they are able to influence the course of their lives and become agents for change in their

Kate A. Senior; Richard D. Chenhall

2012-01-01

394

Leadership, power and racism: lifeguards’ influences on Aboriginal people’s experiences at a Northern Canadian aquatic facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a Foucauldian and postcolonial lens, this case study examines the ways in which leadership styles used by lifeguards and supported by the structure, rules and regulations at a northern Canadian swimming pool influenced Aboriginal people’s experience of the facility. Participant observation, semi-structured interviews and a focus group were used to identify the ways in which Eurocentric lifeguard training, exercises

Davina D. Rousell; Audrey R. Giles

2011-01-01

395

Warrki Jarrinjaku "Working Together Everyone and Listening": Growing Together as Leaders for Aboriginal Children in Remote Central Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines an early childhood leadership model that senior Anangu and Yapa (Aboriginal) women, living semi-traditional lifestyles in the remote desert regions of central Australia, have identified as a positive and important way forward for their children, families, governments and related professionals. The initiative--Warrki…

Priest, Kathryn; King, Sharijn; Nangala, Irene; Brown, Wendy Nungurrayi; Nangala, Marilyn

2008-01-01

396

The Persistence of Aboriginal Land Use: Fish and Wildlife Harvest Areas in the Hudson and James Bay Lowland, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the extent and importance of contemporary aboriginal land use in the Canadian North remains controversial, despite more than 20 studies undertaken since the mid-1970s to document Native land claims and to assess impacts of development projects. In planning a community and regional development strategy that takes into account traditional land use and economy, methodologies were developed for

F. BERKES; A. HUGHES; P. J. GEORGE; R. J. PRESTON; B. D. CUMMINS; J. TURNER

1995-01-01

397

Part of the Problem or Part of the Solution? Communication Assessments of Aboriginal Children Residing in Remote Communities Using Videoconferencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current article describes the results, inter-scorer reliability, and potential sources of bias in conducting speech-language assessments with Aboriginal children in remote Ontario communities using videoconferencing. A main focus of this pilot study was to examine scoring bias, an issue that might arise with videoconferencing for any…

Eriks-Brophy, Alice; Quittenbaum, Jacqueline; Anderson, Deborah; Nelson, Tina

2008-01-01

398

Stop, Revive, Survive: Lessons from the Hebrew Revival Applicable to the Reclamation, Maintenance and Empowerment of Aboriginal Languages and Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The revival of Hebrew is so far the most successful known reclamation of a sleeping tongue and is a language movement that has been in progress for more than 120 years. By comparison, language revival movements in Australia are in their infancy. This article provides comparative insights and makes information about the Hebrew revival accessible to Australian linguists and Aboriginal

Ghilad Zuckermann; Michael Walsh

2011-01-01

399

Reflections on the Past, Present and Future Roles of Anthropology in Aboriginal Land Councils and Native Title Representative Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feature of Australian Aboriginal anthropology over the last twenty-five years is its intense involvement in issues that have developed from the ALRA and Native Title Act (NTA). An excellent example is the detailed knowledge of land tenure systems and their transformation over time which has arisen out of land claims and native title determinations. The important policy advice that

Jeff Stead

400

Mental health of Aboriginal children and adolescents in violent school environments: protective mediators of violence and psychological/nervous disorders.  

PubMed

The effect of school violence on mental health was examined among 12,366 Aboriginal children and adolescents, primarily First Nations, Métis, and Inuit residing off reservations in the Canadian provinces and territories. Analyses were based on the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples' Survey, a postcensal national survey of Aboriginal youth aged 6-14 years. More than one-fifth of students in the sample attended schools where violence was perceived as a problem. The occurrence of psychological or nervous disorders was about 50% higher among students exposed to school violence than among other students. School violence was a significant predictor of mental health difficulties, irrespective of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Virtually the entire effect was mediated by interpersonal processes, or negative quality of parent-child and peer relationships, while the effect was not explained by cultural detachment through lack of interactions with Elders and traditional language ability/use. Results underscored school violence as a significant public health concern for Aboriginal elementary and high school students, and the need for evidence-based mental health interventions for at-risk populations. PMID:23313494

Kaspar, Violet

2013-03-01

401

Transitional Justice and the Task of Inclusion: A Habermasian Perspective on the Justification of Aboriginal Educational Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In February 2012, Canada's Truth and Reconciliation Commission released an interim report that detailed its findings based on extensive testimony by former students of the nation's residential school system, a system designed to forcibly assimilate aboriginal peoples. The report concludes that the state must play an active role in the…

Martin, Christopher

2014-01-01

402

Bilingual Education in an Aboriginal Context: Examining the Transfer of Language Skills from Inuktitut to English or French  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilingual education is thought to be one of the principal means of simultaneously revitalizing threatened language and preparing students for success in mainstream society. However, little research has examined, in a comprehensive and longitudinal fashion, bilingual programs in Aboriginal contexts. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to conduct…

Usborne, Esther; Caouette, Julie; Qumaaluk, Qiallak; Taylor, Donald M.

2009-01-01

403

‘Bringing Back Respect’: The Role of Participatory Action Research in Transferring Knowledge from an Aboriginal Men's Group to Youth Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This case study describes the efforts of an Aboriginal men's group to facilitate and support the empowerment of young people in their community. It is part of a broader participatory action research (PAR) study of men's groups.Method: Data was derived from quarterly reflective PAR sessions with men's and youth workers and steering committee members, interviews with workers, and focus

Janya McCalman; Komla Tsey; Bradley Baird; Brian Connolly; Leslie Baird; Rita Jackson

2009-01-01

404

'Choice, culture and confidence': key findings from the 2012 having a baby in Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander survey  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the maternity care experiences of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women in Queensland, Australia and to identify areas for policy and practice improvements. Methods A culturally-tailored survey requesting both quantitative and qualitative information was completed by respondents either independently (online or in hard copy) or with the assistance of a trained peer-interviewer. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Eligible women were over 16 years of age, identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, resided in Queensland, and had a live, singleton birth between the first of July 2011 and the first of July 2012. Results 187 women of 207 respondents were included in analyses. Women reported high rates of stressful life events in pregnancy, low levels of choice in place of birth and model of care and limited options to carry out cultural practices. High levels of confidence in parenting were also reported. Women were less likely to report being treated with kindness, understanding and respect by maternity care staff than women answering a similar mainstream survey. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have additional needs to mainstream Australian women. This study identified a number of recommendations to improve services including the need to enhance the cultural competence of maternity services; increase access to continuity of midwifery care models, facilitate more choices in care, work with the strengths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, families and communities, and engage women in the design and delivery of care. PMID:24884930

