Sample records for aboriginal shell midden

  1. Size Matters: 3-mm Sieves Do Not Increase Richness in a Fishbone Assemblage from Arrawarra I, an Aboriginal Australian Shell Midden on the Mid-north Coast of New South Wales, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah Vale; Robert H. Gargett

    2002-01-01

    For 30 years the prevailing viewpoint regarding the retrieval of archaeological faunal material has been: smaller sieve mesh yields more identified taxa. We discuss the findings of sieving experiments from a coastal midden site, in which an assemblage of more than 60,000 fish-bone specimens was successively sieved through 6, 3, and 1-mm mesh sieves. Against expectations, we identified no more

  2. Early and Middle Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Occupations in Western Amazonia: The Hidden Shell Middens

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M.; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region’s past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene “Earthmovers” of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged. PMID:24013964

  3. Using shell middens to assess effects of fishing on queen conch ( Strombus gigas ) populations in Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Schapira; Irene A. Montaño; Andrzej Antczak; Juan M. Posada

    2009-01-01

    Queen conch, Strombus gigas, is a commercially important gastropod that has been exploited throughout the Caribbean islands for thousands of years. Shell\\u000a middens in the region are the physical record of a long-term fishery and their study can provide valuable information on selectivity\\u000a patterns followed by fishermen and on resulting morphological shifts reflected by shells. In this study, we surveyed

  4. An experimental approach for archeological soil micromorphology: building a model for site taphonomy in coastal shell middens of the Beagle Channel (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbo, Andrea; Suarez Villagran, Ximena; Madella, Marco; Vila, Asumpcio; Estevez, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    There are still many archaeological contexts where soil micromorphology has been little applied. Examples of such are anthropic shell deposits, common in coastal settings worldwide. These archaeological sites have complex stratigraphies composed mainly of shell from diverse species of local mollusks and gastropods. They have the peculiarity of being highly porous sediments with a coarse fraction that is dominated by gravel-sized bioclastic remains (shell, fish bones) and a fine fraction composed of organic material (charcoal, organic matter). The use of soil micromorphology in shell deposits was started by the Spanish-Argentinean research team working in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) since 1986. This project focused on excavation of hunter-gatherer sites from the contact period. One of the main objectives was to develop a detailed excavation method for shell middens that maximized the amount of recorded data during archaeological excavation. In this perspective, microstratigraphy was conceived as a fundamental complement for the study of site formation processes, as it would provide with high definition data for identification of shell accumulation episodes, trampling on site, abandonment periods, taphonomic alterations etc. A reference collection of known environmental and anthropic control features, such as hearths, trampling areas, wood ashes from local species, among others, was built to help in the microscopic characterization of archaeological samples. In this work, we analyze this experimental collection and compare it with samples from the Tunel VII archaeological site, located in the northern coast of the Beagle Channel and dated from the 18th-19th centuries. The set of modern samples included: trampling area from an animal pathway; beach deposit; forest litter; soil under the forest; hearths lit in diverse contexts (on the prairie, the beach and from the archaeologist camp site); and experimental burnt valves of Mytilus edulis, the main malacological component of the Tunel VII archaeological site, combusted in a muffle furnace at temperatures from 200 to 800° C. The original archaeological samples from Tunel VII included resin-consolidat columns taken from vaious profiles within the shell midden site. The thin sections analysed here were taken from a profile dug through a passageway that crosses the shell dumping area. The experimental reference collection showed the intense bioturbation of both exposed and buried surfaces, despite the low temperatures that characterize the area, commonly associated to inhibition of biological activity. The same intense bioturbation was observed in the shell midden, were a form of anthrosol develops during abandonment periods of the site. The experimental samples of Mytilus edulis served as reference for identification of burning temperatures reached by the anthropic fires and were useful aids to identify reworked burnt layers as accretion material for the shell midden.

  5. Measurement of Significant Marine Paleotemperature Variation Using Black Abalone Shells from Prehistoric Middens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Jeanne E.; Tissot, Brian N.

    1993-05-01

    The archaeological record from the last millennium in southern California indicates that a period of significant cultural change was associated with a reported marine paleoenvironmental disruption ca. 1150-1250 A.D. A lengthy warm-water anomaly may have in part precipitated more complex sociopolitical and economic responses. We develop independent verification of the perturbation (originally deduced from sediment core data) using archaeological data. Respiratory pore number allometry in the black abalone shell is known to vary clinally in modern populations in response to temperature-induced variation in rate of growth. We use developmental trajectories of abalone from dated, stratified archaeological deposits to reconstruct prehistoric seawater temperatures.

  6. Coastal Foraging at Otter Cave: A 6600-Year-Old Shell Midden on San Miguel Island, California

    E-print Network

    Erlandson, Jon M.

    2005-01-01

    of whole mussel and abalone shells was also measured (inhas several large red abalone shells embedded in its surfaceabalones, and owl limpets increases, however, from 2.1, 3.5, and 4.8 percent of total shell

  7. A 6,000 Year Old Red Abalone Midden from Otter Point, San Miguel Island, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RENÉ L. VELLANOWETH; TORBEN C. RICK; JON M. ERLANDSON; Gnesa Reynolds

    2006-01-01

    For decades, researchers have been interested in archaeological sites on California's Channel Islands that contain large concentrations of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) shells. Known as red abalone middens and dated to between about 7500 and 3500 years ago, these sites have been used to under- stand broad subsistence patterns, provide chrono-stratigraphic control, and investigate past environmental changes in the region.

  8. Aboriginal Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Sherry

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project for high school students in which they create Aboriginal-style paintings using cotton swabs. Discusses the process of creating the works of art in detail. Includes learning objectives, art materials, and a bibliography. (CMK)

  9. A Shell Projectile Point from the Big Sur Coast, California

    E-print Network

    Jones, Terry

    1988-01-01

    BASIN ANTHROPOLOGY abalone shells (Haliotis mfescens). One,of abalone (Haliotis rufescens) shell. califomianus) withabalone point or any other artifact, two ra- diocarbon assays were obtained from midden SHELL

  10. Rubbish, Relatives, and Residence: The Family Use of Middens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret E. Beck; Matthew E. Hill Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Secondary refuse deposits such as middens may be used for intrasite comparisons of consumption, status, ethnicity, or activities. Our analysis of residence and household discard patterns in the modern village of Dalupa in the Pasil River Valley in Kalinga Province, the Philippines, suggests that midden assemblages may be used to compare the refuse of extended families. We define three types

  11. Midden sites in relation to sea level and paleoecology

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbridge, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Midden shell mounds consisting mainly of shallow marine, estuarine and lagoonal molluscan species are known from the coasts of every continent (except for Antarctica). While principally mid- to late Holocene in age, they date back to late Pleistocene in some glacioisostatic uplift areas (Scandinavia) and even the last interglacial at about 125,000 BP (Southern Africa). Inasmuch as the camp sites would normally be located immediately adjacent to the best shellfish collecting areas, they constitute useful shoreline indicators. Large, complex mounds disclose horizons showing temporary inundation and short-term abandonment. Occupation dates match independent chronologies of sea-level change. Analysis of shell species permits estimation of paleosalinity and paleotemperature, as well as assisting appraisal of general paleoecological setting. It is speculated that an abrupt change in trend of the Flandrian sea-level rise at about 6000 BP (C-14) stabilized the development of large lagoons and estuaries, particularly favorable sites for safe shellfish gathering. Prior to that the frequent and very rapid transgressions created repeatedly displaced (drowned) habitats. Since then man has been able to occupy semi-stable coastal sites, thus contributing to the world-wide post-Neolithic shift away from nomadic economy and towards village way of life.

  12. Using packrat middens to assess grazing effects on vegetation change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, J.; Cole, K.L.; Anderson, R. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Research on grazing effects usually compares the same sites through time or grazed and ungrazed sites over the same time period. Both approaches are complicated in arid environments where grazing can have a long undocumented history and landscapes can be spatially heterogenous. This work employs both approaches simultaneously by comparing grazed and ungrazed samples through both time and space using fossil plant macrofossils and pollen from packrat middens. A series of 27 middens, spanning from 995 yr BP to the present, were collected from Glen Canyon in southeastern Utah, USA. These middens detail vegetation change just prior to, and following, the historical introduction of domesticated grazers and also compares assemblages from nearby ungrazable mesas. Pre-grazing middens, and modern middens from ungrazed areas, record more native grasses, native herbs, and native shrubs such as Rhus trilobata, Amelanchier utahensis, and Shepherdia rotundifolia than modern middens from grazed areas. Ordinations demonstrate that site-to-site variability is more important than any temporal changes, making selection of comparable grazed versus ungrazed study treatments difficult. But within similar sites, the changes through time show that grazing lowered the number of taxa recorded, and lessened the pre-existing site differences, homogenizing the resultant plant associations in this desert grassland.

  13. Aboriginal Student Achievement Program

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Aboriginal Student Achievement Program (ASAP) For more information, contact: Program Information@arts.usask.ca artsandscience.usask.ca/students/aboriginal/asap.php "I really want to connect with other aboriginal students and hopefully inspire some of them to continue their studies." --Jacquelyne Nokusis, former ASAP student

  14. Connecting with Aboriginal Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Hayashi, Diane

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses that teacher-librarians must make themselves aware of a variety of aspects of the local aboriginal culture as well as the differences in interpersonal interaction. Artwork, both student and professional, can make a library more beautiful. Posters or aboriginal role models should be mixed with non-aboriginal

  15. Paleoecology of Beringian ?packrat? middens from central Yukon Territory, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Westgate, John A.; La Farge, Catherine; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2005-03-01

    Rodent middens from ice-rich loess deposits are important new paleoenvironmental archives for Eastern Beringia. Plant macrofossils recovered from three middens associated with Dawson tephra (ca. 24,000 14C yr B.P.) at two sites in Yukon Territory include diverse graminoids, forbs, and mosses. These data suggest substantial local scale floristic and habitat diversity in valley settings, including steppe-tundra on well-drained soils, moist streamside meadows, and hydric habitats. Fossil arctic ground squirrel burrows and nesting sites indicate that permafrost active layers were thicker during Pleistocene glacial periods than at present on north-facing slopes.

  16. Holocene vegetation history from fossil rodent middens near Arequipa, Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmgren, C.A.; Betancourt, J.L.; Rylander, K.A.; Roque, J.; Tovar, O.; Zeballos, H.; Linares, E.; Quade, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Rodent (Abrocoma, Lagidium, Phyllotis) middens collected from 2350 to 2750 m elevation near Arequipa, Peru (16??S), provide an ???9600-yr vegetation history of the northern Atacama Desert, based on identification of >50 species of plant macrofossils. These midden floras show considerable stability throughout the Holocene, with slightly more mesophytic plant assemblages in the middle Holocene. Unlike the southwestern United States, rodent middens of mid-Holocene age are common. In the Arequipa area, the midden record does not reflect any effects of a mid-Holocene mega drought proposed from the extreme lowstand (100 m below modern levels, >6000 to 3500 yr B.P.) of Lake Titicaca, only 200 km east of Arequipa. This is perhaps not surprising, given other evidence for wetter summers on the Pacific slope of the Andes during the middle Holocene as well as the poor correlation of summer rainfall among modern weather stations in the central AndesAtacama Desert. The apparent difference in paleoclimatic reconstructions suggests that it is premature to relate changes observed during the Holocene to changes in El Nin??o Southern Oscillation modes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  17. Aboriginal Education Program, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of time, Aboriginal people have had a high regard for education. Euro-Canadian contact with Aboriginal peoples has and continues to have devastating effects. The encroachment on their traditional territory has affected the lands and resources forever. Generations of experience within the residential school system have greatly…

  18. Misadventures with Aboriginalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Moore

    2011-01-01

    For 30 years the dominant approach to Aboriginal affairs in Australia has been to support cultural recovery and accommodate cultural difference in the expectation that this will enhance Aborigines’ and Torres Strait Islanders’ equality as citizens.This approach has been driven by a dialectic of progressivist desire to ameliorate the effects of earlier colonialist policy and Aboriginalist discourse that assumes isolable

  19. Aboriginal Report - Charting Our Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report outlines Aboriginal learner participation and achievement in British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions for the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations leadership, public…

  20. Aboriginal Education: Fulfilling the Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marlene Brant, Ed.; Davis, Lynne, Ed.; Lahache, Louise, Ed.

    Education is at the heart of the struggle of Canada's Aboriginal peoples to regain control over their lives as communities and nations. Based on hearings and research generated by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP), this collection of articles documents recent progress in transforming Aboriginal education to support…

  1. Late Quaternary Biogeographic and Climatic Changes in Western North America: Evidence From Mapped Arrays of Packrat Midden Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Strickland; R. S. Thompson; K. H. Anderson; R. T. Pelltier

    2005-01-01

    The USGS\\/NOAA North American Packrat Midden Database is a standardized archive of published paleobotanical data derived from packrat middens in western North America. We use midden age, location, and species presence-absence data from this dataset to generate maps illustrating the past occurrence of important woody plant taxa in western North America during the late Quaternary. We explore late Quaternary changes

  2. ABORIGINAL COUNCIL YORK UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    of recruitment, retention and ultimately graduation. The Council is committed to supporting and building the Province for the Aboriginal Education and Training Strategy funds (AETS proposal) · Delegate the two Co as directed by the Co-Chairs; maintaining files and records; maintaining membership lists - current

  3. A 16,000 14 C yr B.P. packrat midden series

    E-print Network

    consisted of open pinyon­juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. P. edulis and J. scopulorum disappeared or were rare in the midden record by 10,670 14 C yr B

  4. Examining Aboriginal Corrections in Canada. Aboriginal Peoples Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPrairie, Carol; And Others

    This report provides information about the state of Aboriginal corrections in Canada. It draws on survey results, analyses of quantitative data, and a review of the relevant literature and research and raises some complex questions about the meaning and future of Aboriginal corrections. There are nine parts that: (1) discuss the reliance on…

  5. Aborigines of the Imaginary: Applying Lacan to Aboriginal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies the work of Jacques Lacan, a French psychoanalyst, to decipher the desire of the teacher in Aboriginal education. It argues that the images of Aboriginal people represented in Australian classrooms are effects of the teacher's Imaginary, the Imaginary being one of the three psychoanalytic domains theorised by Lacan over a period…

  6. Constructing Seasonal Climograph Overlap Envelopes from Holocene Packrat Midden Contents, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saxon E Sharpe

    2002-01-01

    Five Neotoma spp. (packrat) middens are analyzed from Sand Canyon Alcove, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado. Plant remains in middens dated at approximately 9870, 9050, 8460, 3000, and 0 14C yr B.P. are used to estimate Holocene seasonal temperature and precipitation values based on modern plant tolerances published by Thompson et al. (1999a, 1999b). Early Holocene vegetation at the alcove shows

  7. Red squirrel middens influence abundance but not diversity of other vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Posthumus, Erin E; Koprowski, John L; Steidl, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Some animals modify the environment in ways that can influence the resources available to other species. Because red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) create large piles of conifer-cone debris (middens) in which they store cones, squirrels concentrate resources that might affect biodiversity locally. To determine whether other animals are attracted to midden sites beyond their affinity for the same resources that attract red squirrels, we assessed associations between middens, mammals, and birds at population and community levels. We surveyed 75 middens where residency rates of red squirrels varied during the previous five years; sampling along this residency gradient permitted us to evaluate the influence of resources at middens beyond the influence of a resident squirrel. At each location, we quantified vegetation, landscape structure, abundance of conifer cones, and midden structure, and used capture-recapture, distance sampling, and remote cameras to quantify presence, abundance, and species richness of mammals and birds. Red squirrels and the resources they concentrated at middens influenced mammals and birds at the population scale and to a lesser extent at the community scale. At middens with higher residency rates of red squirrels, richness of medium and large mammals increased markedly and species richness of birds increased slightly. After accounting for local forest characteristics, however, only species richness of medium-to-large mammals was associated with a red squirrel being resident during surveys. In areas where red squirrels were resident during surveys or in areas with greater amounts of resources concentrated by red squirrels, abundances of two of four small mammal species and two of four bird species increased. We conclude that the presence of this ecosystem modifier and the resources it concentrates influence abundance of some mammals and birds, which may have implications for maintaining biodiversity across the wide geographic range inhabited by red squirrels and other larderhoarding animals. PMID:25923695

  8. Literacy in Aboriginal Education: An Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doige, Lynda A. Curwen

    2001-01-01

    A historical overview of Aboriginal education in the Maritime Provinces of Canada reveals that an Aboriginal form of literacy that existed before European contact met all the requirements of a valid literacy and is worthy of respect. Teachers' understanding and valuing of Aboriginal literacy would transform Aboriginal education. (Contains 26…

  9. Western Institutional Impediments to Australian Aboriginal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTaggart, Robin

    1991-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of developing an Aboriginal form of education by Aboriginal teachers. Expresses concern that the western bureaucratic educational system will not permit a suitable Aboriginal system to develop. Describes the Deakin-Batchelor Teacher Education Program as an example of action research in Aboriginal teacher education.…

  10. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  11. Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) Arctic ground squirrel middens and a squirrel-eye-view of the mammoth-steppe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant D. Zazula; Duane G. Froese; Scott A. Elias; Svetlana Kuzmina; Rolf W. Mathewes

    2011-01-01

    Fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii ) middens were recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in association with Sheep Creek-Klondike and Dominion Creek tephras (ca 80 ka) exposed in west-central Yukon. These middens provide plant and insect macrofossil evidence for a steppe-tundra ecosystem during the Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) glacial interval. Midden plant and insect macrofossil data are compared with

  12. Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) Arctic ground squirrel middens and a squirrel-eye-view of the mammoth-steppe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant D. Zazula; Duane G. Froese; Scott A. Elias; Svetlana Kuzmina; Rolf W. Mathewes

    2011-01-01

    Fossil arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii) middens were recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in association with Sheep Creek-Klondike and Dominion Creek tephras (ca 80ka) exposed in west-central Yukon. These middens provide plant and insect macrofossil evidence for a steppe-tundra ecosystem during the Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) glacial interval. Midden plant and insect macrofossil data are compared with those previously published

  13. Associative illness among aboriginals.

    PubMed

    Eastwell, H

    1976-03-01

    Associative mental illness occurring in close relatives is described from Numbulwar and Yirrkala Missions, two Aboriginal communities in Eastern Arnhem Land. Since it is a clear example of the influence of culture on mental illness, these factors which facilitate the production of the illnesses are examined. They are (1) cross-identification between members of the clan group; (2) the assumption that mental illness is caused by sorcery which acts to detriment of all the relatives in a clan group, not only on the individual; (3) the belief that mental experiences in general are not private and may be shared by close relatives. PMID:1065327

  14. Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal relations and sustainable forest management in Canada: the influence of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Deborah

    2011-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the emerging role of Aboriginal people in Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) in Canada over the past decade. The 1996 Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) provided guidance and recommendations for improving Aboriginal peoples' position in Canadian society, beginning with strengthening understanding and building relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal parties. This paper explores the extent to which advances in Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal relationships and Aboriginal forestry have been made as a result of RCAP's call for renewed relationships based on co-existence among nations. Such changes have begun to alter the context in which Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal relationships exist with respect to SFM. While governments themselves have generally not demonstrated the leadership called for by RCAP in taking up these challenges, industry and other partners are demonstrating some improvements. A degree of progress has been achieved in terms of lands and resources, particularly with co-management-type arrangements, but a fundamental re-structuring needed to reflect nation-to-nation relationships has not yet occurred. Other factors related to increasing Aboriginal participation in SFM, such as the recognition of Aboriginal and treaty rights, are also highlighted, along with suggestions for moving Aboriginal peoples' SFM agenda forward in the coming years. PMID:19889497

  15. Molecular analysis of an 11,700-year-old rodent midden from the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    PubMed

    Kuch, Melanie; Rohland, Nadin; Betancourt, Julio L; Latorre, Claudio; Steppan, Scott; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2002-05-01

    DNA was extracted from an 11,700-year-old rodent midden from the Atacama Desert, Chile and the chloroplast and animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene sequences were analysed to investigate the floral environment surrounding the midden, and the identity of the midden agent. The plant sequences, together with the macroscopic identifications, suggest the presence of 13 plant families and three orders that no longer exist today at the midden locality, and thus point to a much more diverse and humid climate 11,700 years ago. The mtDNA sequences suggest the presence of at least four different vertebrates, which have been putatively identified as a camelid (vicuna), two rodents (Phyllotis and Abrocoma), and a cardinal bird (Passeriformes). To identify the midden agent, DNA was extracted from pooled faecal pellets, three small overlapping fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were amplified and multiple clones were sequenced. These results were analysed along with complete cytochrome b sequences for several modern Phyllotis species to place the midden sequence phylogenetically. The results identified the midden agent as belonging to an ancestral P. limatus. Today, P. limatus is not found at the midden locality but it can be found 100 km to the north, indicating at least a small range shift. The more extensive sampling of modern Phyllotis reinforces the suggestion that P. limatus is recently derived from a peripheral isolate. PMID:11975707

  16. Learning through an Aboriginal Language: The Impact on Students' English and Aboriginal Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…

  17. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S Hogg; Steffanie Strathdee; Thomas Kerr; Evan Wood; Robert Remis

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. DESIGN AND SETTING: A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. PARTICIPANTS: Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug

  18. Aboriginal Education and the Arts Policy (Draft).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kaye

    This document outlines a policy for the art education of and about Aboriginal people. Teachers in art education should have an understanding of Aboriginal education issues, and developers of art programs should consult with Aboriginal people before beginning work on a program and continuously throughout development. Teachers should take into…

  19. Tooth emergence in Australian Aboriginals.

    PubMed

    Brown, T

    1978-01-01

    Patterns of dental development in 125 Australian Aboriginal boys and girls, in a growth study at Yuendumu in the Northern Territory of Australia, were compared with Australians of European origin using mean tooth emergence curves constructed from the emergence times of right and left side permanent teeth. There were two active phases of tooth emergence separated by a quiescent period of 1.4 years in boys and 1.0 years in girls. Phase one included emergence of the first 12 teeth, that is the first permanent molars and all incisors; phase two included emergence of the canines, premolars and second molars. In Aboriginal girls most teeth emerged earlier than in boys. Compared with the European-descended, the Aboriginal children displayed earlier emergence of most teeth during phase two and a shorter quiescent period between the two phases, an emergence pattern similar to that reported in other non-European populations. In Aboriginals the process tooth emergence and subsequent alignment is aided by adequate space and compensatory bone growth growth in the alveolar regions. These factors, as well as the genetic differences between groups, contribute to the earlier emergence of teeth during phase two in the Aboriginal children. PMID:646323

  20. Constructing Seasonal Climograph Overlap Envelopes from Holocene Packrat Midden Contents, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Saxon E.

    2002-05-01

    Five Neotoma spp. (packrat) middens are analyzed from Sand Canyon Alcove, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado. Plant remains in middens dated at approximately 9870, 9050, 8460, 3000, and 0 14C yr B.P. are used to estimate Holocene seasonal temperature and precipitation values based on modern plant tolerances published by Thompson et al. (1999a, 1999b). Early Holocene vegetation at the alcove shows a transition from a cool/mesic to a warmer, more xeric community between 9050 and 8460 14C yr B.P. Picea pungens, Pinus flexilis, and Juniperus communis exhibit an average minimum elevational displacement of 215 m. Picea pungens and Pinus flexilis are no longer found in the monument. Estimates based on modern plant parameters (Thompson et al., 1999a) suggest that average temperatures at 9870 14C yr B.P. may have been at least 1° to 3°C colder in January and no greater than 3° to 10°C colder in July than modern at this site. Precipitation during this time may have been at least 2 times modern in January and 2 to 3 times modern in July. Discrepancies in estimated temperature and precipitation tolerances between last occurrence and first occurrence taxa in the midden record suggest that midden assemblages may include persisting relict vegetation.

  1. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  2. Contextual Issues Related to Aboriginal Children's Mathematical Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Peter

    This paper focuses on contextual issues arising during an ethnographic study of mathematics instruction for Aboriginal children in New South Wales, Australia. Conversational interviews with Aboriginal children in grades 5-6, Aboriginal parents, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal teachers and staff identified context as 1 of 17 core categories of…

  3. Distinct modes of transmission of tuberculosis in aboriginal and non-aboriginal populations in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yih-Yuan; Tseng, Fan-Chen; Chang, Jia-Ru; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Yeh, Jun-Jun; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Sun, Jun-Ren; Su, Ih-Jen; Dou, Horng-Yunn

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ?20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR)?=?5.98, p<0.0001). MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9%) among southern people, and Beijing (62.5%) and Haarlem (52.9%) among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR) were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (?15%) than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05); MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ?20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p?=?0.01) and aboriginal ethnicity (p?=?0.04) were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy. PMID:25393403

  4. Years of life lost to incarceration: inequities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aboriginal representation in Canadian correctional institutions has increased rapidly over the past decade. We calculated “years of life lost to incarceration” for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians. Methods Incarceration data from provincial databases were used conjointly with demographic data to estimate rates of incarceration and years of life lost to provincial incarceration in (BC) and federal incarceration, by Aboriginal status. We used the Sullivan method to estimate the years of life lost to incarceration. Results Aboriginal males can expect to spend approximately 3.6 months in federal prison and within BC spend an average of 3.2 months in custody in the provincial penal system. Aboriginal Canadians on average spend more time in custody than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The ratio of the Aboriginal incarceration rate to the non-Aboriginal incarceration rate ranged from a low of 4.28 in Newfoundland and Labrador to a high of 25.93 in Saskatchewan. Rates of incarceration at the provincial level were highest among Aboriginals in Manitoba with an estimated rate of 1377.6 individuals in prison per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1311.8 – 1443.4). Conclusions The results indicate substantial differences in life years lost to incarceration for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Canadians. In light of on-going prison expansion in Canada, future research and policy attention should be paid to the public health consequences of incarceration, particularly among Aboriginal Canadians. PMID:24916338

  5. Distinct Modes of Transmission of Tuberculosis in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jia-Ru; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Yeh, Jun-Jun; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Sun, Jun-Ren; Su, Ih-Jen; Dou, Horng-Yunn

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ?20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR)?=?5.98, p<0.0001). MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9%) among southern people, and Beijing (62.5%) and Haarlem (52.9%) among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR) were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (?15%) than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05); MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ?20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p?=?0.01) and aboriginal ethnicity (p?=?0.04) were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy. PMID:25393403

  6. A 16,000 14C yr B.P. packrat midden series from the USA–Mexico Borderlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camille A Holmgren; M. Cristina Peñalba; Kate Aasen Rylander; Julio L Betancourt

    2003-01-01

    A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.–Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and\\/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals:

  7. 76 FR 16388 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...by the IWC thus authorized aboriginal subsistence whaling by the AEWC for bowhead whales. This aboriginal subsistence harvest is conducted...Limitations The IWC regulations, as well as the NOAA regulation at...other prohibitions relating to aboriginal subsistence whaling,...

  8. 77 FR 21540 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...and any other limitations on aboriginal subsistence whaling deriving...Commission set catch limits for aboriginal subsistence use of bowhead...Limitations The IWC regulations, as well as the NOAA regulation at...other prohibitions relating to aboriginal subsistence whaling,...

  9. 78 FR 13028 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...and any other limitations on aboriginal subsistence whaling deriving...Commission set catch limits for aboriginal subsistence use of bowhead...Limitations The IWC regulations, as well as the NOAA regulation at...other prohibitions relating to aboriginal subsistence whaling,...

  10. 75 FR 10223 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...by the IWC thus authorized aboriginal subsistence whaling by the AEWC for bowhead whales. This aboriginal subsistence harvest is conducted...Limitations The IWC regulations, as well as the NOAA regulation at...other prohibitions relating to aboriginal subsistence whaling,...

  11. Aboriginal Languages of Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This WWW Virtual Library site features annotated links to over 130 resources for nearly 40 of Australia's indigenous languages. The resources are categorized by type of resource, language, and region (i.e., Australian state). Included here are links to dictionaries, word lists, complete texts -- some with translations, bilingual education resources, language courses, academic papers, bibliographies, relevant libraries, indigenous songs and sounds, language rights and policy Websites, and more. The resources are succinctly and informatively annotated with graphic icons to represent sites with original text and bibliographies or catalogs as well as dates-of-posting to the directory. Updated in late July, Aboriginal Languages of Australia is created and maintained by David Nathan of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies and sponsored by the Linguistics department of the University of Melbourne.

  12. Australia's aboriginal population and mental health.

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert

    2010-01-01

    It appears that mental illness was present in Australian Aboriginal culture prior to European colonization of Australia but was, most likely, a relatively rare occurrence. The much greater prevalence of mental illness and suicide in the current Aboriginal population is a reflection of the significant disruption to Aboriginal society and has a strong context of social and emotional deprivation. Management of the issues of mental illness in Aboriginal people requires a strong emphasis on cultural safety along with the recognition of family, culture and community in any therapeutic process. PMID:20061862

  13. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered. PMID:25155236

  14. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  15. No Aboriginal Students left Behind in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…

  16. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  17. Aboriginal Healing Foundation Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) is a nonprofit organization established in 1998 with funding from the Canadian Government. Its mission is to support Aboriginal people in building sustainable healing processes that address the legacy of physical and sexual abuse in the residential school system, including intergenerational impacts. AHF…

  18. Aboriginal Literacy: Raising Standards, Blazing Trails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaikezehongai, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Prophecies say that Aboriginal peoples of the Americas will educate and illuminate the world by sharing their Sacred Fire, the spiritual strength that has enabled their survival. Such a vision sustains Aboriginal literacy practitioners, who are developing a unique holistic foundation for the healing and nurturing of minds, bodies, and spirits.…

  19. As We See...Aboriginal Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffarm, Lenore A., Ed.

    For many years, Aboriginal knowledge was invalidated by Western ways of knowing. This collection of papers discusses ways of teaching, ways of knowing, and ways of being that have sustained Aboriginal people for over 500 years. The papers are: "Spirit Writing: Writing Circles as Healing Pedagogy" (Lenore A. Stiffarm); "Pedagogy from the Ethos: An…

  20. Authorship, Authenticity, and Intellectual Property in Australian Aboriginal Art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Van den Bosch; Ruth Rentschler

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes research and legal cases about authorship, authenticity, and intellectual property in Aboriginal art. The concepts of Aboriginality, authenticity, and ownership are used to show the complexities of Aboriginal law, legal copyright, and the moral rights framework. The clan ownership of Dreaming makes Aboriginal artists' relationship different to other artists' individual ownership of their work. Research on this

  1. Aboriginal Students’ Perspectives on the Factors Influencing High School Completion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion MacIver

    2012-01-01

    The Canadian education system is failing its Aboriginal students as evidenced by the significant proportion not completing high school. The Aboriginal population has experienced a significantly greater proportion of people living in poverty and higher rates of unemployment than has the non-Aboriginal population. These factors can be linked to the Aboriginal population's lower educational attainment. The research questions in this

  2. Cross-cultural science teaching: Rekindling traditions for aboriginal students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen S. Aikenhead

    2002-01-01

    The project Rekindling Traditions illustrates one modest way of addressing the under?representation of Aboriginal people in careers related to science, a situation that arises from a colonial type of science education. Unless teaching materials provide a meaningful context to Aboriginal students (defined by their local community), and unless Aboriginal science co?exists with Western science in the science classroom, many Aboriginal

  3. The Holistic/Rainbow Approach to Aboriginal Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Priscilla

    This paper describes approaches to literacy in Canadian aboriginal communities. It provides statistical data on education, employment, income, culture, language, and social issues among Canadian aboriginal people, comparing aboriginal people on and off the reserve. The statistics demonstrate issues that aboriginal literacy learners bring with them…

  4. Molar size sequence in Australian Aboriginals.

    PubMed

    Townsend, G C; Brown, T

    1983-01-01

    Percentage frequencies for molar size sequence of first and second molars were calculated in a group of contemporary Australian Aboriginals using mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions, as well as crown areas. Comparisons were made between sexes, arches, and dimensions within the Aboriginal group and also between Aboriginal data and those published for other populations. The frequencies of the M2 greater than M1 molar size sequence in the Aboriginals fell within the range of frequencies reported for other contemporary populations. Differences in the frequencies of the M2 greater than M1 sequence between the sexes and between arches, together with the relatively high frequency of asymmetry in molar size sequence within Aboriginals, supported the notion that local environmental conditions acting during odontogenesis, together with differential responses to other environmental influences, play an important role in determining observed patterns of molar tooth size. PMID:6869504

  5. Diversity of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strains Colonizing Australian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Vaughan, H.; Beissbarth, J.; Bowman, J. M.; Wiertsema, S.; Riley, T. V.; Leach, A. J.; Richmond, P.; Lehmann, D.; Kirkham, L.-A.

    2014-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) strains are responsible for respiratory-related infections which cause a significant burden of disease in Australian children. We previously identified a disparity in NTHI culture-defined carriage rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children (42% versus 11%). The aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to accurately determine the true NTHI carriage rates (excluding other culture-identical Haemophilus spp.) and assess whether the NTHI strain diversity correlates with the disparity in NTHI carriage rates. NTHI isolates were cultured from 595 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected longitudinally from asymptomatic Aboriginal (n = 81) and non-Aboriginal (n = 76) children aged 0 to 2 years living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region, Western Australia. NTHI-specific 16S rRNA gene PCR and PCR ribotyping were conducted on these isolates. Confirmation of NTHI by 16S rRNA gene PCR corrected the NTHI carriage rates from 42% to 36% in Aboriginal children and from 11% to 9% in non-Aboriginal children. A total of 75 different NTHI ribotypes were identified, with 51% unique to Aboriginal children and 13% unique to non-Aboriginal children (P < 0.0001). The strain richness (proportion of different NTHI ribotypes) was similar for Aboriginal (19%, 65/346) and non-Aboriginal children (19%, 37/192) (P = 0.909). Persistent carriage of the same ribotype was rare in the two groups, but colonization with multiple NTHI strains was more common in Aboriginal children than in non-Aboriginal children. True NTHI carriage was less than that estimated by culture. The Aboriginal children were more likely to carry unique and multiple NTHI strains, which may contribute to the chronicity of NTHI colonization and subsequent disease. PMID:24501028

  6. Body mass index and hyperuricemia differences between aboriginal and non-aboriginal children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, F T; Chang, S J; Wu, Y Y; Wang, T N; Ko, Y C

    1995-06-01

    To explore the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and uric acid in different races before growing up into adulthood, we selected a total of 1236 five to 14 year-old children in the period from March to December 1994. The children originated from three Aboriginal tribes (the Bunun, and the Paiwan tribes--classified as South-Aborigines and Atayal tribe as North-Aborigines) and two non-Aboriginal tribes (Fukein-Taiwanese and Hakka), all of whom are from the following four countries: Chien-Shih, Sandimen, Gaushuh and Sanmin. The results showed that the percentage of hyperuricemia (> or = 7.5 mg/dl) was 28.5% (352/1236) and of obesity (BMI > or = 22 kg/m2) was 9.5% (118/1236). Increased uric acid concentration was found to be related to age, sex, BMI, race, triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels in both the primary analysis and after the adjusted logistic regression model. Obesity did not vary with sex (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.7-1.5), or with Aborigines in north Taiwan as compared with non-Aborigines (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6-1.6), but the logistic regression model adjusted for age indicated large BMI values for children with high serum uric acid concentration, triglyceride levels and the Aborigines who originated from south Taiwan. It was concluded from this study that both of the North-Aborigines and South-Aborigines made an important influence on serum uric acid concentration in children, especially the South-Aborigines made difference to BMI as compared with non-Aborigines and North-Aborigines. PMID:7629916

  7. AIDS and the aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Lambert, D T

    1993-01-01

    A concise portrait of HIV and AIDS within the Aboriginal community is difficult to present. Just as there are different customs and traditions among tribes, so are there different ways by which this issue is being addressed. The response to HIV/AIDS in the Aboriginal community is the process of moving from an individual or personal perspective to an immediate and extended family approach through the community, nation or society, and finally to the greater picture, Mother Earth. We don't necessarily move through in this order, rather we go back and forth as the need arises. When we deal with HIV or AIDS, it is important to view how this will affect our whole life: physical, mental, emotional and spiritual aspects of ourselves as well as financial, psychosocial and other dimensions. The teachings and study of children, youth, adults and elders are also discussed. We recognize the work we do in this area now will be a tool for survival in the future. PMID:8481869

  8. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review.

    PubMed

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence gambling by Aboriginal groups, which are individually different, making it difficult to implement a cohesive strategy to address gambling-related harms. Because of this complexity, a thorough literature review is necessary to identify gaps in policy and research. This paper uses a public health framework to consider multi-dimensional influences (personal, environmental, economic, cultural and social) that affect gambling uptake. Such analysis is also important for identifying risk factors which facilitate the development and maintenance of problem gambling and potentially for underpinning protection, prevention and treatment programs. It is advised that strategies be developed in consultation with Aboriginal peoples to guide public health policy and research to minimise any gambling-related harms. PMID:24707239

  9. Aboriginal healing: regaining balance and culture.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Linda M; Logan, Jo; Goulet, Jean-Guy; Barton, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    This ethnographic study explored the question, How do urban-based First Nations peoples use healing traditions to address their health issues? The objectives were to examine how Aboriginal traditions addressed health issues and explore the link between such traditions and holism in nursing practice. Data collection consisted of individual interviews, participant observations, and field notes. Three major categories that emerged from the data analysis were: following a cultural path, gaining balance, and sharing in the circle of life. The global theme of healing holistically included following a cultural path by regaining culture through the use of healing traditions; gaining balance in the four realms of spiritual, emotional, mental, and physical health; and sharing in the circle of life by cultural interactions between Aboriginal peoples and non-Aboriginal health professionals. Implications for practice include incorporating the concepts of balance, holism, and cultural healing into the health care services for diverse Aboriginal peoples. PMID:16410432

  10. Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) Arctic ground squirrel middens and a squirrel-eye-view of the mammoth-steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Elias, Scott A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2011-08-01

    Fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii) middens were recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in association with Sheep Creek-Klondike and Dominion Creek tephras (ca 80 ka) exposed in west-central Yukon. These middens provide plant and insect macrofossil evidence for a steppe-tundra ecosystem during the Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) glacial interval. Midden plant and insect macrofossil data are compared with those previously published for Late Wisconsinan middens dating to ˜25-29 14C ka BP (MIS 3/2) from the region. Although multivariate statistical comparisons suggest differences between the relative abundances of plant macrofossils, the co-occurrence of steppe-tundra plants and insects (e.g., Elymus trachycaulus, Kobresia myosuroides, Artemisia frigida, Phlox hoodii, Connatichela artemisiae) provides evidence for successive reestablishment of the zonal steppe-tundra habitats during cold stages of the Late Pleistocene. Arctic ground squirrels were well adapted to the cold, arid climates, steppe-tundra vegetation and well-drained loessal soils that characterize cold stages of Late Pleistocene Beringia. These glacial conditions enabled arctic ground squirrel populations to expand their range to the interior regions of Alaska and Yukon, including the Klondike, where they are absent today. Arctic ground squirrels have endured numerous Quaternary climate oscillations by retracting populations to disjunct "interglacial refugia" during warm interglacial periods (e.g., south-facing steppe slopes, well-drained arctic and alpine tundra areas) and expanding their distribution across the mammoth-steppe biome during cold, arid glacial intervals.