2014-01-01

405

‘The Secret of England's Greatness’: Medievalism, Ornithology, and Anglican Imperialism in the Aboriginal Gospel Book of Sir George Grey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bible was a central symbol of the Victorian age and one which was readily adapted to the Gothic style which became fashionable from the middle of the nineteenth century. This essay provides an analysis for the Aboriginal Gospel Book (Auckland Public Library, Grey MS 82) which was once owned by the colonial administrator Sir George Grey (1812–1898). This contains

Hilary M. Carey

2011-01-01

406

Understanding, beliefs and perspectives of Aboriginal people in Western Australia about cancer and its impact on access to cancer services  

PubMed Central

Background Despite a lower overall incidence, Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared with the non-Aboriginal population as manifested by higher mortality and lower 5-year survival rates. Lower participation in screening, later diagnosis of cancer, poor continuity of care, and poorer compliance with treatment are known factors contributing to this poor outcome. Nevertheless, many deficits remain in understanding the underlying reasons, with the recommendation of further exploration of Aboriginal beliefs and perceptions of cancer to help understand their care-seeking behavior. This could assist with planning and delivery of more effective interventions and better services for the Aboriginal population. This research explored Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal peoples' perceptions, beliefs and understanding of cancer. Methods A total of 37 Aboriginal people from various geographical areas within WA with a direct or indirect experience of cancer were interviewed between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. A social constructionist framework provided a theoretical basis for analysis. Interpretation occurred within the research team with member checking and the involvement of an Aboriginal Reference Group assisting with ensuring validity and reliability. Results Outcomes indicated that misunderstanding, fear of death, fatalism, shame, preference for traditional healing, beliefs such as cancer is contagious and other spiritual issues affected their decisions around accessing services. These findings provide important information for health providers who are involved in cancer-related service delivery. Conclusion These underlying beliefs must be specifically addressed to develop appropriate educational, screening and treatment approaches including models of care and support that facilitate better engagement of Indigenous people. Models of care and support that are more culturally-friendly, where health professionals take account of both Indigenous and Western beliefs about health and the relationship between these, and which engage and include Indigenous people need to be developed. Cultural security, removing system barriers and technical/scientific excellence are all important to ensure Indigenous people utilise healthcare to realise the benefits of modern cancer treatments. PMID:19643031

Shahid, Shaouli; Finn, Lizzie; Bessarab, Dawn; Thompson, Sandra C

2009-01-01

407

Sea shells and blood cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists know that oysters make their shells from crystals but where the crystals are made is still a mystery. A new study in the 09 April 2004 issue of the journal Science suggests that these shell-building crystals are formed in a special class of blood cells that travel to the site of shell formation and unload their crystal cargo.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2004-04-09

408

Recent Advances in Shell Evolution with Shell-Model Calculations  

E-print Network

Shell evolution in exotic nuclei is investigated with large-scale shell-model calculations. After presenting that the central and tensor forces produce distinctive ways of shell evolution, we show several recent results: (i) evolution of single-particle-like levels in antimony and cupper isotopes, (ii) shape coexistence in nickel isotopes understood in terms of configuration-dependent shell structure, and (iii) prediction of the evolution of the recently established $N=34$ magic number towards smaller proton numbers. In any case, large-scale shell-model calculations play indispensable roles in describing the interplay between single-particle character and correlation.

Yutaka Utsuno; Takaharu Otsuka; Yusuke Tsunoda; Noritaka Shimizu; Michio Honma; Tomoaki Togashi; Takahiro Mizusaki

2014-09-16

409

Recent Advances in Shell Evolution with Shell-Model Calculations  

E-print Network

Shell evolution in exotic nuclei is investigated with large-scale shell-model calculations. After presenting that the central and tensor forces produce distinctive ways of shell evolution, we show several recent results: (i) evolution of single-particle-like levels in antimony and cupper isotopes, (ii) shape coexistence in nickel isotopes understood in terms of configuration-dependent shell structure, and (iii) prediction of the evolution of the recently established $N=34$ magic number towards smaller proton numbers. In any case, large-scale shell-model calculations play indispensable roles in describing the interplay between single-particle character and correlation.

Utsuno, Yutaka; Tsunoda, Yusuke; Shimizu, Noritaka; Honma, Michio; Togashi, Tomoaki; Mizusaki, Takahiro

2014-01-01

410

Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Australia 2006-2010.  

PubMed

This report outlines the major positive impacts of vaccines on the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from 2007 to 2010, as well as highlighting areas that require further attention. Hepatitis A disease is now less common in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in their non-Indigenous counterparts. Hepatitis A vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children was introduced in 2005 in the high incidence jurisdictions of the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. In 2002–2005, there were 20 hospitalisations for hepatitis A in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged<5 years--over 100 times more common than in other children--compared to none in 2006/07–2009/10. With respect to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), there has been a reduction of 87% in notifications of IPD caused by serotypes contained in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) since the introduction of the childhood 7vPCV program among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. However, due to a lower proportion of IPD caused by 7vPCV types prior to vaccine introduction, the decline in total IPD notifications has been less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. Higher valency vaccines (10vPCV and 13vPCV) which replaced 7vPCV from 2011 are likely to result in a greater impact on IPD and potentially also non-invasive disease, although disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes appears likely to be an ongoing problem. Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged ?50 years, there have been recent increases in IPD, which appear related to low vaccination coverage and highlight the need for improved coverage in this high-risk target group. Since routine meningococcal C vaccination for infants and the high-school catch-up program were implemented in 2003, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by serogroup C. However, the predominant serogroup responsible for disease remains serogroup B, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have significantly higher incidence of serogroup B disease than other children. A vaccine against meningococcus type B has now been licensed in Australia. The decline in severe rotavirus disease after vaccine introduction in 2007 was less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. By far the highest hospitalisation rates continue to occur among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in the Northern Territory. Consideration of the role of age cut-offs and 2-dose versus 3-dose schedules may be necessary. Genotype surveillance is critically important to allow detection of any possible emergence of genotypes for which there is lower vaccine-derived immunity. Although Haemophilus influenzae type b disease rates have decreased significantly since the introduction of vaccines in 1993, the plateauing of rates in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, and increasing disparity with other children, are concerning. While it is possible that higher disease rates in young infants could be associated with the later age of protection from the newer 4-dose schedule, it is also possible that higher vaccine immunogenicity will result in reduced carriage. Close monitoring is important to detect any re-emergence of Hib disease as soon as possible. Pandemic and seasonal influenza and pneumonia are other diseases with comparatively higher rates in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. For Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged?50 years, it is unclear whether or not there has been a decline in influenza hospitalisations since the start of the National Indigenous Pneumococcal and Influenza Immunisation Program in 1999, but hospitalisation rates are still higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Achieving high coverage in those aged?15 years should now be a priority. A prolonged mumps outbreak occurred in 2007/2008 predominantly affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents an

Naidu, Latika; Chiu, Clayton; Habig, Andrew; Lowbridge, Christopher; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Wang, Han; McIntyre, Peter; Menzies, Robert

2013-01-01

411

The Shell Island Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry simulation is to investigate the issues concerning the fate of the Shell Island Resort, which is in danger of being destroyed by a migrating inlet, and then debate the future of this and other oceanfront structures threatened by coastal erosion. As students engage in their investigation, they are asked to identify the social, political, and scientific issues with which different stakeholders must deal. They will place themselves into the role of one of the stakeholders. The site lists the stakeholders and provides several sources of information for each. After reviewing the resources, students will prepare a statement to decide what should be the next course of action regarding the Shell Island Resort. Students then will present statements in a debate to decide the future of the resort.

412

Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships  

PubMed Central

Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically challenging aspects, these informants considered that with flexibility of data collection to account for the preferences of Aboriginal members, then the method was appropriate in cross-cultural contexts for the difficult discussions that are needed to improve partnerships. Conclusion Critical reflection showed that the preconditions for difficult discussions are, first, that partners have the capacity to engage in such discussions, second, that partners assess whether the effort required for these discussions is balanced by the benefits they gain from the partnership, and, third, that “boundary spanning” staff can facilitate commitment to partnership goals. PMID:22682504

2012-01-01

413

Clinical trials in a remote Aboriginal setting: lessons from the BOABS smoking cessation study  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited evidence regarding the best approaches to helping Indigenous Australians to stop smoking. The composite analysis of the only two smoking cessation randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating this suggests that one-on-one extra support delivered by and provided to Indigenous Australians in a primary health care setting appears to be more effective than usual care in encouraging smoking cessation. This paper describes the lessons learnt from one of these studies, the Be Our Ally Beat Smoking (BOABS) Study, and how to develop and implement an integrated smoking cessation program. Methods Qualitative study using data collected from multiple documentary sources related to the BOABS Study. As the project neared completion the research team participated in four workshops to review and conduct thematic analyses of these documents. Results Challenges we encountered during the relatively complex BOABS Study included recruiting sufficient number of participants; managing the project in two distant locations and ensuring high quality work across both sites; providing appropriate training and support to Aboriginal researchers; significant staff absences, staff shortages and high workforce turnover; determining where and how the project fitted in the clinics and consequent siloing of the Aboriginal researchers relating to the requirements of RCTs; resistance to change, and maintaining organisational commitment and priority for the project. The results of this study also demonstrated the importance of local Aboriginal ownership, commitment, participation and control. This included knowledge of local communities, the flexibility to adapt interventions to local settings and circumstances, and taking sufficient time to allow this to occur. Conclusions The keys to the success of the BOABS Study were local development, ownership and participation, worker professional development and support, and operating within a framework of cultural safety. There were difficulties associated with the BOABS Study being an RCT, and many of these are shared with stand-alone programs. Interventions targeted at particular health problems are best integrated with usual primary health care. Research to investigate complex interventions in Indigenous health should not be limited to randomised clinical trials and funding needs to reflect the additional, but necessary, cost of providing for local control of planning and implementation. PMID:24912949

2014-01-01

414

Thermomechanical Postbuckling of Shells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of issues involving the postbuckling of doubly-curved panels exposed to a non-uniform temperature field and subjected to a system of mechanical loads are considered in this paper. Effects played by transverse shear, initial geometric imperfections, membrane and thickness-wise temperature gradient, tangential edge constraints, linear/non-linear elastic foundation are incorporated and their implications on the non-linear response behavior of shells are discussed. Issues related with the delay of the occurrence of the snap-through buckling, alleviation of its intensity and even with its removal are addressed and remarks on conditions rendering a curved panel insensitive to initial geometric imperfections are included. Results on small vibration of shells about sub- and post-critical ranges are provided and structural modeling issues playing a non-negligible role towards a reliable prediction of the postbuckling behavior of shells under complex loading conditions are discussed. Results on non-linear response of flat reinforced panels subjected to thermomechanical loads are also presented. Finally, problems not covered by this article are briefly indicated.

Librescu, Liviu

1998-01-01

415

Testing the 14C ages and conservative behavior of dissolved 14C in a carbonate aquifer in Yucca Flat, Nevada (USA), using 36Cl from groundwater and packrat middens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrected groundwater 14C ages from the carbonate aquifer in Yucca Flat at the former Nevada Test Site (now the Nevada National Security Site), USA, were evaluated by comparing temporal variations of groundwater 36Cl/Cl estimated with these 14C ages with published records of meteoric 36Cl/Cl variations preserved in packrat middens (piles of plant fragments, fecal matter and urine). Good agreement between these records indicates that the groundwater 14C ages are reasonable and that 14C is moving with chloride without sorbing to the carbonate rock matrix or fracture coatings, despite opposing evidence from laboratory experiments. The groundwater 14C ages are consistent with other hydrologic evidence that indicates significant basin infiltration ceased 8,000 to 10,000 years ago, and that recharge to the carbonate aquifer is from paleowater draining through overlying tuff confining units along major faults. This interpretation is supported by the relative age differences as well as hydraulic head differences between the alluvial and volcanic aquifers and the carbonate aquifer. The carbonate aquifer 14C ages suggest that groundwater velocities throughout much of Yucca Flat are about 2 m/yr, consistent with the long-held conceptual model that blocking ridges of low-permeability rock hydrologically isolate the carbonate aquifer in Yucca Flat from the outlying regional carbonate flow system.