  11. Do Native American kitchen (midden) sites influence the cover of introduced species? Todd Karalius and Peter Alpert

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    as high on middens than off (P = 0.005). Native and introduced perennial grasses were marginally higher, and were probably both highly disturbed and enriched for nutrients, but are now completely revegetated. g g.4 0.6 0.8 1 ucedcover/totalcover Cover (mean [SE]) of introduced annual grasses was more than twice

  12. Does the EDI Equivalently Measure Facets of School Readiness for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhajarine, Nazeem; Puchala, Chassidy; Janus, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current paper was to examine the equivalence of the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher rating measure of school readiness, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The current study used an approach, which analyzes the structure and properties of the EDI at the subdomain level. Similar subdomain score distributions…

  13. Spirituality and aboriginal mental health: an examination of the relationship between Aboriginal spirituality and mental health.

    PubMed

    Hatala, Andrew R

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on Aboriginal [Native American] spirituality has demonstrated that some of its dimensions have significant, positive effects on health and healing. This review will explore and highlight some important spiritual domains and characteristics of Aboriginal life that are significant factors in both the prevention of and recovery from various mental health issues afflicting the Canadian Aboriginal population today. Findings from current research in this area is explored and presented as grounds for supporting the current objectives. As demonstrated, Aboriginal perspectives on health and healing are broader than those of biomedicine, encompassing emotional and spiritual aspects as well as the mental and physical. Mental health practitioners should, therefore, include spiritual dimensions while working with Aboriginal patients, not only to respect the patients' worldview but also for the demonstrated positive effects on healing. PMID:20664135

  14. Amino acid racemization dating of marine shells: A mound of possibilities.

    PubMed

    Demarchi, Beatrice; Williams, Matt G; Milner, Nicky; Russell, Nicola; Bailey, Geoff; Penkman, Kirsty

    2011-07-01

    Shell middens are one of the most important and widespread indicators for human exploitation of marine resources and occupation of coastal environments. Establishing an accurate and reliable chronology for these deposits has fundamental implications for understanding the patterns of human evolution and dispersal. This paper explores the potential application of a new methodology of amino acid racemization (AAR) dating of shell middens and describes a simple protocol to test the suitability of different molluscan species. This protocol provides a preliminary test for the presence of an intracrystalline fraction of proteins (by bleaching experiments and subsequent heating at high temperature), checking the closed system behaviour of this fraction during diagenesis. Only species which pass both tests can be considered suitable for further studies to obtain reliable age information. This amino acid geochronological technique is also applied to midden deposits at two latitudinal extremes: Northern Scotland and the Southern Red Sea. Results obtained in this study indicate that the application of this new method of AAR dating of shells has the potential to aid the geochronological investigation of shell mounds in different areas of the world. PMID:21776187

  15. Non-timber Forest Products and Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin J. Marles

    Ethnobotanical research was conducted in over 30 Aboriginal communi- ties within Canada's boreal forest region. Specific methods for the research were developed that involved a high degree of participation by Aboriginal people in every stage of the project, with the result that well over 100 Aboriginal elders contributed information on the uses of more that 200 species of plants as

  16. The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Ningwakwe Priscilla

    2003-01-01

    Aboriginal literacy programs in Canada are using literacy as a means of reclaiming Aboriginal languages and a positive cultural identity. The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal literacy uses seven ways of knowing, each corresponding to a color. The approach recognizes that spirit, heart, mind, and body equally contribute to a life of balance,…

  17. Supporting Educational Success for Aboriginal Students: Identifying Key Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The academic difficulties experienced by many Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, Inuit) students in Canada have been well-documented. Indicators such as school persistence and post-secondary enrollment are typically far lower for Aboriginal students as a group compared to non-Aboriginal students. Identifying facilitators of success is key to…

  18. The Urgency of Postsecondary Education for Aboriginal Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jane P.

    2008-01-01

    Canada has an unprecedented need to increase the number of Aboriginal peoples who undertake and complete postsecondary programs. Endorsing postsecondary education for Aboriginal peoples advocates an invigorating, fortifying future for Aboriginal peoples, their families, and their communities. Additionally, the postsecondary educational…

  19. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis in Australian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Young, R J; Hoy, W E; Kincaid-Smith, P; Seymour, A E; Bertram, J F

    2000-09-01

    We have previously described the prevalence of glomerulomegaly in biopsy specimens from Australian Aborigines with renal disease, a phenomenon documented in a number of other indigenous populations. Many of the biopsy specimens showed variable degrees of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Correlations between glomerular size and FSGS have been described in various animal models, as well as studies of humans. The aim of this study is to determine whether a relation exists between glomerular volume and severity of FSGS in biopsy specimens from Australian Aboriginals in the Northern Territory and Aboriginal inhabitants of the Tiwi Islands (Bathurst Island and Melville Island, Northern Territory, Australia). Consecutive clinical biopsy specimens were obtained from 78 non-Tiwi and 72 Tiwi Aboriginals. Glomerular volume was estimated using the stereological method of Weibel and Gomez. FSGS was graded from 0 to 4; 0 indicates no sclerosis and 4 indicates severe sclerosis. A biphasic relationship between glomerular size and severity of FSGS was identified. As the severity of FSGS increased from grade 0 to grade 3, glomerular size also increased. For both populations studied, glomeruli scored as grades 1, 2, and 3 were approximately 50% (P< 0.001), 65% (P< 0.001), and 100% (P< 0.001) larger than normal glomeruli, respectively. However, in glomeruli with grade 4 FSGS, glomerular size decreased to the size of normal glomeruli. These results show a biphasic relationship between severity of FSGS and glomerular size in Australian Aborigines. PMID:10977779

  20. Rodent middens reveal episodic, long-distance plant colonizations across the hyperarid Atacama Desert over the last 34,000 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, Francisca P.; Latorre, Claudio; Maldonado, Antonio; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To document the impact of late Quaternary pluvial events on plant movements between the coast and the Andes across the Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Location Sites are located along the lower and upper fringes of absolute desert (1100–2800 m a.s.l.), between the western slope of the Andes and the Coastal Ranges of northern Chile (24–26° S). Methods We collected and individually radiocarbon dated 21 rodent middens. Plant macrofossils (fruits, seeds, flowers and leaves) were identified and pollen content analysed. Midden assemblages afford brief snapshots of local plant communities that existed within the rodents' limited foraging range during the several years to decades that it took the midden to accumulate. These assemblages were then compared with modern floras to determine the presence of extralocal species and species provenance. Results Five middens span the last glacial period (34–21 ka) and three middens are from the last glacial–interglacial transition (19–11 ka). The remaining 13 middens span the last 7000 years. Coastal hyperarid sites exhibit low taxonomic richness in middens at 19.3, 1.1, 1.0, 0.9, 0.5 ka and a modern sample. Middens are also dominated by the same plants that occur today. In contrast, middens dated to 28.1, 21.3, 17.3, 3.7 and 0.5 ka contain more species, including Andean extralocals. Precordillera middens (c. 2700 m) show a prominent increase in plant macrofossil richness, along with the appearance of Andean extralocals and sedges at 34.5 and 18.9 ka. Six younger middens dated to 6.1–0.1 ka are similar to the modern local vegetation. Main conclusions Increased species richness and Andean extralocal plants occurred along the current lower fringes of absolute desert during the last glacial–interglacial transition and late Holocene. The absence of soil carbonates indicates the persistence of absolute desert throughout the Quaternary. Colonization by Andean plants could have been accomplished through long-distance seed dispersal either by animals or floods that originated in the Andes. We postulate that dispersal would have been most frequent during regional pluvial events and associated increases in groundwater levels, forming local wetlands in the absolute desert, and generating large floods capable of crossing the Central Depression.

  1. Closing the Education Gap: A Case for Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada, a Look at the Aboriginal Headstart Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Mai

    2011-01-01

    This paper raises awareness concerning the education gap between Aboriginal youth and the non-Aboriginal youth population in Canada. It argues that the historical consequences of colonialism that resulted in diminished sense of self-worth, self-determination, and culture have placed Aboriginals at the low-end of the socio-economic strata. This…

  2. Arctic ground squirrels of the mammoth-steppe: paleoecology of Late Pleistocene middens (˜24 000 29 450 14C yr BP), Yukon Territory, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant D. Zazula; Duane G. Froese; Scott A. Elias; Svetlana Kuzmina; Rolf W. Mathewes

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents paleoecological analyses of 48 fossil arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii) middens (nests and caches) recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in the Klondike region of west-central Yukon Territory. AMS radiocarbon dates and stratigraphic association of middens with Dawson tephra (˜25 300 14C yr BP), indicate these paleoecological data reflect the onset of glacial conditions of early Marine Isotope

  3. Arctic ground squirrels of the mammoth-steppe: paleoecology of Late Pleistocene middens (?24 000–29 450 14C yr BP), Yukon Territory, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant D. Zazula; Duane G. Froese; Scott A. Elias; Svetlana Kuzmina; Rolf W. Mathewes

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents paleoecological analyses of 48 fossil arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii) middens (nests and caches) recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in the Klondike region of west-central Yukon Territory. AMS radiocarbon dates and stratigraphic association of middens with Dawson tephra (?25300 14C yr BP), indicate these paleoecological data reflect the onset of glacial conditions of early Marine Isotope Stage

  4. Seattle Art Museum: Australian Aboriginal Art

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-22

    The fascinating world of Australian aboriginal art is captured in this digital collection from the Seattle Art Museum, a real find. Designed to complement an in situ exhibit, this collection brings together a number of works from the Kaplan & Levi Collection. Visitors will find that the materials here are divided into three primary areas: "Home," "Dream," and "Art." In the "Home" area, visitors can learn about the geographical regions where aboriginal peoples live. Moving on, visitors can click on the "Dream" area to learn about how the process of dreaming "encompasses the cosmologies and belief systems of Aboriginal societies." The "Art" section features an image gallery that contains works like Wati Kutjara's arresting "Two Men Story" and the elliptical shapes of Mitjili Napanangka Gibson's "Wilkinkarra."

  5. A research review: exploring the health of Canada's Aboriginal youth

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Ashley; Wilson, Kathi

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the current state of health research on Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youth in Canada. Design A search of published academic literature on Canadian Aboriginal youth health, including a comprehensive review of both non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal youth research, was conducted using MEDLINE and summarized. Methodology A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published over a 10-year period (2000–2010). The search was limited to research articles pertaining to Canadian youth, using various synonyms for “Canada,” “youth,” and “Aboriginal.” Each article was coded according to 4 broad categories: Aboriginal identity, geographic location, research topic (health determinants, health status, health care), and the 12 key determinants of health proposed by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). Results Of the 117 articles reviewed, only 34 pertained to Aboriginal youth, while the remaining 83 pertained to non-Aboriginal youth. The results revealed major discrepancies within the current body of research with respect to the geographic representation of Aboriginal youth, with several provinces missing from the literature, including the northern territories. Furthermore, the current research is not reflective of the demographic composition of Aboriginal youth, with an under-representation of Métis and urban Aboriginal youth. Health status of Aboriginal youth has received the most attention, appearing in 79% of the studies reviewed compared with 57% of the non-Aboriginal studies. The number of studies that focus on health determinants and health care is comparable for both groups, with the former accounting for 62 and 64% and the latter comprising 26 and 19% of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal studies, respectively. However, this review reveals several differences with respect to specific focus on health determinants between the two populations. In non-Aboriginal youth studies, all the 12 key determinants of health of PHAC are explored, whereas in Aboriginal youth studies the health profile remains incomplete and several key determinants and health indicators are neglected. Conclusions The current studies are not reflective of the demographic and geographic profiles of Aboriginal youth in Canada, and they have also failed to provide a comprehensive examination of their unique health needs and concerns compared with studies on non-Aboriginal youth. PMID:22973569

  6. Communication disorders after stroke in Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Purpose: Limited research exists on acquired communication disorders (ACD) in Aboriginal Australians despite their high rates of stroke. Their uptake of rehabilitation services is low, and little information is available on functional consequences for this population. This pilot study explored consequences of ACD for Aboriginal Australians after stroke, including their experiences of services received. Method: Semi-structured interviews were collected with 13 Aboriginal people with ACD, and family members, in Perth. Ages ranged from 30 to 78 years and time post stroke from 0.5 to 29 years. A qualitative, thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken. Results: The key themes which emerged were "getting on with life", coping with change, independence/interdependence, the importance of communication for maintaining family and community connection, role and identity issues and viewing the stroke consequences within the broader context of co-morbidities. Conclusions: While similar life disruptions were found to those previously reported in the general stroke population, this study highlighted differences, which reflect the particular context of ACD for Aboriginal people and which need to be considered when planning future services. While implications are limited due to small numbers, the findings emphasise the importance of a holistic approach, and integration of communication treatments into community-led social activities. Implications for Rehabilitation Aboriginal Australians frequently experience a range of concurrent and complex co-morbidities and demanding social or family circumstances at the same time as coping with communication disorders post-stroke. A holistic approach to post stroke rehabilitation may be appropriate with services that accommodate communication disorders, delivered in collaboration with Aboriginal organisations, emphasising positive attitudes and reintegration into community as fully as possible. Communication and yarning are important for maintaining family and community connection and identity, and family and community context should be incorporated into all assessment and treatment activities. PMID:25365701

  7. Medical interactions, complaints, and the construction of Aboriginality in remote Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eirik Saethre

    2009-01-01

    In remote Australian Aboriginal communities, medical interactions between non-Aboriginal nurses and Aboriginal patients often use health narratives to enact and contest social identities. Nursing staff complain that Aboriginal patients do not comply with their prescribed medication nor attend the clinic appropriately. Nurses often blame these behaviours on irresponsibility and laziness. Conversely, Aboriginal people complain that nursing staff are racist and

  8. Nutrition and health of Victorian Aborigines (Kooris).

    PubMed

    Hodgson, J M; Wahlqvist, M L

    1993-03-01

    Prior to European settlement of Australia, the health of Aboriginal people was probably better than that of the Europeans. In the past 200 years there has been a considerable improvement in the health of non-Aboriginal Australians, and a deterioration in the health of Aborigines. Some improvement in Aboriginal health has occurred in recent times. The Aboriginal people who live in Victoria are known as Kooris. An understanding of traditional Koori diets is important because people were generally healthy eating these diets. The traditional Koori diet was high in dietary fibre, unrefined carbohydrates, and protein, with adequate vitamins and minerals, and low in total fat and saturated fat, sucrose, salt, and without alcohol. Their lifestyle also dictated a high level of physical activity resulting in a reduced likelihood of overweight. The other notable aspect of the traditional diet was the variety of foods consumed. The present health problems of the Koori people stem primarily from their loss of ancestral lands, and social and cultural disruption. Kooris went from a hunter gatherer society to one almost entirely dependent upon mission handouts. There are many factors which may now contribute to the continued poor health and nutrition of Kooris. The relative importance of any of these factors is unknown. Morbidity and mortality data provide valuable information about the overall health of populations and their nutrition status. The Australian population is one of the healthiest in the world. There is however a remarkable difference between the health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The leading cause of death for both male and female Aborigines is disease of the circulatory system, including ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Deaths due to circulatory system disease is 2.2 and 2.6 times higher than the age adjusted Australian rates for men and women respectively, and between 10 and 20 times higher for young and middle aged adult Aborigines. Rates of hospital admission are 2.5-3 times higher than the rest of the population, with the highest rates being for infants. Although mortality statistics do not show nutrition related disorders such as obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and hypertension to be significant contributors to mortality, these statistics are not representative of the problem. Across Australia the prevalence of obesity, NIDDM, and hypertension are higher for Aborigines than the general population. Available data on morbidity and mortality for Aborigines in Victoria are limited, but the indication is that the overall situation is similar to the rest of Australia. If the situation for Victoria is similar to the rest of Australia, then this would suggest that the contemporary Koori diet is too high in fat and perhaps alcohol, and too low in fibre and variety. Further evidence is required to veri 644 fy this suggestion. There are several areas where information on Koori nutrition is limited or lacking. These include food intake, nutritional status, and dietary practices, such as cooking methods, salt and sugar use and meal patterns. It is generally agreed that information on Koori nutrition should be made available so that the problems can be identified, and strategies put in place to address the problem areas. PMID:24352063

  9. Test of the prey-base hypothesis to explain use of red squirrel midden sites by American martens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean E. Pearson; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2001-01-01

    We tested the prey-base hypothesis to determine whether selection of red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) midden sites (cone caches) by American martens (Martes americana) for resting and denning could be attributed to greater abundance of small-mammal prey. Five years of livetrapping at 180 sampling stations in 2 drainages showed that small mammals, particularly red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi) and shrews (Sorex spp.),

  10. A 16,000 14C yr B.P. packrat midden series from the USA-Mexico Borderlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmgren, C.A.; Penalba, M.C.; Rylander, K.A.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals: 16,000-10,000 and 4000-0 14C yr B.P. Vegetation along pluvial lake margins consisted of open pinyon-juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis, and a rich understory of C4 annuals and grasses. This summer-flowering understory is also characteristic of modern desert grassland in the Borderlands and indicates at least moderate summer precipitation. P. edulis and J. scopulorum disappeared or were rare in the midden record by 10,670 14C yr B.P. The late Holocene is marked by the arrival of Chihuahuan desert scrub elements and few departures as the vegetation gradually became modern in character. Larrea tridentata appears as late as 2190 14C yr B.P. based on macrofossils, but may have been present as early as 4095 14C yr B.P. based on pollen. Fouquieria splendens, one of the dominant desert species present at the site today, makes its first appearance only in the last millennium. The midden pollen assemblages are difficult to interpret; they lack modern analogs in surface pollen assemblages from stock tanks at different elevations in the Borderlands. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A 16,000 14C yr B.P. packrat midden series from the USA-Mexico Borderlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, Camille A.; Peñalba, M. Cristina; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2003-11-01

    A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals: 16,000-10,000 and 4000-0 14C yr B.P. Vegetation along pluvial lake margins consisted of open pinyon-juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis, and a rich understory of C 4 annuals and grasses. This summer-flowering understory is also characteristic of modern desert grassland in the Borderlands and indicates at least moderate summer precipitation. P. edulis and J. scopulorum disappeared or were rare in the midden record by 10,670 14C yr B.P. The late Holocene is marked by the arrival of Chihuahuan desert scrub elements and few departures as the vegetation gradually became modern in character. Larrea tridentata appears as late as 2190 14C yr B.P. based on macrofossils, but may have been present as early as 4095 14C yr B.P. based on pollen. Fouquieria splendens, one of the dominant desert species present at the site today, makes its first appearance only in the last millennium. The midden pollen assemblages are difficult to interpret; they lack modern analogs in surface pollen assemblages from stock tanks at different elevations in the Borderlands.

  12. Preliminary assessment of late quaternary vegetation and climate of southeastern Utah based on analyses of packrat middens. [CRWM program

    SciTech Connect

    Betancourt, J.L.; Biggar, N.

    1985-06-01

    Packrat midden sequences from two caves (elevations 1585 and 2195 m; 5200 and 7200 ft) southwest of the Abajo Mountains in southeast Utah record vegetation changes that are attributed to climatic changes occurring during the last 13,000 years. These data are useful in assessing potential future climates at proposed nuclear waste sites in the area. Paleoclimates are reconstructed by defining modern elevational analogs for the vegetation assemblages identified in the middens. Based on the midden record, a climate most extreme from the present occurred prior to approximately 10,000 years before present (BP), when mean annual temperature was probably 3 to 4C (5.5 to 7F) cooler than present. However, cooling could not have exceeded 5C (9F) at 1585 m (5200 ft). Accompanying mean annual precipitation is estimated to have been from 35 to 140% greater than at present, with rainfall concentrated in the winter months. Vegetational changes beginning approximately 10,000 years BP are attributed to increased summer and mean annual temperatures, a decreasing frequency of spring freezes, and a shift from winter- to summer-dominant rainfall. Greater effective moisture than present is inferred at both cave sites from approximately 8000 to 4000 years BP. Modern flora was present at both sites by about 2000 years BP.

  13. Response to Principal's Vision Statement Aboriginal Council

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    Response to Principal's Vision Statement Aboriginal Council 15 April 2010 In the Principal's vision statement for academic planning entitled "Where Next", he posed several questions to individual academic workgroup meetings on Feb 23, April 13, a Council meeting on March 2, and a vision gathering held on April 6

  14. Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind Canadian Supplement to THE STATE OF THE WORLD'S CHILDREN 2009 #12;© Canadian UNICEF Committee, 2009 Permission to reproduce any part of this publication-8035 info@unicef.ca www.unicef.ca ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS UNICEF is the world's leader for children, working

  15. Aboriginal Connections: An Indigenous Peoples Web Directory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by Rob Wesley, this Web directory indexes sites related to Canadian aboriginal, Native American, and international indigenous peoples and cultures. The annotated links are organized by topic, including First Nations, Education, Government, History, and Organizations, among others. What's new, a top 100 listing, and an internal search engine are also provided. Visitors are welcome to submit additional sites for inclusion.

  16. Community Control and Self-Determination in Aboriginal Education Research: The Changed Roles, Relationships and Responsibilities of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Researchers and Aboriginal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shayne; Stewart, Ian

    This paper examines ongoing changes related to appropriate methods and practices in Aboriginal educational research, including community control of research based on the principle of self-determination. This assertion of control includes the redefinition of relationships in the research process; appropriate initiation of research projects;…

  17. Attitudes towards Aboriginal issues in Saskatchewan

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Attitudes towards Aboriginal issues in Saskatchewan: A research brief January 2012 SaskatchewanGrane, St. Thomas More College, University of Saskatchewan Dr. Loleen Berdahl, University of Saskatchewan Dr and growing part of the Saskatchewan population. As of the 2006 Census (2011 Census data is not yet available

  18. BC College and Institute Aboriginal Former Student Outcomes, 1999. Special Report on Aboriginal Former Students from the 1995, 1997, and 1999 BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology, Victoria.

    This report examines the employment, further education, and satisfaction outcomes of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal former students who attended public colleges and institutes in British Columbia (Canada). Data were drawn from 1995, 1997, and 1999 surveys of 2,323 Aboriginal and 55,252 non-Aboriginal former students approximately 9 months after…

  19. Knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health.

    PubMed

    Estey, Elizabeth; Kmetic, Andrew; Reading, Jeffrey

    2008-06-01

    Interest in the concept of knowledge translation (KT), one of the many terms used to describe the process(es) through which knowledge is transformed into action, is increasingly prevalent in the mainstream health literature. Despite a pressing need, little has been done to address the implications of evolving theories and strategies for KT in an Aboriginal context. The authors attempt to narrow the gap by reviewing the literature on Aboriginal KT and exploring ways to extend this work by engaging with the Aboriginal health research literature and the KT literature. They argue that the inclusion of multiple perspectives and an examination of the social and political context in which Aboriginal KT takes shape are important for the conceptual development of Aboriginal KT. This article is particularly relevant for those involved at the interface between nursing practice and efforts to improve Aboriginal health. PMID:18714896

  20. Conceptualizing food security or aboriginal people in Canada.

    PubMed

    Power, Elaine M

    2008-01-01

    Food insecurity is an urgent public health issue for Aboriginal people in Canada because of high rates of poverty; the effects of global climate change and environmental pollution on traditional food systems; and high rates of diet-related diseases. However, to date, public health has operated with conceptualizations of food security that were developed in non-Aboriginal contexts; they do not take full account of the traditional food practices of Aboriginal people or Aboriginal conceptualizations of food security. In this paper, I argue that there are unique food security considerations for Aboriginal people related to the harvesting, sharing and consumption of country or traditional foods, which impact the four pillars of food security: access, availability, supply and utilization. Thus food security conceptualizations, policies, and programs for Aboriginal people must consider both the market food system and traditional food system. Given the centrality of traditional food practices to cultural health and survival, I propose that cultural food security is an additional level of food security beyond individual, household and community levels. Conceptualizations of food security for Aboriginal people will be incomplete without qualitative research to understand Aboriginal perspectives; such research must take account of the diversity of Aboriginal people. PMID:18457280

  1. Factors associated with pretreatment and treatment dropouts: comparisons between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients admitted to medical withdrawal management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Addiction treatment faces high pretreatment and treatment dropout rates, especially among Aboriginals. In this study we examined characteristic differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients accessing an inpatient medical withdrawal management program, and identified risk factors associated with the probabilities of pretreatment and treatment dropouts, respectively. Methods 2231 unique clients (Aboriginal?=?451; 20%) referred to Vancouver Detox over a two-year period were assessed. For both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups, multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted with pretreatment dropout and treatment dropout as dependent variables, respectively. Results Aboriginal clients had higher pretreatment and treatment dropout rates compared to non-Aboriginal clients (41.0% vs. 32.7% and 25.9% vs. 20.0%, respectively). For Aboriginal people, no fixed address (NFA) was the only predictor of pretreatment dropout. For treatment dropout, significant predictors were: being female, having HCV infection, and being discharged on welfare check issue days or weekends. For non-Aboriginal clients, being male, NFA, alcohol as a preferred substance, and being on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) at referral were associated with pretreatment dropout. Significant risk factors for treatment dropout were: being younger, having a preferred substance other than alcohol, having opiates as a preferred substance, and being discharged on weekends. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of social factors for the Aboriginal population compared to substance-specific factors for the non-Aboriginal population. These findings should help clinicians and decision-makers to recognize the importance of social supports especially housing and initiate appropriate services to improve treatment intake and subsequent retention, physical and mental health outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of treatment. PMID:24325629

  2. Assessing the utility of elemental ratios as a paleotemperature proxy in shells of patelloid limpets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graniero, Lauren; Surge, Donna; Gillikin, David

    2015-04-01

    Archaeological shell and fish middens are rich sources of paleoenvironmental proxy data. Carbonate hard part remains contained in such deposits have been used as archives of coastal marine climate and human-climate interactions. Oxygen isotope records from fast-growing limpet shells potentially capture summer and winter seasons, and thus, approach the full seasonal range of sea surface temperature (SST). Fast-growing shells are often short-lived, providing "snap-shots" of multi-year seasonal cycles. Patelloid limpet shells are common constituents in archaeological middens found along European, African, and South American coastlines. Oxygen isotope ratios of archaeological limpet shells from the genus, Patella, have been used to reconstruct seasonal SST and ocean circulation patterns during the Late Quaternary. Such studies depend on the ability to constrain the oxygen isotope ratio of seawater; therefore, alternative proxies are necessary for coastal localities where this is not possible. Elemental ratios (e.g., Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca) have been used as paleotemperature proxies in corals and foraminifera with varying degrees of success and appear problematic in bivalves. Here, we test whether such elemental ratios are useful as an alternative SST proxy in patelloid limpet shells.

  3. An analysis of the lithic remains from several ring middens in Crockett County, Texas: A study in site function 

    E-print Network

    Moore, Bill

    1980-01-01

    of 1976, the Texas Archeological Society (TAS) conducted a field school 1n western Crockett County, Texas. The field school was des1gned to salvage valuable archeological data from a sample of s1tes in Musk Hog Canyon which, at that time, was endangered...) are burned rock mi ddens, The remaining site (41 CX 133) is a small rockshel ter . Ring middens represent a common archeological phenomenon unique to western Texas, southeastern New Mexico and adjoining areas . It is gen- erally accepted...

  4. Residential Schools: Impact on Aboriginal Students' Academic and Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Rosemary; Josefowitz, Nina; Cole, Ester

    2006-01-01

    Government commissions have demonstrated that residential schools' ability to educate aboriginal students was compromised by widespread problems including (a) inadequate curriculum, staffing, instruction time, and parental involvement; (b) racism; (c) prohibition against the use of aboriginal language; and (d) maltreatment. This article uses…

  5. Mental health services for aboriginal men: mismatches and solutions.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Anton N; Maybery, Darryl; Gruis, Hilton

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the perceptions of Aboriginal stakeholders as well as mental health personnel on improving Aboriginal men's access to mental health services. From January 2009 to June 2010, 23 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups were conducted with 17 Aboriginal stakeholders and 29 mental health staff from a regional mental health service in Victoria. A qualitative description design was adopted and data were analysed thematically. Seven themes emerged from the data. Three themes focused on the mismatch between mainstream mental health service provision and the mental health needs of Aboriginal men. They include barriers to gaining entry into services, barriers to engagement with services, and staffing problems in the services. The remaining four themes related to possible solutions to improving men's access to services and included building men's confidence in services, developing relationships with the Aboriginal Community, enhancing flexibility of services, and strengthening the role of the Koori Mental Health Liaison Officer. The dual perspectives of Aboriginal stakeholders and service providers provide a more comprehensive picture of the ground realities concerning Aboriginal men's access to mental health services. The findings have implications for the provision of culturally sensitive mental health services for Aboriginal men. PMID:22571647

  6. Aboriginal Education at Two Australian Schools: Under One Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hones, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares his experience visiting two schools that serve Aboriginal children in the state of Queensland, Australia: (1) Cherbourg State School in central Queensland; and (2) Kuranda State School in the Far North. Prior to his visit he had learned somewhat of Australia's troubled history regarding Aboriginal education, a…

  7. Reconsidering Approaches to Aboriginal Science and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterenberg, Gladys; Hogue, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, Aboriginal postsecondary enrollment and completion rates are significantly lower than those of non-Aboriginal students. This is most evident in studies involving science and mathematics. The investigation of this issue was informed by focus group discussions with eight participants representing a Blackfoot community. Themes emerging in…

  8. Aboriginal English: Some Grammatical Features and Their Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…

  9. Aboriginal University Student Success in British Columbia: Time for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oloo, James Alan

    2007-01-01

    Educational outcomes for Aboriginal students in British Columbia, and Canada in general, are a cause for considerable concern. High dropout rates, low participation, completion and success rates at educational institutions have challenged educators for decades. Solutions have included lowering admission requirements for Aboriginal candidates and…

  10. Indigenous mortality: Placing Australian aboriginal mortality within a broader context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Hogg

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether contemporary Australian Aboriginal mortality patterns are different from those exhibited by Canadian Registered Indians, New Zealand Maoris, and American Indians and Alaskan natives. Data on Australian Aborigines were procured from published studies conducted in New South Wales, the Northern Territory, Queensland, and Western Australia; while data on Canadian Registered Indians, New

  11. HIV testing experiences of Aboriginal youth in Canada: service implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Worthington; Randy Jackson; Judy Mill; Tracey Prentice; Ted Myers; Susan Sommerfeldt

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore HIV testing experiences and service views of Canadian Aboriginal youth in order to provide information for HIV testing services. An exploratory, mixed-method, community-based research design was used for this study. Findings reported here are from 210 survey participants who had experienced an HIV test. Youth were recruited through 11 Aboriginal organizations across

  12. Becoming Aboriginal: Experiences of a European Woman in Kamchatka's Wilderness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churikova, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    A Russian woman describes how living in remote Kamchatka helped her develop an aboriginal perspective. Chopping wood, hauling water, gathering food, alternately homeschooling her children and sending them to an ecological school, and interacting with local aboriginal people taught her the importance of conserving natural resources and living in…

  13. Intellectual Disability in Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In mid-2001, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in Australia was approximately 458,500 people (2.4% of the national population). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia experience disadvantage compared to non-Indigenous Australians in a number of areas, including greater prevalence of health risk factors, early…

  14. Aboriginal and Indigenous People's Resistance, the Internet, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseke-Barnes, Judy M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines exchanges in an Internet newsgroup that emphasizes issues pertinent to Canadian native, Indian, or Aboriginal people. Results find cyberspace a place where colonial misunderstandings are evident and resistance to dominant discourses is possible. Provides examples of resistance to colonial discourses about Aboriginal peoples, noting risks…

  15. Protective Predictors of Alcohol Use Trajectories among Canadian Aboriginal Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawana, Jennine S.; Ames, Megan E.

    2012-01-01

    Some Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk of using substances and developing abuse and dependence disorders. However, not all Aboriginal youth misuse substances and limited research has examined the protective factors conferring against substance use among these youth. The present study aimed to identify protective factors related to the…

  16. An Exploratory Study of Binge Drinking in the Aboriginal Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardman, Dennis; Quantz, Darryl

    2005-01-01

    There is little research available on binge drinking among the Aboriginal population. Between March and June 2004, 15 Aboriginal persons participated in a semi-structured interview related to their binge drinking behaviors. The majority of participants were women and described a family history of alcoholism and childhood abuse. Factors that…

  17. Prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B; Voaklander, Donald C; Stickland, Michael K; King, Malcolm; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Rowe, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have considerable potential for inequities in diagnosis and treatment, thereby affecting vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in asthma and COPD prevalence between adult Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized databases and the grey literature up to October 2011 were searched to identify epidemiological studies comparing asthma and COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adult populations. Prevalence ORs (PORs) and 95% CIs were calculated in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 132 studies, eight contained relevant data. Aboriginal populations included Native Americans, Canadian Aboriginals, Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori. Overall, Aboriginals were more likely to report having asthma than non-Aboriginals (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.23 to 1.60]), particularly among Canadian Aboriginals (POR 1.80 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.93]), Native Americans (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.13 to 1.76]) and Maori (POR 1.64 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.91]). Australian Aboriginals were less likely to report asthma (POR 0.49 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.86]). Sex differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginals and their non-Aboriginal counterparts were not identified. One study compared COPD prevalence between Native and non-Native Americans, with similar rates in both groups (POR 1.08 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.44]). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations exist in a variety of countries. Studies comparing COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations are scarce. Further investigation is needed to identify and account for factors associated with respiratory health inequalities among Aboriginal peoples. PMID:23248798

  18. Tertiary Success for the Aboriginal Student: The Numerous Factors Impacting on the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eltchelebi, Wadda

    This paper presents an overview of Aboriginal education in the state of Victoria, Australia, as a frame for the role of the Aboriginal Tertiary Support Unit (ATSU) at La Trobe University, Bendigo. At the elementary and secondary levels, Aboriginal advocacy and support are provided by the Victorian Aboriginal Education Association, which promotes…

  19. Centre for Aboriginal Student Services http://www.yorku.ca/aboriginal

    E-print Network

    Library at the Centre for Aboriginal Student Services (CASS) offers its members and the broader York only for CASS members. · Non-CASS members may access resources from the Library within CASS premises condition on or before the due date during CASS' office hours. · Due dates can be extended for another two

  20. Aboriginal sorcery and healing, and the alchemy of Aboriginal policy making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Sorcery and healing provide ways by which Wik people of Aurukun, western Cape York Peninsula, attempt through magical means to impact on individual behaviour and on the ordering of social relations. Aurukun has been the subject of intense scrutiny over recent decades because of its dramatically disintegrating social fabric. It exemplifies the kind of remote Aboriginal community about which social

  1. The Structural and Predictive Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…

  2. Pollen analyses from a 50 000-yr rodent midden series in the southern Atacama Desert (25° 300' S)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Antonio; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Villagran, Carolina

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation in northern Chile is controlled by two great wind belts—the southern westerlies over the southern Atacama and points south (>24° S) and the tropical easterlies over the northern and central Atacama Desert (16–24° S). At the intersection of these summer and winter rainfall regimes, respectively, is a Mars-like landscape consisting of expansive surfaces devoid of vegetation (i.e. absolute desert) except in canyons that originate high enough to experience runoff once every few years. Pollen assemblages from 39 fossil rodent middens in one of these canyons, Quebrada del Chaco (25° 30' S), were used to infer the history of vegetation and precipitation at three elevations (2670–800 m; 3100–3200 m; 3450–3500 m) over the past 50 000 years. When compared to modern conditions and fossil records to the north and south, the pollen evidence indicates more winter precipitation at >52, 40–33, 24–17 k cal.yrBP, more precipitation in both seasons at 17–14 k cal. yr BP, and more summer precipitation from 14–11 k cal. yr BP. Younger middens are scarce at Quebrada del Chaco, and the few Holocene samples indicate hyperarid conditions comparable to today. The only exception is a pollen assemblage that indicates a brief but significant interlude of increased winter precipitation in the last millennium.

  3. Stable Isotopic Shifts in Fish Bones from Multiple Archeological Coastal Middens in Penobscot Bay, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, C.; Johnson, B.; Ambrose, W. G.; Bourque, B.; Dostie, P.; Crowley, E.

    2010-12-01

    The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions of collagen extracted from well-preserved archeological fish bones has the potential to provide useful information on fish diets and food web dynamics over time. Previous work on the Turner Farm archaeological site in Penobscot Bay, Gulf of Maine, reveals significant shifts in fish diets have occurred since European colonization (post 1620’s). The objective of the present study was to analyze samples from other archaeological sites within Penobscot Bay to characterize the spatial extent of the isotopic shift measured at Turner Farm. Stratified cod, flounder, and sculpin bones were analyzed from eight coastal middens located approximately 50km apart from one another within Penobscot Bay. The bones were sampled from three time horizons (0kya, 0.5-1kya, and 2.2-2.4kya). All bone samples were demineralized in 0.2M HCl at 4°C for 2 to 7 days and then extracted in 0.25M NaOH at 4°C for 1 to 2 hours. After freeze-drying, the bulk isotopic composition of each sample was analyzed using the EA-IRMS. In all stratigraphic horizons analyzed, cod were more enriched in ?13C and ?15N than sculpin, and flounder were the most depleted in ?13C and ?15N . However, the isotopic offsets between the fish species decreased from 2.4kya to the present. The nitrogen isotope composition was relatively constant over time and space for all species, implying that trophic levels for the fishes analyzed have not changed significantly in Penobscot Bay for the last 2,400 years. The carbon isotope composition also appears to be constant spatially in Penobscot Bay, however, the modern signal was more depleted than the paleo signal in all three species. The difference between the modern and paleo ?13C is ~5‰ for cod and flounder, and ~9‰ for sculpin. These shifts may, in part, be explained by decreases in both primary producer and prey species diversity, as kelp forests replace eelgrass beds in the Gulf of Maine.