Kwicklis, Edward; Farnham, Irene

2014-09-01

416

Where culture takes hold: "overimitation" and its flexible deployment in Western, aboriginal, and bushmen children.  

PubMed

Children often "overimitate," comprehensively copying others' actions despite manifest perceptual cues to their causal ineffectuality. The inflexibility of this behavior renders its adaptive significance difficult to apprehend. This study explored the boundaries of overimitation in 3- to 6-year-old children of three distinct cultures: Westernized, urban Australians (N = 64 in Experiment 1; N = 19 in Experiment 2) and remote communities of South African Bushmen (N = 64) and Australian Aborigines (N = 19). Children overimitated at high frequency in all communities and generalized what they had learned about techniques and object affordances from one object to another. Overimitation thus provides a powerful means of acquiring and flexibly deploying cultural knowledge. The potency of such social learning was also documented compared to opportunities for exploration and practice. PMID:25040582

Nielsen, Mark; Mushin, Ilana; Tomaselli, Keyan; Whiten, Andrew

2014-11-01

417

Helicobacter pylori Infection among Aborigines (the Orang Asli) in the Northeastern Region of Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Whether the exceptionally low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection reported among Malays is also present among aborigines (the Orang Asli) living in northeastern Peninsular Malaysia is unknown. We studied asymptomatic Orang Asli from settlements situated 210 km from the city of Kota Bharu. The HP infection status was confirmed by a validated serology test. Nineteen percent of 480 Orang Asli tested positive for HP infection. The prevalence was 40.6% in the birth cohort of the 1940s and declined steadily in later cohorts to under 10% among 12–30 year olds. This may be related to the phases of relocation from the jungles into resettlement camps and ultimately into designated villages near rivers. The low prevalence pattern after the 1970s was probably partly a result of improvement in sanitation and hygiene practice in these villages but other unidentified factors may also be operating. PMID:21036849

Rahim, Amry Abdul; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Majid, Noorizan Abd; Choo, Keng Ee; Raj, Sundramoorthy Mahendra; Derakhshan, Mohammad H.; Graham, David Y.

2010-01-01

418

Using the Environment in Mathematics and Science Teaching: An African and Aboriginal Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strong case is made in this paper for the effective utilisation of the learner's environment for science and mathematics teaching in African, rural, and Aboriginal societies. Dwelling on the rich cultural heritage of indigenous, traditional, and rural settings, the paper attempts to explain why, and show how this heritage can be advantageously tapped and transferred to modern day mathematics and science classrooms and laboratories. The need for the integration of school science and mathematics with the lived experiences of learners in indigenous cultures where factors such as folklore, myths, legends, and taboos play powerful roles is also discussed. Integrating the environment into school teaching/learning, the paper argues, would contribute to an effective mathematics-science-environment-society interaction. Additionally, the approach could boost enrolment and performance in mathematics and science for students from indigenous cultural backgrounds, many of who shy away from these areas of study in present-day schools.

Ezeife, Anthony N.

2003-07-01

419

Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India  

PubMed Central

There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we suggest that TAK such as that of the Malasars may serve toward a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability. PMID:18371206

Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Steven, Newmaster G; Maruthakkutti, Murugesan; Velusamy, Balasubramaniam; Ul-Huda, Muneer M

2008-01-01

420

Haemoparasites of free-roaming dogs associated with several remote Aboriginal communities in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Tick-borne haemoparasites Babesia vogeli and Anaplasma platys are common among the free-roaming canine populations associated with Aboriginal communities in Australia, whilst the prevalence of haemoplasmas, which are also suspected to be tick-borne, remained unexplored. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of haemoplasma infection in these populations, and to identify any correlation with other haemoparasites. Blood was collected from 39 dogs associated with four Aboriginal communities and screened for infection using PCR and serology. DNA was purified and PCR analyses for piroplasms, Anaplasmataceae family bacteria and haemoplasmas performed. Serum was analysed using a commercial haemoparasite ELISA. Prevalence of infection was compared between communities. Results Seventeen dogs (44%) were infected (PCR positive) with Mycoplasma haemocanis, eight (21%) with ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum’, 20 (51%) with A. platys, and 17 (44%) with B. vogeli. Two dogs were infected with a novel haemoplasma as determined by DNA amplification and sequencing. Two dogs (5%) were serologically positive for Dirofilaria immitis antigens, one (3%) was positive for Ehrlichia canis antibodies and nine (24nbsp;%) were positive for A. platys antibodies. Co-infections were frequent. Haemoplasma prevalence was highest (73%, 16/22) in Central Australia and lowest (22%, 2/9) in Western Australia (p?=?0.017). In contrast, B. vogeli prevalence was low in Central Australia (18%, 4/22) but higher (78%, 7/9) in Western Australia (p?=?0.003). Conclusions This is the first time haemoplasma infections, including a novel species, have been molecularly documented in Australian dogs. The wide regional variation in prevalence of some of the haemoparasite infections detected in this study warrants further investigation. PMID:22584120

2012-01-01

421

Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS), questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH) tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community. PMID:23134669

2012-01-01

422

Kidney disease in Aboriginal Australians: a perspective from the Northern Territory  

PubMed Central

This article outlines the increasing awareness, service development and research in renal disease in Aboriginal people in Australia's Northern Territory, among whom the rates of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are among the highest in the world. Kidney failure and RRT dominate the intellectual landscape and consume the most professional energy, but the underlying kidney disease has recently swung into view, with increasing awareness of its connection to other chronic diseases and to health profiles and trajectories more broadly. Albuminuria is the marker of the underlying kidney disease and the best treatment target, and glomerulomegaly and focal glomerulosclerosis are the defining histologic features. Risk factors in its multideterminant genesis reflect nutritional and developmental disadvantage and inflammatory/infectious milieu, while the major putative genetic determinants still elude detection. A culture shift of “chronic disease prevention” has been catalyzed in part by the human pain, logistic problems and great costs associated with RRT. Nowadays chronic disease management is the central focus of indigenous primary care, with defined protocols for integrated testing and management of chronic diseases and with government reimbursed service items and free medicines for people in remote areas. Blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are all mitigated by good treatment, which centres on renin-angiotensin system blockade and good metabolic control. RRT incidence rates appear to be stabilizing in remote Aboriginal people, and chronic disease deaths rates are falling. However, the profound levels of disadvantage in many remote settings remain appalling, and there is still much to be done, mostly beyond the direct reach of health services.

Hoy, Wendy E.

2014-01-01

423

Aboriginal new world epidemiolgy and medical care, and the impact of Old World disease imports.  

PubMed

Various workers, including T. D. Stewart, claim that the aboriginal Americas were relatively disease-free because of the bering Strait cold-screen, eliminating many pathogens, and the paucity of zoonotic infections because of few domestic animals. Evidence of varying validity suggests that precontact Americns had their own strains of treponemic infections, bacillary and amoebic dysenteries, influenza and viral penumonia and other respiratory diseases, salmonellosis and perhaps other food poisoning, various arthritides, some endoparasites such as the ascarids, and several geographically circumscribed diseases such as the rickettsial verruca (Carrion's disease) and New World leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. Questionably aboriginal are tuberculosis and typhus. Accordingly, virtually all the "crowd-type" ecopathogenic diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, typhoid, malaria, measles, pertussis, polio, etc., appear to have been absent from the New World, and were only brought in by White conquerors and their Black slaves. My hypothesis is that native American medical care systems--especially in the more culturally advanced areas--were sufficiently sophisticated to deal with native disease entities with reasonable competence. But native medical systems could not cope with the "crowd-type" disease imports that struck Indian and Eskimos as "virgin-field" populations. Reanalysis of native population losses through a genocidal combination of diease, war, slavery and attendant cultural disruption by Dobyns, Cook and others strongly suggest that traditiona estimates underplayed the death toll by a factor of the general order of ten. This would make for an immediately pre-contact Indian population of some 90-111 million instead of the tradition 8-11 million. Evidence is growing that Indians may have been no more susceptible to new pathogens that are other "virgin soil" populations, and thus their immune systems need not be considered less effective than those in other people. Present-day high mortality rates in Indians of both continents from infectious disease imports may be more socioeconomic than anything else. PMID:793420

Newman, M T

1976-11-01

424

Optimisation Modelling to Assess Cost of Dietary Improvement in Remote Aboriginal Australia  

PubMed Central

Background The cost and dietary choices required to fulfil nutrient recommendations defined nationally, need investigation, particularly for disadvantaged populations. Objective We used optimisation modelling to examine the dietary change required to achieve nutrient requirements at minimum cost for an Aboriginal population in remote Australia, using where possible minimally-processed whole foods. Design A twelve month cross-section of population-level purchased food, food price and nutrient content data was used as the baseline. Relative amounts from 34 food group categories were varied to achieve specific energy and nutrient density goals at minimum cost while meeting model constraints intended to minimise deviation from the purchased diet. Results Simultaneous achievement of all nutrient goals was not feasible. The two most successful models (A & B) met all nutrient targets except sodium (146.2% and 148.9% of the respective target) and saturated fat (12.0% and 11.7% of energy). Model A was achieved with 3.2% lower cost than the baseline diet (which cost approximately AUD$13.01/person/day) and Model B at 7.8% lower cost but with a reduction in energy of 4.4%. Both models required very large reductions in sugar sweetened beverages (?90%) and refined cereals (?90%) and an approximate four-fold increase in vegetables, fruit, dairy foods, eggs, fish and seafood, and wholegrain cereals. Conclusion This modelling approach suggested population level dietary recommendations at minimal cost based on the baseline purchased diet. Large shifts in diet in remote Aboriginal Australian populations are needed to achieve national nutrient targets. The modeling approach used was not able to meet all nutrient targets at less than current food expenditure. PMID:24391790

Brimblecombe, Julie; Ferguson, Megan; Liberato, Selma C.; O'Dea, Kerin; Riley, Malcolm

2013-01-01

425

The overall health and risk factor profile of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participants from the 45 and up study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite large disparities in health outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians, detailed evidence on the health and lifestyle characteristics of older Aboriginal Australians is lacking. The aim of this study is to quantify socio-demographic and health risk factors and mental and physical health status among Aboriginal participants from the 45 and Up Study and to compare these with non-Aboriginal participants from the study. Methods The 45 and Up Study is a large-scale study of individuals aged 45 years and older from the general population of New South Wales, Australia responding to a baseline questionnaire distributed from 2006–2008. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of self-reported responses from the baseline questionnaire for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants relating to socio-demographic factors, health risk factors, current and past medical and surgical history, physical disability, functional health limitations and levels of current psychological distress were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, with adjustments for age and sex. Results Overall, 1939 of 266,661 45 and Up Study participants examined in this study identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (0.7%). Compared to non-Aboriginal participants, Aboriginal participants were significantly more likely to be: younger (mean age 58 versus 63 years); without formal educational qualifications (age- and sex- adjusted OR?=?6.2, 95% CI 5.3-7.3); of unemployed (3.7, 2.9-4.6) or disabled (4.6, 3.9-5.3) work status; and with a household income?Aboriginal participants were significantly more likely than non-Aboriginal participants to: be current smokers (2.4, 2.0-2.8), be obese (2.1, 1.8-2.5), have ever been diagnosed with certain medical conditions (especially: diabetes [2.1, 1.8-2.4]; depression [1.6, 1.4-1.8] and stroke [1.8, 1.4-2.3]), have care-giving responsibilities (1.8, 1.5-2.2); have a major physical disability (2.6, 2.2-3.1); have severe physical functional limitation (2.9, 2.4-3.4) and have very high levels of psychological distress (2.4, 2.0-3.0). Conclusions Aboriginal participants from the 45 and Up Study experience greater levels of disadvantage and have greater health needs (including physical disability and psychological distress) compared to non-Aboriginal participants. The study highlights the need to address the social determinants of health in Australia and to provide appropriate mental health services and disability support for older Aboriginal people. PMID:23866062

2013-01-01

426

Aboriginal overkill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to European influence, predation by Native Americans was the major factor limiting the numbers and distribution of ungulates\\u000a in the Intermountain West. This hypothesis is based on analyses of (1) the efficiency of Native American predation, including\\u000a cooperative hunting, use of dogs, food storage, use of nonungulate foods, and hunting methods; (2) optimal-foraging studies;\\u000a (3) tribal territory boundary zones

Charles E. Kay

1994-01-01

427

Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Australia 2003 to 2006.  