  4. Arctic ground squirrels of the mammoth-steppe: paleoecology of Late Pleistocene middens (˜24 000 29 450 14C yr BP), Yukon Territory, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Elias, Scott A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents paleoecological analyses of 48 fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii) middens (nests and caches) recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in the Klondike region of west-central Yukon Territory. AMS radiocarbon dates and stratigraphic association of middens with Dawson tephra (˜25 300 14C yr BP), indicate these paleoecological data reflect the onset of glacial conditions of early Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and terminal MIS 3 (˜24 000-29 450 14C yr BP). Plant macrofossils include at least 60 plant taxa, including diverse graminoids ( Poa, Elymus trachycaulus, Kobresia myosuroides), steppe forbs ( Penstemon gormanii, Anemone patens var. multifida, Plantago cf. canescens), tundra forbs ( Draba spp., Bistorta vivipara), dwarf shrubs ( Salix cf. arctica, S. cf. polaris), sage ( Artemisia frigida) and rare trees ( Picea mariana). Many of these taxa identified in the middens represent the first recorded fossils for these plants in Eastern Beringia and add to our knowledge of the floristic composition of Pleistocene vegetation and biogeography in this region. Fossil beetles include typical members of the Eastern Beringian steppe-tundra fauna ( Lepidophorus lineaticollis and Connatichela artemisiae) and others suggesting predominantly dry, open habitats. Cache forage selection is suggested by some plant taxa which were particularly frequent and abundant in the middens ( Bistorta vivipara, Kobresia myosuroides, Ranunculus spp., Potentilla, Erysimum cf. cheiranthoides, Poa, Carex and Draba). Factors such as proximity of vegetation to burrows and abundance of fruits and seeds per plant were probably important in cache selection. Glacial conditions enabled arctic ground squirrels to form widespread and dense populations in regions such as the Klondike in which they are rare or absent at present. This fossil midden record supports previous hypotheses that suggest arctic ground squirrels evolved in and are well-adapted to the open, steppe-tundra vegetation, loessal soils and glacial climates of the mammoth-steppe biome.

  5. The missing link in Aboriginal care: resource accounting.

    PubMed

    Ashton, C W; Duffie-Ashton, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles. PMID:18536535

  6. Mental health problems amongst aboriginal children of North Australia.

    PubMed

    Webber, D L

    1980-01-01

    There have been few studies of the mental health of Australian aboriginal children. Adolescent part-aboriginals have been the focus of most of these studies. Only one study has dealt directly with tribally oriented children. To overcome this deficiency a register of child mental health cases from tribally oriented aboriginal communities in the northern half of the Northern Territory of Australia was established. An examination of the diagnostic sex and age groupings in the register was found as well as a preponderance of serious learning difficulties. PMID:7399830

  7. HIV-associated risk factors among young Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Heath, K V; Cornelisse, P G; Strathdee, S A; Palepu, A; Miller, M L; Schechter, M T; O'Shaughnessy, M V; Hogg, R S

    1999-09-01

    Young Aboriginal men face marginalization distinct in cause but similar in pattern to those seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) and may be at increased risk for HIV infection. We compared sociodemographic characteristics and risk taking behaviours associated with HIV infection among MSM of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal descent. Data for this comparison were gathered from baseline questionnaires completed by participants in a cohort study of young MSM. Data collection included: demographic characteristics such as age, length of time residing in the Vancouver region, housing, employment, income and income sources; mental health and personal support; instances of forced sex and sex trade participation and; sexual practices with regular and casual male sex partners. Data were available for 57 Aboriginal and 624 non-Aboriginal MSM. Aboriginal MSM were significantly less likely to be employed, more likely to live in unstable housing, to have incomes of <$10,000 and to receive income assistance than non-Aboriginals (all P<0.01). Aboriginals also had higher depression scores (P<0.01), were more likely to report non-consensual sex (P=0.03), sexual abuse during childhood (P=0.04) and having been paid for sex (P<0.01). In the past year they were no more likely to have had sex with a male partner they knew to be HIV positive, to have had more than 50 male partners or to have unprotected anal insertive or receptive intercourse with their male partners (all P>0.05). Our data indicate that among MSM, Aboriginal men are at increased risk of antecedent risk factors for HIV infection including sexual abuse, poverty, poor mental health and involvement in the sex trade. PMID:10492424

  8. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Norris, Ray

    1 Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy Ray P. Norris CSIRO Astronomy & Space Science, NSW, Australia Warawara Dept. The International year of Astronomy seemed an excellent opportunity to tell the wider

  9. Problem-Centered and Experimental Mathematics Activities for Aboriginal Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seputro, Theresia Tirta

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity carried out by aboriginal students that addresses solving a real-life problem that could be linked to number sequence, graph theory, and combinations. Contains 14 references. (ASK)

  10. Improving palliative care outcomes for Aboriginal Australians: service providers’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians have a lower rate of utilisation of palliative care services than the general population. This study aimed to explore care providers’ experiences and concerns in providing palliative care for Aboriginal people, and to identify opportunities for overcoming gaps in understanding between them and their Aboriginal patients and families. Methods In-depth, qualitative interviews with urban, rural and remote palliative care providers were undertaken in inpatient and community settings in Western Australia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers with QSR NVivo 10 software used to help manage data. Data analysis was informed by multiple theoretical standpoints, including the social ecological model, critical cultural theories and the ‘cultural security’ framework. Thematic analysis was carried out that identified patterns within data. Results Fifteen palliative care providers were interviewed. Overall they reported lack of understanding of Aboriginal culture and being uncertain of the needs and priorities of Aboriginal people during end-of-life care. According to several participants, very few Aboriginal people had an understanding of palliative care. Managing issues such as anger, denial, the need for non-medical support due to socioeconomic disadvantage, and dealing with crises and conflicts over funeral arrangements were reported as some of the tensions between Aboriginal patients and families and the service providers. Conclusion Early referral to palliative care is important in demonstrating and maintaining a caring therapeutic relationship. Paramount to meeting the needs for Aboriginal patients was access to appropriate information and logistical, psychological and emotional support. These were often seen as essential but additional to standard palliative care services. The broader context of Aboriginal history and historical distrust of mainstream services was seen to impinge on Aboriginal people’s willingness and ability to accept care and support from these services. This context needs to be understood and acknowledged at the system level. More cultural safety training was requested by care providers but it was not seen as replacing the need for an Aboriginal worker in the palliative care team. PMID:23875957

  11. Anonymous HIV testing in the Canadian aboriginal population.

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    Reported numbers of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases among Canadian aboriginal peoples are currently relatively low. However, any increase in these numbers could have devastating human, social, and economic costs. Education and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus transmission are the most efficient and cost-effective measures available today. This paper discusses the role of anonymous HIV testing in effective HIV prevention in the Canadian aboriginal population. PMID:8828876

  12. Oral Health of Aboriginal Preschool Children in Northern Ontario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herenia P. Lawrence; Marilyn Romanetz; Lynn Rutherford; Lynn Cappel; Darlene Binguis; James B. Rogers

    2004-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal preschool children across Canada are at increased risk for Early Childhood Caries (ECC) when com- pared with their non-Aboriginal age cohorts. Current research indicates that dental public health programs fail to prevent ECC because intervention often arrives too late. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of the dental hygiene-coordinated pre- natal nutrition program, delivered by community-based nutrition educators on

  13. Writing\\/righting a history of Australian Aboriginal art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Lowish

    The writing of Aboriginal history has never been free of political implications…literature reveals and reinforces the changing hues of dominant social and political ideas, especially relating to race and colonialism. — Ann McGrath and Andrew Markus1 More sophisticated equivalences are starting to be made between works of Aboriginal art and the rest of the objects that inhabit the art world;2

  14. Frauds and fakes in the Australian aboriginal art market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Alder; Duncan Chappell; Kenneth Polk

    This article examines the topic of problematic art in the Australian Aboriginal art market. For Aboriginal people art plays\\u000a an important social, economic and political role. It has also become a major source of income for many. Thus when the integrity\\u000a of that art is challenged by allegations of fraud and deception it is imperative to explore the veracity of

  15. End-of-life issues for aboriginal patients

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Len; Minty, Alana

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand some of the cross-cultural issues in providing palliative care to aboriginal patients. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE (1966 to 2005), CINAHL, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and the Aboriginal Health Collection at the University of Manitoba were searched. Studies were selected based on their focus on both general cross-cultural caregiving and, in particular, end-of-life decision making and treatment. Only 39 relevant articles were found, half of which were opinion pieces by experienced nonaboriginal professionals; 14 were qualitative research projects from nursing and anthropologic perspectives. MAIN MESSAGE All patients are unique. Some cultural differences might arise when providing palliative care to aboriginal patients, who value individual respect along with family and community. Involvement of family and community members in decision making around end-of-life issues is common. Aboriginal cultures often have different approaches to telling bad news and maintaining hope for patients. Use of interpreters and various communication styles add to the challenge. CONCLUSION Cultural differences exist between medical caregivers and aboriginal patients. These include different assumptions and expectations about how communication should occur, who should be involved, and the pace of decision making. Aboriginal patients might value indirect communication, use of silence, and sharing information and decision making with family and community members. PMID:17872874

  16. An Approach to Evaluating Research Developed by Five Aboriginal Health Workers Currently Studying at Batchelor College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grootjans, John; Spiers, Michele

    1996-01-01

    Using the principles of Both Ways (incorporating cross-cultural perspectives), five Aboriginal health workers developed evaluation guidelines for research on Aboriginal populations. The guidelines address whether and how the perspectives of the population are integrated into the research. (SK)

  17. A Sealers Midden Provides Evidence a Live Pig ( Sus scrofa) was Taken Ashore at Heard Island During the "Elephanting" Industry (1855-1882)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hoff, John; Burton, Harry; Robins, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Livestock was often released onto remote Southern Ocean islands as a food source for shipwreck survivors during the industrial whaling and sealing era. Although animals were put ashore at nearby Isles Kerguelen and Crozet, the historical records make no mention of domesticated livestock ever being set ashore at Heard Island between 1855 and 1882. Here we report a pig ( Sus scrofa) mandible discovered amongst other bones and artefacts in an `elephanters' midden found at Spit Bay, Heard Island. The find provides very strong evidence a live pig was shipped ashore and eaten as part of the sealers meagre provisions. Archaeological investigations of middens at other sealing locations could produce new insights into the dietary habits of these men.

  18. Paleoclimatic significance ofd Da ndd13 Cv alues in pinon pine needles from packrat middens spanning the last 40,000 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elise Pendall; Julio L. Betancourt; Steven W. Leavitt

    1999-01-01

    We compared two approaches to interpreting dD of cellulose nitrate in pinon pine needles ( Pinus edulis) preserved in packrat middens from central New Mexico, USA. One approach was based on linear regression between modern dD values and climate parameters, and the other on a deterministic isotope model, modified from Craig and Gordon's terminal lake evaporation model that assumes steady-state

  19. Late Quaternary Vegetation History and Paleoclimate of the U.S.A.Mexico Borderlands Region From Two New Packrat Midden Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Holmgren; M. Penalba; K. Aasen Rylander; J. L. Betancourt

    2003-01-01

    Two new packrat midden (Neotoma spp.) chronologies reveal glacial to interglacial changes in vegetation and climate in the Playas and San Simon Valleys in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. The Borderlands, where the states of Arizona and New Mexico intersect with each other and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora, are characterized by several northwest-southeast trending and tilted fault-block ranges separated

  20. "We Can't Feel Our Language": Making Places in the City for Aboriginal Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloy, Natalie J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores possibilities for extending aboriginal language education opportunities into the urban domain based on qualitative research in Vancouver, British Columbia. The author argues that aboriginal language revitalization efforts have a place in the city, as demonstrated by emerging language ideologies of urban aboriginal people…

  1. A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

  2. Sharing stories: a place for aboriginal elders to tell their story, so their journey continues …

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Hawke; L Morris; M Wighton

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal organisations throughout Victoria are funded to deliver quality services to Aboriginal people through HACC, Aged Care, and Disability programs. Services are delivered in a culturally appropriate way taking into consideration the Aboriginal way of life and taking a holistic approach which may include the whole family. These services may be in the homes or in residential care facilities.Service Co-ordination

  3. Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador Guidelines for research involving

    E-print Network

    Brownstone, Rob

    Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador 1 Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador Fern Brunger, PhD on behalf #12;Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador 2 Table

  4. Knowledge of an Aboriginal Language and School Outcomes for Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevremont, Anne; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the child and adult components of the 2001 Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine what factors are related to speaking an Aboriginal language and how speaking an Aboriginal language is related to school outcomes. Even after controlling for child and family factors (age, sex, health status, household income, number…

  5. Non-Standard Assessment Practices in the Evaluation of Communication in Australian Aboriginal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…

  6. Literacy in an Aboriginal Context. Work Papers of SIL-AAB, Series B, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrave, Susanne, Ed.

    Presented in this volume are five papers on literacy in the Australian Aboriginal context. They include: "Cultural Considerations in Vernacular Literacy Programmes for Traditionally Oriented Adult Aborigines" (Joy L. Sandefur); "Characteristics of Aboriginal Cognitive Abilities: Implications for Literacy and Research Programmes" (W. H. Langlands);…

  7. Aboriginal Spirituality in Corrections: A Canadian Case Study in Religion and Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldram, James B.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the therapeutic nature of Aboriginal spirituality programs for Aboriginal offenders in Canadian prisons. Discusses benefits in the areas of coping with prison stresses, elders as therapists, culturally specific mental health problems, and Aboriginal identity. Presents a case study of the transformation of one angry young inmate during his…

  8. Health and Quality of Life of Aboriginal Residential School Survivors, Bella Coola Valley, 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Sylvia S.; Thommasen, Harvey V.; Tallio, Bill; Zhang, William; Michalos, Alex C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make comparisons between Aboriginal residential school survivors' perceptions of health status and overall quality of life, and Aboriginal non-residential school attendees, as well as between non-Aboriginals. Data were obtained from thirty-three questions derived from the 2001 Determinants of Health and Quality of…

  9. The Process of Coping with Changes: A Study of Learning Experiences for the Aboriginal Nursing Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ruo Lan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the increasing presence of aborigines in Taiwan higher education, especially in nursing institutes, the retention and adaptation of aboriginal students is a critical issue for research. Understanding the adjustment and transformation process of aboriginal nursing freshmen is very important for improving their learning, but very…

  10. A Survey of the Literature on Aboriginal Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottmann, Jacqueline; Abel, Jennifer; Flynn, Darin; Bird, Stan

    2007-01-01

    This literature survey was conducted to provide information on Aboriginal language learning and teaching in Alberta. Specifically, it provides an overview of the current literature relating to: the language-to-culture connection, aboriginal language pedagogy and instructional practices, and parental and community involvement. The Aboriginal

  11. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis used to investigate genetic diversity of Haemophilus influenzae type b isolates in Australia shows differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal isolates.

    PubMed

    Moor, P E; Collignon, P C; Gilbert, G L

    1999-05-01

    We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to study the epidemiology and population structure of Haemophilus influenzae type b. DNAs from 187 isolates recovered between 1985 and 1993 from Aboriginal children (n = 76), non-Aboriginal children (n = 106), and non-Aboriginal adults (n = 5) in urban and rural regions across Australia were digested with the SmaI restriction endonuclease. Patterns of 13 to 17 well-resolved fragments (size range, approximately 8 to 500 kb) defining 67 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) types were found. Two types predominated. One type (n = 37) accounted for 35 (46%) of the isolates from Aboriginals and 2 (2%) of the isolates from non-Aboriginals, and the other type (n = 41) accounted for 2 (3%) of the isolates from Aboriginals and 39 (35%) of the isolates from non-Aboriginals. Clustering revealed seven groups at a genetic distance of approximately 50% similarity in a tree-like dendrogram. They included two highly divergent groups representing 50 (66%) isolates from Aboriginals and 6 (5%) isolates from non-Aboriginals and another genetically distinct group representing 7 (9%) isolates from Aboriginals and 81 (73%) isolates from non-Aboriginals. The results showed a heterogeneous clonal population structure, with the isolates of two types accounting for 42% of the sample. There was no association between RFLP type and the diagnosis of meningitis or epiglottitis, age, sex, date of collection, or geographic location, but there was a strong association between the origin of isolates from Aboriginal children and RFLP type F2a and the origin of isolates from non-Aboriginal children and RFLP type A8b. The methodology discriminated well among the isolates (D = 0.91) and will be useful for the monitoring of postvaccine isolates of H. influenzae type b. PMID:10203516

  12. Aboriginal urbanization and rights in Canada: examining implications for health.

    PubMed

    Senese, Laura C; Wilson, Kathi

    2013-08-01

    Urbanization among Indigenous peoples is growing globally. This has implications for the assertion of Indigenous rights in urban areas, as rights are largely tied to land bases that generally lie outside of urban areas. Through their impacts on the broader social determinants of health, the links between Indigenous rights and urbanization may be related to health. Focusing on a Canadian example, this study explores relationships between Indigenous rights and urbanization, and the ways in which they are implicated in the health of urban Indigenous peoples living in Toronto, Canada. In-depth interviews focused on conceptions of and access to Aboriginal rights in the city, and perceived links with health, were conduced with 36 Aboriginal people who had moved to Toronto from a rural/reserve area. Participants conceived of Aboriginal rights largely as the rights to specific services/benefits and to respect for Aboriginal cultures/identities. There was a widespread perception among participants that these rights are not respected in Canada, and that this is heightened when living in an urban area. Disrespect for Aboriginal rights was perceived to negatively impact health by way of social determinants of health (e.g., psychosocial health impacts of discrimination experienced in Toronto). The paper discusses the results in the context of policy implications and future areas of research. PMID:23474122

  13. Patterns of mortality in Western Australian aboriginals, 1983-1989.

    PubMed

    Veroni, M; Gracey, M; Rouse, I

    1994-02-01

    The ratios of age-standardized mortality rates of Aboriginals to non-Aboriginals in Western Australia during the period 1983-1989 were 2.6 for males and 3.0 for females. Mortality rates experienced by Aboriginals were much higher in all age categories except 75+ years and for most major diseases except neoplasms. The peaks of all-cause age-specific mortality rate ratios (RR) for Aboriginal males and females were 10.2 (at 40-44 years) and 10.0 (at 35-39 years), respectively. These excess mortalities were mainly due to circulatory diseases, injury and poisoning, respiratory diseases and, in females, to digestive diseases and genitourinary diseases. The highest age-standardized, cause-specific RR for Aboriginal males were for mental disorders (10.3), injury and poisoning (8.9) and genitourinary diseases (8.6); for females the highest RR were for genitourinary diseases (16.9), endocrine, nutritional and metabolic (mainly diabetes mellitus) (12.3), and for infectious and parasitic diseases (7.5). PMID:8194927

  14. Efficacy of a 3-Hour Aboriginal Health Teaching in the Medical Curriculum: Are We Changing Student Knowledge and Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Alysia W.; Boshart, Samantha; Seelisch, Jennifer; Eshaghian, Reza; McLeod, Ryan; Nisker, Jeff; Richmond, Chantelle A. M.; Howard, John M.

    2012-01-01

    There is national recognition of the need to incorporate Aboriginal health issues within the medical school curricula. This study aims to evaluate changes in medical students' knowledge and attitudes about Aboriginal health, and their preparedness to work in Aboriginal communities after attending a 3-hour Aboriginal health seminar. A…

  15. Different shells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2007-08-22

    Snails can live in many different shells. The shells can be large or small, depending on the size of the snail and what kind it is. The shell can also be of a variety of colors. Other animals can also live in shells.

  16. A dermatoglyphic study of the Kavalan aboriginal population of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-Fong; Zhang, HaiGuo; Lai, Chun-Hung; Lu, ZhenYu; Wang, ZhuGang

    2007-02-01

    By the 1970s, a number of dermatoglyphic studies of Taiwan aborigines (Gaoshan nationality) had been published, however in each only a few dermatoglyphic variables were addressed. Since that time, little new research has been conducted. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 100 individuals of Kavalan, a Taiwan aboriginal population, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count (TFRC), a-b total ridge count (a-b RC), atd angle and axial triradius percent distance (tPD), and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, palmar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, palmar hypothenar pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of any Taiwan aboriginal population. PMID:17393094

  17. Improving forensic mental health care for Aboriginal Australians: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Barr, Lesley; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-06-01

    Mental illnesses constitute a major burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders (hereafter Aboriginal Australians), who are also overrepresented in the prison system. A legacy of colonization compounds such prevalence, and is further exacerbated by the persistence of racial discrimination and insensitivity across many sectors, including health. This research completed in a Western Australian forensic mental health setting identifies non-Aboriginal health professionals' support needs to deliver high-quality, culturally-safe care to Aboriginal patients. Data were collected from health professionals using an online survey and 10 semistructured interviews. Survey and interview results found that ongoing education was needed for staff to provide culturally-safe care, where Aboriginal knowledge, beliefs, and values were respected. The findings also support previous research linking Aboriginal health providers to improved health outcomes for Aboriginal patients. In a colonized country, such as Australia, education programmes that critically reflect on power relations privileging white Anglo-Australian cultural dominance and subjugating Aboriginal knowledge, beliefs, and values are important to identify factors promoting or compromising the care of Aboriginal patients and developing a deeper understanding of 'cultural safety' and its clinical application. Organizational commitment is needed to translate the findings to support non-Aboriginal health professionals deliver high-quality care to Aboriginal patients that is respectful of cultural differences. PMID:24001401

  18. [Mental health for the Aboriginals: a transcultural response].

    PubMed

    Noël, Denise

    2006-01-01

    This article examines how the issue of clinical intervention with the Aboriginals presents itself within Montreal's transcultural psychiatric services. The cultural consultation service at Montreal Jewish Hospital created by Dr. Kirmayer as well as the transcultural psychiatric clinic at Montreal Children's Hospital founded by Dr. Rousseau are relatively recent settings of care. Their mandate being to provide care and services to Montreal's cultural diversity, the author questions the place and response given to the demands of a minority unlike the others, the Aboriginals. PMID:18253651

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of 3-dose primary vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, David W; Ferguson, Murdo; Predy, Gerald; Dawar, Meena; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Han, Htay-Htay

    2015-04-15

    This study compared immune responses of healthy Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) components of a DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine, 1 month after completing dosing at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Of 112 infants enrolled in each group, 94 Aboriginal and 107 non-Aboriginal infants qualified for the immunogenicity analysis. Anti-PRP concentrations exceeded the protective minimum (?0.15 ?g/ml) in ?97% of infants in both groups but geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher in Aboriginal infants (6.12 ?g/ml versus 3.51 ?g/ml). All subjects were seroprotected (anti-HBs ?10 mIU/mL) against HBV, with groups having similar GMCs (1797.9 versus 1544.4 mIU/mL, Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal, respectively). No safety concerns were identified. We conclude that 3-dose primary vaccination with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine elicited immune responses to Hib and HBV components that were at least as high in Aboriginal as in non-Aboriginal Canadian infants. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00753649. PMID:25701314

  20. Engaging Aboriginal Families to Support Student and Community Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Chodkiewicz; Jacquie Widin; Keiko Yasukawa

    2008-01-01

    Engaging families in school-related programs, such as family literacy programs, has been promoted as an effective strategy to assist students who might otherwise fail to achieve success in school. The authors in this article report on an action research initiative with an urban Australian government community school in a relatively socioeconomically disadvantaged area with a significant Aboriginal population. Drawing on

  1. Mercury Contamination in Arctic Canada: Possible Implications for Aboriginal Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youssef H. El-Hayek

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury is a potent neurotoxin found at elevated concentrations in both the Arctic ecosystem and tissues of the local Aboriginal inhabitants. Combined studies of ecological contamination with the possible implications for human health, have made this one of the largest environmental research projects in Canadian history. Recent scientific advances have revolutionized the understanding of the global mercury cycle. The major

  2. Teacher Education, Aboriginal Studies and the New National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Clair

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in Australian schools continue to have poor education and health outcomes, and the introduction of a new national curriculum may assist in redressing this situation. This curriculum emphasises recommendations which have been circulating in the sector over many years, to require teacher education…

  3. Healing history? Aboriginal healing, historical trauma, and personal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Waldram, James B

    2014-06-01

    What can an exploration of contemporary Aboriginal healing programs such as those offered in Canadian prisons and urban clinics tell us about the importance of history in understanding social and psychological pathology, and more significantly the salience of the concept of "historical trauma"? The form of Aboriginal "healing" that has emerged in recent decades to become dominant in many parts of the country is itself a reflection of historical processes and efforts to ameliorate the consequences of what is today often termed "historical trauma." In other words, contemporary notions of "healing" and the social, cultural, medical, and psychological disruption and distress caused by colonialism and captured in the term "historical trauma" have coevolved in an interdependent manner. I also argue that there is a tension between the attribution of this distress to both specific (e.g., residential schools) and generalized (e.g., colonialism) historical factors, as evident in the "historical trauma" concept, and the prevailing emphasis in many healing programs to encourage the individual to take personal responsibility for their situation and avoid attributing blame to other factors. I conclude that "historical trauma" represents an idiom of distress that captures a variety of historical and contemporary phenomena and which provides a language for expressing distress that is gaining currency, at least among scholars, and that the contemporary Aboriginal healing movement represents an effort to deal with the absence or failure of both "traditional" Aboriginal healing and government-sponsored medical and psychological services to adequately deal with this distress of colonialism. PMID:23788570

  4. Olfactory Function in Australian Aboriginal Children and Chronic Otitis Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica E. Armstrong; David G. Laing; Fiona J. Wilkes; Olga N. Laing

    2008-01-01

    Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), a severe form of middle ear infection, affects most Australian Aboriginal children with up to 50% in some communities suffering hearing loss as a consequence. To date, there is no information on whether repeated exposure to the pathogens that characterize CSOM and that are present in the upper respiratory airway affect olfactory function. Accordingly, this

  5. Valuing the Protection of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Rolfe; Jill Windle

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a stated value experiment is reported that assesses values held for protecting Aboriginal cultural heritage sites in central Queensland. Choice Modelling, a stated preference non-market valuation technique, was used to estimate non-use values for protecting cultural heritage sites in the context of further water resource allocation and irrigation development. Three population groups were sampled, being an indigenous

  6. Aboriginal Students Engaging and Struggling with Critical Multiliteracies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirbhai-Illich, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a school-based action research project with aboriginal adolescent students attending an alternative school in Canada. As a Freirean response to these marginalized students' school failures, the researcher engaged students in a critical multiliteracies approach to language and literacy learning. Based on…

  7. Schooling Taiwan's Aboriginal Baseball Players for the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Junwei; Bairner, Alan

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges that faces nation-builders in postcolonial societies is the incorporation of subaltern groups, particularly aboriginal peoples, into a collective national project. One vehicle for addressing this challenge is sport with schools being amongst the most important venues. This article offers an empirical study of the role…

  8. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  9. Quebec's Aboriginal Languages: History, Planning and Development. Multilingual Matters 107.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurais, Jacques, Ed.

    This book provides an overview of the history, present circumstances, and future prospects of the native languages of Quebec: Abenaki, Algonquin, Atikamekw, Cree, Inuktitut, Micmac, Mohawk, Montagnais, and Naskapi. Chapter 1, "The Situation of Aboriginal Languages in the Americas" (Jacques Maurais), discusses the linguistic demography of American…

  10. American Indians of Idaho. Volume 1. Aboriginal Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Deward E., Jr.

    A general survey of the aboriginal American Indian cultures of Idaho is given in this book. Most of the anthropological and historical writing on the native peoples of this region are summarized. It does not deal with contemporary Indian cultures, which will be described in a second volume along with their history of contact with Euro-Americans.…

  11. Motivators of Educational Success: Perceptions of Grade 12 Aboriginal Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jane P.; Claypool, Tim R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify motivators that support educational success, as perceived by Aboriginal high school students enrolled in two urban Saskatchewan schools. Twelve semi-structured individual interviews revealed that students were motivated by a hospitable school culture, relevant learning opportunities, and positive personal…

  12. Psychological Sense of Community: An Australian Aboriginal Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Brian; Colquhoun, Simon; Johnson, Gemma

    2006-01-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is central to an individual's psychological wellbeing (Sarason, 1974). Eleven participants, mainly from the North West of Western Australia, took part in semistructured interviews investigating Australian Aboriginal notions of community and SOC. Five key themes emerged from the data. These included: kinship structure,…

  13. Difficult Dialogue: Conversations with Aboriginal Parents and Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra; Johnston, Ken; Morris, Kristal; Power, Kerith; Roberts, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous conversation and voice are increasingly heard in the research literature but there needs to be more dialogue in order for it to be a two-way conversation. This paper contributes to research that attempts to redress this situation by reporting on conversations with Aboriginal parents and caregivers of students enrolled in a public…

  14. Experiences of Beginning Aboriginal Teachers in Band-Controlled Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Randolph; Legare, Louise; Arcand, Yvette; Cottrell, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Compelling evidence points to the need for higher education, and especially teacher education, to become better informed about the concerns of Aboriginal peoples and to be more responsive to their needs. With this focus in mind, we had conversations with 30 beginning First Nations teachers, graduates of a teacher education program in Saskatchewan,…

  15. Aboriginal Education in Canada: A Plea for Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, John W.; Friesen, Virginia Lyons

    This book is an appeal to First Nations leaders in Canada to promote educational integration--a mixing of ideas in which non-Aboriginal people are taught those elements of Native culture and philosophy that support a reverence for the Earth and all living things. The benefits of such an undertaking cannot be overemphasized since the very existence…

  16. Partnering with an Aboriginal Community for Health and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lorraine; Rukholm, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Cultural awareness is a concept that is gaining much attention in health and education settings across North America. This article describes how the concepts of cultural awareness shaped the process and the curriculum of an online health education project called Interprofessional Collaboration: Culturally-informed Aboriginal Health Care. The…

  17. Factors Associated with Condom Use Among Aboriginal People

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen M. Devries; Caroline Free; Natasha Jategaonkar

    Objectives: To review evidence on factors associated with condom use among Aboriginal people and the methodological quality of studies assessing these factors. Methods: A systematic review of published and unpublished literature was undertaken. Searches of databases and indexes were performed and authors were contacted directly. Studies reporting on associations between any independent variables and a condom use outcome were included.

  18. The Development of Aboriginal Language Programs: A Journey towards Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Attempts to build intercultural understanding inevitably uncover tensions and involve negotiating issues of identity, power, and resistance. Using a self-study approach, I describe the development and early implementation phase of Aboriginal language programs in one school district. I consider the collaborative process involving representatives…

  19. Mortality after admission for acute myocardial infarction in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in New South Wales, Australia: a multilevel data linkage study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Heart disease is a leading cause of the gap in burden of disease between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Our study investigated short- and long-term mortality after admission for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, and examined the impact of the hospital of admission on outcomes. Methods Admission records were linked to mortality records for 60047 patients aged 25–84?years admitted with a diagnosis of AMI between July 2001 and December 2008. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for 30- and 365-day all-cause mortality. Results Aboriginal patients admitted with an AMI were younger than non-Aboriginal patients, and more likely to be admitted to lower volume, remote hospitals without on-site angiography. Adjusting for age, sex, year and hospital, Aboriginal patients had a similar 30-day mortality risk to non-Aboriginal patients (AOR: 1.07; 95% CI 0.83-1.37) but a higher risk of dying within 365?days (AOR: 1.34; 95% CI 1.10-1.63). The latter difference did not persist after adjustment for comorbid conditions (AOR: 1.12; 95% CI 0.91-1.38). Patients admitted to more remote hospitals, those with lower patient volume and those without on-site angiography had increased risk of short and long-term mortality regardless of Aboriginal status. Conclusions Improving access to larger hospitals and those with specialist cardiac facilities could improve outcomes following AMI for all patients. However, major efforts to boost primary and secondary prevention of AMI are required to reduce the mortality gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. PMID:22490109

  20. Shell rendering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayaram K. Udupa; Dewey Odhner

    1993-01-01

    A structure model for volume rendering, called a shell, is introduced. Roughly, a shell consists of a set of voxels in the vicinity of the structure boundary together with a number of attributes associated with the voxels in this set. By carefully choosing the attributes and storing the shell in a special data structure that allows random access to the

  1. Biogeographic implications of a packrat midden sequence from the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Devender, Thomas R.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Wimberly, Mark

    1984-11-01

    Thirteen packrat ( Neotoma spp.) and two porcupine ( Erethizon dorsatum) middens from 1555 to 1690 m elevation from the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, provide an 18,000-yr vegetation record in the northern Chiuahuan Desert. The vegetation sequence is a mesic, Wisconsin fullglacial (18,000-16,000 yr B.P.) pinyon-juniper-oak woodland; a xeric, early Holocene (ca. 11,000-8000 yr B.P.) juniper-oak woodland; a middle Holocene (ca. 8000-4000 yr B.P.) desert-grassland; and a late Holocene (ca. 4000 yr B.P. to present) Chihuahuan desertscrub. The frequency of spring freezes and summer droughts in the late Wisconsin probably set the northern limits of Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma at about 34°N, or 6° south of today's limit. Rising summer tempratures in the early Holocene eliminated pinyon and other mesic woodland plants from the desert lowlands and allowed the woodland to move upslope. At this time pinyon-juniper woodland and pine forest dominated by Pinus ponderosa probably began their spectacular Holocene expansions to the north. Continued warming in the middle Holocene led to very warm summers with strong monsoons, relatively dry, cold winters, and widespread desert-grasslands. Desertscrub communities in the northern Chihuahuan Desert did not develop until the late Holocene when the biseasonal rainfall shifted slightly back toward the winter, catastrophic winter freezes decreased, and droughts in all seasons increased. The creosote bush desertscrub corridor across the Continental Divide between the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts was probably connected for the first time since the last interglaciation.

  2. A Guide for Health Professionals Working with Aboriginal Peoples: Executive Summary

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective to provide Canadian health professionals with a network of information and recommendations regarding Aboriginal health. Options health professionals working with Aboriginal individuals and communities in the area of women’s health care. Outcomes improved health status of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Appropriateness and accessibility of women’s health services for Aboriginal peoples. Improved communication and clinical skills of health professionals in the area of Aboriginal health. Improved quality of relationship between health professionals and Aboriginal individuals and communities. Improved quality of relationship between health care professionals and Aboriginal individuals and communities. Evidence recommendations are based on expert opinion and a review of the literature. Published references were identified by a Medline search of all review articles, randomized clinical control trials, meta-analyses, and practice guidelines from 1966 to February 1999, using the MeSH headings “Indians, North American or Eskimos” and “Health.”* Subsequently published articles were brought to the attention of the authors in the process of writing and reviewing the document. Ancillary and unpublished references were recommended by members of the SOGC Aboriginal Health Issues Committee and the panel of expert reviewers. Values information collected was reviewed by the principal author. The social, cultural, political, and historic context of Aboriginal peoples in Canada, systemic barriers regarding the publication of information by Aboriginal authors, the diversity of Aboriginal peoples in Canada, and the need for a culturally appropriate and balanced presentation were carefully considered in addition to more traditional scientific evaluation. The majority of information collected consisted of descriptive health and social information and such evaluation tools as the evidence guidelines of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health exam were not appropriate. Benefits, costs, and harms utilization of the information and recommendations by Canadian health professionals will enhance understanding, communication, and clinical skills in the area of Aboriginal health. The resulting enhancement of collaborative relationships between Aboriginal peoples and their women’s health providers may contribute to health services that are more appropriate, effective, efficient, and accessible for Aboriginal peoples in Canada. The educational process may require an initial investment of time from the health professional. Recommendations Recommendations were grouped according to four themes: sociocultural context, health concerns, cross-cultural understanding, and Aboriginal health resources. Health professionals are encouraged to learn the appropriate names, demographics, and traditional geographic territories and language groups of the various Aboriginal groups in Canada. In addition, sensitivity to the impact of colonization and current socioeconomic challenges to the health status of Aboriginal peoples is warranted. Health services for Aboriginal peoples should take place as close to home as possible. Governmental obligations and policies regarding determination are recognized. With respect to health concerns, holistic definitions of health, based on Aboriginal perspectives, are put forward. Aboriginal peoples continue to experience a disproportionate burden of health problems. Health professionals are encouraged to become familiar with several key areas of morbidity and mortality. Relationships between Aboriginal peoples and their care providers need to be based on a foundation of mutual respect. Gaps and barriers in the current health care system for Aboriginal peoples are identified. Health professionals are encouraged to work with Aboriginal individuals and communities to address these gaps and barriers. Aboriginal peoples require culturally appropriate health care, including treatment in their own languages when possible. This may require interpreters or Aboriginal health advocates.

  3. A Comparison of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Students on the Inter-Related Dimensions of Self-Concept, Strengths and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica; Rawana, Edward; Brownlee, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. In this study, we conducted a quantitative analysis of the…

  4. Aboriginal Postsecondary Education: Formal Instruction for the Adult Aboriginal Population. Made in B.C.: A History of Postsecondary Education in British Columbia. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This report traces the development of initiatives in British Columbia, Canada to provide formal instruction for adults of Aboriginal heritage (also known as native or indigenous peoples), regardless of whether the learner completed secondary school. Activities in public as well as Aboriginal-governed institutions are described. Shorter sections…

  5. Successful Transition to School for Australian Aboriginal Children: The 2005 International Focus Issue of Childhood Education Focused on the Education of Aboriginal and Indigenous Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Mason, Terry; Perry, Bob

    2006-01-01

    Aboriginal people have been described as the most educationally disadvantaged group of people within Australia. Their participation rates at all levels of education are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. In an effort to enhance the learning and teaching of Aboriginal students, education systems are seeking appropriate strategies and…

  6. A review of life expectancy and infant mortality estimations for Australian Aboriginal people

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant variation exists in published Aboriginal mortality and life expectancy (LE) estimates due to differing and evolving methodologies required to correct for inadequate recording of Aboriginality in death data, under-counting of Aboriginal people in population censuses, and unexplained growth in the Aboriginal population attributed to changes in the propensity of individuals to identify as Aboriginal at population censuses. The objective of this paper is to analyse variation in reported Australian Aboriginal mortality in terms of LE and infant mortality rates (IMR), compared with all Australians. Methods Published data for Aboriginal LE and IMR were obtained and analysed for data quality and method of estimation. Trends in reported LE and IMR estimates were assessed and compared with those in the entire Australian population. Results LE estimates derived from different methodologies vary by as much as 7.2 years for the same comparison period. Indirect methods for estimating Aboriginal LE have produced LE estimates sensitive to small changes in underlying assumptions, some of which are subject to circular reasoning. Most indirect methods appear to under-estimate Aboriginal LE. Estimated LE gaps between Aboriginal people and the overall Australian population have varied between 11 and 20 years. Latest mortality estimates, based on linking census and death data, are likely to over-estimate Aboriginal LE. Temporal LE changes by each methodology indicate that Aboriginal LE has improved at rates similar to the Australian population overall. Consequently the gap in LE between Aboriginal people and the total Australian population appears to be unchanged since the early 1980s, and at the end of the first decade of the 21st century remains at least 11–12 years. In contrast, focussing on the 1990–2010 period Aboriginal IMR declined steeply over 2001–08, from more than 12 to around 8 deaths per 1,000 live births, the same level as Australia overall in 1993–95. The IMR gap between Aboriginal people and the total Australian population, while still unacceptable, has declined considerably, from over 8 before 2000 to around 4 per 1,000 live births by 2008. Conclusions Regardless of estimation method used, mortality and LE gaps between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people are substantial, but remain difficult to estimate accurately. PMID:24383435

  7. On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-12-01

    Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the role and nature of eclipses, comets, meteors, impact events, and certain variable stars. I also test the hypothesis that certain types of stone arrangements have preferred orientations that probably relate to astronomical phenomena. This research shows that Aboriginal astronomical traditions explain the motions of celestial bodies and the relationship between events in the sky and events on Earth. I explore how Aboriginal people perceived and made use of particular astronomical phenomena, such as meteors and comets, and show that Aboriginal people made careful observations of the motions of celestial bodies. I provide evidence that Aboriginal people noticed the change in brightness of particular stars, described the kinematics of eclipses, explained how lunar phases are related to ocean tides, and acknowledged the relationship between meteors, meteorites, impact events, and impact craters. I then show that linear stone arrangements in New South Wales have a preferred orientation to the cardinal points and explore astronomical reasons for this. In the Appendix, I include biographical details of William Edward Stanbridge, one of the first people to write in depth about Aboriginal astronomical traditions, which were compiled from historic records.

  8. "We are not being heard": Aboriginal perspectives on traditional foods access and food security.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike. PMID:23346118

  9. Confronting the cultural challenge of the whiteness of nursing: Aboriginal registered nurses' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anne-Maree; Stuart, Lynne Alice; Gorman, Don

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the findings of a study that interviewed Aboriginal nurses to explore their experiences of the whiteness of nursing. Despite concerted efforts to improve the health of Aboriginal Australians, it still remains equivalent to third world countries. One strategy identified to address this is to increase the participation rates of Aboriginal registered nurses within the Australian healthcare workforce. Presently Aboriginal nurses account for only a small percentage of the nursing workforce. While there has been research into the recruitment and retention strategies dedicated to improving the numbers of Aboriginal registered nurses, this paper focus on the experiences of Aboriginal registered nurses within Australia's mainstream healthcare system, where they are exposed and subjected on a daily basis to the 'whiteness of nursing.' PMID:25549712

  10. Confronting the Cultural Challenge of the Whiteness of Nursing: Aboriginal Registered Nurses' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anne-Maree; Stuart, Lynne Alice; Gorman, Don

    2014-07-11

    Abstract This paper presents the findings of a study that that interviewed Aboriginal nurses to explore their experiences of the whiteness of nursing. Despite concerted efforts to improve the health of Aboriginal Australians, it still remains equivalent to third world countries. One strategy to address this that has been identified is to increase the participation rates of Aboriginal registered nurses within the Australian healthcare workforce. Presently Aboriginal nurses account for only a small percentage of the nursing workforce. While there has been research into the recruitment and retention strategies dedicated to improving the numbers of Aboriginal registered nurses, this paper focus on the experiences of Aboriginal registered nurses within Australia's mainstream healthcare system, where they are exposed and subjected on a daily basis to the 'whiteness of nursing'. PMID:25015312

  11. Navigating the process of developing a research project in Aboriginal health.

    PubMed

    Wand, Anne P F; Eades, Sandra J

    2008-05-19

    Research in Aboriginal health may be hampered by a lack of experience with the process of collaboration with Aboriginal communities, and additional ethics approval requirements. Awareness of resources and advice from Aboriginal mentors with in-depth knowledge of clinical and research issues can greatly assist researchers. A collaborative approach between researchers and Aboriginal communities is pivotal to developing a research project consistent with Indigenous cultural values and health concepts, with the potential to improve services and outcomes for Aboriginal peoples. Planning and broad consultation can ensure that research is feasible, ethical, culturally sensitive and beneficial. This article outlines lessons learned from personal experience of developing a project in Aboriginal health, which we hope may serve as a practical guide for others. PMID:18484932

  12. “We Are Not Being Heard”: Aboriginal Perspectives on Traditional Foods Access and Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K.

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike. PMID:23346118

  13. GUIDE TO CANADIAN ABORIGINAL EDUCATION RESOURCES Researched and Prepared by Heather B. O'Reilly, B.F.A., B.Ed., M.Ed.

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    and Reports Residential Schools & History Social Problems Social Life Suicide Violence against Aboriginal in 2007 with Aboriginal Artists, arts administrators, elders, youth and other community members. The term

  14. Improving health equity for First Nations, Inuit and Métis people: Ontario's Aboriginal Cancer Strategy II.

    PubMed

    Kewayosh, Alethea; Marrett, Loraine; Aslam, Usman; Steiner, Richard; Moy Lum-Kwong, Margaret; Imre, Joseph; Amartey, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Cancer incidence is increasing more rapidly and cancer survival is worse among Ontario's First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) populations than among other Ontarians. Cancer Care Ontario's Aboriginal Cancer Strategy II aims to reduce this health inequity and to improve the cancer journey and experience for FNIM people in Ontario. This comprehensive, multi-faceted strategy was developed and is being implemented with and for Aboriginal Peoples in Ontario in a way that honours the Aboriginal Path of Well-being. PMID:25562132

  15. Inadequacies in antiretroviral therapy use among Aboriginal and other Canadian populations.

    PubMed

    Miller, C L; Spittal, P M; Wood, E; Chan, K; Schechter, M T; Montaner, J S G; Hogg, R S

    2006-11-01

    We undertook this study to provide a profile of Aboriginal people initiating antiretroviral therapy and their response to treatment. Aboriginal peoples were identified through self-report. Baseline socio-demographics and risk factors were compared between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants as were baseline factors associated with two consecutive plasma viral load measures below 500 copies/ml using contingency table analysis. Multivariate survival analysis of the prognostic factors associated with time to two consecutive plasma viral load measures below 500 copies/ml among eligible participants was undertaken to characterize response to antiretroviral therapy. There were 892 participants with available data for this analysis, of those 146 (16%) self-identified as Aboriginal. Aboriginal participants were more likely to be female (p < or = 0.001), have lower baseline plasma viral loads (p = 0.010), be co-infected with HCV (p < 0.001), live in unstable housing (p < or = 0.001), and report an income of >10K CDN (p < or = 0.001) per annum. Aboriginal people were less likely to report men who have sex with men (p < or = 0.001) and more likely to report injection drug use (p < or = 0.001) as a risk factor for HIV infection. Aboriginal participants were more likely to receive double versus triple combination antiretroviral therapy (p = 0.002), be less adherent in the first year on therapy (p = 0.001) and to have a physician less experienced with treating HIV (p < or = 0.001). When these factors were controlled for, Aboriginal people treated with triple combination therapy were as likely to respond and suppress their viral load below 500 copies. In the era of HAART, our results indicate that Aboriginal people living with HIV/AIDS were less likely to receive optimal therapy. However, when Aboriginals did receive triple drug therapy they suppressed just as well as non-Aboriginals. PMID:17012087

  16. Late Quaternary Vegetation History and Paleoclimate of the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands Region From Two New Packrat Midden Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, C. A.; Penalba, M.; Aasen Rylander, K.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    Two new packrat midden (Neotoma spp.) chronologies reveal glacial to interglacial changes in vegetation and climate in the Playas and San Simon Valleys in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. The Borderlands, where the states of Arizona and New Mexico intersect with each other and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora, are characterized by several northwest-southeast trending and tilted fault-block ranges separated by closed topographic basins. These basins now contain ephemeral playas, but held pluvial lakes (Animas, Cloverdale, Cochise, Goodsight, Hachita, Palomas, Playas) during the Pleistocene and lesser lakes sporadically in the Holocene. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from middens indicate vegetation along pluvial lake margins consisted of open pinyon-juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis and a rich understory of C4 annuals and grasses. Although both lake and pinyon-juniper expansion across the lowlands have been attributed to greater winter precipitation, the summer-flowering understory, characteristic of modern desert grassland in the Borderlands, indicates at least moderate summer precipitation during the late glacial. The U.S.A.-Borderlands may have been the only area in the western half of the coterminous United States to "green-up" in July and August, and may have offered seasonal refuge from the dry fire season to the north. Late glacial summer precipitation in the Borderlands may explain the concentration of megafauna and paleoindian sites dating from this period in the area. A transition to a warmer, drier climate is inferred from the extirpation of Pinus edulis from the lowlands of the Playas and San Simon Valleys by 10,300 14C yr B.P. The disappearance of pinyon and change to more xeric oak-juniper communities is contemporaneous with other midden sites in the northern Chihuahuan Desert and may have occurred abruptly during the "Clovis-aged Drought" when the water table at nearby Murray Springs dropped to unusually low levels just before 10,900 14C yr B.P. Few middens in our series dated from the middle Holocene (8000 - 4000 14C yr B.P.), a period during which middens are scarce across the Southwest. The gap was previously attributed to hydrologic drought during the middle Holocene and declines in woody perennials and packrat populations. However, beach ridge and lacustrine deposits from Laguna El Fresnal and Laguna Santa Maria indicate wetter than present conditions in the Borderlands during the middle Holocene. The late Holocene is marked by the arrival of Chihuahuan Desert scrub elements and few departures. Desertscrub elements begin to appear by about 4000 14C yr B.P., marking the transition to present-day vegetation. Larrea tridentata and Fouquieria splendens, two of the dominant desert species present at the sites today; both appear later than in surrounding areas.

  17. "Rebuilding our community": hearing silenced voices on Aboriginal youth suicide.

    PubMed

    Walls, Melissa L; Hautala, Dane; Hurley, Jenna

    2014-02-01

    This paper brings forth the voices of adult Aboriginal First Nations community members who gathered in focus groups to discuss the problem of youth suicide on their reserves. Our approach emphasizes multilevel (e.g., individual, family, and broader ecological systems) factors viewed by participants as relevant to youth suicide. Wheaton's conceptualization of stressors and Evans-Campbell's multilevel classification of the impacts of historical trauma are used as theoretical and analytic guides. Thematic analysis of qualitative data transcripts revealed a highly complex intersection of stressors, traumas, and social problems seen by community members as underlying mechanisms influencing heightened levels of Aboriginal youth suicidality. Our multilevel coding approach revealed that suicidal behaviors were described by community members largely as a problem with deep historical and contemporary structural roots, as opposed to being viewed as individualized pathology. PMID:24097414

  18. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health practitioner regulation.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2014-03-01

    An aspect of the much needed efforts to "close the gap" in Indigenous health disadvantage in Australia has been workforce reform. This has included targeted training for general practitioners and has also been characterised by sensitising of psychiatrists to the particular mental health needs of persons of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander background. It has also incorporated increasing involvement by Indigenous persons in providing health services. In 2012, each Australian State and Territory constituted the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Practice Board to regulate and register Indigenous health practitioners. This marked an important recognition of the contribution able to be made by this complementary component of the Australian health workforce which is particularly enabled to understand and meet the needs of Indigenous persons. This column chronicles the first steps of the new regulatory board and identifies issues which face it. PMID:24804527

  19. “Rebuilding our community”: Hearing silenced voices on Aboriginal youth suicide

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Melissa L.; Hautala, Dane; Hurley, Jenna

    2014-01-01

    This paper brings forth the voices of adult Aboriginal First Nations community members who gathered in focus groups to discuss the problem of youth suicide on their reserves. Our approach emphasizes multilevel (e.g., individual, family, and broader ecological systems) factors viewed by participants as relevant to youth suicide. Wheaton’s conceptualization of stressors (1994; 1999) and Evans-Campbell’s (2008) multilevel classification of the impacts of historical trauma are used as theoretical and analytic guides. Thematic analysis of qualitative data transcripts revealed a highly complex intersection of stressors, traumas, and social problems seen by community members as underlying mechanisms influencing heightened levels of Aboriginal youth suicidality. Our multilevel coding approach revealed that suicidal behaviors were described by community members largely as a problem with deep historical and contemporary structural roots as opposed to being viewed as individualized pathology. PMID:24097414

  20. Participatory systems approach to health improvement in Australian Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth L; Bailie, Ross S; Morris, Peter S

    2014-02-01

    The factors underlying poor child health in remote Australian Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander) communities are complex. There is a lack of consistent and reliable information that allows: (i) the identification of priorities or areas of particular need at household and community levels; (ii) monitoring progress over time; and (iii) the assessment of the impact of interventions. This paper describes the process and methods used to identify the factors that underlie high rates of poor child health in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory (NT). This work has led to the development of indicators and tools suitable for use within a continuous quality improvement programme. Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals from a range of disciplines and backgrounds participated in study activities. This allowed for a range of perspectives, including scientific, lay and Aboriginal perspectives, to be accommodated and reflected in study outcomes and outputs. Study participants identified a wide range of physical and social factors that they believe underlies poor child health in remote Aboriginal community contexts in the NT. The approach taken in this study provides some confidence that the indicators developed will be seen as meaningful and appropriate by the residents of remote communities and key stakeholders. Two tools have been developed and are now in use in the practice setting. One assesses social determinants of health at the community level, for example water supply, food supply. The second applies to individual households and assesses the social and environmental indicators that are recognized as placing children at greater risk of poor health and development outcomes. PMID:24497571

  1. The maternal aborigine colonization of La Palma (Canary Islands)

    PubMed Central

    Fregel, Rosa; Pestano, Jose; Arnay, Matilde; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, Jose M; González, Ana M

    2009-01-01

    Teeth from 38 aboriginal remains of La Palma (Canary Islands) were analyzed for external and endogenous mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and for diagnostic coding positions. Informative sequences were obtained from 30 individuals (78.9%). The majority of lineages (93%) were from West Eurasian origin, being the rest (7%) from sub-Saharan African ascription. The bulk of the aboriginal haplotypes had exact matches in North Africa (70%). However, the indigenous Canarian sub-type U6b1, also detected in La Palma, has not yet been found in North Africa, the cradle of the U6 expansion. The most abundant H1 clade in La Palma, defined by transition 16260, is also very rare in North Africa. This means that the exact region from which the ancestors of the Canarian aborigines came has not yet been sampled or that they have been replaced by later human migrations. The high gene diversity found in La Palma (95.2±2.3), which is one of the farthest islands from the African continent, is of the same level than the previously found in the central island of Tenerife (92.4±2.8). This is against the supposition that the islands were colonized from the continent by island hopping and posterior isolation. On the other hand, the great similarity found between the aboriginal populations of La Palma and Tenerife is against the idea of an island-by-island independent maritime colonization without secondary contacts. Our data better fit to an island model with frequent migrations between islands. PMID:19337312

  2. A myopic shift in Australian Aboriginals: 1977-2000.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Hugh R; Robin, T A; Lansingh, V C; Weih, L M; Keeffe, J E

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prevalence of myopia has been reported to have increased in a number of population groups. We compared the refraction of Australian Aboriginal adults in 2000 with data collected in 1977 to assess whether there had been a change in the prevalence of myopia. METHOD: Australian Aboriginal adults aged 20 to 30 years old were selected from Central Australian communities in 2000. Refraction was determined by noncycloplegic autorefraction. This was compared to mydriatic retinoscopy data collected in 1977. "Observer trials" were undertaken to assess the comparability of noncycloplegic autorefraction measurements and cycloplegic retinoscopy. Spherical equivalence cylinder and spheric were determined for all right and left eyes and compared using an analysis of variance. RESULTS: A total of 128 adults (58 males, 70 females) were examined in 2000 and compared with 161 adults (107 males, 54 females) examined in 1977. The mean spherical equivalent in 2000 was -0.55 D +/- 0.88 D and in 1977 was +0.54 D +/- 0.81 D. The difference of -1.09 D was highly significant (F = 126, P < .001). Intraclass correlation coefficients showed good agreement between noncycloplegic autorefraction and cycloplegic retinoscopy. Neither gender, schooling, nor diabetes was associated with an increased risk of myopia. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to have been a significant shift toward myopia in Australian Aboriginals between 1977 and 2000. The cause of this myopic shift is unknown but mirrors that observed in other populations in recent years. PMID:14971568

  3. Cardiovascular risk among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal smoking male prisoners: inequalities compared to the wider community

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) were collected as part of a randomised controlled trial of a multi-component intervention to reduce smoking among male prisoners. Cross-sectional baseline data on CVRF were compared among smoking male prisoners and males of similar age in the general population. Methods 425 smoking prisoners were recruited (n = 407 in New South Wales; 18 in Queensland), including 15% of Aboriginal descent (mean age 33 years; median sentence length 3.6 years). We measured CVRF such as smoking, physical activity, blood pressure, risky alcohol use, symptoms of depression, and low socioeconomic status. Results We found that 39% of prisoners had 3+ CVRF, compared to 10% in a general community sample of most disadvantaged men of a similar age. Significantly more Aboriginal prisoners had 3+ CVRF than non-Aboriginal prisoners (55% vs 36%, p < 0.01) and were twice as likely to have 4+ CVRF (27% vs 12%). In addition to all prisoners in this study being a current smoker (with 70% smoking 20+ cigarettes per day), the prevalence of other CVRF was very high: insufficient physical activity (23%); hypertension (4%), risky drinking (52%), symptoms of depression (14%) and low socioeconomic status (SES) (44%). Aboriginal prisoners had higher levels of risky alcohol use, symptoms of depression, and were more likely to be of low SES. Conclusion Prisoners are at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease compared to even the most disadvantaged in their community and should be the focus of specific public health interventions. Trial Registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN#12606000229572. PMID:21985524

  4. Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, Volume 14, Number 2 (July, 2011): in press Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Norris, Ray

    Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, Volume 14, Number 2 (July, 2011): in press 1 Eclipses explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing

  5. Using "Slowmation" for Animated Storytelling to Represent Non-Aboriginal Preservice Teachers' Awareness of "Relatedness to Country"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Anthony; Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a group (N=15) of final year non-Aboriginal preservice teachers participated in an elective subject that aimed to raise their awareness about Aboriginal ways of knowing. A vital aspect of the course was developing the preservice teachers' awareness of "relatedness to country" which is a key belief for Aboriginal people. The…

  6. Reflective Teaching Practice in a Darug Classroom: How Teachers Can Build Relationships with an Aboriginal Community outside the School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil; Murray, Belinda

    2012-01-01

    This project has been developed on Darug country, Sydney to examine how pre-service and beginning teachers can work with Aboriginal people in their local urban community. These teachers often want to know how to approach an Aboriginal "community", how they can ask Aboriginal people for information in order to include it in their teaching, and how…

  7. Quantitative paleoclimatic reconstructions for the past 25,000 years in the western USA based on vegetation assemblages from packrat middens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. S.; Anderson, K. H.; Strickland, L. E.; Pelltier, R. T.

    2010-12-01

    Packrat (Neotoma spp.) middens are preserved for thousands to tens-of-thousands of years in dry caves and rockshelters in the western USA. Plant remains from these deposits frequently can be identified at the species level and provide excellent material for radiocarbon dating. Accordingly, assemblages of these remains provide detailed well-dated inventories of the plants that grew within a few tens-of-meters of the fossil sites. We constructed databases of these fossil plant assemblages and of the modern geographic distributions and climatic data associated with the constituent species of these assemblages. We estimated temperature, precipitation, and bioclimatic parameters from midden assemblages for the past 25,000 calendar years ago by applying the Modern Analog Technique and the Mutual Climatic Range approach to these modern and fossil data. During the Full Glacial (25,000 to 14,500 calendar years ago) woodlands and montane conifers occurred farther south and were as much as 1000 m lower in elevation than today. Plants characteristic of warm deserts were nearly absent and temperatures were as much as 6°C below modern levels. There is little indication of greater-than-present precipitation. In the regions of the modern Sonoran and Mojave Deserts, montane conifers and pinyon pines shifted upslope through the Late Glacial (14,500 to 11,700 calendar years ago). During this time, these taxa lost most of their Full Glacial southern ranges, but generally did not significantly expand northward. Junipers persisted in what are now deserts, and warm desert species arrived but remained below their modern upper elevational limits. Cool-moist conditions continued into the Late Glacial, and although warming occurred, temperatures were still 2° to 4° C below present at the end of this period. Precipitation was significantly higher than modern levels across much of the region. The Younger Dryas climatic fluctuation is not evident in most packrat midden sequences that span that period. Junipers and some Mojave Desert species remained south and downslope of their modern ranges into the early Holocene (11,700 to 8,400 calendar years ago), but pinyon pines were generally absent from current deserts. Although they moved upslope relative to their Late Pleistocene ranges, pinyon pines, junipers, and other woodland species were not able to disperse northward during this period. Cool-moist conditions similar to those at the Late Glacial continued until approximately 10,000 calendar years ago. During the middle and late Holocene (8,400 calendar years to present) woodland species dispersed northward and desert species moved into the upper portions of their present-day elevational ranges. There are indications of warmer and drier than modern conditions in some areas during the middle Holocene.

  8. WGN, the Journal of the IMO 38:3 (2010) 87 Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    E-print Network

    Norris, Ray

    2010-01-01

    WGN, the Journal of the IMO 38:3 (2010) 87 Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings Duane W traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia, a long legged goanna that became a star, who played an important role in the Dreamings of the Abo

  9. Tewatatha:wi. Aboriginal Nationalism in Taiaiake Alfred's Peace, Power, Righteousness: An Indigenous Manifesto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    In recent years the idea of Aboriginal nationalism has been creeping into public language in Canada through the widespread use of the term "First Nation." The idea that Aboriginal peoples are "Nations," not just "cultures," has also begun to influence the Canadian government, the courts, and the study of law and political science. The principle…

  10. Perceived community environment and physical activity involvement in a northern-rural Aboriginal community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison M. Kirby; Lucie Lévesque; Virginia Wabano; Jennifer Robertson-Wilson

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Ample evidence shows that regular physical activity (PA) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is beginning to emerge linking PA to the physical environment but little is known about the relationship between remote rural environments and PA involvement in Aboriginal peoples. This

  11. Distance Education and the Issue of Equity Online: Exploring the Perspectives of Rural Aboriginal Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores Aboriginal perspectives of tertiary education "online" from rural and remote community locations in New South Wales. It does so within a frame of enquiry as to how neo-liberal educational policy reforms are impacting on equity issues in distance education "online". Accounts from Aboriginal university students in health point to…

  12. Older Aboriginal Peoples in Canada – Demographics, Health Status and Access to Health Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Rosenberg; Kathi Wilson; Sylvia Abonyi; Adam Wiebe; Kelsey Beach; Robert Lovelace

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes advantage of 2006 Census data, the Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) to highlight some basic demographic trends among Older Aboriginal Peoples, their health status and their use of health services in the first part of this paper. In the second part of the paper, we connect the findings to what has

  13. Exploring Place from an Aboriginal Perspective: Considerations for Outdoor and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowan, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a recent study about Outward Bound Canada's Giwaykiwin program for Aboriginal youth. A key finding that emerged from the study was the need to design contemporary Aboriginal education programs based on a recognition of the evolution of Indigenous cultures and languages in close relationship with specific geographical areas.…

  14. A Life Cycle Model for Aboriginal Arts Performance in Tourism: Perspectives on Authenticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Feifan Xie

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a life cycle model for aboriginal arts performance in tourism related situations from the perspective of authenticity. It is proposed that aboriginal arts performance is subject to a change and potential revitalisation process which consists of five stages: (1) the primordial state; (2) increasing involvement; (3) situational adaptations; (4) revitalisation; and (5) management for change, conservation or

  15. Didgeridoo Playing and Singing to Support Asthma Management in Aboriginal Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Robert; Gorman, Don

    2010-01-01

    Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…

  16. Cultural mismatch and the education of Aboriginal youths: the interplay of cultural identities and teacher ratings.

    PubMed

    Fryberg, Stephanie A; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Flores, Heidi; Ponizovskiy, Vladimir; Ranney, John D; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Russo, Natalie; Burack, Jacob A

    2013-01-01

    In response to the enduring "deficit" approach to the educational attainment of Aboriginal students in North America, we hypothesized that academic underperformance is related to a cultural mismatch between Aboriginal students' cultural background, which emphasizes connectedness and interdependence, and the mainstream White model of education, which focuses on independence and assertiveness. The participants included virtually all the secondary students (N = 115) in the Naskapi community of Kawawachikamach, Quebec, Canada. We obtained self-reports of identification with Aboriginal and White culture, teacher reports of assertiveness, and official grades. We found that high identification with either Aboriginal or White culture was related to higher grades, regardless of whether the students were perceived as assertive by their teacher. Conversely, at low levels of cultural identification toward Aboriginal or White culture, being perceived as low in assertiveness by one's teacher predicted lower grades. This suggests that both high cultural identification and assertiveness can contribute to enhancing the educational outcomes of Aboriginal students, but that Aboriginal students with low levels of both cultural identification and assertiveness are at particular risk as they are mismatched with the culture of mainstream schools and do not benefit from the protective effects of identity. The relationships among identity, cultural values, and academic performance point to the need to reject the notion of an inherent deficit in education among Aboriginal youths in favor of a different framework in which success can be attained when alternative ways of being are fostered and nurtured in schools. PMID:22731254

  17. An evidence-based formative evaluation of a cross cultural Aboriginal mental health program in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Thomas; Gerard Bellefeuille

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a formative evaluation of a Canadian cross cultural Aboriginal mental health program that combined the healing properties of the Aboriginal healing circle and the self-awareness and empowerment practices of the psychotherapy technique known as 'focusing'. The study was formative in nature and grounded in qualitative inquiry. Out of the data analysis, five salient themes surfaced that

  18. Grounded in Country: Perspectives on Working within, alongside and for Aboriginal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Barrett, Elizabeth; Price, Anne; Stomski, Norman; Walker, Bruce F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences of four researchers working within, alongside and for the Gumala Aboriginal Corporation in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. The focus of the research was a health and education needs analysis of Gumala Aboriginal Corporation members that would inform future education and health planning in the region.…

  19. Literacy: A Critical Element in the Survival of Aboriginal Languages. Chapter 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogwill, Lynn

    Six Aboriginal languages have been designated as official languages of the Northwest Territories (Canada) along with English and French. However, more than legislation is needed to support efforts to reclaim Aboriginal languages and culture. Both missionary schools and federally administered public schools (1940s-60s) disrupted the transmission of…

  20. Informal Learning: Cultural Experiences and Entrepreneurship among Aboriginal People. NALL Working Paper #04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotherspoon, Terry; Butler, Joanne

    This discussion paper explores interactions among formal learning, informal learning, and life conditions and opportunities experienced by aboriginal people in Canada. The contradictory importance of education for aboriginal people is examined with respect to three related aspects of these relationships. First, the paper summarizes students'…

  1. Integrating Aboriginal Perspectives in Education: Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study explored teacher candidates' perceptions of the potentialities and challenges associated with the integration of Aboriginal perspectives into mainstream education. Participants in this study were 2nd-year teacher candidates of a two-year teacher education programme who have completed a course on Aboriginal education. Using a…

  2. Shifting Perspectives and Practices: Teacher Candidates' Experiences of an Aboriginal Infusion in Mainstream Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blimkie, Melissa; Vetter, Diane; Haig-Brown, Celia

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory case study shares teacher candidates' perspectives and experiences of an Aboriginal infusion at York University's Faculty of Education field site in Barrie, Ontario. For this initiative, Aboriginal content and pedagogies were infused throughout placements and courses of the mainstream teacher education program. Teacher candidates…

  3. DNA on Loan: Issues to Consider when Carrying Out Genetic Research with Aboriginal Families and Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Arbour; Doris Cook

    2006-01-01

    In the current research milieu where genetic etiology is considered a critical component in the discovery of pathogenesis, aboriginal families and communities affected with genetic conditions may be considered as research participants. However, because of concerns about the impact of genetic information and historical harmful research practices, some aboriginal communities have considerable unease when faced with this prospect. Therefore, in

  4. An examination of stress among Aboriginal women and men with diabetes in Manitoba, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshi Iwasaki; Judith Bartlett; John O'neil

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a series of focus groups were conducted to gain an understanding of the nature of stress among Canadian Aboriginal women and men living with diabetes. Specifically, attention was given to the meanings Aboriginal peoples with diabetes attach to their lived experiences of stress, and the major sources or causes of stress in their lives. The key common

  5. Development of Oral Health Training for Rural and Remote Aboriginal Health Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacza, Tom; Steele, Lesley; Tennant, Marc

    2001-01-01

    A culturally appropriate oral health training course tailored to the needs of rural Aboriginal health workers was developed in Western Australia. The course is taught in three modules ranging from introductory material to comprehensive practical and theoretical knowledge of basic dental health care. The program encourages Aboriginal health workers…

  6. Summer Institute of Linguistics Australian Aborigines and Islanders Branch. Annual Report 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer Inst. of Linguistics, Darwin (Australia). Australian Aborigines Branch.

    Approximately 47,000 people in Australia speak an Aboriginal or Islander language as their first language and have better comprehension in one of these languages than in English. Recognizing this, and desiring to provide biblical translations in these languages, the Australian Aborigines and Islanders Branch of the Summer Institute of Linguistics…

  7. American Indian and Alaska Native Aboriginal Use of Alcohol in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Patrick J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of Aboriginal production and use of alcohol prior to white contact reveals that alcohol use originated in Central America and rapidly diffused to northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. However, Aboriginal alcohol use was generally controlled and supervised during ceremonies, and only after white contact did alcohol use…

  8. A Grounded Theory of New Aboriginal Teachers' Perceptions: The Cultural Attributions of Medicine Wheel Teachings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Lorenzo; Niemczyk, Ewelina; Hodson, John; McGean, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The stress and anxiety of new teachers is a pervasive problem that impacts upon teacher preparation and retention. Although new mainstream teacher concerns and experiences have been readily discussed in the literature, the same attention has not been invested for new Aboriginal teachers. In Ontario, Canada, in excess of 60% of the Aboriginal

  9. Translating Policies into Practice: Culturally Appropriate Practices in an Atayal Aboriginal Kindergarten Program in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Cecilia Lingfen

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Atayal aboriginal kindergarten program in Taiwan, known as the Kui-whai kindergarten program. While teaching a course on "Designing Kindergarten Curriculum" at a teacher-training program in Taiwan, the author realized that she had seven aboriginal preservice teachers in her class; previously she had none. Those students…

  10. Journeys to Success: Perceptions of Five Female Aboriginal High School Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazylak, Darryl

    2002-01-01

    Five Aboriginal female high school seniors at a Catholic school in Saskatoon met in "sharing circles" to discuss their experiences and perspectives on success factors for Aboriginal high school students. The medicine wheel was the framework for analyzing student narratives about spirituality; support from family, friends, teachers, and school…

  11. The Changing Face of Aboriginal Education in Rural and Northern Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Eileen M.

    2003-01-01

    Canada Natives have experienced many educational changes. Their traditional education and culture were negated by Euro-Western schooling, leaving Aboriginal people in a deficit position without a strong voice for many years. Only recently have Aboriginal people strengthened their voice in calling for their cultural values and beliefs to be the…

  12. Leveraging Aboriginal Tourism Legacy Benefits from the 2010 Olympics: A Case

    E-print Network

    Leveraging Aboriginal Tourism Legacy Benefits from the 2010 Olympics: A Case Study of Whistler: Master of Resource Management (Planning) Report No. : 606 Title of Project: Leveraging Aboriginal Tourism-established, and also signaled that the power the First Nations will likely increase with respect to local and tourism

  13. Creating Inclusive Space for Aboriginal Scholars and Scholarship in the Academy: Implications for Employment Equity Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Many Canadian universities report an under-representation of Aboriginal scholars in their professoriate. Employment equity policy seeks to redress the under-representation of marginalized groups in the Canadian workforce, including Aboriginal peoples. This article presents the findings of a case study which sought to examine, from the perspective…

  14. The First Neolithic Open Air Shore and Shell Midden Site of Chert Explorers of the Hvar-Lisi?icí Culture on the Island of Hvar, Croatia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cajus Diedrich

    2011-01-01

    On the Island Hvar (Croatia, Mediterranean), the first Neolithic open-air shore site of the Hvar-Lisi?icí Culture—found to the northwest of Vrboska at the western edge of the Maslinica Bay—is reported, in addition to already known cave sites. The first survey of this partially eroded beach site has produced ceramic fragments, marine mollusks, domestic animal bones, numerous chert artifacts or debris,

  15. Trauma and cultural safety: providing quality care to HIV-infected women of aboriginal descent.

    PubMed

    McCall, Jane; Lauridsen-Hoegh, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, the Aboriginal community is most at risk for HIV infection. Aboriginal peoples have disproportionately high rates of violence, drug use, and challenging socioeconomic circumstances. All of this is related to a history of colonization that has left Aboriginal people vulnerable to HIV infection through unsafe sex, needle sharing, and lack of access to health promotion and education. Aboriginal women are at particular risk for HIV infection. They experience a disproportionate degree of trauma, which is associated with colonization, high rates of childhood sexual abuse, and illicit drug use. A history of trauma impacts on access to health care, uptake of antiretroviral therapy, and mortality and morbidity in people with HIV. We describe the case of a 52-year-old, HIV-infected Aboriginal woman. We review the current evidence related to her case, including colonization, intersectionality, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, revictimization, and substance use. PMID:24012166

  16. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Results Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. Conclusions The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation among Aboriginal girls and women. It is critical to acknowledge Aboriginal identity and culture as a source of empowerment; and to recognise the role of persistent marginalization in contributing to the high prevalence and initiation of smoking. PMID:22152218

  17. The Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service: a decade of achievement in the health of women and babies in NSW.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Elisabeth; Best, Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    The Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service was established to improve the health of Aboriginal women during pregnancy and decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality for Aboriginal babies. The Service is delivered through a continuity-of-care model, where midwives and Aboriginal Health Workers collaborate to provide a high quality maternity service that is culturally sensitive, women centred, based on primary health-care principles and provided in partnership with Aboriginal people. An evaluation of the Service found that the program is achieving its goals in relation to the provision of antenatal and postnatal care and has demonstrated improvements in perinatal morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:22697102

  18. A dermatoglyphic study of the Amis aboriginal population of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-Fong; Zhang, HaiGuo; Shen, Chien-Fu; Lai, Chun-Hung

    2008-01-01

    Amis is the largest aboriginal population in Taiwan. The previous dermatoglyphic studies of the Amis only reported limited data. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 200 Amis individuals, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count, a-b ridge count, atd angle, axial triradius percent distance, and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, palmar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of Amis since 1960s, and its dermatoglyphic data will be useful for future research in anthropology, genetics and medicine. PMID:18176795

  19. Chlamydia among Australian Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people attending sexual health services, general practices and Aboriginal community controlled health services

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia infections are notified at much higher rates in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people compared to non-Indigenous people. The Australian Collaboration Chlamydia Enhanced Sentinel Surveillance System (ACCESS) was established to complement population-based surveillance. Methods We describe patient demographics, completeness of recording of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (‘Aboriginal’) status, chlamydia testing rates and positivity rates from the Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHSs), General Practice (GP) clinics and Sexual Health Services (SHSs) networks in ACCESS during 2009. Data were extracted from electronic medical records of each participating health service for consultations with patients aged 16–29 years and for chlamydia testing and positivity. Results Data were included from 16–29 year olds attending six ACCHSs (n?=?4,950); 22 SHSs (n?=?20,691) and 25 GP clinics (n?=?34,462). Aboriginal status was unknown for 79.3% of patients attending GP clinics, 4.5% attending SHSs and 3.8% of patients attending ACCHSs. Chlamydia testing rates among Aboriginal patients were 19.8% (95%CI:18.6%-21.0%) at ACCHSs, 75.5% (95% CI:72.5%-78.4%) at SHSs and 4.3% (95% CI: 2.6%-6.6%) at GP clinics. Positivity rates were highest in Aboriginal patients tested at SHSs at 22.7% (95% CI:19.5%-26.2%), followed by 15.8% (95% CI:3.8%-43.4%) at GP clinics and 8.6% at ACCHSs (95% CI:7.9%-12.4%). This compared with non-Indigenous patients positivity rates at SHSs of 12.7% (95% CI:12.2-13.2%); 8.6% (7.2%-11.3%) at GP clinics and 11.3% at ACCHSs (95% CI:15.4%-24.9%). Conclusions Higher chlamydia positivity in Aboriginal people across a range of clinical services is reflected in national notification data. Targeted efforts are required to improve testing rates in primary care services; to improve identification of Aboriginal patients in mainstream services such as GP clinics; and to better engage with young Aboriginal Australians. PMID:24981418

  20. Research with Aboriginal peoples: authentic relationships as a precursor to ethical research.

    PubMed

    Bull, Julie R

    2010-12-01

    Recent ethics guidelines and policies are changing the way health research is understood, governed, and practiced among Aboriginal communities in Canada. This provides a unique opportunity to examine the meanings and uses of such guidelines by Aboriginal communities themselves. This qualitative study, conducted in Labrador, Canada, with the Innu, Inuit, and Inuit-Metis, examined how communities and researchers collaborate in a co-learning environment whereby mutual interests and agendas are discussed and enacted throughout the entire research process-a process referred to an authentic research relationship. The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: (1) Why are authentic research relationships important? (2) What is authenticity in research? (3) How do we achieve authenticity in research with Aboriginal peoples? This shift to more wholistic methodologies can be used in various contexts in Canada and internationally. This is the first study by an Aboriginal person to examine the perspectives of Aboriginal people, in an Aboriginal context, using Aboriginal methodologies. PMID:21133783

  1. Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Niccols, Allison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many women, substance abuse offers a means of coping with trauma, such as childhood abuse, partner violence, and, for Aboriginal women, the intergenerational effects of colonization. In this paper, we review treatment issues for Aboriginal mothers with substance use problems and their children. We discuss gender-specific issues in substance abuse, the need for women-specific treatment, the impact of substance abuse on children and parenting, the additional risks for Aboriginal women and children, and the need for integrated programs (those that integrate pregnancy-, parenting-, and child-related services with women-specific addiction treatment). We describe New Choices as an example of an integrated program, review research on existing treatment for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues, and describe Sheway as a promising integrated program for Aboriginal women with substance abuse issues and their young children. There are few treatment programs specifically for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues and their children and very little research on their effectiveness. Based on our review of existing evidence, we offer recommendations for future research and practice. PMID:24976814