PubMed

This, the second report on vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, brings together the relevant sources of routinely collected data on vaccine preventable diseases--notifications, hospitalisations, deaths, and childhood and adult vaccination coverage. As a result of continued improvements in the collection of data on Indigenous status, this second report is considerably more comprehensive, with data available from more jurisdictions, and more detailed presentation, including time trends and vaccination coverage by jurisdiction. Vaccination coverage data provide evidence of successful program delivery and highlight some areas for improvement. For universally funded vaccines in children, coverage is similar in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children by 24 months of age. However, delayed vaccination is more common in Indigenous children, with 6%-8% fewer children fully vaccinated at 12 months of age. More timely vaccination, particularly within the first six months of life, is particularly important in reducing the disproportionate burdens of disease due to pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). For vaccination programs targeted specifically at Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and adults, coverage is substantially lower than for those programs targeted at all Australians. This is true for hepatitis A and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine for children, and influenza and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine for adults. Targeted vaccination programs present a particular challenge for health services in urban areas. Nevertheless, the impact of vaccination programs in preventing disease and reducing the disparity of disease burden between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people has been substantial. This is evident in data on notifications, hospitalisations and deaths. Diseases which, in the past, have had devastating and often disproportionately high impact on Indigenous people, such as diphtheria, measles, poliomyelitis, smallpox and tetanus, are now completely or almost completely absent from Australia. Hepatitis B infection, another disease responsible for high levels of infection and substantial serious illness and death in the pre-vaccine era, is also now well controlled in age groups eligible for vaccination. Although invasive Hib disease is now rare in Australia since the introduction of vaccination in 1993, higher rates of disease persist in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. More research is needed into the contribution of environmental factors, delayed vaccination and vaccine failure to this continued disparity. Hepatitis A has disproportionately affected Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in the past. Vaccination programs in north Queensland and in various other countries have been very successful in reducing the burden of hepatitis A. It is too early to assess the impact of the vaccination program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children that commenced in regions outside north Queensland in November 2005. For some other diseases the situation is more complicated. The substantial impact of the national meningococcal C vaccination program since 2003 is evident in this report, although the higher proportion of non-vaccine preventable serotype B disease in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people underlines the need for a new vaccine to cover this serotype. Pneumonia remains the most important communicable disease contributor to premature mortality in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of all ages. In young Indigenous adults, the eightfold higher rate of hospitalisation compared with their non-Indigenous peers, and the 11-fold higher rate of invasive pneumococcal disease, suggest the need for more widespread use of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in this age group. Current coverage for Indigenous 15-49 year olds, where influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are funded only for those with risk factors, is low even though some 70% of this age group have one or m

Menzies, Robert; Turnour, Caroline; Chiu, Clayton; McIntyre, Peter

2008-06-01

428

Aboriginal Education When Aboriginal education  

E-print Network

the transnationality of histories of colonialism with the need to critically re-address ill defined notions to as intellectual hospitality (openness, respect, and mental courage). Concomitantly, the new situation calls for a broadening of the conception of what it means to have and acquire knowledge. Chris Beeman's article poses

Ellis, Randy

429

Marked disparity in the epidemiology of tuberculosis among Aboriginal peoples on the Canadian prairies: The challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: While it is established that Aboriginal peoples in the prairie provinces of Canada are disproportionately affected by tuberculosis (TB), little is known about the epidemiology of TB either within or across provincial borders. METHODS: Provincial reporting systems for TB, Statistics Canada censuses and population estimates of Registered Indians provided by Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada were used to estimate the overall (2004 to 2008) and pulmonary (2007 to 2008) TB rates in the prairie provinces. The place of residence at diagnosis of pulmonary TB cases in 2007 to 2008 was also documented. RESULTS: The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of TB in Registered Indians was 52.6 per 100,000 person-years, 38 times higher than in Canadian-born ‘others’. Incidence rates in Registered Indians were highest in Manitoba and lowest in Alberta. In Alberta and Saskatchewan, on-reserve rates were more than twice that of off-reserve rates. Rates in the Métis and Registered Indians were similar in Saskatchewan (50.0 and 52.2 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). In 2007 to 2008, approximately 90% of Canadian-born pulmonary TB cases in the prairie provinces were Aboriginal. Outside of one metropolitan area (Winnipeg, Manitoba), most Registered Indian and Métis pulmonary TB cases were concentrated in a relatively small number of communities north of the 53rd parallel. Rates of pulmonary TB in 11 of these communities were >300 per 100,000 person-years. In Manitoba, 49% of off-reserve Registered Indian pulmonary cases were linked to high-incidence reserve communities. INTERPRETATION: The epidemiology of TB among Aboriginal peoples on the Canadian prairies is markedly disparate. Pulmonary TB is highly focal, which is both a concern and an opportunity. PMID:23717818

Long, Richard; Hoeppner, Vernon; Orr, Pamela; Ainslie, Martha; King, Malcolm; Abonyi, Sylvia; Mayan, Maria; Kunimoto, Dennis; Langlois-Klassen, Deanne; Heffernan, Courtney; Lau, Angela; Menzies, Dick

2013-01-01

430

Aboriginal women and everyday racism in Alberta: From lived experiences of racism to strategies for personal healing and collective resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This ethnographic study of Aboriginal women in southern Alberta analyses how racism is experienced in everyday life and highlights\\u000a personal and community responses to racism. The stories of fifteen women who were interviewed in 1992–93 provide us with a\\u000a new understanding of everyday racism: how racism is experienced daily in many aspects of Native people's lives, and how this\\u000a racism

Ronnie Leah

1995-01-01

431

Anthropometric predictors of gestational hypertensive disorders in a remote aboriginal community: a nested case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Australian Aboriginal women tend to have body shape and pregnancy risk profiles different from other Australian women. This study aims to examine the associations of anthropometric indices with gestational hypertensive disorders (GHD), and to determine the index that can best predict the risk of this condition occurring during pregnancy. Methods This is a nested case–control study. Baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were measured as part of a broader health screening program between 1992 and 1995 in a remote Aboriginal community. All subsequent pregnancies among the original participants were identified during 20 year follow-up period through hospital records (up to May 2012). Twenty eight women were diagnosed as having GHD, each of whom were individually matched by age at baseline with five women who were hospitalised for other pregnancy-related conditions and were free from GHD (n?=?140). The associations of the baseline anthropometric measurements with GHD were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Results The best predictor of GHD was WC (OR?=?1.8; (95% CI, 1.1-2.9) for one standard deviation increase in WC), followed by BMI with the corresponding OR?=?1.7 (95% CI, 1.1- 2.6). Other measurements, HC, WHR, and WHtR, were also positively associated with GHD, but those associations were not statistically significant. Conclusions WC and BMI prior to pregnancy are anthropometric predictors of GHD in Aboriginal women, and WC is the best predictor. These findings imply the importance of early weight control in preventing GHD in Aboriginal women. PMID:24593885

2014-01-01

432

The role of traditional medicine practice in primary health care within Aboriginal Australia: a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The practice of traditional Aboriginal medicine within Australia is at risk of being lost due to the impact of colonisation. Displacement of people from traditional lands as well as changes in family structures affecting passing on of cultural knowledge are two major examples of this impact. Prior to colonisation traditional forms of healing, such as the use of traditional healers, healing songs and bush medicines were the only source of primary health care. It is unclear to what extent traditional medical practice remains in Australia in 2013 within the primary health care setting, and how this practice sits alongside the current biomedical health care model. An extensive literature search was performed from a wide range of literature sources in attempt to identify and examine both qualitatively and quantitatively traditional medicine practices within Aboriginal Australia today. Whilst there is a lack of academic literature and research on this subject the literature found suggests that traditional medicine practice in Aboriginal Australia still remains and the extent to which it is practiced varies widely amongst communities across Australia. This variation was found to depend on association with culture and beliefs about disease causation, type of illness presenting, success of biomedical treatment, and accessibility to traditional healers and bush medicines. Traditional medicine practices were found to be used sequentially, compartmentally and concurrently with biomedical healthcare. Understanding more clearly the role of traditional medicine practice, as well as looking to improve and support integrative and governance models for traditional medicine practice, could have a positive impact on primary health care outcomes for Aboriginal Australia. PMID:23819729

2013-01-01

433

Effectiveness of community-directed diabetes prevention and control in a rural Aboriginal population in British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the process and summative evaluation results from a community-based diabetes prevention and control project implemented in response to the increasing prevalence and impact of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in the Canadian Aboriginal population. The 24-month project targeted the registered Indian population in British Columbia's rural Okanagan region. A participatory approach was used to plan strategies by which

Mark Daniel; Lawrence W. Green; Stephen A. Marion; Diane Gamble; Carol P. Herbert; Clyde Hertzman; Sam B. Sheps

1999-01-01

434

Challenges and strategies for cohort retention and data collection in an indigenous population: Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Longitudinal prospective birth cohort studies are pivotal to identifying fundamental causes and determinants of disease and health over the life course. There is limited information about the challenges, retention, and collection strategies in the study of Indigenous populations. The aim is to describe the follow-up rates of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study and how they were achieved. Methods Participants were 686 babies enrolled between January 1987 and March 1990, born to a mother recorded in the Delivery Suite Register of the Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) as a self-identified Aboriginal. The majority of the participants (70%) resided in Northern Territory within rural, remote and very remote Aboriginal communities that maintain traditional connections to their land and culture. The Aboriginal communities are within a sparsely populated (0.2 people/ km2) area of approximately 900,000 km2 (347sq miles), with poor communication and transport infrastructures. Follow-ups collecting biomedical and lifestyle data directly from participants in over 40 locations were conducted at 11.4 years (Wave-2) and 18.2 years (Wave-3), with Wave-4 follow-up currently underway. Results Follow-ups at 11 and 18 years of age successfully examined 86% and 72% of living participants respectively. Strategies addressing logistic, cultural and ethical challenges are documented. Conclusions Satisfactory follow-up rates of a prospective longitudinal Indigenous birth cohort with traditional characteristics are possible while maintaining scientific rigor in a challenging setting. Approaches included flexibility, respect, and transparent communication along with the adoption of culturally sensitive behaviours. This work should inform and assist researchers undertaking or planning similar studies in Indigenous and developing populations. PMID:24568142

2014-01-01

435

The 'Stolen Generations' of Mothers and Daughters: Child Apprehension and Enhanced HIV Vulnerabilities for Sex Workers of Aboriginal Ancestry  

PubMed Central

Objectives The number of children in care of the state continues to grow in BC, Canada with a historical legacy of child apprehension among criminalized and marginalized populations, particularly women of Aboriginal ancestry and sex workers. However, there is a paucity of research investigating child apprehension experiences among marginalized mothers. The objective of the current analysis is to examine the prevalence and correlates of child apprehensions among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Analyses were drawn from the AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access, 2010-present), a prospective cohort of street and off-street SWs, through outreach and semi-annual visits to the research office. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine correlates of child apprehension. Results Of a total of 510 SWs, 350 women who had given birth to at least one child were included in the analyses (median age?=?37 yrs: IQR: 31–44 yrs). The prevalence of child apprehension among mothers was 38.3%, with 37.4% reporting having been apprehended themselves by child welfare services. In multivariable analysis, servicing clients in outdoor public spaces (versus formal sex work establishments or informal indoor settings) (adjusted odds ratio, (aOR)?=?2.73; 95%CI 1.27–5.90), history of injecting drugs (aOR?=?2.53; 95%CI 1.42–4.49), Aboriginal ancestry (aOR?=?1.66; 95%CI 1.01–2.74) were associated with increased odds of child apprehension. Discussion/Conclusions Child apprehension rates are high, particularly among the most marginalized sex workers, including sex workers who use drugs and sex workers of Aboriginal ancestry. Structural reforms to child protection are urgently needed, that support family-based care address the historical legacy of colonization affecting Aboriginal peoples. PMID:24927324

Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Simo, Annick; Jury, Delores; Reading, Charlotte; Shannon, Kate

2014-01-01

436

Biomineralisation in Mollusc shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main components of Mollusc shells are carbonate minerals: calcite and aragonite. ACC is present in larval stages. Calcite and aragonite can be secreted simultaneously by the mantle. Despite the small number of varieties, the arrangement of the mineral components is diverse, and dependant upon the taxonomy. They are also associated with organic components much more diverse, the diversity of which reflects the large taxonomic diversity. From TGA analyses, the organic content (water included) is high (>5% in some layers). The biomineralisation process is not a passive precipitation process, but is strongly controlled by the organism. The biological-genetic control is shown by the constancy of the arrangement of the layers, the mineralogy and the microstructure in a given species. Microstructural units (i.e. tablets, prisms etc.) have shapes that do not occur in non-biogenic counterparts. Nacreous tablets, for example, are flattened on their crystallographic c axis, which is normally the axis of maximum growth rate for non-biogenic aragonite. Morever, their inner structure is species-specific: the arrangements of nacreous tablets in Gastropoda - Cephalopoda, and in Bivalvia differ, and the inner arrangement of the nacreous tablets is different in ectocochlear and endocochlear Cephalopoda. The organic-mineral ratios also differ in the various layers of a shell. Differences in chemical composition also demonstrates the biological-genetic control: for example, aragonite has a low Sr content unknown in non-biogenic samples; two aragonitic layers in a shell have different Sr and Mg contents, S is higher in calcitic layers. Decalcification releases soluble (SOM) and insoluble (IOM) organic components. Insoluble components form the main part of the intercrystalline membranes, and contain proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. Soluble phases are present within the crystals and the intercrystalline membranes. These phases are composed of more or less glycosylated proteins and polysaccharides, with a large range of molecular weights. Proteins are rich in acidic aminoacids (aspartic and glutamic acids). Sugars are usually sulphated, and very acidic. Several hundreds of proteins and sugars are present in the SOM. The compositions of IOM and SOM are characteristic for each layer present in a shell. Topographical relationships of mineral and organic components are visible at different scales of observation. SEM images of etched surfaces display the growth line rhythmicity and concordance between adjacent microstructural units. EPMA maps show similar chemical growth lines in various structures. Whatever the taxa, the average thickness of growth lines is about 2-3 µm, indicating an inner biological rhythm, not dependant on the environmental conditions. Such growth lines are observed in deep sea molluscs at depth where diurnal changes in light and temperature are absent. However, the role of the environment is shown by larger periodicities. Sulphur deserves a special interest, because it is associated with the organic matrices. Electrophoretic data have shown that acidic sulphated sugars are abundant in some layers. XANES analyses confirm these results. New microscopic techniques allow us to obtain images at a submicrometer scale. AFM images show that all the microstructural units (i.e. tablets, prisms etc.), calcite or aragonite, are composed of small sub-spherical granules with a diameter typically of about 50 nm. These granules are surrounded by a thin cortex (about 8 nm) of organic and/or amorphous material, and are organo-composite material as shown by phase images. They do not have crystalline shapes, despite the fact that the units they build are often monocrystalline. Molecular biology and genetic studies confirm that the control of the biomineralisation process is exerted at the scale of the whole organism: the expression of genes encoding major shell matrix proteins clearly indicates a regular separation of calcite and aragonite secretory activity. The main control on the structural and compositional features of mollusc she

Dauphin, Y.; Cuif, J. P.; Salomé, M.; Williams, C. T.

2009-04-01

437

Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''  

SciTech Connect

We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10/sup 0/. We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo.

Heiles, C.

1984-08-01

438

The creation of the expected Aboriginal woman drug offender in Canada: Exploring relations between victimization, punishment, and cultural identity  

PubMed Central

This article illustrates how the Aboriginal female drug user is responded to as an expected offender based on the intersection of her gender, race, and class. Drawing on the findings of a national Canadian study documenting the lived experiences of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit female drug users, we argue that the strengthening of cultural identity can potentially disrupt this expected status at both the individual and social system levels. Within the framework of critical victimology, the challenge then becomes to translate this understanding into praxis. In response, we suggest advancing women’s agency at the individual level in the face of disempowering images and practices related to the offender, the victim, and Aboriginality. For change at the system level, we return to Christie’s notion of the need to dismantle the stereotypical construction of the Aboriginal female drug user. We illustrate both levels of change with an innovative form of knowledge sharing, which aims to evoke transformation with respect to individual and socially constructed conceptualizations of identity. PMID:24795492

Dell, Colleen Anne; Kilty, Jennifer M.

2013-01-01

439

Seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus in the normal blood donor population and two aboriginal communities in Malaysia.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been examined in many countries, but such studies have generally been limited to majority populations such as those represented in healthy blood donors or cross sections of urban populations. Due to its major route of enteric transmission, large differences in HEV prevalence might be expected between populations in the same country but with different living conditions. Using an ELISA based on GST-ORF2.1 antigen, the prevalence of IgG-class antibodies to HEV was examined in three distinct populations in Malaysia: the normal (urban) blood donor population and two aboriginal communities located at Betau, Pahang and Parit Tanjung, Perak. IgG anti-HEV was detected in 45 (44%) of 102 samples from Betau and 15 (50%) of 30 samples from Parit Tanjung, compared to only 2 (2%) of 100 normal blood donors. The distribution of sample ELISA reactivities was also consistent with ongoing sporadic infection in the aboriginal communities, while there was no significant relationship between HEV exposure and age, sex, or malaria infection. The high prevalence of antibodies to HEV in the two aboriginal communities indicates that this group of people are at high risk of exposure to HEV compared to the general blood donors, and the results suggest that studies of HEV seroprevalence within countries must take into account the possibility of widely varying infection rates between populations with marked differences in living conditions. PMID:10459151

Seow, H F; Mahomed, N M; Mak, J W; Riddell, M A; Li, F; Anderson, D A

1999-10-01

440

'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.  

PubMed

Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia. PMID:25115988

Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

2015-01-01