  2. Not just bricks and mortar: planning hospital cancer services for Aboriginal people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals. Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews explored participants' beliefs about cancer and experiences of cancer care and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Information from interviews relevant to hospital services including and building design was extracted. Findings Relationships and respect emerged as crucial considerations of participants although many aspects of the hospital environment were seen as influencing the delivery of care. Five themes describing concerns about the hospital environment emerged: (i) being alone and lost in a big, alien and inflexible system; (ii) failure of open communication, delays and inefficiency in the system; (iii) practicalities: costs, transportation, community and family responsibilities; (iv) the need for Aboriginal support persons; and (v) connection to the community. Conclusions Design considerations and were identified but more important than the building itself was the critical need to build trust in health services. Promotion of cultural safety, support for Aboriginal family structures and respecting the importance of place and community to Aboriginal patients are crucial in improving cancer outcomes. PMID:21401923

  3. Aboriginal mortality in Canada, the United States and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Trovato, F

    2001-01-01

    Indigenous populations in New World nations share the common experience of culture contact with outsiders and a prolonged history of prejudice and discrimination. This historical reality continues to have profound effects on their well-being, as demonstrated by their relative disadvantages in socioeconomic status on the one hand, and in their delayed demographic and epidemiological transitions on the other. In this study one aspect of aboriginals' epidemiological situation is examined: their mortality experience between the early 1980s and early 1990s. The groups studied are the Canadian Indians, the American Indians and the New Zealand Maori (data for Australian Aboriginals could not be obtained). Cause-specific death rates of these three minority groups are compared with those of their respective non-indigenous populations using multivariate log-linear competing risks models. The empirical results are consistent with the proposition that the contemporary mortality conditions of these three minorities reflect, in varying degrees, problems associated with poverty, marginalization and social disorganization. Of the three minority groups, the Canadian Indians appear to suffer more from these types of conditions, and the Maori the least. PMID:11316396

  4. Changes in Tobacco Use, Susceptibility to Future Smoking, and Quit Attempts among Canadian Youth over Time: A Comparison of Off-Reserve Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Youth

    PubMed Central

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Burkhalter, Robin; Brown, K. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a growing inequity in tobacco use, susceptibility to future smoking, and quit attempts among Off-Reserve Aboriginal (ORA) youth in Canada relative to Non-Aboriginal youth. Current smoking, susceptibility to future smoking and quit attempts were examined among a nationally representative sample of ORA and Non-Aboriginal Canadian youth. Data are from cross-sectional surveys of 88,661 respondents in Grades 6 to 9 across the 2004, 2006 and 2008 survey waves of the Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). At each wave, ORA youth were more likely to be current smokers (overall OR = 3.91, 95% CI 3.47 to 4.41), to be susceptible to future smoking (overall OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.48), and less likely to have ever made a quit attempt compared to Non-Aboriginal youth (overall OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.96). Although susceptibility to future smoking declined for Non-Aboriginal youth, the prevalence of susceptibility remained stable among ORA youth. The percentage of ORA youth reporting making a quit attempt increased, however, current smoking rates among ORA youth did not decline. These findings suggest that the disparity in susceptibility to future tobacco use among ORA and Non-Aboriginal youth has increased over time. Despite increased rates of quit attempts, current smoking rates remain significantly higher among ORA youth. Tobacco control programs for Aboriginal youth should be a public health priority. PMID:23429753

  5. Understanding inequalities in access to health care services for aboriginal people: a call for nursing action.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Brenda L; Carmargo Plazas, Maria Del Pilar; Salas, Anna Santos; Bourque Bearskin, R Lisa; Hungler, Krista

    2014-01-01

    We present findings from an Access Research Initiative to reduce health disparities and promote equitable access with Aboriginal peoples in Canada. We employed Indigenous, interpretive, and participatory research methodologies in partnership with Aboriginal people. Participants reported stories of bullying, fear, intimidation, and lack of cultural understanding. This research reveals the urgent need to enhance the delivery of culturally appropriate practices in emergency. As nurses, if we wish to affect equity of access, then attention is required to structural injustices that act as barriers to access such as addressing the stigma, stereotyping, and discrimination experienced by Aboriginal people in this study. PMID:25102218

  6. Building on the Resilience of Aboriginal People in Risk Reduction Initiatives Targeting Sexually Transmitted Infections and Blood-Borne Viruses: The Aboriginal Community Resilience to AIDS (ACRA)1

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Neil; Shea, Bev; Archibald, Chris; Wong, Tom; Barlow, Kevin; Sioui, Georges

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal people may be at increased risk of HIV infection; they also experience higher rates of other blood-borne viral (BBV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI). This project will provide insights into the role of resilience and its impact on the health and well-being of Aboriginal youth, especially as it relates to sexual and injecting behaviour. The primary recipients of this information will be agencies that provide risk education related to BBVs and STIs. The project involves several phases. First, the framework for the research will be established, with Aboriginal leadership and involvement at every level. Next, both qualitative and quantitative methodologies will be used to identify factors that protect Aboriginal youth against blood-borne viral and sexually transmitted infections and their transmission within local communities. Finally, results from this project will be used to develop interventions and appropriate frameworks for their evaluation in Aboriginal communities. An important component of this project will involve the building of capacity within participating communities, with the goal of identifying strategies related to resilience that can be incorporated into public health and clinical practice. The project will run for five years. PMID:20862231

  7. Markers of Access to and Quality of Primary Care for Aboriginal People in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Baiju R.; Gunraj, Nadia; Hux, Janet E.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated primary care accessibility and quality for Ontario’s aboriginal population. Methods. We compared a defined aboriginal cohort with nonaboriginal populations with analogous geographic isolation and low socioeconomic status. We determined rates of hospitalization for the following indicators of adequacy of primary care: ambulatory care–sensitive (ACS) conditions and utilization of referral care–sensitive (RCS) procedures from administrative databases. Results. ACS hospitalization rates, relative to the general population, were 2.54, 1.50, and 1.14 for the aboriginal population, the geographic control populations, and the socioeconomic control populations, respectively. The relative RCS procedure utilization rates were 0.64, 0.91, and 1.00, respectively. Conclusions. The increased ACS hospitalization rate and reduced RCS procedure utilization rate suggest that northern Ontario’s aboriginal residents have insufficient or ineffective primary care. PMID:12721147

  8. Experimental Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, Jun 2006

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Australian Bureau of Statistics

    This product contains final experimental estimates of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous), non-Indigenous and total populations of Australia at 30 June 2006, for various geographies.

  9. Reframing spaces by building relationships: community collaborative participatory action research with Aboriginal mothers in prison.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Juanita; Kendall, Sacha

    2013-12-01

    Aboriginal women are vastly over-represented in the Australian prison system. Their recidivism rates are high. Aboriginal women in contact with the criminal justice system also have higher rates of mental health disorders and are likely to have been a victim of violence. The majority of these women are mothers. Their increasing incarceration therefore has serious implications for the health and social and emotional wellbeing of their Aboriginal children, families and communities. Illustrating and exploring this situation requires an Indigenous informed conceptual framework utilising a decolonising research methodology inclusive of enduring community and stakeholder dialogue and consultation. Respectful and ethical praxis are central to this approach. We will describe how this methodology has been applied within a current National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) research project in NSW, Australia. The NHMRC guidelines for research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders peoples have supported our process and will be highlighted in illustrating our research experience. PMID:24716766

  10. The “fire stick farming” hypothesis: Australian Aboriginal foraging strategies, biodiversity, and anthropogenic fire mosaics

    PubMed Central

    Bliege Bird, R.; Bird, D. W.; Codding, B. F.; Parker, C. H.; Jones, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Aboriginal burning in Australia has long been assumed to be a “resource management” strategy, but no quantitative tests of this hypothesis have ever been conducted. We combine ethnographic observations of contemporary Aboriginal hunting and burning with satellite image analysis of anthropogenic and natural landscape structure to demonstrate the processes through which Aboriginal burning shapes arid-zone vegetational diversity. Anthropogenic landscapes contain a greater diversity of successional stages than landscapes under a lightning fire regime, and differences are of scale, not of kind. Landscape scale is directly linked to foraging for small, burrowed prey (monitor lizards), which is a specialty of Aboriginal women. The maintenance of small-scale habitat mosaics increases small-animal hunting productivity. These results have implications for understanding the unique biodiversity of the Australian continent, through time and space. In particular, anthropogenic influences on the habitat structure of paleolandscapes are likely to be spatially localized and linked to less mobile, “broad-spectrum” foraging economies. PMID:18809925

  11. Adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for Remote Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    D'Aprano, Anita; Silburn, Sven; Johnston, Vanessa; Robinson, Gary; Oberklaid, Frank; Squires, Jane

    2014-12-01

    A key challenge to providing quality developmental care in remote Aboriginal primary health care (PHC) centers has been the absence of culturally appropriate developmental screening instruments. This study focused on the cross-cultural adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, 3rd edition (ASQ-3), with careful attention to language and culture. We aimed to adapt the ASQ-3 for use with remote dwelling Australian Aboriginal children, and to investigate the cultural appropriateness and feasibility of the adapted ASQ-3 for use in this context. We undertook a qualitative study in two remote Australian Aboriginal communities, using a six-step collaborative adaptation process. Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) were trained to use the adapted ASQ-3, and follow-up interviews examined participants' views of the cultural acceptability and usefulness of the adapted instrument. The adapted ASQ-3 was found to have high face validity and to be culturally acceptable and relevant to parents, AHWs, and early childhood development experts. PMID:25488936

  12. Hospitalization of Aboriginal adults for digestive disorders in Western Australia, 1989-91.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M; Bobongie, F

    1995-01-01

    Hospital admission rates for many gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases were much higher in Aboriginals aged 15 to > 65 years than among the rest of the population of that age in Western Australia in 1989-91. Alcohol-related conditions were particularly prominent: the relative rate (RR) for alcoholic gastritis was > 30; for acute alcoholic hepatitis in young adults > 20; for alcoholic cirrhosis at 30-64 years the RR was about 4 to > 10; the RR for haematemesis and melaena was > 3; for acute pancreatitis at 30-64 years the RR ranged from about 3 to 20. Admissions for cholelithiasis in Aboriginal males were 1.5-2 times as frequent as in other males; for Aboriginal females the RR was > 2; acute cholecystitis was much commoner in Aboriginal patients from 30 to 64 years of age than in other patients of the same age. Illnesses coded as 'non-infectious enteritis and colitis' were the commonest diagnostic category in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD 9) classification of digestive system disorders among Aboriginal patients; admissions for these conditions occurred at double to more than seven times the rates that occurred in the same age groups in non-Aboriginal patients. Many of these illnesses were probably due to undetected gastrointestinal infections and parasitic infestations. This study shows that Aboriginal adults have disproportionately high rates of morbidity from many diseases of the digestive system. The findings have important implications for clinical services as well as for the development of preventive and promotional health strategies for Aboriginal people. PMID:7548809

  13. Correlations between crown diameters of the deciduous and permanent teeth of Australian Aboriginals.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Margetts, B; Townsend, G C

    1980-08-01

    Correlations between crown diameters of corresponding teeth and tooth groups in the deciduous and permanent dentitions are reported for Australian Aboriginals. Size associations for within-dentition comparisons were stronger than those for between-dentition. Furthermore, correlations tended to be greater for corresponding tooth groups than for single teeth both within and between dentitions. This co-ordination appears to be well marked in Aboriginals compared with other populations. PMID:6934744

  14. Building Atoms Shell by Shell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Beverly

    1993-01-01

    Describes an atom-building activity where students construct three-dimensional models of atoms using a styrofoam ball as the nucleus and pom-poms, gum drops, minimarshmallows, or other small items of two different colors to represent protons and neutrons attached. Rings of various sizes with pom-poms attached represent electron shells and…

  15. Integrating conventional science and aboriginal perspectives on diabetes using fuzzy cognitive maps.

    PubMed

    Giles, Brian G; Findlay, C Scott; Haas, George; LaFrance, Brenda; Laughing, Wesley; Pembleton, Sakakohe

    2007-02-01

    There is concern among Aboriginal communities in Canada that conventional approaches to the treatment of diabetes are ineffective in part because they fail to recognize the local Aboriginal perspective on the causal determinants of diabetes. While this shortcoming has been recognized, there have been no explicit attempts to practically define these perspectives and prescribe how conventional health management might be altered to incorporate them. In part, this may be due to difficulties in communicating Aboriginal perspectives in a manner which permits incorporation into conventional science-based frameworks. Here we use fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) as a technique to represent and compare Canadian Aboriginal and conventional science perspectives on the determinants of diabetes as contained in published articles drawn from a search of Medline and PubMed (1966-2005). The FCM allows for a detailed description of the complex system of culture, spirituality and balance at the root of the Aboriginal view. It also highlights how, for these less tangible factors, it is possible to identify more concrete stressors and outcomes which are amenable to management and monitoring. This preliminary comparison of conventional and Aboriginal views also demonstrates the potential for FCM as a technique to extract, compare and integrate perspectives of different knowledge systems into health management and policy development. PMID:17084952

  16. Socioeconomic, social behaviour and dietary patterns among Malaysian aborigines and rural native Malays.

    PubMed

    Ali, O; Shamsuddin, Z; Khalid, B A

    1991-09-01

    The socioeconomic, social behaviour and dietary pattern of 100 Aborigines and Malays, aged 7 years and above from Kuala Pangsoon, Selangor Malaysia were studied by using pretested questionnaires. The individual's dietary intake was estimated using 24 hour recall for 3 days within one week which was chosen at random. The household's food consumption pattern was evaluated using food frequency questionnaires. There was no difference in the total income per month for both communities, as well as the educational attainment of the head of household and property ownership. The proportion of smokers among the Aborigines and the Malays was almost similar (33%) but the percentage of heavy smokers was higher among Aborigines compared to Malays. One third of the Aborigines regularly consume alcohol. The main energy source for both communities was rice, sugar and cooking oil whilst fish and eggs were the main sources of protein. More than 50% of the Aborigines take tapioca or tapioca leaves at least once a week compared to less than 20% among the Malays. There was no significant different in the intake of energy, protein and carbohydrate between the groups. However, the Aborigines take less fats and iron compared to the Malays. The difference in terms of smoking, drinking habit and dietary intake may determine the distribution of disease in both communities. PMID:1839916

  17. The importance of social and cultural effects of mercury on aboriginal peoples.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, M A

    1996-01-01

    Environmental contaminants, including mercury, often by-products of industrialization land development projects, frequently have far-reaching consequences for Aboriginal people, who often receive little benefit from such projects. In trying to understand the full impact of environmental mercury on Aboriginal people, therefore, research endeavours must consider the social and cultural impacts, and not simply focus on the direct clinical effects resulting from exposure. This paper explores some of the key areas in developing such an understanding. Aboriginal peoples' understanding of mercury contamination is influenced by their holistic concepts of health and environment. Whether or not scientific assessment reveals direct clinical health effects from exposure to mercury, this holistic viewpoint may lead to an effect on both individuals and communities. Perceptions of changes and the disruption of the special relationship that Aboriginal people perceive themselves to have with the environment have a considerable impact on their social, cultural, spiritual and economic well-being. These qualitative impacts are not easily measured with standard social indicators. The involvement of communities in the identification and measurement of Aboriginal community indicators which reflect the reality of their situation is essential in order to establish a better understanding of the extent and importance of social and cultural effects of exposure to mercury. Toxicologists, policy makers and others concerned with setting risk levels which may lead to formal guidelines should be aware of the impacts that their actions and decisions may have on the lifestyle, and therefore on the health, of Aboriginal peoples. PMID:8784836

  18. Naturally Acquired Antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae Type a in Aboriginal Adults, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Nix, Eli B.; Williams, Kylie; Cox, Andrew D.; St. Michael, Frank; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Schmidt, Daniel S.; McCready, William G.

    2015-01-01

    In the post-Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine era that began in the 1980's, H. influenzae type a (Hia) emerged as a prominent cause of invasive disease in North American Aboriginal populations. To test whether a lack of naturally acquired antibodies may underlie increased rates of invasive Hia disease, we compared serum bactericidal activity against Hia and Hib and IgG and IgM against capsular polysaccharide between Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal healthy and immunocompromised adults. Both healthy and immunocompromised Aboriginal adults exhibited significantly higher bactericidal antibody titers against Hia than did non-Aboriginal adults (p = 0.042 and 0.045 respectively), with no difference in functional antibody activity against Hib. IgM concentrations against Hia were higher than IgG in most study groups; the inverse was true for antibody concentrations against Hib. Our results indicate that Aboriginal adults possess substantial serum bactericidal activity against Hia that is mostly due to IgM antibodies. The presence of sustained IgM against Hia suggests recent Hia exposure. PMID:25626129

  19. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods. PMID:24549409

  20. Genitourinary tract infections in pregnancy and low birth weight: case-control study in Australian aboriginal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Schultz; A W Read; J A Straton; F J Stanley; P Morich

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the association between genital and urinary tract infections in pregnant Aboriginal women and low birth weight. DESIGN--Retrospective case-control study controlling for potential confounding variables. SETTING--Western Australia from 1985 to 1987. SUBJECTS--All Aboriginal women (n = 269) who had given birth to singleton infants weighing 2250 g or less (cases), and 269 randomly selected Aboriginal women who had given

  1. Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and stable isotopes in modern and Holocene Protothaca staminea shells from a northern California coastal upwelling region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takesue, R.K.; VanGeen, A.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the potential of intertidal Protothaca staminea shells as high-resolution geochemical archives of environmental change in a coastal upwelling region. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were analyzed by excimer laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at sub-weekly temporal resolution in shells growing ???1 mm per month. Growth patterns of a modern P. staminea shell from Humboldt Bay, California, collected in December 1999 made it possible to infer a lifespan from 1993 to 1998. Growth hiatuses in the shell may have excluded records of extreme events. Mg/Ca ratios appeared to be partly controlled by water temperature; the correlation coefficient between temperature and Mg/Ca was r = 0.71 in one of four growth increments. Significant year-to-year differences in the sensitivity of Mg/Ca to temperature in P. staminea could not be explained, however. Sr/Ca ratios appeared to be more closely related to shell growth rate. Oxygen isotopes, measured at 2-week temporal resolution in the same shell, did not show a clear relation to local temperature in summer, possibly because temperatures were higher and less variable at the King Salmon mudflat, where the shell was collected, than in the main channel of Humboldt Bay, where water properties were monitored. Negative shell ??13C values (<-0.5???) marked spring and summer coastal upwelling events. The Mg contents of P. staminea midden shells dated to ???3 ka and ???9 ka were significantly lower than in the modern shell. This may have resulted from degradation of a Mg-rich shell organic matrix and precluded quantitative interpretation of the older high-resolution records. Elevated ??13C values in the ???3 ka shell suggested that the individual grew in highly productive or stratified environment, such as a shallow coastal embayment or lagoon. Copyright ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Mental health and Victorian Aboriginal people: what can data mining tell us?

    PubMed

    Adams, Karen; Halacas, Chris; Cincotta, Marion; Pesich, Corina

    2014-10-01

    Nationally, Aboriginal people experience high levels of psychological distress, primarily due to trauma from colonisation. In Victoria, Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) provide many services to support mental health. The aim of the present study was to improve understanding about Victorian Aboriginal people and mental health service patterns. We located four mental health administrative datasets to analyse descriptively, including Practice Health Atlas, Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Service (AODTS), Kids Helpline and Close The Gap Pharmaceutical Scheme data. A large proportion of the local Aboriginal population (70%) were regular ACCHO clients; of these, 21% had a mental health diagnosis and, of these, 23% had a Medicare Mental Health Care Plan (MHCP). There were higher rates of Medicare MHCP completion rates where general practitioners (GPs) had mental health training and the local Area Mental Health Service had a Koori Mental Health Liaison Officer. There was an over-representation of AODTS episodes, and referrals for these episodes were more likely to come through community, corrections and justice services than for non-Aboriginal people. Aboriginal episodes were less likely to have been referred by a GP or police and less likely to have been referrals to community-based or home-based treatment. There was an over-representation of Victorian Aboriginal calls to Kids Helpline, and these were frequently for suicide and self-harm reasons. We recommend primary care mental health programs include quality audits, GP training, non-pharmaceutical options and partnerships. Access to appropriate AODTS is needed, particularly given links to high incarcerations rates. To ensure access to mental health services, improved understanding of mental health service participation and outcomes, including suicide prevention services for young people, is needed. PMID:25053190

  3. ‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life’: Aboriginal people's experience of haemodialysis in rural Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Australian Aboriginal people have at least eight times the incidence of end-stage kidney disease, requiring dialysis, as the non-Aboriginal population. Provision of health services to rural Aboriginal people with renal disease is challenging due to barriers to access and cultural differences. We aimed to describe the experiences of Aboriginal people receiving haemodialysis in rural Australia, to inform strategies for improving renal services. Design A qualitative design incorporating: Indigenist research methodology and Community Based Participatory Research principles. In-depth interviews used a ‘yarning’ and storytelling approach. Thematic analysis was undertaken and verified by an Aboriginal Community Reference Group. Setting A health district in rural New South Wales, Australia. Participants Snowball sampling recruited 18 Aboriginal haemodialysis recipients. Results Six themes emerged which described the patient journey: ‘The biggest shock of me life,’ expressed the shock of diagnosis and starting the dialysis; ‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life,’ explained how positive attitudes to treatment develop; ‘Family is everything’, described the motivation and support to continue dialysis; ‘If I had one of them nurses at home to help me’, depicted acute hospital settings as culturally unsafe; ‘Don't use them big jawbreakers’, urged service providers to use simple language and cultural awareness; ‘Stop ‘em following us onto the machine’, emphasised the desire for education for the younger generations about preventing kidney disease. An Aboriginal interpretation of this experience, linked to the analysis, was depicted in the form of an Aboriginal painting. Conclusions Family enables Aboriginal people to endure haemodialysis. Patients believe that priorities for improving services include family-centred and culturally accommodating healthcare systems; and improving access to early screening of kidney disease. Inclusion of Aboriginal patients in cultural education for renal staff is recommended. Providing opportunities for patients to educate young Aboriginal people about kidney disease prevention may be highly effective and empowering. PMID:25231493

  4. The Aboriginal Motif in Children's Literature. Proceedings of a National Seminar Held at the University of Tasmania Tasmania, Australia, September 25-27, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Twila A. J., Ed.

    This seminar on the Aboriginal motif in children's literature was opened by critic Walter McVitty with a paper entitled "The Presentation of Australian Aborigines and Their Culture in Children's Literature: A Brief Overview." In "Some Thoughts on the Aborigine as Presented in Children's Literature," Queensland author Bill Scott stressed the need…

  5. Aboriginal Self-Determination in Australia: The Effects of Minority-Majority Frames and Target Universalism on Majority Collective Guilt and Compensation Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Scott A.; Gunter, Helen N.; Smith, Joanne R.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of Aboriginal-Anglo Australian relations, we tested the effect of framing (multiculturalism versus separatism) and majority group members' social values (universalism) on the persuasiveness of Aboriginal group rhetoric, majority collective guilt, attitudes toward compensation, and reparations for Aboriginals. As predicted, Anglo…

  6. Comparison of late HIV diagnosis as a marker of care for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal people living with HIV in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Jaworsky, Denise; Monette, LaVerne; Raboud, Janet; O’Brien-Teengs, Doe; Diong, Christina; Blitz, Sandra; Rourke, Sean B; Loutfy, Mona R

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have found that Aboriginal people living with HIV/AIDS (APHAs) are more likely than non-APHAs to receive suboptimal HIV care, yet achieve similar clinical outcomes with proper care. OBJECTIVE: To compare the proportions of individuals diagnosed late with HIV between APHAs and non-APHAs within the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study (OCS). METHODS: The analysis included OCS participants who completed the baseline visit by November 2009. Two definitions of the outcome of late HIV diagnosis were used: the proportion of participants with an AIDS-defining illness (ADI) before or within three months of HIV diagnosis; and the proportion of participants with a CD4+ count <200 cells/mL at diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between Aboriginal ethnicity and late HIV diagnosis. RESULTS: APHAs were more likely to be female and have lower income, education and employment. No statistically significant differences were noted in the proportions receiving a late HIV diagnosis defined by ADI (Aboriginal 5.2% versus non-Aboriginal 6.3%; P=0.40). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between Aboriginal ethnicity and late HIV diagnosis defined by CD4+ count after adjusting for age and HIV risk factor (OR 1.55; P=0.04). DISCUSSION: APHAs were more likely to have a CD4+ count <200 cells/mL at diagnosis but had similar clinical outcomes from late diagnosis when defined by ADI. However, differences may be underestimated due to recruitment limitations and selection bias. CONCLUSION: Additional work is needed to address the socioeconomic and health care needs of APHAs. PMID:24294285

  7. The connection between type 2 diabetes and erectile dysfunction in Taiwanese aboriginal males.

    PubMed

    Shi, M-D; Chao, J-K; Ma, M-C; Chiang, S-K; Chao, I-C

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing global epidemic, especially among aboriginal Taiwanese. This study aimed to identify the relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED), markers of endothelial function, serum testosterone level and type 2 DM in aboriginal Taiwanese. Data were obtained from a baseline survey of 240 aboriginal adults. Their demographic data, presence of type 2 DM, markers of endothelial function, serum testosterone and ED status were assessed. The mean age of the samples was 51.62 ± 7.76 years. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 total score had a mean of 21.99 ± 2.34 and a median of 23; 134 participants had ED (55.8%). The results showed an increased risk of ED for participants with type 2 DM and lower serum testosterone level. Among the predictors of ED, type 2 DM, lower serum free testosterone and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were significantly independent factors. Interleukin-6 had a negative relationship with ED. The study results suggest there is a strong association between type 2 DM and erectile function among aboriginal Taiwanese that is similar to the general population. This study also supports the idea that type 2 DM, markers of endothelial function and serum testosterone may provide warning signs of ED and, at the same time, an opportunity for early intervention for aboriginal adult male. PMID:25078051

  8. Paternal Genetic Structure of Hainan Aborigines Isolated at the Entrance to East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongna; Li, Hui; Ou, Caiying; Lu, Yan; Sun, Yuantian; Yang, Bo; Qin, Zhendong; Zhou, Zhenjian; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li

    2008-01-01

    Background At the southern entrance to East Asia, early population migration has affected most of the Y-chromosome variations of East Asians. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the isolated genetic structure of Hainan Island and the original genetic structure at the southern entrance, we studied the Y chromosome diversity of 405 Hainan Island aborigines from all the six populations, who have little influence of the recent mainland population relocations and admixtures. Here we report that haplogroups O1a* and O2a* are dominant among Hainan aborigines. In addition, the frequency of the mainland dominant haplogroup O3 is quite low among these aborigines, indicating that they have lived rather isolated. Clustering analyses suggests that the Hainan aborigines have been segregated since about 20 thousand years ago, after two dominant haplogroups entered East Asia (31 to 36 thousand years ago). Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that Hainan aborigines have been isolated at the entrance to East Asia for about 20 thousand years, whose distinctive genetic characteristics could be used as important controls in many population genetic studies. PMID:18478090

  9. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    PubMed

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. PMID:24161085

  10. 'Race' matters: racialization and egalitarian discourses involving Aboriginal people in the Canadian health care context.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sannie Y; Browne, Annette J

    2008-04-01

    The major purpose of this paper is to examine how 'race' and racialization operate in health care. To do so, we draw upon data from an ethnographic study that examines the complex issues surrounding health care access for Aboriginal people in an urban center in Canada. In our analysis, we strategically locate our critical examination of racialization in the 'tension of difference' between two emerging themes, namely the health care rhetoric of 'treating everyone the same,' and the perception among many Aboriginal patients that they were 'being treated differently' by health care providers because of their identity as Aboriginal people, and because of their low socio-economic status. Contrary to the prevailing discourse of egalitarianism that paints health care and other major institutions as discrimination-free, we argue that 'race' matters in health care as it intersects with other social categories including class, substance use, and history to organize inequitable access to health and health care for marginalized populations. Specifically, we illustrate how the ideological process of racialization can shape the ways that health care providers 'read' and interact with Aboriginal patients, and how some Aboriginal patients avoid seeking health care based on their expectation of being treated differently. We conclude by urging those of us in positions of influence in health care, including doctors and nurses, to critically reflect upon our own positionality and how we might be complicit in perpetuating social inequities by avoiding a critical discussion of racialization. PMID:18425710

  11. Reconstructing Aboriginal Identity and the Meaning of the Body in Blood Donation Decisions.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Stacey A; Gillett, James

    2015-08-01

    Ethno-cultural disparities in blood and tissue donation patterns have been described as an emergent challenge in the context of the transfusion medicine literature (Boulware et al. in Med Care 40(2):85-95, 2002; Molzahn et al. in Nephrol Nurs J 30(1):17-26, 2003, Can J Nurs Res 36(4):110-128, 2004). In the North American context, much has been written about blood and tissue donation patterns among different religious and cultural groups within the United States. However, there are few available statistics or descriptive research that discusses blood donation decisions among Aboriginal Canadians. In 2001, Aboriginal Canadians represented approximately 4.1 % of the total Canadian population, or 1.1 million persons (Birn et al., in Textbook of international health: global health in a dynamic world. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 2009). Comparatively, Canada Blood Services reports that Aboriginal Canadians represent only 0.9% of registered donors (Canadian Blood Services 2011a). These low donation patterns suggest that blood donation choice among Aboriginal Canadians requires better understanding. This paper discusses several factors that may influence Aboriginal health choices, specifically those associated with blood donation decision-making. Several influential factors will be discussed, including: the meaning of the body and its parts in relationship to the interconnectedness of all things (religio-cultural), the reflexivity of choice and control (political), and relationships with others (social). PMID:24833161

  12. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and…

  13. The Aboriginal Boys' Training Home, Kinchela, 1924-1970, and the Development of a Culture of Physical Fitness and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsland, John

    2006-01-01

    Kinchela Boys' Home on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, was established by the state's Aborigines Protection Board for Aboriginal boys and youths in 1924 and closed in 1970. By the 1930s the place had become known as a notorious carceral, poorly managed and psychologically isolated. An overdue government enquiry in 1940 concluded that it…

  14. Aboriginal Bark Painting: Learning about the Beliefs of Others Is Important for Developing an Appreciation of Other Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Jane

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes one classroom's experience engaging in a lesson on aboriginal painting. Aboriginal painting has a particular allure to middle school students. As this age group crosses the threshold from concrete knowing to conceptual understanding, they are ready to re-frame their perspective of the artist's intent. Learning…

  15. Economic Performance of Off-Reserve Aboriginal Canadians: A Study of Groups at Risk of Social Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    Aboriginal people have already been identified as belonging to those groups of people who are most at risk of experiencing social exclusion in Canada. This document does not seek to compare Aboriginal people with the rest of the Canadian population but rather with the members of other high risk groups. Specifically, it examines, from a…

  16. Aboriginal Business Capacity Building Programs in the Central Interior of British Columbia: A Collaborative Project between the University and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Titi; Schorcht, Blanca; Brazzoni, Randall

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities in Canada are typically marginalized, have very low employment participation rates, and have limited economic infrastructure. The downturn in global economies further marginalized these communities. The University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC) Continuing Studies department piloted an Aboriginal and Small Business…

  17. The clinical course of acute otitis media in high-risk Australian Aboriginal children: a longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine B Gibney; Peter S Morris; Jonathan R Carapetis; Susan A Skull; Heidi C Smith-Vaughan; Elizabeth Stubbs; Amanda J Leach

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear why some children with acute otitis media (AOM) have poor outcomes. Our aim was to describe the clinical course of AOM and the associated bacterial nasopharyngeal colonisation in a high-risk population of Australian Aboriginal children. METHODS: We examined Aboriginal children younger than eight years who had a clinical diagnosis of AOM. Pneumatic otoscopy and video-otoscopy of

  18. “People like numbers”: a descriptive study of cognitive assessment methods in clinical practice for Aboriginal Australians in the Northern Territory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Achieving culturally fair assessments of cognitive functioning for Aboriginal people is difficult due to a scarcity of appropriately validated tools for use with this group. As a result, some Aboriginal people with cognitive impairments may lack fair and equitable access to services. The objective of this study was to examine current clinical practice in the Northern Territory regarding cognitive assessment for Aboriginal people thereby providing some guidance for clinicians new to this practice setting. Method Qualitative enquiry was used to describe practice context, reasons for assessment, and current practices in assessing cognition for Aboriginal Australians. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 clinicians working with Aboriginal clients in central and northern Australia. Results pertaining to assessment methods are reported. Results A range of standardised tests were utilised with little consistency across clinical practice. Nevertheless, it was recognised that such tests bear severe limitations, requiring some modification and significant caution in their interpretation. Clinicians relied heavily on informal assessment or observations, contextual information and clinical judgement. Conclusions Cognitive tests developed specifically for Aboriginal people are urgently needed. In the absence of appropriate, validated tests, clinicians have relied on and modified a range of standardised and informal assessments, whilst recognising the severe limitations of these. Past clinical training has not prepared clinicians adequately for assessing Aboriginal clients, and experience and clinical judgment were considered crucial for fair interpretation of test scores. Interpretation guidelines may assist inexperienced clinicians to consider whether they are achieving fair assessments of cognition for Aboriginal clients. PMID:23368850

  19. Succeeding against the Odds. The Outcomes Attained by Indigenous Students in Aboriginal Community-Controlled Adult Education Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durnan, Deborah; Boughton, Bob

    A study examined the outcomes attained by 389 indigenous students who completed programs at the 4 largest Aboriginal community-controlled adult education colleges in the 9-member Federation of Independent Aboriginal Education Providers (FIAEP). The survey, which elicited a 57% response rate, established that, although a very large percentage of…

  20. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  1. Prevalence of and risk factors for asthma in off-reserve Aboriginal children and adults in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Beach, Jeremy; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2012-01-01

    Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation. PMID:23248805

  2. The potential influence of KIR cluster profiles on disease patterns of Canadian Aboriginals and other indigenous peoples of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Rempel, Julia D; Hawkins, Kim; Lande, Erin; Nickerson, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Genetic differences in immune regulators influence disease resistance and susceptibility patterns. There are major health discrepancies in immune-mediated diseases between Caucasians and Canadian Aboriginal people, as well as with other indigenous people of the Americas. Environmental factors offer a limited explanation as Aboriginal people also demonstrate a rare resistance to chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are known modulators of viral responses and autoimmune diseases. The possibility that variation in KIR cluster profiles contribute to the health outcomes of Aboriginal people was evaluated with Canadian Caucasian (n=93, population controls) and Aboriginal (n=86) individuals. Relative to Caucasians, the Aboriginal KIR cluster displayed a greater immune activating phenotype associated with genes of the B haplotype situated within the telomeric region. In conjunction, there was a decrease in the genes of the B haplotype from the centromeric region. Caucasian and Aboriginal cohorts further demonstrated distinct genotype and haplotype relationships enforcing the disconnect between the B haplotype centromeric and telomeric regions within the Aboriginal population. Moreover, Caucasian KIR cluster patterns reflected studies of Caucasians globally, as well as Asians. In contrast, the unique pattern of the Canadian Aboriginal cohort mirrored the phenotype of other indigenous peoples of the Americas, but not that of Caucasians or Asians. Taken together, these data suggest that historically indigenous peoples of the Americas were subject to immune selection processes that could be influencing the current disease resistance and susceptibility patterns of their descendents. PMID:21731058

  3. Establishing a Community-Controlled Multi-Institutional Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Leilani; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2007-01-01

    The Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Health Council (QAIHC) lead and govern the Centre for Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE), which has a focus on circulatory and associated conditions in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The CCRE is a partnership between QAIHC and Monash University, the Queensland University of…

  4. Aboriginal Families Study: a population-based study keeping community and policy goals in mind right from the start

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women are between two to five times more likely to die in childbirth than non-Aboriginal women, and two to three times more likely to have a low birthweight infant. Babies with a low birthweight are more likely to have chronic health problems in adult life. Currently, there is limited research evidence regarding effective interventions to inform new initiatives to strengthen antenatal care for Aboriginal families. Method/Design The Aboriginal Families Study is a cross sectional population-based study investigating the views and experiences of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women having an Aboriginal baby in the state of South Australia over a 2-year period. The primary aims are to compare the experiences and views of women attending standard models of antenatal care with those accessing care via Aboriginal Family Birthing Program services which include Aboriginal Maternal Infant Care (AMIC) Workers as members of the clinical team; to assess factors associated with early and continuing engagement with antenatal care; and to use the information to inform strengthening of services for Aboriginal families. Women living in urban, regional and remote areas of South Australia have been invited to take part in the study by completing a structured interview or, if preferred, a self-administered questionnaire, when their baby is between 4–12 months old. Discussion Having a baby is an important life event in all families and in all cultures. How supported women feel during pregnancy, how women and families are welcomed by services, how safe they feel coming in to hospitals to give birth, and what happens to families during a hospital stay and in the early months after the birth of a new baby are important social determinants of maternal, newborn and child health outcomes. The Aboriginal Families Study builds on consultation with Aboriginal communities across South Australia. The project has been implemented with guidance from an Aboriginal Advisory Group keeping community and policy goals in mind right from the start. The results of the study will provide a unique resource to inform quality improvement and strengthening of services for Aboriginal families. PMID:23767813

  5. Hermannsburg, 1929: turning aboriginal "primitives" into modern psychological subjects.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Warwick

    2014-01-01

    In 1929, the Lutheran mission at Hermannsburg (Ntaria), central Australia, became an extraordinary investigatory site, attracting an array of leading psychologists wishing to define the "primitive" mentality of the Arrernte, who became perhaps the most studied people in the British Empire and dominions. This is a story of how scientific knowledge derived from close encounters and fraught entanglements on the borderlands of the settler state. The investigators-Stanley D. Porteus, H. K. Fry, and Géza Róheim-represent the major styles of psychological inquiry in the early-twentieth century, and count among the vanguard of those dismantling rigid racial typologies and fixed hierarchies of human mentality. They wanted to evaluate "how natives think," yet inescapably they found themselves reflecting on white mentality too. They came to recognise the primitive as an influential and disturbing motif within the civilised mind-their own minds. These intense interactions in the central deserts show us how Aboriginal thinking could make whites think again about themselves-and forget, for a moment, that many of their research subjects were starving. PMID:24615581

  6. Mitochondrial control-region sequence variation in aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed Central

    van Holst Pellekaan, S; Frommer, M; Sved, J; Boettcher, B

    1998-01-01

    The mitochondrial D-loop hypervariable segment 1 (mt HVS1) between nucleotides 15997 and 16377 has been examined in aboriginal Australian people from the Darling River region of New South Wales (riverine) and from Yuendumu in central Australia (desert). Forty-seven unique HVS1 types were identified, varying at 49 nucleotide positions. Pairwise analysis by calculation of BEPPI (between population proportion index) reveals statistically significant structure in the populations, although some identical HVS1 types are seen in the two contrasting regions. mt HVS1 types may reflect more-ancient distributions than do linguistic diversity and other culturally distinguishing attributes. Comparison with sequences from five published global studies reveals that these Australians demonstrate greatest divergence from some Africans, least from Papua New Guinea highlanders, and only slightly more from some Pacific groups (Indonesian, Asian, Samoan, and coastal Papua New Guinea), although the HVS1 types vary at different nucleotide sites. Construction of a median network, displaying three main groups, suggests that several hypervariable nucleotide sites within the HVS1 are likely to have undergone mutation independently, making phylogenetic comparison with global samples by conventional methods difficult. Specific nucleotide-site variants are major separators in median networks constructed from Australian HVS1 types alone and for one global selection. The distribution of these, requiring extended study, suggests that they may be signatures of different groups of prehistoric colonizers into Australia, for which the time of colonization remains elusive. PMID:9463317

  7. The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n?=?18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n?=?29). An overarching theme of avoiding the "costly" crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system. PMID:25056441

  8. The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n?=?18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n?=?29). An overarching theme of avoiding the “costly” crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system. PMID:25056441

  9. Aborigines, colonizers and newcomers: the landscape of transcultural psychiatry research in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; de Moore, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    The authors present an analysis of transcultural psychiatry research in relation to three main population groups in Australia: Aboriginal Australians, documented immigrants, and refugees. The pioneering reports produced by Western psychiatrists in Aboriginal communities are examined in this article. Additional quantitative and qualitative studies developed with Aboriginal people in the context of a traumatic acculturation process are also reviewed. Subsequently, the authors examine the challenges faced by immigrants with mental disorders in a health care system still unequipped to treat a new array of clinical presentations unfamiliar to the clinical staff. The authors also highlight the development of policies aimed at providing quality mental health care to a mosaic of cultures in an evolving multicultural society. Lastly, the psychiatric manifestations of refugees and asylum seekers are analysed in the context of a series of vulnerabilities and deprivations they have experienced, including basic human rights. PMID:24002948

  10. Food and nutrition policy issues in remote aboriginal communities: lessons from Arnhem Land.

    PubMed

    McMillan, S J

    1991-12-01

    There is a high incidence of nutrition-related diseases amongst Aborigines living in remote areas. An outline of the corporate food and nutrition policy of the Arnhemland Progress Association is given to demonstrate the potential for positive strategies in remote area stores. The Association is a retailer owned by Aboriginal groups and operates 11 remote community stores. Factors such as price, Aboriginal buying habits, seasonality, consumer demand and most importantly remote area stock management affect the supply of and demand for food items. Further, government policy on sales tax and private sector capital city pricing policies influence retailing in remote areas. The experience of the Arnhemland Progress Association illustrates the extent to which factors affecting supply of and demand for food lie outside the health sector and points to the need for an intersectoral policy on food and nutrition. PMID:1818653

  11. Aboriginal astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia. Part 1: Nyeeruna and 'The Orion Story'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE recorded the daily lives, lore and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as 'The Orion Story', stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of 'The Orion Story', including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  12. Couples Counseling for Aboriginal Clients Following Intimate Partner Violence: Service Providers' Perceptions of Risk.

    PubMed

    Riel, Elissa; Languedoc, Sue; Brown, Jason; Gerrits, Julie

    2014-10-01

    Interventions for family violence in Aboriginal communities should take a culture-based approach and focus on healing for the whole family. The purpose of this research was to identify risk issues from the perspective of service providers for couples counseling with Aboriginal clients following intimate partner violence. A total of 25 service providers participated in over the phone interviews concerning risk with Aboriginal men in couple counseling. Five concepts emerged including (a) collaterals, (b) commitment to change, (c) violence, (d) mind-set, and (e) mental health. It was concluded that culturally competent interventions should involve the entire community and have a restorative approach. The concepts were compared and contrasted with the available literature. PMID:25274747

  13. Definitions of suicide and self-harm behavior in an Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

    2009-04-01

    In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way such behavior is defined in an Aboriginal context. A continuation of certain "traditional" cultural forms of self-harm behavior was evident in participant definitions, notably the practice of female hair cutting, also described as a mourning ritual, which appears to serve as a marker both to the individual and others. PMID:19527158

  14. A germline MTOR mutation in Aboriginal Australian siblings with intellectual disability, dysmorphism, macrocephaly, and small thoraces.

    PubMed

    Baynam, Gareth; Overkov, Angela; Davis, Mark; Mina, Kym; Schofield, Lyn; Allcock, Richard; Laing, Nigel; Cook, Matthew; Dawkins, Hugh; Goldblatt, Jack

    2015-07-01

    We report on three Aboriginal Australian siblings with a unique phenotype which overlaps with known megalencephaly syndromes and RASopathies, including Costello syndrome. A gain-of-function mutation in MTOR was identified and represents the first reported human condition due to a germline, familial MTOR mutation. We describe the findings in this family to highlight that (i) the path to determination of pathogenicity was confounded by the lack of genomic reference data for Australian Aboriginals and that (ii) the disease biology, functional analyses in this family, and studies on the tuberous sclerosis complex support consideration of an mTOR inhibitor as a therapeutic agent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25851998

  15. Culture is treatment: considering pedagogy in the care of Aboriginal people.

    PubMed

    Green, Brenda L

    2010-07-01

    This article presents an overview of culture as treatment, by recognizing the impact that culture has on treatment along with the specific rituals, customs, and meanings related to healing. Attention must be given to the Aboriginal heritage, including various concepts of metaphysics, spirituality, medicines, government, oral history, and language. A pedagogical underpinning of illness and healing is better cared for through cultural messaging and learning that is related to the complex historical legacy of Aboriginal societies, and therefore, culture provides important diverse contributions to current treatment and wellness programs. PMID:20506971

  16. Innovations on a shoestring: a study of a collaborative community-based Aboriginal mental health service model in rural Canada

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Collaborative, culturally safe services that integrate clinical approaches with traditional Aboriginal healing have been hailed as promising approaches to ameliorate the high rates of mental health problems in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Overcoming significant financial and human resources barriers, a mental health team in northern Ontario is beginning to realize this ideal. We studied the strategies, strengths and challenges related to collaborative Aboriginal mental health care. Methods A participatory action research approach was employed to evaluate the Knaw Chi Ge Win services and their place in the broader mental health system. Qualitative methods were used as the primary source of data collection and included document review, ethnographic interviews with 15 providers and 23 clients; and 3 focus groups with community workers and managers. Results The Knaw Chi Ge Win model is an innovative, community-based Aboriginal mental health care model that has led to various improvements in care in a challenging rural, high needs environment. Formal opportunities to share information, shared protocols and ongoing education support this model of collaborative care. Positive outcomes associated with this model include improved quality of care, cultural safety, and integration of traditional Aboriginal healing with clinical approaches. Ongoing challenges include chronic lack of resources, health information and the still cursory understanding of Aboriginal healing and outcomes. Conclusions This model can serve to inform collaborative care in other rural and Indigenous mental health systems. Further research into traditional Aboriginal approaches to mental health is needed to continue advances in collaborative practice in a clinical setting. PMID:20017919

  17. COMMUNITY-BASED CHILD WELFARE FOR ABORIGINAL CHILDREN: SUPPORTING RESILIENCE THROUGH STRUCTURAL CHANGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindy Blackstock; Nico Trocmé

    2005-01-01

    Available data suggest that First Nations children, youth and families in Canada continue to experience multiple and disproportionate human rights violations stemming from colonialism. First Nations child and family service agencies began developing in the 1970s to affirm community- based systems of care and stem the tide of children being placed in non- Aboriginal homes. Although these agencies have demonstrated

  18. Aboriginal Engineering Bursary Application May 6-10 $260 Feb 1-28

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    : EDUCATOR SUPPORT TelephoneEmail Name Please provide the name of a school contact (e.g. teacher, guidance and Navigation Systems The source of bursary funds are from a generous donation to Aboriginal Access are notified of the status of your bursary application. You will receive an email notification of the status

  19. Young "White" Teachers' Perceptions of Mathematics Learning of Aboriginal and Nonaboriginal Students in Remote Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Tom J.; Baturo, Annette R.; Warren, Elizabeth; Doig, Shani M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite a plethora of writings on Australian Aboriginal education (Craven, 1998; Fanshawe, 1999; LeRoux & Dunn, 1997; Malcolm, 1998; Malin, 1998; Morgan & Slade, 1998; Partington, 1998; Russell, 1999; Stewart, 1999), little has dealt with teacher perceptions of how Indigenous students learning in comparison with non-Indigenous students. This is…

  20. Maintaining the Illusion of Democracy: Policy-Making and Aboriginal Education in Canada, 1946-1948

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raptis, Helen; Bowker, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Following the 1949 recommendations of the Joint Committee of the Senate and House of Commons (SJC), the Canadian government shifted away from a policy of segregated to integrated schooling for Aboriginal children. This paper examines the minutes and proceedings of the SJC. Fewer than 10% of the briefs presented to the SJC called for integration…

  1. Relationship to Place: Positioning Aboriginal Knowledge and Perspectives in Classroom Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil; Greenfield, Maxine

    2011-01-01

    This project is based on research conducted with 12 schools in New South Wales, Australia. It examines how each school incorporates Aboriginal perspectives in its Kindergarten to Year 6 program with a view to identifying quality practice. As we interviewed teachers in these schools, it became clear that there is considerable confusion over the…

  2. Essential service standards for equitable national cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex; O'Shea, Rebekah L; Mott, Kathy; McBride, Katharine F; Lawson, Tony; Jennings, Garry L R

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) constitute the largest cause of death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and remain the primary contributor to life expectancy differentials between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians. As such, CVD remains the most critical target for reducing the life expectancy gap. The Essential Service Standards for Equitable National Cardiovascular Care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (ESSENCE) outline elements of care that are necessary to reduce disparity in access and outcomes for five critical cardiovascular conditions. The ESSENCE approach builds a foundation on which the gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians can be reduced. The standards purposefully focus on the prevention and management of CVD extending across the continuum of risk and disease. Each of the agreed essential service standards are presented alongside the most critical targets for policy development and health system reform aimed at mitigating population disparity in CVD and related conditions. PMID:25459487

  3. Constructing Knowledge and Training Curricula about Early Childhood Care and Development in Canadian Aboriginal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jessica; Pence, Alan

    The Meadow Lake Tribal Council (MLTC) (Saskatchewan) and the University of Victoria (British Columbia) developed a bicultural postsecondary training curriculum in early childhood care and development that incorporated both Euro-Western and Aboriginal knowledge. Since the MLTC sought curricula using representative Cree and Dene cultures rather than…

  4. Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niccols, Alison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and…

  5. Aboriginal Cultural Knowledge and Estuaries Cultural and Environmental Protection -Hand in Hand

    E-print Network

    , you protect cultural heritage, and vice versa Indigenous knowledge is integral to managing our naturalAboriginal Cultural Knowledge and Estuaries Cultural and Environmental Protection - Hand in Hand Nerilee Boshammer (Community Engagement Program Manager) #12;#12;Culture and Environment - Inseparable

  6. Assets for Employment in Aboriginal Community-Based Human Services Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jason; Fraehlich, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the prior educational and employment experiences of staff members in urban Aboriginal human services agencies. A total of 44 individuals employed by one of three community sites within one Canadian inner city generated 85 unique responses to the question: "What were your employment and education…

  7. "Friendly Racism" and White Guilt: Midwifery Students' Engagement with Aboriginal Content in Their Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thackrah, Rosalie D.; Thompson, Sandra C.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2011, all first year students in a health sciences faculty at a university in Western Australia complete a compulsory (half) Unit titled Indigenous Cultures and Health. The Unit introduces students to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, diversity, cultural protocols, social structures, patterns of communication, contemporary…

  8. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  9. An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Jacinthe; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; De La Sablonniere, Mireille; Philippe-Labbe, Marie-Pierre; Giffard, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief…

  10. Evaluation of the pilot phase of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Male Health Module.

    PubMed

    Tsey, Komla; Chigeza, Philemon; Holden, Carol A; Bulman, Jack; Gruis, Hilton; Wenitong, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article evaluates the pilot phase of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Male Health Module. Although men experience higher levels of illness and die younger than women, educational programs to support health workers utilise a gender-based approach to increase participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males in health care are rare and lack appropriate content. Recognising this gap in service provision, and under the guidance of a Reference Group comprising community leaders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait male health, a comprehensive and culturally appropriate Male Health Module has been developed to enhance the capacity of health workers to improve access to services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males. Methods used were: in-depth interviews with Module developers, pilot workshops for trainers and health workers, questionnaires and focus group discussions with workshop participants, and participant observations. As well as enhancing capacity to facilitate access to health services for men, the Module was deemed relevant because of its potential to promote health worker empowerment and wellbeing. Findings revealed that improving access to services for men required male and female health workers working in partnership. Despite overall enthusiasm for the Module, the findings also revealed deep fear that it would end up 'collecting dust on shelves'. Strategies to improve the Module quality and accessibility are highlighted. PMID:23092601

  11. Teaching for Equity? What Teachers Say about Their Work in Aboriginal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotherspoon, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Policies to ensure education equity and programs to foster educational advancement among Aboriginal people have been in place for several years in most Canadian jurisdictions. Despite of the successes brought about by these policies, questions about just how much has been accomplished, and how best to secure desired results, remain matters of…

  12. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies Catalogue of Tape Archive No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Inst. of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.

    The aboriginal studies listed in this catalogue are indexed according to language/tribe and subject (linguistic studies, myths and stories, songs and dances, dongs and music, and speech). Entries are listed alphabetically under the depositor's name. Language/tribe headings are from the Institute's Preliminary Tribal Index. Summaries are brief but…

  13. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies; Catalogue of Tape Archive No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Inst. of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.

    Entries in this aboriginal studies catalogue are listed under language/tribe and subject indexes, and include linguistic studies, myths and stories, songs and dances, songs and music, and speech. Language/tribe headings are from the Institute's Preliminary Tribal Index. Summaries are brief, but in most cases, additional information is available…

  14. An Outlier's Dream: Improving Post-Secondary Education Opportunities for Aboriginal Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Vernon

    2013-01-01

    A conversation with a John Howard Society volunteer prompts the author to reflect on how to improve educational opportunities for his incarcerated Aboriginal peers. He relates his personal experience of completing an undergraduate degree while in prison, highlighting the ways in which the prison environment has shaped his learning process. After…

  15. Non-timber forest products from the Canadian boreal forest: an exploration of aboriginal opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Boxall; Gordon Murray; James R. Unterschultz

    2003-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as foods or environmental products are proposed as potential engines of economic development or income for Aboriginal Peoples in rural or remote communities in Canada. An assessment of the potential market for NTFPs is often overlooked when proposing the development of new NTFPs. Our study specifically evaluates the market potential for wild berry jams produced

  16. Using Digital Technologies to Address Aboriginal Adolescents' Education: An Alternative School Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirbhai-Illich, Fatima; Turner, K. C. Nat; Austin, Theresa Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how digital technologies were introduced in a collaborative literacy intervention to address a population long underserved by traditional schools: the Aboriginals of Canada. Design/methodology/approach: Situated within a critical ethnographic project, this paper examines how digital technologies…

  17. Roots/Routes as Arterial Connections for Art Educators: Advocating for Aboriginal Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Rita L.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that classroom art experiences that recognize the roots, and routes, of individual identities help form pathways for understanding ourselves and others' experiences. Talks about a trip to a Paiwan aboriginal community in southern Taiwan and the lessons learned about the integration of art with cultural life and identity. (DSK)

  18. Evaluation of an Effective Postsecondary Program in Canadian Aboriginal Communities: Students' Perspectives on Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Christine; Ball, Jessica

    The purpose of this study was to identify significant sources of support for Canadian aboriginal students in a unique early childhood education program developed between the University of Victoria, British Columbia, and seven across Canada. The approach of this study provided a fresh perspective in that it gave students the opportunity to name…

  19. School Engagement among Aboriginal Students in Northern Canada: Perspectives From Activity Settings Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Colleen M.; Hawe, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    Background: Educational disengagement is a public health concern among Aboriginal populations in many countries. It has been investigated previously in a variety of ways, with the conventional focus being on the children themselves. Activity settings are events and places, theorized in terms of their symbols, roles, time frame, funds, people, and…

  20. Running head: TB among Aboriginal Populations in Canada: The Role of Health Care Professionals 1

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    and overcrowding in Aboriginal communities are major factors accounting for higher prevalence rates (Clark, Riben with traumatic experiences that even up to [this] date contributes to the reluctance in seeking treatment (Levy, 2012). In the current efforts to combat this disease in the community, health care professionals play

  1. Professional Pathways of Aboriginal Early Childhood Teachers: Intersections of Community, Indigeneity, and Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleet, Alma; Wechmann, Kerrie; Whitworth, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available about the employment trajectories of Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander peoples pursuing university professional qualifications. This article describes a context in which cultural space, issues of identity, pragmatics of employment, family and community and a bureaucratic regulatory environment intersect to…

  2. FactorsAssociatedWiththeSexualBehaviorof CanadianAboriginalYoungPeopleandTheir ImplicationsforHealthPromotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen M. Devries; Caroline J. Free; Linda Morison; Elizabeth Saewyc

    Objectives. We examined factors associated with having ever had sex, having more than 1 lifetime sexual partner, and condom nonuse at last incident of sexual intercourse among Canadian Aboriginal young people. Methods. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the 2003 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey of young people in grades 7 through 12. Results. Of

  3. Engaging Excellent Aboriginal Students in Science: An Innovation in Culturally-Inclusive Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, Carol; Barnes, Alan; Clark, Julie

    2008-01-01

    A summer school in Science and Technology was held in January 2008 for nineteen Indigenous students commencing year 11 who were identified as having high academic potential in science and mathematics. Known as the Aboriginal Summer School for Excellence in Technology and Science (ASSETS) the summer school was held at the Australian Science and…

  4. Writing Aboriginal English & Creoles: Five Case Studies in Australian Education Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disbray, Samantha; Loakes, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Texts in Aboriginal English (AE) and creole varieties have been created by Indigenous and non-Indigenous writers for a range of purposes. In this paper, we focus on materials created in and for five educational contexts, and investigate the orthographic or spelling systems developed in each setting. Choices about orthography are guided by…

  5. Aboriginal and Islander Grammars: Collected Papers. Work Papers of SIL-AAB, Series A, Volume 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, S., Ed.

    Six papers on Australian Aboriginal and Islander grammars include: "Repetition of Tiwi at Clause Level" (Marie P. Godfrey); "Iwaidja Verbal Clauses" (Noreen Pym); "Murinbata Noun Clauses" (Chester S. Street); "Clauses in Kala Lagaw Ya" (Rod Kennedy); "Kalaw Kawaw Verbs" (Rod Kennedy); and "Kalaw Kawaw Verbs: Speaker Perspective and Tense, Mood,…

  6. Navigating Two Worlds: Experiences of Counsellors Who Integrate Aboriginal Traditional Healing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oulanova, Olga; Moodley, Roy

    2010-01-01

    There is revival in the use of traditional healing among Canadian Aboriginal communities and the therapeutic benefits of these practices have received much research attention. An argument is repeatedly made for incorporating indigenous healing into clinical interventions, yet recommendations on how this may be accomplished are lacking. The present…

  7. Quality of Life of Some Under-Represented Survey Respondents: Youth, Aboriginals and Unemployed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Orlando, Julie Anne

    2006-01-01

    Examining an aggregated sample (N=8800) of residents who responded to one of 16 surveys undertaken in Prince George, British Columbia in the period from November 1997 to February 2005, it was found that satisfaction with the quality of life of unemployed residents is lower than that of residents with Aboriginal backgrounds and that satisfaction…

  8. An Analysis of Ontario Aboriginal Education Policy: Critical and Interpretive Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an historical and contemporary interpretation of the developmental influences that have led to the Ontario Ministry of Education's recent focus on Aboriginal educational policy in Ontario, Canada. It offers an interpretive and critical perspective on the rhetorical constructions, assumptions, and value-orientations implicit in…

  9. The Role of Agency in Determining and Enacting the Professional Identities of Early Career Aboriginal Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Cathie

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the role of agency in early career Aboriginal teachers expressions of their professional identity. It argues that in the context of teaching, opportunities to exercise personal agency are critical to the development and maintenance of a "healthy" professional identity, particularly for those traditionally disempowered…

  10. Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed, Something Blue: Australian Aboriginal Students' Schematic Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.; Sharifian, Farzad

    2005-01-01

    Learning a second dialect entails learning new schemas, and in some cases learning a whole new set of language schemas as well as cultural schemas. Most Australian Aboriginal children live in a bicultural and bidialectal context. They are exposed, to a greater or lesser extent, to the discourse of Australian English and internalise some of its…

  11. Self-Beliefs and Behavioural Development as Related to Academic Achievement in Canadian Aboriginal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baydala, Lola; Rasmussen, Carmen; Birch, June; Sherman, Jody; Wikman, Erik; Charchun, Julianna; Kennedy, Merle; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between measures of self-belief, behavioural development, and academic achievement in Canadian Aboriginal children. Standardized measures of intelligence are unable to consistently predict academic achievement in students from indigenous populations. Exploring alternative factors that may be both predictive…

  12. The Development of Cross-Cultural Relations with a Canadian Aboriginal Community through Sport Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinke, Robert J.; Hanrahan, Stephanie J.; Eys, Mark A.; Blodgett, Amy; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen Douglas; Pheasant, Chris; Enosse, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is…

  13. The public health implications of the use and misuse of tobacco among the Aboriginals in Canada.

    PubMed

    Orisatoki, Rotimi

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking among the Aboriginal populations is a major public health issue in Canada. It remains a major contributory risk factor to the poor health status as well as years of potential life lost seen among the indigenous people. The use of tobacco has a spiritual importance to the people as a means of making connection to the Creator, but unfortunately tobacco smoking has taken a recreational aspect which has little or no connection with Aboriginal spirituality. The non-traditional use of tobacco is believed by the Elders to be disrespectful to the Aboriginal culture and traditional way of life. There is an increase in rate of use of smokeless tobacco as well as smoking of tobacco among the youth with increase in percentage among females. There are socioeconomic implications as well as adverse health effects of the misuse of tobacco on the Aboriginal people that need to be addressed. The healthcare professionals have a unique role in helping patients to reduce tobacco use within the community through programs that are culturally sensitive and relevant. Successful strategies requires general support from the community and it is very important that some of that support comes from community leaders, including spiritual, professional, administrative and elected policy makers. PMID:23283033

  14. Teaching Aboriginal Perspectives: An Investigation into Teacher Practices amidst Curriculum Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study exploring ways in which five experienced teachers interpreted and responded to a curricular initiative in Alberta calling for teachers to help students see social studies through multiple perspective lenses representing Aboriginal (and Francophone) communities. Over the course of the study, which focused primarily on…

  15. Self-Recognition and Well-Being: Speaking Aboriginal English in Healthy Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil

    2004-01-01

    This paper applies the findings of doctoral research undertaken in the Northern Territory. It draws on extended interviews with nine Indigenous students studying at university to produce four findings for classroom learning and teaching, one of which highlights the need to recognise Aboriginal English as a focal point of the curriculum for both…

  16. Change Makers: Empowering Ourselves Thro' the Education and Culture of Aboriginal Languages: A Collaborative Team Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Yvonne

    2003-01-01

    A British Columbian Native teacher education program is guided by a team of First Nations educators and elders, university faculty, a representative of the teacher federation, and students. Aboriginal languages are incorporated into a Native cultural studies course using a holistic approach based on the Medicine Wheel that empowers students to…

  17. Focus on Parent/Child: Extending the Teaching Competence of Urban Aboriginal Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, B. H.; Henry, M. B.

    This paper reports on an action research project undertaken in 1972-1973, to determine whether a parent education program with a focus on the mother/child system could be developed effectively with urban Aboriginal families. A discussion of the importance of the home as a factor shaping children's school progress is followed by a description of…

  18. Adolescent Career Development in Urban-Residing Aboriginal Families in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.; Stevens, Alison; Spence, Wayne; Deyell, Stewart; Easterbrook, Adam; Brokenleg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how urban-residing Aboriginal adolescent-parent dyads (n = 11) jointly constructed and acted on goals and strategies with their social supports (n = 17) to facilitate the adolescents' career development. A modified protocol following the qualitative action-project method was used. A discrete joint…

  19. An investigation of admixture in an Australian Aboriginal Y-chromosome STR database.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Duncan; Nagle, Nano; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Wilcox, Stephen; Henry, Julianne; Turakulov, Rust; Mitchell, R John

    2012-09-01

    Y-chromosome specific STR profiling is increasingly used in forensic casework. However, the strong geographic clustering of Y haplogroups can lead to large differences in Y-STR haplotype frequencies between different ethnicities, which may have an impact on database composition in admixed populations. Aboriginal people have inhabited Australia for over 40,000 years and until ?300 years ago they lived in almost complete isolation. Since the late 18th century Australia has experienced massive immigration, mainly from Europe, although in recent times from more widespread origins. This colonisation resulted in highly asymmetrical admixture between the immigrants and the indigenes. A State jurisdiction within Australia has created an Aboriginal Y-STR database in which assignment of ethnicity was by self-declaration. This criterion means that some males who identify culturally as members of a particular ethnic group may have a Y haplogroup characteristic of another ethnic group, as a result of admixture in their paternal line. As this may be frequent in Australia, an examination of the extent of genetic admixture within the database was performed. A Y haplogroup predictor program was first used to identify Y haplotypes that could be assigned to a European haplogroup. Of the 757 males (589 unique haplotypes), 445 (58.8%) were identified as European (354 haplotypes). The 312 non-assigned males (235 haplotypes) were then typed, in a hierarchical fashion, with a Y-SNP panel that detected the major Y haplogroups, C-S, as well as the Aboriginal subgroup of C, C4. Among these 96 males were found to have non-Aboriginal haplogroups. In total, ?70% of Y chromosomes in the Aboriginal database could be classed as non-indigenous, with only 169 (129 unique haplotypes) or 22% of the total being associated with haplogroups denoting Aboriginal ancestry, C4 and K* or more correctly K(xL,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S). The relative frequencies of these indigenous haplogroups in South Australia (S.A.) were significantly different to those seen in samples from the Northern Territory and Western Australia. In S.A., K* (?60%) has a much higher frequency than C4 (?40%), and the subgroup of C4, C4(DYS390.1del), comprised only 17%. Clearly admixture in the paternal line is at high levels among males who identify themselves as Australian Aboriginals and this knowledge may have implications for the compilation and use of Y-STR databases in frequency estimates. PMID:22297081

  20. Old medium, new design : in search of alternative aesthetics of Taiwanese aboriginal woven textiles in theatrical costume designs 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wan-Lee

    2012-06-27

    The main purpose of this practice-led research is to explore the relevance of present day Taiwanese aboriginal weavers’ work to contemporary society and how it might be integrated into today’s production processes, and ...

  1. The protective role of optimism and self-esteem on depressive symptom pathways among Canadian Aboriginal youth.

    PubMed

    Ames, Megan E; Rawana, Jennine S; Gentile, Petrice; Morgan, Ashley S

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk for depression and substance use problems. Increasingly, developmental theories have shifted from focusing on vulnerabilities to protective factors for adolescent depression. In particular, theories emphasizing protective factors are relevant when understanding the mental health of Aboriginal youth. However, it is unclear which factors protect against depressive symptomatology among Aboriginal adolescents to promote optimal development. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, the present study had three main objectives. First, we aimed to model the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using a sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth from a national Canadian dataset (ages 12-23). Second, we sought to examine the relationship between alcohol use behaviors, self-esteem, optimism, and the trajectories of depressive symptoms. Lastly, we investigated whether self-esteem and optimism mediated the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Gender differences were also examined within each of the study objectives. A sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth (N = 283; 48.3% male) was selected from cycles 4-7 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Heavy drinking was a risk factor for depressive symptoms, while self-esteem and optimism were key protective factors for depressive symptoms among early adolescent Aboriginal youth. Further, the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms among Canadian Aboriginal youth differed for boys and girls once accounting for risk and protective factors. Thus, it is valuable to integrate the protective role of self-esteem and optimism into developmental theories of depression and mental health intervention programs for early adolescent Aboriginal youth. PMID:24045879

  2. High prevalence of HIV infection among homeless and street-involved Aboriginal youth in a Canadian setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brandon DL Marshall; Thomas Kerr; Chris Livingstone; Kathy Li; Julio SG Montaner; Evan Wood

    2008-01-01

    Aboriginal people experience a disproportionate burden of HIV infection among the adult population in Canada; however, less is known regarding the prevalence and characteristics of HIV positivity among drug-using and street-involved Aboriginal youth. We examined HIV seroprevalence and risk factors among a cohort of 529 street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. At baseline, 15 (2.8%) were HIV positive, of whom 7

  3. The Ilgarijiri Project: A collaboration between Aboriginal communities and radio astronomers in the Murchison Region of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, John

    2014-07-01

    The international radio astronomy initiative known as the Square Kilometre Array is a cutting-edge science project, aimed atdramatically expanding our vision and understanding of the Universe. The $2billion+ international project is being shared between Southern Africa and Australia. The Australian component, centred in the Murchison region of Western Australia, is based upon collaboration with Aboriginal communities. A collaborative project called "Ilgarijiri- Things Belonging to the Sky" shared scientific and Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky. Through a series of collaborative meetings and knowledge sharing, the Ilgarijiri project developed and showcased Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky, via an international touring Aboriginal art exhibition, in Australia, South Africa, the USA and Europe. The Aboriginal art exhibition presents Aboriginal stories relating to the night sky, which prominently feature the 'Seven Sisters' and the 'Emu', as well as the collaborative experience with radio astronomers. The success of the Ilgarijiri collaborative project is based upon several principles, which can help to inform and guide future cultural collaborative projects.

  4. Isolation and prominent aboriginal maternal legacy in the present-day population of La Gomera (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Fregel, Rosa; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, José M; Hernández, Juan C; Gámez, Alejandro; Pestano, Jose J; Arnay, Matilde; González, Ana M

    2014-11-19

    The present-day population structure of La Gomera is outstanding in its high aboriginal heritage, the greatest in the Canary Islands. This was earlier confirmed by both mitochondrial DNA and autosomal analyses, although genetic drift due to the fifteenth century European colonization could not be excluded as the main factor responsible. The present mtDNA study of aboriginal remains and extant samples from the six municipal districts of the island indeed demonstrates that the pre-Hispanic colonization of La Gomera by North African people involved a strong founder event, shown by the high frequency of the indigenous Canarian U6b1a lineage in the aboriginal samples (65%). This value is even greater than that observed in the extant population (44%), which in turn is the highest of all the seven Canary Islands. In contrast to previous results obtained for the aboriginal populations of Tenerife and La Palma, haplogroups related to secondary waves of migration were not detected in La Gomera aborigines, indicating that isolation also had an important role in shaping the current population. The rugged relief of La Gomera divided into several distinct valleys probably promoted subsequent aboriginal intra-insular differentiation that has continued after the European colonization, as seen in the present-day population structure observed on the island.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.251. PMID:25407001

  5. Improving Access to Hard-to-Reach Services: A Soft Entry Approach to Drug and Alcohol Services for Rural Australian Aboriginal Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julaine Allan; Michele Campbell

    2011-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal communities are concerned about drug- and alcohol-related harms in their communities. There are a significantly higher proportion of substance problems experienced by Aboriginal Australians than non-Indigenous Australians.Ways to address these problems are limited by racial barriers to mainstream services, especially in the rural context. Soft entry was an approach designed to increase Aboriginal Australians' access to Drug &

  6. Analysis of mitochondrial genome diversity identifies new and ancient maternal lineages in Cambodian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Qi, Xuebin; Yang, Zhaohui; Serey, Bun; Sovannary, Tuot; Bunnath, Long; Seang Aun, Hong; Samnom, Ham; Zhang, Hui; Lin, Qiang; van Oven, Mannis; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia harbours a variety of aboriginal (and presumably ancient) populations that have largely been ignored in studies of genetic diversity. Here we investigate the matrilineal gene pool of 1,054 Cambodians from 14 geographic populations. Using mitochondrial whole-genome sequencing, we identify eight new mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, all of which are either newly defined basal haplogroups or basal sub-branches. Most of the new basal haplogroups have very old coalescence ages, ranging from ~55,000 to ~68,000 years, suggesting that present-day Cambodian aborigines still carry ancient genetic polymorphisms in their maternal lineages, and most of the common Cambodian haplogroups probably originated locally before expanding to the surrounding areas during prehistory. Moreover, we observe a relatively close relationship between Cambodians and populations from the Indian subcontinent, supporting the earliest costal route of migration of modern humans from Africa into mainland Southeast Asia by way of the Indian subcontinent some 60,000 years ago. PMID:24121720

  7. Northern British Columbian Aboriginal mothers: raising adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Suzanne; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2013-01-01

    This interpretive ethnographic study describes the experiences of northern British Columbian Aboriginal mothers raising adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and provides an understanding of how the mothers interpreted and responded to their adolescents' FASD. The all-encompassing theoretical perspectives of postcolonialism provided the conceptual guide for this study. This ontological stance facilitates discourse on the social and historical context of this research focused on northern British Columbian Aboriginal mothers. Using semistructured interviews and participant observation, eight participants were interviewed three times over a period of several months. Data were analyzed using an interpretive analysis to generate an overarching cultural theme, Mothering from the Margins. The theme conveyed how study participants understood FASD and how they were raising their adolescents within the social and historical context unique to postcolonial societies. PMID:22802305

  8. Using participatory action research to prevent suicide in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

    PubMed

    Cox, Adele; Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher; Kelly, Kerrie; Scrine, Clair; Walker, Roz

    2014-10-01

    The National Empowerment Project is an innovative Aboriginal-led community empowerment project that has worked with eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities across Australia over the period 2012-13. The aim of the Project was to develop, deliver and evaluate a program to: (1) promote positive social and emotional well-being to increase resilience and reduce the high reported rates of psychological distress and suicide among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; and (2) empower communities to take action to address the social determinants that contribute to psychological distress, suicide and self-harm. Using a participatory action research approach, the communities were supported to identify the risk factors challenging individuals, families and communities, as well as strategies to strengthen protective factors against these challenges. Data gathered during Stage 1 were used to develop a 12-month program to promote social and emotional well-being and build resilience within each community. A common framework, based on the social and emotional well-being concept, was used to support each community to target community-identified protective factors and strategies to strengthen individual, family and community social and emotional well-being. Strengthening the role of culture is critical to this approach and marks an important difference between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous mental health promotion and prevention activities, including suicide prevention. It has significant implications for policy makers and service providers and is showing positive impact through the translation of research into practice, for example through the development of a locally run empowerment program that aims to address the social determinants of health and their ongoing negative impact on individuals, families and communities. It also provides a framework in which to develop and strengthen culture, connectedness and foster self-determination, through better-informed policy based on community-level holistic responses and solutions as opposed to an exclusive focus on single-issue deficit approaches. PMID:25310135

  9. Governing aboriginal justice in Canada: Constructing responsible individuals and communities through ‘tradition’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Andersen

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, Aboriginal justice projects have gained in popularity in such places as Australia, New Zealand, the United\\u000a States, and Canada. However, these programs have remained relatively insulated from external critique, particularly as it\\u000a relates to the problem of grafting “traditional” principles onto non-traditional forms of social organization. The purpose\\u000a of this paper is to discuss this shortcoming in

  10. Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison Niccols; Colleen Anne Dell; Sharon Clarke

    2010-01-01

    In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among\\u000a pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance\\u000a abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many\\u000a women, substance abuse

  11. Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subramanyam Ragupathy; Newmaster G Steven; Murugesan Maruthakkutti; Balasubramaniam Velusamy; Muneer M Ul-Huda

    2008-01-01

    There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian\\u000a Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional\\u000a healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their

  12. mtDNA variation of aboriginal Siberians reveals distinct genetic affinities with Native Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Torroni; T. G. Schurr; M. F. Cabell; D. C. Wallace; R. I. Sukernik; Y. B. Starikovskaya; M. H. Crawford; A. G. Comuzzie

    1993-01-01

    The mtDNA variation of 411 individuals from 10 aboriginal Siberian populations was analyzed in an effort to delineate the relationships between Siberian and Native American populations. All mtDNAs were characterized by PCR amplification and restriction analysis, and a subset of them was characterized by control region sequencing. The resulting data were then compiled with previous mtDNA data from Native Americans

  13. Perceived community environment and physical activity involvement in a northern-rural Aboriginal community

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Allison M; Lévesque, Lucie; Wabano, Virgina; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Ample evidence shows that regular physical activity (PA) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is beginning to emerge linking PA to the physical environment but little is known about the relationship between remote rural environments and PA involvement in Aboriginal peoples. This study's purpose was to investigate the relationship between perceptions of the environment and PA and walking patterns in Aboriginal adults in order to inform the planning and implementation of community-relevant PA interventions. Methods Two hundred and sixty three residents (133 women, mean age = 35.6 years, SD = 12.3 and 130 men, mean age = 37.2 years, SD = 13.1) from Moose Factory, Ontario were asked about environmental factors related to walking and PA involvement. Survey items were drawn from standardized, validated questionnaires. Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, percentages) were calculated. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were performed to determine associations between walking and overall PA with perceived environmental variables. Results Hierarchical multiple regression to predict walking revealed significant associations between walking and perceived safety and aesthetics. Owning home exercise equipment predicted strenuous PA. Different aspects of the physical environment appear to influence different types of physical activities. The significant amount of variance in behaviour accounted for by perceived environmental variables (5.3% walking) included safety, aesthetics, convenience, owning home exercise equipment and comfortable shoes for walking. Conclusion Results suggest that a supportive physical environment is important for PA involvement and that walking and activities of different intensity appear to be mediated by different perceived environmental variables. Implications for PA promotion in rural environments where Aboriginal people face many unique environmental features (e.g., bears, mosquitoes, extreme cold) are discussed. PMID:18053217

  14. Risk factors of alcoholism among Taiwan aborigines: implications for etiological models and the nosology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Hwu, H G; Yeh, Y L; Wang, J D

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore possible risk factors of alcohol abuse (AA) and dependence (AD), as defined by DSM-III criteria, in Taiwan aborigines. The risk factors in a sample of 1555 Taiwan aborigines were analyzed by using the chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression statistics. The logistic regression showed that the risk factors of AD are being male, having relatively little education, being involved in a problem marriage, being a laborer, being part of a couple with a drinking problem, and having a positive family history of alcoholism. AA has the risk factors of ethnic subgroups dwelling in the main Taiwan Island, male, poor education, working people, and a drinking problem for the couple. Etiological models are proposed as social origins for AA, with interactional model for AD, in this aboriginal sample. Data on Chinese alcoholism is discussed, and a generalized hypothesis constructed that, for the same phenotypical subtype of alcoholism in different ethnic groups, the etiological models are different. PMID:2028803

  15. Appropriate health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: crucial for closing the gap.

    PubMed

    Demaio, Alessandro; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-06-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization and the Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It serves as a guide for community-focused health promotion practice to be built on and shaped by the respect for understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is not about targeting, intervening or responding. Rather, it encourages health programme planners and policymakers to have a greater understanding, respect, a sense of empowerment and collaboration with communities, and their sociocultural environment to improve health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the eight principles of Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes a widespread adoption of the framework for a more respectful, collaborative, locally suitable and therefore appropriate approach to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion. PMID:24801784

  16. Determinants of diet for urban aboriginal youth: implications for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Kerpan, Serene T; Humbert, M Louise; Henry, Carol J

    2015-05-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with several life-threating comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity is a growing health concern in North America, with some groups experiencing higher levels of obesity than others. One group of particular interest is urban Aboriginal youth because they are a quickly growing population who experience high rates of obesity. Obesity is a complex condition with many contributing factors, diet being one of the primary contributors. In this article, we discuss the findings from an ethnographic study that examined determinants of diet for urban Aboriginal youth. Results revealed two themes: (a) Traditions and Sharing, and (b) The Struggle. The findings with Traditions and Sharing showed that food-sharing networks are often used to acquire traditional food. Traditional foods were believed to be healthy and desired by the participants. The theme The Struggle provides insight into the daily challenges the participants faced with food insecurity. Health promotion professionals need to consider the multiplicity of determinants of diet for urban Aboriginal youth in order to plan and implement culturally appropriate health promotion programs. PMID:25384578

  17. Hepatitis C Virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal Peoples of North America

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, Julia D.; Uhanova, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), are “broken spirit” diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases. PMID:23342378

  18. Fluctuating shells under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules. PMID:23150558

  19. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    PubMed Central

    Funston, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

  20. Health literacy in relation to cancer: addressing the silence about and absence of cancer discussion among Aboriginal people, communities and health services.

    PubMed

    Treloar, Carla; Gray, Rebecca; Brener, Loren; Jackson, Clair; Saunders, Veronica; Johnson, Priscilla; Harris, Magdalena; Butow, Phyllis; Newman, Christy

    2013-11-01

    Cancer outcomes for Aboriginal Australians are poorer when compared with cancer outcomes for non-Aboriginal Australians despite overall improvements in cancer outcomes. One concept used to examine inequities in health outcomes between groups is health literacy. Recent research and advocacy have pointed to the importance of increasing health literacy as it relates to cancer among Aboriginal people. This study examined individual, social and cultural aspects of health literacy relevant to cancer among Aboriginal patients, carers and their health workers in New South Wales. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 Aboriginal people who had been diagnosed with cancer, 18 people who were carers of Aboriginal people with cancer and 16 healthcare workers (eight Aboriginal and eight non-Aboriginal health workers). Awareness, knowledge and experience of cancer were largely absent from people's lives and experiences until they were diagnosed, illustrating the need for cancer awareness raising among Aboriginal people, communities and services. Some beliefs about cancer (particularly equating cancer to death) differed from mainstream Western biomedical views of the body and cancer and this served to silence discussion on cancer. As such, these beliefs can be used to inform communication and help illuminate how beliefs can shape responses to cancer. Participants proposed some practical strategies that could work to fill absences in knowledge and build on beliefs about cancer. These results were characterised by a silence about cancer, an absence of discussions of cancer and an acknowledgement of an already full health agenda for Aboriginal communities. To promote health literacy in relation to cancer would require a multi-layered programme of work involving grass-roots community education, workers and Board members of Aboriginal community-controlled health organisations and speciality cancer services, with a particular focus on programmes to bridge community-based primary care and tertiary level cancer services. PMID:23692557

  1. Discovery Collection: Oyster Shells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Breslof

    Oyster Shells is one of the AMNH Education Department's many collections of specimens and artifacts gathered the world over by explorers and scientists. In its online Discovery Collection form, Oyster Shells includes photographs of 15 specimens with classification and distribution details, an interactive key that guides you through specimen identification, an activity where students select and identify a specimen photograph using the interactive identification key and an Educator's Guide with suggestions for how to use the Oyster Shells Discovery Collection in the classroom.

  2. Social accountability in action: University-community collaboration in the development of an interprofessional Aboriginal health elective.

    PubMed

    Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Ho, Kendall; Lauscher, Helen Novak; Liman, Yolanda; Stacy, Elizabeth; Woollard, Robert; Buote, Denise

    2008-01-01

    A survey of the health professional curriculum at the University of British Columbia revealed a need for improvements in education relating to Aboriginal health. At the same time, interprofessional education has been increasingly viewed as an essential aspect of sustainable health care reform. Interprofessional approaches to education and community practice have the potential to contribute to improvements in access to care, as well as health professional recruitment in underserved communities. While the benefits of interprofessional approaches have been identified, there are few published examples of the application of interprofessional learning and care in Aboriginal communities. This article describes the co-development by university and community partners of an accredited interprofessional, practice-based Aboriginal health course. Seed funding for this course was originally granted in November 2004 for a demonstration project led by the UBC Faculty of Medicine from a national Primary Health Care Renewal initiative focused on Social Accountability, namely "Issues of Quality and Continuing Professional Development: Maintenance of Competence" (referred to as CPDiQ project). This article presents findings from the development and implementation of this innovative course, run as a pilot during the summer of 2006 in two Aboriginal communities in British Columbia, Canada. Recommendations for integrating Aboriginal perspectives and foregrounding principles of social accountability in interprofessional health curricula are highlighted. In addition, successes and challenges are described related to garnering administrative and curricular support among the various health disciplines, interprofessional scheduling, and fostering cross-discipline understanding and communication. PMID:19005955

  3. Yarning/Aboriginal storytelling: towards an understanding of an Indigenous perspective and its implications for research practice.

    PubMed

    Geia, Lynore K; Hayes, Barbara; Usher, Kim

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition of Indigenous perspectives from various parts of the world in relation to storytelling, research and its effects on practice. The recent emergence of storytelling or yarning as a research method in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island studies and other Indigenous peoples of the world is gaining momentum. Narratives, stories, storytelling and yarning are emerging methods in research and has wide ranging potential to shape conventional research discourse making research more meaningful and accessible for researchers. In this paper we argue for the importance of Indigenous research methods and Indigenous method(ology), within collaborative respectful partnerships with non-Indigenous researchers. It is imperative to take these challenging steps together towards better outcomes for Indigenous people and their communities. In the Australian context we as researchers cannot afford to allow the gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and mainstream Australia health outcomes to grow even wider. One such pathway is the inclusion of Aboriginal storytelling or yarning from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait perspective within Indigenous and non-Indigenous research paradigms. Utilising Aboriginal storytelling or yarning will provide deeper understanding; complementing a two-way research paradigm for collaborative research. Furthermore, it has significant social implications for research and clinical practice amongst Indigenous populations; thus complementing the biomedical medical paradigm. PMID:24716757

  4. Turtle Finding Fact Sheet: The Role of the Treatment Provider in Aboriginal Women’s Healing from Illicit Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Colleen; Kilty, Jennifer; Fillmore, Cathy; Grantham, Sheila; Lyons, Tara; Clarke, Sharon; Hopkins, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Our research identifies key skills and traits for service providers working with Aboriginal women that assists them with re-claiming their cultural identity. The “Turtle Finding Fact Sheet: The Role of the Treatment Provider in Aboriginal Women’s Healing from Illicit Drug Abuse” was created to disseminate and commence discussion on this initial finding from our community-based research project in Canada. The study overall focussed on the role of identity and stigma in the healing journeys of criminalized Aboriginal women from illicit drug abuse. Our team is committed to sharing its finding with the community from which the information was collected–workers in the National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program (NNADAP). The Fact Sheet is based on a sample of interviews with substance abuse treatment providers, and was verified with women in treatment and who have completed treatment. In recent years, the addictions literature has increased its attention toward the importance of the therapeutic alliance between treatment providers and clients(1), although understanding specific to Aboriginal women remains limited. Identity reclamation is central to women’s healing journeys and treatment providers have an influential role. This finding is framed in the fact sheet within the cultural understanding of the Seven Teachings of the Grandfathers(2). The fact sheet (8.5x11) has been distributed to the over 700 NNADAP workers, and is also available at no cost in two poster size formats. It is appropriate for anyone providing services to Aboriginal women requiring addictions treatment. PMID:25010607

  5. Measuring cultural appropriateness of mental health services for Australian Aboriginal peoples in rural and remote Western Australia: a client\\/clinician's journey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerrie Doyle

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia suffer from poorer mental health than non-Aboriginal people, especially in remote and rural settings. Even with the ongoing adoption of the World Health Organisation's ‘Closing the Gap’ recommendations, the determinants of mental health, including suicide rates, hospitalisation rates and access to healthcare are not noticeably improving. One of the issues for this

  6. Measuring cultural appropriateness of mental health services for Australian Aboriginal peoples in rural and remote Western Australia: a client\\/clinician's journey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerrie Doyle

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia suffer from poorer mental health than non-Aboriginal people, especially in remote and rural settings. Even with the ongoing adoption of the World Health Organisation's ‘Closing the Gap’ recommendations, the determinants of mental health, including suicide rates, hospitalisation rates and access to healthcare are not noticeably improving. One of the issues for this

  7. Shell to shell energy transfer in magnetohydrodynamic dynamo simulations

    E-print Network

    Pouquet, Annick

    Shell to shell energy transfer in magnetohydrodynamic dynamo simulations Pablo Mininni, Alexandros of magnetic fields in astronomical objects. In the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo, an initially small

  8. Discrete Shells Origami

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob Burgoon; Zoë J. Wood; Eitan Grinspun

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a way of simulating the creation of simple Origami (paper folding). The Origami is created in a thin shell simulation that realistically models the behavior and physical properties of paper. We demonstrate how to fold and crease the simulated paper wherever the user desires. This work employs cutting- edge advances in the field of discrete shell modeling to

  9. I Learned about Shells!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kris Ryan

    2012-06-26

    Through the use of nonfiction text, students will be able to share their prior knowledge and schema of shells. Students will practice gathering information from a text, help create a KEL chart through class and small group discussions, and will use the information learned to create an informative writing about shell animals.

  10. Cohesive Elements for Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.; Turon, Albert

    2007-01-01

    A cohesive element for shell analysis is presented. The element can be used to simulate the initiation and growth of delaminations between stacked, non-coincident layers of shell elements. The procedure to construct the element accounts for the thickness offset by applying the kinematic relations of shell deformation to transform the stiffness and internal force of a zero-thickness cohesive element such that interfacial continuity between the layers is enforced. The procedure is demonstrated by simulating the response and failure of the Mixed Mode Bending test and a skin-stiffener debond specimen. In addition, it is shown that stacks of shell elements can be used to create effective models to predict the inplane and delamination failure modes of thick components. The results indicate that simple shell models can retain many of the necessary predictive attributes of much more complex 3D models while providing the computational efficiency that is necessary for design.

  11. Hopelessness and Excessive Drinking among Aboriginal Adolescents: The Mediating Roles of Depressive Symptoms and Drinking to Cope

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sherry H.; Sherry, Simon B.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Collins, Pamela; Van Wilgenburg, Hendricus

    2011-01-01

    Canadian Aboriginal youth show high rates of excessive drinking, hopelessness, and depressive symptoms. We propose that Aboriginal adolescents with higher levels of hopelessness are more susceptible to depressive symptoms, which in turn predispose them to drinking to cope—which ultimately puts them at risk for excessive drinking. Adolescent drinkers (n = 551; 52% boys; mean age = 15.9 years) from 10 Canadian schools completed a survey consisting of the substance use risk profile scale (hopelessness), the brief symptom inventory (depressive symptoms), the drinking motives questionnaire—revised (drinking to cope), and quantity, frequency, and binge measures of excessive drinking. Structural equation modeling demonstrated the excellent fit of a model linking hopelessness to excessive drinking indirectly via depressive symptoms and drinking to cope. Bootstrapping indicated that this indirect effect was significant. Both depressive symptoms and drinking to cope should be intervention targets to prevent/decrease excessive drinking among Aboriginal youth high in hopelessness. PMID:21197100

  12. 'Give us the full story': overcoming the challenges to achieving informed choice about fetal anomaly screening in Australian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Wild, Kayli; Maypilama, Elaine Lawurrpa; Kildea, Sue; Boyle, Jacqueline; Barclay, Lesley; Rumbold, Alice

    2013-12-01

    This cross-cultural qualitative study examined the ethical, language and cultural complexities around offering fetal anomaly screening in Australian Aboriginal communities. There were five study sites across the Northern Territory (NT), including urban and remote Aboriginal communities. In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2009 and August 2010, and included 35 interviews with 59 health providers and 33 interviews with 62 Aboriginal women. The findings show that while many providers espoused the importance of achieving equity in access to fetal anomaly screening, their actions were inconsistent with this ideal. Providers reported they often modified their practice depending on the characteristics of their client, including their English skills, the perception of the woman's interest in the tests and assumptions based on their risk profile and cultural background. Health providers were unsure whether it was better to tailor information to the specific needs of their client or to provide the same level of information to all clients. Very few Aboriginal women were aware of fetal anomaly screening. The research revealed they did want to be offered screening and wanted the 'full story' about all aspects of the tests. The communication processes advocated by Aboriginal women to improve understanding about screening included community discussions led by elders and educators. These processes promote culturally defined ways of sharing information, rather than the individualised, biomedical approaches to information-giving in the clinical setting. A different and arguably more ethical approach to introducing fetal anomaly screening would be to initiate dialogue with appropriate groups of women in the community, particularly young women, build relationships and utilise Aboriginal health workers. This could accommodate individual choice and broader cultural values and allow women to discuss the moral and philosophical debates surrounding fetal anomaly screening prior to the clinical encounter and within their own cultural space. PMID:23337828

  13. From benzos to berries: treatment offered at an Aboriginal youth solvent abuse treatment centre relays the importance of culture.

    PubMed

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Seguin, Maureen; Hopkins, Carol; Tempier, Raymond; Mehl-Madrona, Lewis; Dell, Debra; Duncan, Randy; Mosier, Karen

    2011-02-01

    First Nations and Inuit youth who abuse solvents are one of the most highly stigmatized substance-abusing groups in Canada. Drawing on a residential treatment response that is grounded in a culture-based model of resiliency, this article discusses the cultural implications for psychiatry's individualized approach to treating mental disorders. A systematic review of articles published in The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry during the past decade, augmented with a review of Canadian and international literature, revealed a gap in understanding and practice between Western psychiatric disorder-based and Aboriginal culture-based approaches to treatment and healing from substance abuse and mental disorders. Differing conceptualizations of mental health and substance abuse are discussed from Western psychiatric and Aboriginal worldviews, with a focus on connection to self, community, and political context. Applying an Aboriginal method of knowledge translation-storytelling-experiences from front-line workers in a youth solvent abuse treatment centre relay the difficulties with applying Western responses to Aboriginal healing. This lends to a discussion of how psychiatry can capitalize on the growing debate regarding the role of culture in the treatment of Aboriginal youth who abuse solvents. There is significant need for culturally competent psychiatric research specific to diagnosing and treating First Nations and Inuit youth who abuse substances, including solvents. Such understanding for front-line psychiatrists is necessary to improve practice. A health promotion perspective may be a valuable beginning point for attaining this understanding, as it situates psychiatry's approach to treating mental disorders within the etiology for Aboriginal Peoples. PMID:21333034

  14. High risk alcohol-related trauma among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    High risk drinking is linked with high rates of physical harm. The reported incidence of alcohol - related trauma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Northern Territory is the highest in the world. Facial fractures are common among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. They are often linked with misuse of alcohol in the Northern Territory and are frequently secondary to assault. This review focuses on alcohol-related trauma in the Territory and draws attention to an urgent need for preventative health approach to address this critical issue. PMID:22862897

  15. Culturally Competent Service Provision Issues Experienced By Aboriginal People Living With HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Kevin; Loppie, Charlotte; Jackson, Randy; Akan, Margaret; Maclean, Lynne; Reimer, Gwen

    2008-01-01

    Cultural identity is an important factor in how well Aboriginal people respond to HIV/AIDS prevention or, once diagnosed with HIV or AIDS, how it affects their health care. This study explores the cultural skills among service providers who see Aboriginal people living with HIV/AIDS (APHAs) and the perspectives of APHAs. The purpose is to better understand the wellness needs of APHAs and how culturally competent care affects health service access and use. Data collection included face-to-face semi-structured interviews with APHAs and focus groups/interviews with community-based and primary health professionals in five regions of Canada. Interviews and focus groups were voice-recorded, verbatim transcribed, and coded using Atlas.ti(®) software. Thirty-five APHAs and fifty-two service providers were reached. Two key themes were noticed:Active addictions are a major obstacle to adherence to HIV drug regimes. Half of APHA participants said addictions are a major factor. A similar portion noted intensified substance use was an initial coping strategy when diagnosed. A slightly smaller portion noted that addictions were dealt with soon after diagnosis in order to begin antiretroviral treatment. Service providers who inform, encourage, and support APHAs' choices are viewed as "culturally competent."Addictions and HIV must be "treated together," reflecting a holistic worldview of Aboriginal people. Programs that integrate addiction treatment with HIV/AIDS and service providers who encourage and support APHA's choices are viewed as "wise practice" models by both sets of study participants offering some convergence and a set of five wise practices are identified. PMID:20835301

  16. The transfer and implementation of an Aboriginal Australian wellbeing program: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The concepts and standard practices of implementation, largely originating in developed countries, cannot necessarily be simply transferred into diverse cultural contexts. There has been relative inattention in the implementation science literature paid to the implementation of interventions targeting minority Indigenous populations within developed countries. This suggests that the implementation literature may be bypassing population groups within developed countries who suffer some of the greatest disadvantage. Within the context of Aboriginal Australian health improvement, this study considers the impact of political and cultural issues by examining the transfer and implementation of the Family Wellbeing program across 56 places over a 20-year period. Methods A theoretical model of program transfer was developed using constructivist-grounded theory methods. Data were generated by conducting in-depth interviews with 18 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal research respondents who had been active in transferring the program. Data were categorised into higher order abstract concepts and the core impetus for and process of program transfer were identified. Results Organizations transferred the program by using it as a vehicle for supporting inside-out empowerment. The impetus to support inside-out empowerment referred to support for Aboriginal people's participation, responsibility for and control of their own affairs, and the associated ripple effects to family members, organizations, communities, and ultimately reconciliation with Australian society at large. Program transfer occurred through a multi-levelled process of embracing relatedness which included relatedness with self, others, and structural conditions; all three were necessary at both individual and organizational levels. Conclusions Similar to international implementation models, the model of supporting inside-out empowerment by embracing relatedness involved individuals, organizations, and interpersonal and inter-organizational networks. However, the model suggests that for minority Indigenous populations within developed countries, implementation approaches may require greater attention to the empowering nature of the intervention and its implementation, and multiple levels of relatedness by individuals and organizations with self, others, and the structural conditions. Key elements of the theoretical model provide a useful blueprint to inform the transfer of other empowerment programs to minority Indigenous and other disadvantaged populations on a case-by-case basis. PMID:24171867

  17. HIV Testing and Care in Canadian Aboriginal Youth: A community based mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Mill, Judy E; Jackson, Randy C; Worthington, Catherine A; Archibald, Chris P; Wong, Tom; Myers, Ted; Prentice, Tracey; Sommerfeldt, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background HIV infection is a serious concern in the Canadian Aboriginal population, particularly among youth; however, there is limited attention to this issue in research literature. The purpose of this national study was to explore HIV testing and care decisions of Canadian Aboriginal youth. Methods A community-based mixed-method design incorporating the Aboriginal research principles of Ownership, Control, Access and Possession (OCAP) was used. Data were collected through surveys (n = 413) and qualitative interviews (n = 28). Eleven community-based organizations including urban Aboriginal AIDS service organizations and health and friendship centres in seven provinces and one territory assisted with the recruitment of youth (15 to 30 years). Results Average age of survey participants was 21.5 years (median = 21.0 years) and qualitative interview participants was 24.4 years (median = 24.0). Fifty-one percent of the survey respondents (210 of 413 youth) and 25 of 28 interview participants had been tested for HIV. The most common reason to seek testing was having sex without a condom (43.6%) or pregnancy (35.4%) while common reasons for not testing were the perception of being low HIV risk (45.3%) or not having had sex with an infected person (34.5%). Among interviewees, a contributing reason for not testing was feeling invulnerable. Most surveyed youth tested in the community in which they lived (86.5%) and 34.1% visited a physician for the test. The majority of surveyed youth (60.0%) had tested once or twice in the previous 2 years, however, about one-quarter had tested more than twice. Among the 26 surveyed youth who reported that they were HIV-positive, 6 (23.1%) had AIDS at the time of diagnosis. Delays in care-seeking after diagnosis varied from a few months to seven years from time of test. Conclusion It is encouraging that many youth who had tested for HIV did so based on a realistic self-assessment of HIV risk behaviours; however, for others, a feeling of invulnerability was a barrier to testing. For those who tested positive, there was often a delay in accessing health services. PMID:18840292

  18. Failure of Viral Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, William S.; Bruinsma, Robijn F.; Michel, Jean-Philippe; Knobler, Charles M.; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.

    2006-12-01

    We report a combined theoretical and experimental study of the structural failure of viral shells under mechanical stress. We find that discontinuities in the force-indentation curve associated with failure should appear when the so-called Föppl von Kármán (FvK) number exceeds a critical value. A nanoindentation study of a viral shell subject to a soft-mode instability, where the stiffness of the shell decreases with increasing pH, confirms the predicted onset of failure as a function of the FvK number.

  19. Award Opportunities for Aboriginal Students The following awards are available to students of aboriginal descent. For further information, please consult the on-line Scholarships, Bursaries and Awards Guide.

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Suncor Energy Foundation Environmental Engineering Scholarship In-Course Undergraduate Awards $2,500 On of Montreal Aboriginal Scholarship In-Course Undergraduate Awards $1,500 On-line Application Bachelor Awards $1,000 On-line Application CN Gold Medal Scholarship In-Course Undergraduate Awards $2

  20. Aboriginal and Non Aboriginal Women in New South Wales Non Government Organisation (NGO) Drug and Alcohol Treatment and the Implications for Social Work: Who Starts, Who Finishes, and Where Do They Come From?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julaine Allan; Michael Kemp

    2011-01-01

    Limited access to care is frequently identified as a reason for poor health in Indigenous communities. This study aimed to identify the proportion of Aboriginal women accessing mainstream non government organisation (NGO) drug treatment in New South Wales (NSW) compared to non Indigenous women. Statistical analysis of two NGO subsets of the Australian Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National

  1. Fragmentation of Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittel, F.; Kun, F.; Herrmann, H. J.; Kröplin, B. H.

    2004-07-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the fragmentation of closed thin shells made of a disordered brittle material. Experiments were performed on brown and white hen egg shells under two different loading conditions: impact with a hard wall and explosion by a combustible mixture. Both give rise to power law fragment size distributions. A three-dimensional discrete element model of shells is worked out. Based on simulations of the model, we give evidence that power law fragment mass distributions arise due to an underlying phase transition which proved to be abrupt for explosion and continuous for impact. We demonstrate that the fragmentation of closed shells defines a new universality class of fragmentation phenomena.

  2. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

    1991-01-01

    A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.

  3. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, T.P.

    1991-11-26

    A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.

  4. Shell forming system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Hollow shells of high uniformity are formed by emitting liquid through an outer nozzle and gas through an inner nozzle, to form a hollow extrusion, by flowing the gas at a velocity between about 1.3 and 10 times the liquid velocity. The natural breakup rate of the extrusion can be increased to decrease shell size by applying periodic perturbations to one of the materials prior to exiting the nozzles, to a nozzle, or to the extrusion.

  5. Injury Hospitalizations Due to Unintentional Falls among the Aboriginal Population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, Changes over Time, and Ecological Analysis of Risk Markers, 1991-2010

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls. Methods We used BC’s universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression. Results During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94). Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07). Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment. Conclusions Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of hospitalization due to unintentional fall injury has declined among the Aboriginal population. Women and older adults have benefited more. PMID:25793298

  6. A 150-Year Conundrum: Cranial Robusticity and Its Bearing on the Origin of Aboriginal Australians

    PubMed Central

    Curnoe, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The origin of Aboriginal Australians has been a central question of palaeoanthropology since its inception during the 19th Century. Moreover, the idea that Australians could trace their ancestry to a non-modern Pleistocene population such as Homo erectus in Southeast Asia have existed for more than 100 years, being explicitly linked to cranial robusticity. It is argued here that in order to resolve this issue a new program of research should be embraced, one aiming to test the full range of alternative explanations for robust morphology. Recent developments in the morphological sciences, especially relating to the ontogeny of the cranium indicate that character atomisation, an approach underpinning phylogenetic reconstruction, is fraught with difficulties. This leads to the conclusion that phylogenetic-based explanations for robusticity should be reconsidered and a more parsimonious approach to explaining Aboriginal Australian origins taken. One that takes proper account of the complex processes involved in the growth of the human cranium rather than just assuming natural selection to explain every subtle variation seen in past populations. In doing so, the null hypothesis that robusticity might result from phenotypic plasticity alone cannot be rejected, a position at odds with both reticulate and deep-time continuity models of Australian origins. PMID:21350636

  7. Local epidemic history as a predictor of tuberculosis incidence in Saskatchewan Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    Pepperell, Caitlin; Chang, Alicia H; Wobeser, Wendy; Parsonnet, Julie; Hoeppner, Vernon H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Average tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates are high in Canadian Aboriginal communities, but there is significant variability within this group. Objective To determine whether local history of post-contact TB epidemics is predictive of contemporary epidemiology among Aboriginal communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods TB incidence, age-specific morbidity patterns, and rates of clustering of TB genotypes from 1986 to 2004 were compared between two groups of communities: Group 1, in which post-contact epidemics of TB were established around 1870, and Group 2, in which they were delayed until after 1920. Concomitant effects of socioeconomic and geographic variables were explored with multivariate models. Results Group 2 communities were characterized by higher annual incidence of TB (median 431/100 000 versus 38/100 000). In multivariate models that included socioeconomic and geographic variables, historical grouping remained a significant independent predictor of community incidence of TB. Clustering of TB genotypes was associated with Group 2 (OR 8.7, 95%CI 3.3–22.7) and age 10–34y (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.1–5.7). Conclusions TB transmission dynamics can vary significantly as a function of a population’s historical experience with TB. Populations at different stages along the epidemic trajectory may be amenable to different types of interventions. PMID:21682962

  8. Carriage of multiple ribotypes of non-encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae in aboriginal infants with otitis media.

    PubMed

    Smith-Vaughan, H C; Leach, A J; Shelby-James, T M; Kemp, K; Kemp, D J; Mathews, J D

    1996-04-01

    Ribotyping with the restriction enzyme XbaI was used to study the dynamics of Carriage of non-encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae (NCHi) in Aboriginal infants at risk of otitis media. Carriage rates of NCHi in the infants in the community were very high; the median age for detection was 50 days and colonization was virtually 100% by 120 days of age and persisted at a high level throughout the first year of life [1]. Eighteen different ribotypes of NCHi were identified from 34 positive swabs taken from 3 infants over a period of 9 months. The same ribotypes were recovered for up to 3 months from consecutive swabs of individual infants, and 12 of 27 swabs (44.4%) yielded two ribotypes from four colonies typed. Statistical analysis suggested that most swabs would have been positive for two ribotypes if enough colonies had been typed although the second most frequent ribotype was detected on average in only 13% of strains. Early colonization and carriage of multiple ribotypes of NCHi may help to explain the chronicity of carriage and thus the persistence of otitis media in Aboriginal infants. PMID:8620909

  9. Aboriginal health learning in the forest and cultivated gardens: building a nutritious and sustainable food system.

    PubMed

    Stroink, Mirella L; Nelson, Connie H

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable food systems are those in which diverse foods are produced in close proximity to a market. A dynamic, adaptive knowledge base that is grounded in local culture and geography and connected to outside knowledge resources is essential for such food systems to thrive. Sustainable food systems are particularly important to remote and Aboriginal communities, where extensive transportation makes food expensive and of poorer nutritional value. The Learning Garden program was developed and run with two First Nation communities in northwestern Ontario. With this program, the team adopted a holistic and experiential model of learning to begin rebuilding a knowledge base that would support a sustainable local food system. The program involved a series of workshops held in each community and facilitated by a community-based coordinator. Topics included cultivated gardening and forest foods. Results of survey data collected from 20 Aboriginal workshop participants are presented, revealing a moderate to low level of baseline knowledge of the traditional food system, and a reliance on the mainstream food system that is supported by food values that place convenience, ease, and price above the localness or cultural connectedness of the food. Preliminary findings from qualitative data are also presented on the process of learning that occurred in the program and some of the insights we have gained that are relevant to future adaptations of this program. PMID:19437287

  10. Disabling chronic low back pain as an iatrogenic disorder: a qualitative study in Aboriginal Australians

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ivan B; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Coffin, Juli A; Mak, Donna B; Toussaint, Sandy; Straker, Leon M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the low back pain beliefs of Aboriginal Australians; a population previously identified as protected against the disabling effects of low back pain due to cultural beliefs. Design Qualitative study employing culturally appropriate methods within a clinical ethnographic framework. Setting One rural and two remote towns in Western Australia. Participants Thirty-two Aboriginal people with chronic low-back pain (CLBP; 21 men, 11 women). Participants included those who were highly, moderately and mildly disabled. Results Most participants held biomedical beliefs about the cause of CLBP, attributing pain to structural/anatomical vulnerability of their spine. This belief was attributed to the advice from healthcare practitioners and the results of spinal radiological imaging. Negative causal beliefs and a pessimistic future outlook were more common among those who were more disabled. Conversely, those who were less disabled held more positive beliefs that did not originate from interactions with healthcare practitioners. Conclusions Findings are consistent with research in other populations and support that disabling CLBP may be at least partly iatrogenic. This raises concerns for all populations exposed to Western biomedical approaches to examination and management of low back pain. The challenge for healthcare practitioners dealing with people with low back pain from any culture is to communicate in a way that builds positive beliefs about low back pain and its future consequences, enhancing resilience to disability. PMID:23575999

  11. Aboriginal Suicidal Behaviour Research: From Risk Factors to Culturally-Sensitive Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Laurence Y.; Elias, Brenda; O’Neil, John; Enns, Murray; Cox, Brian J.; Belik, Shay-Lee; Sareen, Jitender

    2006-01-01

    Introduction There is a significant amount of research demonstrating that the rate of completed suicide among Aboriginal populations is much higher than in the general population. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research evaluating the risk factors for completed suicide and suicidal behavior in this population. There is an even greater shortage of research on evidence-based interventions for suicidal behaviour. Method A literature review was conducted to facilitate the development of an approach to the study of this complex problem. Results An approach to developing a research program that informs each step of the process with evidence from the previous steps was developed. The study of risk factors and interventions is described. Conclusions Research into the risk factors and evidence-based interventions for Aboriginal suicidal behavior are required. A programmatic approach is described in detail in this paper. It is hoped this informed approach would systematically address this important public health issue that afflicts a significant proportion of the Canadian population. PMID:18392204

  12. Key Factors for the Development of a Culturally Appropriate Interactive Multimedia Informative Program for Aboriginal Health Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Sayed, Faeka; Soar, Jeffrey; Wang, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to create and evaluate a model for a culturally appropriate, interactive, multimedia and informative health program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers that aims to improve the capacity to independently control their learning within an attractive learning environment. The research also aims to provide…

  13. Stop, Revive, Survive: Lessons from the Hebrew Revival Applicable to the Reclamation, Maintenance and Empowerment of Aboriginal Languages and Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghilad Zuckermann; Michael Walsh

    2011-01-01

    The revival of Hebrew is so far the most successful known reclamation of a sleeping tongue and is a language movement that has been in progress for more than 120 years. By comparison, language revival movements in Australia are in their infancy. This article provides comparative insights and makes information about the Hebrew revival accessible to Australian linguists and Aboriginal

  14. Resistance through Re-Presenting Culture: Aboriginal Student Filmmakers and a Participatory Action Research Project on Health and Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riecken, Ted; Conibear, Frank; Michel, Corrine; Lyall, John; Scott, Tish; Tanaka, Michele; Stewart, Suzanne; Riecken, Janet; Strong-Wilson, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on a participatory research project designed to promote student use of digital video to explore conceptions of health and wellness. We have viewed aspects of student resistance through the cultural perspectives that guide the Aboriginal education programs involved with the study. In presenting this piece, we have experimented…

  15. Bilingual Education in an Aboriginal Context: Examining the Transfer of Language Skills from Inuktitut to English or French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usborne, Esther; Caouette, Julie; Qumaaluk, Qiallak; Taylor, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Bilingual education is thought to be one of the principal means of simultaneously revitalizing threatened language and preparing students for success in mainstream society. However, little research has examined, in a comprehensive and longitudinal fashion, bilingual programs in Aboriginal contexts. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to conduct…

  16. Mental Health Promotion as a Prevention and Healing Tool for Issues of Youth Suicide in Canadian Aboriginal Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel L. Wortzman

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the appropriateness of using mental health promotion as a prevention and healing tool for Canadian Aboriginal youth dealing with issues of suicide. Strengths of mental health promotion in the context of this population include its emphasis on community-wide approaches, consideration of root causes of mental health issues, recognition of culture as a protective factor, and integration of

  17. Efficacy of albendazole against Giardia and hookworm in a remote Aboriginal community in the north of Western Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Reynoldson; J. M. Behnke; M. Gracey; R. J. Horton; R. Spargo; R. M. Hopkins; C. C. Constantine; F. Gilbert; C. Stead; R. P. Hobbs; R. C. A. Thompson

    1998-01-01

    The parasitological, clinical efficacy and tolerability of albendazole in the treatment for both giardiasis and hookworm infection in a remote Aboriginal population was investigated. Albendazole at a dose rate of 400 mg daily for 5 days was highly effective in reducing hookworm egg numbers and both Giardia antigen and cysts. The 36.6% prevalence of Giardia prior to treatment fell to

  18. From Cultural Brokers to Shared Care: The Changing Position of Literacy for Aboriginal Health Workers in Central Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Use of aboriginal health workers in rural Australia has varied according to the interests of governments, indigenous groups, the medical field, and the workers. These interest groups have positioned workers as cultural brokers, primary health workers, community developers, and professionals in shared care. The question of English literacy has not…

  19. Promoting System-Wide Cultural Competence for Serving Aboriginal Families and Children in a Midsized Canadian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambtman, Rudy; Hudson, Suzanne; Hartry, Reid; Mackay-Chiddenton, Dawne

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the work of the Circle of Courage, a cross-cultural group committed to improving the cultural competence of organizations providing services to Aboriginal populations in a midsized city in Canada. Rather than concentrating on individuals' cultural competence, the Circle targets mainstream organizations. Many of its…

  20. The Effectiveness of Web-Delivered Learning with Aboriginal Students: Findings from a Study in Coastal Labrador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, David; Sharpe, Dennis; Neville, Rose

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines the findings of a study that explores perspectives of e-learning for aboriginal students in five coastal communities in Labrador, Canada. The rural nature of many communities in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, coupled with a dramatically declining enrollment, has resulted in expanding use of e-learning as a means to…

  1. Teachers' and Principals' Perceptions of Citizenship Development of Aboriginal High School Students in the Province of Manitoba: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deer, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the congruence between Aboriginal student citizenship development and the prescribed outcomes of citizenship development in secondary schools in Manitoba. The perceptions of 106 high school teachers and principals in the province of Manitoba were acquired through survey distribution and interviews. This study found…

  2. Everywhere and Nowhere: Invisibility of Aboriginal and Torres Strain Islander Contact Languages in Education and Indigenous Language Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellwood, Juanita; Angelo, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The language ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Queensland are characterised by widespread language shift to contact language varieties, yet they remain largely invisible in discourses involving Indigenous languages and education. This invisibility--its various causes and its many implications--are explored through a…

  3. "The Tongue of Pangcah and of Savages Are the Same": Language Ideology in a Multilingual Aboriginal Village in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ya-ling

    2011-01-01

    This study examines incongruent languages ideologies as they exist among parents, grandparents and community members of Taiwan's aboriginal Pangcah people. The language ideologies of the villagers function as language policy that informs their decisions in favor of transmitting or abandoning their linguistic heritage. Taking a critical perspective…

  4. Realizing Potential: Improving Interdisciplinary Professional/Paraprofessional Health Care Teams in Canada's Northern Aboriginal Communities through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minore, Bruce; Boone, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    To address shortages of health professional human resources and overcome cultural barriers, interdisciplinary health care teams in most northern Canadian aboriginal communities include paraprofessionals recruited locally. This paper identifies factors fundamental to effective team functioning, arguing for an extension of the information on…

  5. Aboriginal Language Use in the Northern Territory: 5 Reports. Work Papers of SIL-AAIB, Series B, Volume 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, M. J., Ed.

    Five studies of aboriginal language use in Australia's Northern Territory include: (1) "Yanyuwa--A Dying Language" (Jean F. Kirton), which outlines the factors contributing to the demise of the use of Yanyuwa since 1963 and the trend toward use of Kriol; (2) "Kriol in the Barkly Tableland" (Phillip L. Graber), presenting sociolinguistic and…

  6. Mental health of Aboriginal children and adolescents in violent school environments: protective mediators of violence and psychological/nervous disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Violet

    2013-03-01

    The effect of school violence on mental health was examined among 12,366 Aboriginal children and adolescents, primarily First Nations, Métis, and Inuit residing off reservations in the Canadian provinces and territories. Analyses were based on the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples' Survey, a postcensal national survey of Aboriginal youth aged 6-14 years. More than one-fifth of students in the sample attended schools where violence was perceived as a problem. The occurrence of psychological or nervous disorders was about 50% higher among students exposed to school violence than among other students. School violence was a significant predictor of mental health difficulties, irrespective of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Virtually the entire effect was mediated by interpersonal processes, or negative quality of parent-child and peer relationships, while the effect was not explained by cultural detachment through lack of interactions with Elders and traditional language ability/use. Results underscored school violence as a significant public health concern for Aboriginal elementary and high school students, and the need for evidence-based mental health interventions for at-risk populations. PMID:23313494

  7. Digital Opportunities within the Aboriginal Teacher Education Program: A Study of Preservice Teachers' Attitudes and Proficiency in Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragon, Karon; Peacock, Kim; Norton, Yvonne; Steinhauer, Evelyn; Snart, Fern; Carbonaro, Mike; Boechler, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This article explores changes that occurred in preservice teachers' thinking about the use of educational technology in a post-secondary, Aboriginal, elementary teacher education program. The research explores relationships associated with changes in preservice teachers' attitudes and perceived proficiency with technology integration. Quantitative…

  8. Addressing Uncomfortable Issues: Reflexivity as a Tool for Culturally Safe Practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognised that research with Aboriginal communities needs to be ethical, meaningful and useful, in a way that is defined by communities themselves. This article provides an example of how reflexivity, from a number of positions and paradigms, can be used to undertake such research. I used a reflexive journal to document and critically…

  9. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: How Teachers' Attributions, Expectations, and Stereotypes Influence the Learning Opportunities Afforded Aboriginal Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tasha; Ungerleider, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Educational decisions made about students often have consequences for their subsequent employment and financial well-being, therefore it is imperative to determine whether teacher decisions are discriminatory. This study examines how factors such as race, class, and gender influence the decisions teachers make regarding Aboriginal students. The…

  10. Dyson shells: a retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Robert J.

    2001-08-01

    More than 40 years have passed since Freeman Dyson suggested that advanced technological civilizations are likely to dismantle planets in their solar systems to harvest all of the energy their stars wastefully radiate into space. Clearly this was an idea that was ahead of its time. Since that time, dozens of SETI searches have been conducted and almost all of them have focused their attention on stars which by definition cannot be the advanced civilizations that Dyson envisioned. I will review the data that created the confusion between Dyson spheres and Dyson shells. The sources that disprove Dyson spheres while still allowing Dyson shells will be discussed. The use of outmoded ideas that have biased the few searches for Dyson Shells that have occurred will be pointed out. An update of the concept of Dyson shells to include our current knowledge of biotechnology, nanotechnology and computer science will be explored. Finally, an approach to setting limits on the abundance of Dyson shells in our galaxy using existing optical astronomical data and future optical satellites will be proposed.

  11. Sensational spherical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M., Jr.; Bahrami, P. A.; Wang, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid-dynamic and capillary forces can be used to form nearly perfect, very small spherical shells when a liquid that can solidify is passed through an annular die to form an annular jet. Gravity and certain properties of even the most ideal materials, however, can cause slight asymmetries. The primary objective of the present work is the control of this shell formation process in earth laboratories rather than space microgravity, through the development of facilities and methods that minimize the deleterious effects of gravity, aerodynamic drag, and uncontrolled cooling. The spherical shells thus produced can be used in insulation, recyclable filter materials, fire retardants, explosives, heat transport slurries, shock-absorbing armor, and solid rocket motors.

  12. Clinical trials in a remote Aboriginal setting: lessons from the BOABS smoking cessation study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence regarding the best approaches to helping Indigenous Australians to stop smoking. The composite analysis of the only two smoking cessation randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating this suggests that one-on-one extra support delivered by and provided to Indigenous Australians in a primary health care setting appears to be more effective than usual care in encouraging smoking cessation. This paper describes the lessons learnt from one of these studies, the Be Our Ally Beat Smoking (BOABS) Study, and how to develop and implement an integrated smoking cessation program. Methods Qualitative study using data collected from multiple documentary sources related to the BOABS Study. As the project neared completion the research team participated in four workshops to review and conduct thematic analyses of these documents. Results Challenges we encountered during the relatively complex BOABS Study included recruiting sufficient number of participants; managing the project in two distant locations and ensuring high quality work across both sites; providing appropriate training and support to Aboriginal researchers; significant staff absences, staff shortages and high workforce turnover; determining where and how the project fitted in the clinics and consequent siloing of the Aboriginal researchers relating to the requirements of RCTs; resistance to change, and maintaining organisational commitment and priority for the project. The results of this study also demonstrated the importance of local Aboriginal ownership, commitment, participation and control. This included knowledge of local communities, the flexibility to adapt interventions to local settings and circumstances, and taking sufficient time to allow this to occur. Conclusions The keys to the success of the BOABS Study were local development, ownership and participation, worker professional development and support, and operating within a framework of cultural safety. There were difficulties associated with the BOABS Study being an RCT, and many of these are shared with stand-alone programs. Interventions targeted at particular health problems are best integrated with usual primary health care. Research to investigate complex interventions in Indigenous health should not be limited to randomised clinical trials and funding needs to reflect the additional, but necessary, cost of providing for local control of planning and implementation. PMID:24912949

  13. Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock into the receiving room housed in the 1965 concrete block addition. - J.C. Lore Oyster House, 14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  14. Distribution of HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in Taiwan: a comparative study among Min-nan, Hakka, Aborigines and Mainland Chinese.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C K; Chen, L L; Lee, A; Lee, T D

    1999-01-01

    A total of 8,497 blood samples were typed for HLA-A, B, DR and DQ. Of these, 7,137 Min-nan, 714 Hakka, 535 Mainland Chinese (152 from North China, 211 from Middle China, and 172 from South China) and 111 Aborigines were randomly selected from Tzu Chi Taiwan Marrow Donor Registry (TCTMDR). Differences in HLA gene and antigen frequencies have been observed between various ethnic groups of the Chinese population in Taiwan. The phylogenic tree shows Taiwan Aborigines and Javanese cluster together; Min-nan shares a common cluster with Hakka, Southern Hans and Thai; and Northern Hans shares a cluster with Middle Hans. The separation between Northern/Middle and Southern Chinese Hans support the idea that Northern and Southern Chinese have different genetic background. Aborigines appeared to be quite distinct in the distribution of a majority of the class I and class II antigens. High frequency of HLA-A24 (60.4%) and relatively restricted HLA polymorphisms are noted in Aborigines. The HLA haplotypes with high frequency in Aborigines included A24-B60-DRB1*04, A24-B60-DRB1*14, A24-B48-DRB1*04, and A24-B48-DRB1*14, which are different from the other ethnic groups. Although the phylogenic tree separates Aborigines and Han Chinese populations, 4 out of 20 most common HLA-A, -B, and -DR haplotypes presented in both Aborigines and Han Chinese may reflect an ancient common origin or intermixture between early settlers of Han Chinese and Taiwan Aborigines. The results in this study are essentially a summary of the observed gene/haplotype frequencies and differences among various ethnic groups in Taiwan. PMID:10082431

  15. Suicide prevention in Australian Aboriginal communities: a review of past and present programs.

    PubMed

    Ridani, Rebecca; Shand, Fiona L; Christensen, Helen; McKay, Kathryn; Tighe, Joe; Burns, Jane; Hunter, Ernest

    2015-02-01

    A review of Aboriginal suicide prevention programs were conducted to highlight promising projects and strategies. A content analysis of gray literature was conducted to identify interventions reported to have an impact in reducing suicidal rates and behaviors. Most programs targeted the whole community and were delivered through workshops, cultural activities, or creative outlets. Curriculums included suicide risk and protective factors, warning signs, and mental health. Many programs were poorly documented and evaluations did not include suicidal outcomes. Most evaluations considered process variables. Results from available outcome evaluations suggest that employing a whole of community approach and focusing on connectedness, belongingness and cultural heritage may be of benefit. Despite the challenges, there is a clear need to evaluate outcomes if prevention is to be progressed. PMID:25227155

  16. Helicobacter pylori Infection among Aborigines (the Orang Asli) in the Northeastern Region of Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Amry Abdul; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Majid, Noorizan Abd; Choo, Keng Ee; Raj, Sundramoorthy Mahendra; Derakhshan, Mohammad H.; Graham, David Y.

    2010-01-01

    Whether the exceptionally low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection reported among Malays is also present among aborigines (the Orang Asli) living in northeastern Peninsular Malaysia is unknown. We studied asymptomatic Orang Asli from settlements situated 210 km from the city of Kota Bharu. The HP infection status was confirmed by a validated serology test. Nineteen percent of 480 Orang Asli tested positive for HP infection. The prevalence was 40.6% in the birth cohort of the 1940s and declined steadily in later cohorts to under 10% among 12–30 year olds. This may be related to the phases of relocation from the jungles into resettlement camps and ultimately into designated villages near rivers. The low prevalence pattern after the 1970s was probably partly a result of improvement in sanitation and hygiene practice in these villages but other unidentified factors may also be operating. PMID:21036849

  17. HTLV-I associated myelopathy: an endemic disease of Canadian aboriginals of the Northwest Pacific coast?

    PubMed

    Oger, J J; Werker, D H; Foti, D J; Dekaban, G A

    1993-11-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is responsible for HTLV-I associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Both diseases have been well described in individuals living in Japan, West Indies, Seychelles Islands and Columbia where infection with HTLV-I is considered endemic and in persons whose descendants originated from these endemic areas. We report here 4 cases of HAM/TSP in 4 natives from 4 different tribal groups from British Columbia (B.C.). These are the first case reports of HTLV-I linked diseases found among North American Aboriginals. Possible routes of infection for HTLV-I infection included sexual transmission, breast feeding, blood transfusions and IV drug use. The seroprevalence of HTLV-I in North American Native population is unknown and we suggest that it is endemic in this ethnic group. PMID:8313245

  18. CMKb: a web-based prototype for integrating Australian Aboriginal customary medicinal plant knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Jitendra; Khanna, Varun; Vemulpad, Subramanyam; Jamie, Joanne; Kohen, Jim; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2008-01-01

    Background The customary medicinal plant knowledge possessed by the Australian Aboriginal people is a significant resource. Published information on it is scattered throughout the literature, in heterogeneous data formats, and is scattered among various Aboriginal communities across Australia, due to a multiplicity of languages. This ancient knowledge is at risk due to loss of biodiversity, cultural impact and the demise of many of its custodians. We have developed the Customary Medicinal Knowledgebase (CMKb), an integrated multidisciplinary resource, to document, conserve and disseminate this knowledge. Description CMKb is an online relational database for collating, disseminating, visualising and analysing initially public domain data on customary medicinal plants. The database stores information related to taxonomy, phytochemistry, biogeography, biological activities of customary medicinal plant species as well as images of individual species. The database can be accessed at . Known bioactive molecules are characterized within the chemoinformatics module of CMKb, with functions available for molecular editing and visualization. Conclusion CMKb has been developed as a prototype data resource for documenting, integrating, disseminating, analysing multidisciplinary customary medicinal plant data from Australia and to facilitate user-defined complex querying. Each species in CMKb is linked to online resources such as the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), NCBI Taxonomy, Australia's SpeciesLinks-Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) and Google images. The bioactive compounds are linked to the PubChem database. Overall, CMKb serves as a single knowledgebase for holistic plant-derived therapeutics and can be used as an information resource for biodiversity conservation, to lead discovery and conservation of customary medicinal knowledge. PMID:19091025

  19. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years. PMID:19775475

  20. Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India.

    PubMed

    Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Steven, Newmaster G; Maruthakkutti, Murugesan; Velusamy, Balasubramaniam; Ul-Huda, Muneer M

    2008-01-01

    There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we suggest that TAK such as that of the Malasars may serve toward a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability. PMID:18371206

  1. Aboriginal new world epidemiolgy and medical care, and the impact of Old World disease imports.

    PubMed

    Newman, M T

    1976-11-01

    Various workers, including T. D. Stewart, claim that the aboriginal Americas were relatively disease-free because of the bering Strait cold-screen, eliminating many pathogens, and the paucity of zoonotic infections because of few domestic animals. Evidence of varying validity suggests that precontact Americns had their own strains of treponemic infections, bacillary and amoebic dysenteries, influenza and viral penumonia and other respiratory diseases, salmonellosis and perhaps other food poisoning, various arthritides, some endoparasites such as the ascarids, and several geographically circumscribed diseases such as the rickettsial verruca (Carrion's disease) and New World leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. Questionably aboriginal are tuberculosis and typhus. Accordingly, virtually all the "crowd-type" ecopathogenic diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, typhoid, malaria, measles, pertussis, polio, etc., appear to have been absent from the New World, and were only brought in by White conquerors and their Black slaves. My hypothesis is that native American medical care systems--especially in the more culturally advanced areas--were sufficiently sophisticated to deal with native disease entities with reasonable competence. But native medical systems could not cope with the "crowd-type" disease imports that struck Indian and Eskimos as "virgin-field" populations. Reanalysis of native population losses through a genocidal combination of diease, war, slavery and attendant cultural disruption by Dobyns, Cook and others strongly suggest that traditiona estimates underplayed the death toll by a factor of the general order of ten. This would make for an immediately pre-contact Indian population of some 90-111 million instead of the tradition 8-11 million. Evidence is growing that Indians may have been no more susceptible to new pathogens that are other "virgin soil" populations, and thus their immune systems need not be considered less effective than those in other people. Present-day high mortality rates in Indians of both continents from infectious disease imports may be more socioeconomic than anything else. PMID:793420

  2. 7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody...

  3. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  4. Agreement, Shells, and Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Andrew; Wu, Zoe

    2002-01-01

    Reconsiders development and licensing of agreement as a syntactic projection and argues for a productive developmental relation between agreement and the category of focus. Suggests that focus projections are initially selected by a variety of functional heads with real semantic content, then, over time decays into a simple concord shell. Upon…

  5. Adaptive meshes and shells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vasilescu; D. Terzopoulos

    1992-01-01

    2 Review of Adaptive Meshes Adaptive meshes are dynamic networks of nodal masses intercon-nected by adjustable springs. They are useful for nonuniformly sampling and reconstructing visual data. This paper extends the adaptive mesh model in the following ways: it (i) develops open adaptive meshes and closed adaptive shells based on triangular and rectangular elements, (ii) proposes a discontinuity detection and

  6. Egg shell strengh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Wells

    1967-01-01

    The experiment was designed to provide more evidence of the reliability of laboratory tests used to assess shell strength by measuring their relationship to egg breakage in the field. It involved all eggs produced by 23 White Leghorn × Buff Rock pullets that were kept in battery cages for a period of 24 weeks.Samples of eggs from each hen were

  7. Stability of charged thin shells

    SciTech Connect

    Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Simeone, Claudio [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-05-15

    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  8. Sea shells and blood cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2004-04-09

    Scientists know that oysters make their shells from crystals but where the crystals are made is still a mystery. A new study in the 09 April 2004 issue of the journal Science suggests that these shell-building crystals are formed in a special class of blood cells that travel to the site of shell formation and unload their crystal cargo.

  9. The ‘Stolen Generations' of Mothers and Daughters: Child Apprehension and Enhanced HIV Vulnerabilities for Sex Workers of Aboriginal Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Simo, Annick; Jury, Delores; Reading, Charlotte; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The number of children in care of the state continues to grow in BC, Canada with a historical legacy of child apprehension among criminalized and marginalized populations, particularly women of Aboriginal ancestry and sex workers. However, there is a paucity of research investigating child apprehension experiences among marginalized mothers. The objective of the current analysis is to examine the prevalence and correlates of child apprehensions among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Analyses were drawn from the AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access, 2010-present), a prospective cohort of street and off-street SWs, through outreach and semi-annual visits to the research office. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine correlates of child apprehension. Results Of a total of 510 SWs, 350 women who had given birth to at least one child were included in the analyses (median age?=?37 yrs: IQR: 31–44 yrs). The prevalence of child apprehension among mothers was 38.3%, with 37.4% reporting having been apprehended themselves by child welfare services. In multivariable analysis, servicing clients in outdoor public spaces (versus formal sex work establishments or informal indoor settings) (adjusted odds ratio, (aOR)?=?2.73; 95%CI 1.27–5.90), history of injecting drugs (aOR?=?2.53; 95%CI 1.42–4.49), Aboriginal ancestry (aOR?=?1.66; 95%CI 1.01–2.74) were associated with increased odds of child apprehension. Discussion/Conclusions Child apprehension rates are high, particularly among the most marginalized sex workers, including sex workers who use drugs and sex workers of Aboriginal ancestry. Structural reforms to child protection are urgently needed, that support family-based care address the historical legacy of colonization affecting Aboriginal peoples. PMID:24927324

  10. Evaluation of reef shell embankment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melancon, J. L.; Bokun, S. G.

    1980-12-01

    A method of constructing an embankment over marshland soils by end-dumping reef shell directly onto the marshland with no other major subgrade preparation is discussed. The dumped reef shell is then spread out to form a 'floating' embankment over the soft marshland. The subsidence characteristics of a reef shell embankment are compared with those of a clam shell embankment to determine if such a reef shell embankment would provide adequate structural support for traffic. Results show it is physically and economically feasible to construct a reef shell embankment on soft organic marshland soils. A properly constructed reef shell embankment develops into a homogeneous floating slab of substantial stability and strength capable of supporting allowable traffic loads.

  11. Aboriginal Education When Aboriginal education

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    of people. The article by Te Tuhi Robust takes us to New Zealand and to the struggles of the Maori people Bird by Aoudla Pudlat. Image provided by the University of Lethbridge Art Gallery with the kind, Métis, and Inuit Education Policy Framework, launched in 2007, have stimulated new ways of learning

  12. The ideas of Frantz Fanon and culturally safe practices for aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Luke; Grootjans, John

    2014-03-01

    Mainstream mental health services in Australia have failed to provide culturally appropriate care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people despite several national reports and policies that have attempted to promote positive service development in response to the calls for change from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. In light of this situation, this article considers the ideas of Frantz Fanon and their potential for promoting cultural safety (Ramsden, 2002) in mainstream mental health services. This article argues that Fanon's ideas provide a conceptual strategy for nurses that prompts reflection and establishes a critical theoretical perspective linking power imbalance and inequitable social relationships in health care, thus complementing the aims of cultural safety. The purpose of this critical reflection is to guide nurses' understanding of the relationship between colonization and health status in order to change their attitudes from those that continue to support current hegemonic practices and systems of health care to those that support the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. PMID:24597586

  13. The creation of the expected Aboriginal woman drug offender in Canada: Exploring relations between victimization, punishment, and cultural identity

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Kilty, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This article illustrates how the Aboriginal female drug user is responded to as an expected offender based on the intersection of her gender, race, and class. Drawing on the findings of a national Canadian study documenting the lived experiences of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit female drug users, we argue that the strengthening of cultural identity can potentially disrupt this expected status at both the individual and social system levels. Within the framework of critical victimology, the challenge then becomes to translate this understanding into praxis. In response, we suggest advancing women’s agency at the individual level in the face of disempowering images and practices related to the offender, the victim, and Aboriginality. For change at the system level, we return to Christie’s notion of the need to dismantle the stereotypical construction of the Aboriginal female drug user. We illustrate both levels of change with an innovative form of knowledge sharing, which aims to evoke transformation with respect to individual and socially constructed conceptualizations of identity. PMID:24795492

  14. Seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus in the normal blood donor population and two aboriginal communities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Seow, H F; Mahomed, N M; Mak, J W; Riddell, M A; Li, F; Anderson, D A

    1999-10-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been examined in many countries, but such studies have generally been limited to majority populations such as those represented in healthy blood donors or cross sections of urban populations. Due to its major route of enteric transmission, large differences in HEV prevalence might be expected between populations in the same country but with different living conditions. Using an ELISA based on GST-ORF2.1 antigen, the prevalence of IgG-class antibodies to HEV was examined in three distinct populations in Malaysia: the normal (urban) blood donor population and two aboriginal communities located at Betau, Pahang and Parit Tanjung, Perak. IgG anti-HEV was detected in 45 (44%) of 102 samples from Betau and 15 (50%) of 30 samples from Parit Tanjung, compared to only 2 (2%) of 100 normal blood donors. The distribution of sample ELISA reactivities was also consistent with ongoing sporadic infection in the aboriginal communities, while there was no significant relationship between HEV exposure and age, sex, or malaria infection. The high prevalence of antibodies to HEV in the two aboriginal communities indicates that this group of people are at high risk of exposure to HEV compared to the general blood donors, and the results suggest that studies of HEV seroprevalence within countries must take into account the possibility of widely varying infection rates between populations with marked differences in living conditions. PMID:10459151

  15. 2 -Le Shell Decouverte

    E-print Network

    Tichit, Laurent

    ^eme fonctionnalit´e. Substitution de commande. ´Ecriture d'une cha^ine `a l'´ecran. Car besoin de compatibilit commandes : le Shell L'interpr´eteur de commandes effectue les op´erations suivantes : Ecriture sur l'´ecran d'une invite de commande : le prompt. tichit@iml230:~$ Lecture au clavier d'une ligne tap´ee par l

  16. Beyond the rhetoric: how can non-government organisations contribute to reducing health disparities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people?

    PubMed

    Wood, Lisa; Shilton, Trevor; Dimer, Lyn; Smith, Julie; Leahy, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The prevailing disparities in Aboriginal health in Australia are a sobering reminder of failed health reforms, compounded by inadequate attention to the social determinants shaping health and well-being. Discourse around health reform often focuses on the role of government, health professionals and health institutions. However, not-for-profit health organisations are also playing an increasing role in health policy, research and program delivery across the prevention to treatment spectrum. This paper describes the journey of the National Heart Foundation of Australia in West Australia (Heart Foundation WA hereafter) with Aboriginal employees and the Aboriginal community in taking a more proactive role in reducing Aboriginal health disparities, focusing in particular on lessons learnt that are applicable to other non-government organisations. Although the Heart Foundation WA has employed and worked with Aboriginal people and has long identified the Aboriginal community as a priority population, recent years have seen greater embedding of this within its organisational culture, governance, policies and programs. In turn, this has shaped the organisation's response to external health reforms and issues. Responses have included the development of an action plan to eliminate disparities of cardiovascular care in the hospital system, and collaboration and engagement with health professional groups involved in delivery of care to Aboriginal people. Examples of governance measures are also described in this paper. Although strategies and the lessons learnt have been in the context of cardiovascular health disparities, they are applicable to other organisations across the health sector. Moreover, the most powerful lesson learnt is universal in its relevance; individual programs, policies and reforms are more likely to succeed when they are underpinned by whole of organisation ownership and internalisation of the need to redress disparities in health. PMID:22112708

  17. Service providers’ perspectives, attitudes and beliefs on health services delivery for Aboriginal people receiving haemodialysis in rural Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Wilson, Shawn; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Objective Providing services to rural dwelling minority cultural groups with serious chronic disease is challenging due to access to care and cultural differences. This study aimed to describe service providers’ perspectives on health services delivery for Aboriginal people receiving haemodialysis for end-stage kidney disease in rural Australia. Design Semistructured interviews, thematic analysis Setting A health district in rural New South Wales, Australia Participants Using purposive sampling, 29 renal and allied service providers were recruited, including nephrologists, renal nurses, community nurses, Aboriginal health workers, social workers and managers. Six were Aboriginal and 23 non-Aboriginal. Results Improving cultural understanding within the healthcare system was central to five themes identified: rigidity of service design (outreach, inevitable home treatment failures, pressure of system overload, limited efficacy of cultural awareness training and conflicting priorities in acute care); responding to social complexities (respecting but challenged by family obligations, assumptions about socioeconomic status and individualised care); promoting empowerment, trust and rapport (bridging gaps in cultural understanding, acknowledging the relationship between land, people and environment, and being time poor); distress at late diagnosis (lost opportunities and prioritise prevention); and contending with discrimination and racism (inherent judgement of lifestyle choices, inadequate cultural awareness, pervasive multilevel institutionalised racism and managing patient distrust). Conclusions Service providers believe current services are not designed to address cultural needs and Aboriginality, and that caring for Aboriginal patients receiving haemodialysis should be family focused and culturally safer. An Aboriginal-specific predialysis pathway, building staff cultural awareness and enhancing cultural safety within hospitals are the measures recommended. Increasing patient support for home haemodialysis may improve health and the quality of care outcomes. PMID:24157820

  18. Shell model calculations of 109Sb in the sdgh shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, E.; Novoselsky, A.; Vallieres, M.

    2001-12-01

    The energy spectra of the antimony isotope 109Sb in the sdgh shell are calculated in the nuclear shell model approach by using the CD-Bonn nucleon-nucleon interaction. The modified Drexel University parallel shell model code (DUPSM) was used for the calculations with maximum Hamiltonian dimension of 762 253 of 5.14% sparsity. The energy levels are compared to the recent experimental results. The calculations were done on the Cyborg Parallel Cluster System at Drexel University.

  19. Design and implementation of a dental caries prevention trial in remote Canadian Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The goal of this cluster randomized trial is to test the effectiveness of a counseling approach, Motivational Interviewing, to control dental caries in young Aboriginal children. Motivational Interviewing, a client-centred, directive counseling style, has not yet been evaluated as an approach for promotion of behaviour change in indigenous communities in remote settings. Methods/design Aboriginal women were hired from the 9 communities to recruit expectant and new mothers to the trial, administer questionnaires and deliver the counseling to mothers in the test communities. The goal is for mothers to receive the intervention during pregnancy and at their child's immunization visits. Data on children's dental health status and family dental health practices will be collected when children are 30-months of age. The communities were randomly allocated to test or control group by a random "draw" over community radio. Sample size and power were determined based on an anticipated 20% reduction in caries prevalence. Randomization checks were conducted between groups. Discussion In the 5 test and 4 control communities, 272 of the original target sample size of 309 mothers have been recruited over a two-and-a-half year period. A power calculation using the actual attained sample size showed power to be 79% to detect a treatment effect. If an attrition fraction of 4% per year is maintained, power will remain at 80%. Power will still be > 90% to detect a 25% reduction in caries prevalence. The distribution of most baseline variables was similar for the two randomized groups of mothers. However, despite the random assignment of communities to treatment conditions, group differences exist for stage of pregnancy and prior tooth extractions in the family. Because of the group imbalances on certain variables, control of baseline variables will be done in the analyses of treatment effects. This paper explains the challenges of conducting randomized trials in remote settings, the importance of thorough community collaboration, and also illustrates the likelihood that some baseline variables that may be clinically important will be unevenly split in group-randomized trials when the number of groups is small. Trial registration This trial is registered as ISRCTN41467632. PMID:20465831

  20. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having...

  2. [Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in populations of aboriginal residents of the Far East].

    PubMed

    Gubina, M A; Girgol'kau, L A; Babenko, V N; Damba, L D; Maksimov, V N; Voevoda, M I

    2013-07-01

    An analysis of mtDNA polymorphism in eight populations of aboriginal residents (N = 519) of the Far East has been performed. The majority of haplogroups revealed in the examined groups were of East Eurasian origin. Haplogroup D was revealed in seven populations and its frequency varied from 2.8% in Koryaks to 28.3 and 28.9% in Nanaians and Evenks, respectively. Chukchi and Koryak populations, which belong to the same language family, exhibited haplogroup G, which has the same motive and indicates the genetic kinship of both populations. The presence of East Eurasian haplogroups A and D with a strong predominance of haplogroup A in Chukchi indicates the closer relationship of this population both with Asian and Canadian Eskimos and northern Atapasks on the other side of Bering Strait. The high level of genetic variability was revealed in populations belonging to the Tungus-Manjur group. The high frequency of east Eurasian haplogroups in Nanaians could result from close historical associations with Siberian Evenks. PMID:24450156

  3. Evidence of ENSO mega-drought triggered collapse of prehistory Aboriginal society in northwest Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Hamish; Marx, Samuel; Moss, Patrick; Hammond, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    The Kimberley region of northwest Australia contains one of the World's largest collections of rock art characterised by two distinct art forms; the fine featured anthropomorphic figures of the Gwion Gwion or Bradshaw paintings, and broad stroke Wandjina figures. Luminescence dating of mud wasp nests overlying Gwion Gwion paintings has confirmed an age of at least 17,000 yrs B.P. with the most recent dates for these paintings from around the mid-Holocene (5000 to 7000 yrs B.P.). Radiocarbon dating indicates that the Wandjina rock art then emerged around 3800 to 4000 yrs B.P. following a hiatus of at least 1200 yrs. Here we show that a mid-Holocene ENSO forced collapse of the Australian summer monsoon and ensuing mega-drought spanning approximately 1500 yrs was the likely catalyst of this change in rock art. The severity of the drought we believe was enhanced through positive feedbacks triggered by change in land surface condition and increased aerosol loading of the atmosphere leading to a weakening or failure of monsoon rains. This confirms that pre-historic aboriginal cultures experienced catastrophic upheaval due to rapid natural climate variability and that current abundant seasonal water supplies may fail again if significant change in ENSO occurs.

  4. Characterising the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of aboriginal health workers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Maksimovic, Lauren; Paquet, Catherine; Daniel, Mark; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Lekkas, Peter; Cargo, Margaret

    2013-12-01

    The study objectives were to characterise the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) in South Australia (SA), Australia; and identify the psychosocial, socio-demographic, and household smoking characteristics that distinguish smokers from quitters and never smokers. A self-reported cross-sectional survey was completed by AHWs in SA. Non-parametric statistics were used for inferential analyses. Eighty-five AHWs completed surveys representing a response rate of 63.0%. The prevalence of current smokers was 50.6%. Non-smokers (49.5%) included quitters (22.4%) and never smokers (27.1%). Smoking status did not differ by gender or geographic location. Of current smokers, 69.0% demonstrated a readiness to quit and 50.0% had made at least one quit attempt in the last 12 months. Compared to quitters and never smokers, current smokers expressed lower emotional wellbeing, and three times as many resided with another smoker. Quitters had the highest levels of perceived social support and part-time employment. A high proportion of AHWs who smoke desire, and are ready to quit. Individual, social and household factors differentiated smokers from non-smokers and quitters. Social support, and relationships and structures that favour social support, are implicated as necessary to enable AHWs who smoke to act on their desire to quit smoking. PMID:24351741

  5. Building Co-Management as a Process: Problem Solving Through Partnerships in Aboriginal Country, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurba, Melanie; Ross, Helen; Izurieta, Arturo; Rist, Philip; Bock, Ellie; Berkes, Fikret

    2012-06-01

    Collaborative problem solving has increasingly become important in the face of the complexities in the management of resources, including protected areas. The strategy undertaken by Girringun Aboriginal Corporation in north tropical Queensland, Australia, for developing co-management demonstrates the potential for a problem solving approach involving sequential initiatives, as an alternative to the more familiar negotiated agreements for co-management. Our longitudinal case study focuses on the development of indigenous ranger units as a strategic mechanism for the involvement of traditional owners in managing their country in collaboration with government and other interested parties. This was followed by Australia's first traditional use of marine resources agreement, and development of a multi-jurisdictional, land to sea, indigenous protected area. In using a relationship building approach to develop regional scale co-management, Girringun has been strengthening its capabilities as collaborator and regional service provider, thus, bringing customary decision-making structures into play to `care for country'. From this evolving process we have identified the key components of a relationship building strategy, `the pillars of co-management'. This approach includes learning-by-doing, the building of respect and rapport, sorting out responsibilities, practical engagement, and capacity-building.

  6. Benefits of swimming pools in two remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia: intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Deborah; Tennant, Mary T; Silva, Desiree T; McAullay, Daniel; Lannigan, Francis; Coates, Harvey; Stanley, Fiona J

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the health impact of swimming pools built with the aim of improving quality of life and reducing high rates of pyoderma and otitis media. Design Intervention study assessing prevalence of ear disease and skin infections before and at six monthly intervals after opening of swimming pools. Setting Two remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. Participants 84 boys and 78 girls aged < 17 years. Main outcome measures Changes in prevalence and severity of pyoderma and perforation of tympanic membranes with or without otorrhoea over 18 months after opening of pools. Results In community A, 61 children were seen before the pool was opened, and 41, 46, and 33 children were seen at the second, third, and fourth surveys. Equivalent figures for community B were 60, 35, 39, and 45. Prevalence of pyoderma declined significantly from 62% to 18% in community A and from 70% to 20% in community B during the 18 months after the pools opened. Over the same period, prevalence of severe pyoderma fell from 30% to 15% in community A and from 48% to 0% in community B. Prevalence of perforations of the tympanic membrane fell from 32% in both communities to 13% in community A and 18% in community B. School attendance improved in community A. Conclusion Swimming pools in remote communities were associated with reduction in prevalence of pyoderma and tympanic membrane perforations, which could result in long term benefits through reduction in chronic disease burden and improved educational and social outcomes. PMID:12933727

  7. The cultural and ecological impacts of aboriginal tourism: a case study on Taiwan's Tao tribe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye

    2014-01-01

    We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities. PMID:25089246

  8. Characterising the Smoking Status and Quit Smoking Behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Maksimovic, Lauren; Paquet, Catherine; Daniel, Mark; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Lekkas, Peter; Cargo, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The study objectives were to characterise the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) in South Australia (SA), Australia; and identify the psychosocial, socio-demographic, and household smoking characteristics that distinguish smokers from quitters and never smokers. A self-reported cross-sectional survey was completed by AHWs in SA. Non-parametric statistics were used for inferential analyses. Eighty-five AHWs completed surveys representing a response rate of 63.0%. The prevalence of current smokers was 50.6%. Non-smokers (49.5%) included quitters (22.4%) and never smokers (27.1%). Smoking status did not differ by gender or geographic location. Of current smokers, 69.0% demonstrated a readiness to quit and 50.0% had made at least one quit attempt in the last 12 months. Compared to quitters and never smokers, current smokers expressed lower emotional wellbeing, and three times as many resided with another smoker. Quitters had the highest levels of perceived social support and part-time employment. A high proportion of AHWs who smoke desire, and are ready to quit. Individual, social and household factors differentiated smokers from non-smokers and quitters. Social support, and relationships and structures that favour social support, are implicated as necessary to enable AHWs who smoke to act on their desire to quit smoking. PMID:24351741

  9. Project EARTH-12-SHELL4: Shell Geoscience Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Project EARTH-12-SHELL4: Shell Geoscience Laboratory Polygonal faults and de-watering of mudrocks (subject to contract) Polygonal faults are widely regarded as a response to dewatering during the earliest it is generally agreed that polygonal fault genesis is related to dewatering during the first few hundred metres

  10. Off-Shell Supersymmetry

    E-print Network

    Chiu Man Ho; Nobuchika Okada

    2015-05-29

    Supersymmetry does not dictate the way we should quantize the fields in the supermultiplets, and so we have the freedom to quantize the Standard Model (SM) particles and their superpartners differently. We propose a generalized quantization scheme under which a particle can only appear off-shell, while its contributions to quantum corrections are exactly the same as those in the usual quantum field theory. We apply this quantization scheme solely to the sparticles in the $R$-parity preserving Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). Thus sparticles can only appear off-shell. They could be light but would completely escape the direct detection at any experiments such as the LHC. However, our theory still retains the same desirable features of the usual MSSM at the quantum level. For instance, the gauge hierarchy problem is solved and the three MSSM gauge couplings are unified in the usual way. Although direct detection of sparticles is impossible, their existence can be revealed by precise measurements of some observables (such as the running QCD coupling) that may receive quantum corrections from them and have sizable deviations from the SM predictions. Also the experimental constraints from the indirect sparticle search are still applicable.

  11. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    SciTech Connect

    Heiles, C.

    1984-08-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10/sup 0/. We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo.

  12. Biomineralisation in Mollusc shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphin, Y.; Cuif, J. P.; Salomé, M.; Williams, C. T.

    2009-04-01

    The main components of Mollusc shells are carbonate minerals: calcite and aragonite. ACC is present in larval stages. Calcite and aragonite can be secreted simultaneously by the mantle. Despite the small number of varieties, the arrangement of the mineral components is diverse, and dependant upon the taxonomy. They are also associated with organic components much more diverse, the diversity of which reflects the large taxonomic diversity. From TGA analyses, the organic content (water included) is high (>5% in some layers). The biomineralisation process is not a passive precipitation process, but is strongly controlled by the organism. The biological-genetic control is shown by the constancy of the arrangement of the layers, the mineralogy and the microstructure in a given species. Microstructural units (i.e. tablets, prisms etc.) have shapes that do not occur in non-biogenic counterparts. Nacreous tablets, for example, are flattened on their crystallographic c axis, which is normally the axis of maximum growth rate for non-biogenic aragonite. Morever, their inner structure is species-specific: the arrangements of nacreous tablets in Gastropoda - Cephalopoda, and in Bivalvia differ, and the inner arrangement of the nacreous tablets is different in ectocochlear and endocochlear Cephalopoda. The organic-mineral ratios also differ in the various layers of a shell. Differences in chemical composition also demonstrates the biological-genetic control: for example, aragonite has a low Sr content unknown in non-biogenic samples; two aragonitic layers in a shell have different Sr and Mg contents, S is higher in calcitic layers. Decalcification releases soluble (SOM) and insoluble (IOM) organic components. Insoluble components form the main part of the intercrystalline membranes, and contain proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. Soluble phases are present within the crystals and the intercrystalline membranes. These phases are composed of more or less glycosylated proteins and polysaccharides, with a large range of molecular weights. Proteins are rich in acidic aminoacids (aspartic and glutamic acids). Sugars are usually sulphated, and very acidic. Several hundreds of proteins and sugars are present in the SOM. The compositions of IOM and SOM are characteristic for each layer present in a shell. Topographical relationships of mineral and organic components are visible at different scales of observation. SEM images of etched surfaces display the growth line rhythmicity and concordance between adjacent microstructural units. EPMA maps show similar chemical growth lines in various structures. Whatever the taxa, the average thickness of growth lines is about 2-3 µm, indicating an inner biological rhythm, not dependant on the environmental conditions. Such growth lines are observed in deep sea molluscs at depth where diurnal changes in light and temperature are absent. However, the role of the environment is shown by larger periodicities. Sulphur deserves a special interest, because it is associated with the organic matrices. Electrophoretic data have shown that acidic sulphated sugars are abundant in some layers. XANES analyses confirm these results. New microscopic techniques allow us to obtain images at a submicrometer scale. AFM images show that all the microstructural units (i.e. tablets, prisms etc.), calcite or aragonite, are composed of small sub-spherical granules with a diameter typically of about 50 nm. These granules are surrounded by a thin cortex (about 8 nm) of organic and/or amorphous material, and are organo-composite material as shown by phase images. They do not have crystalline shapes, despite the fact that the units they build are often monocrystalline. Molecular biology and genetic studies confirm that the control of the biomineralisation process is exerted at the scale of the whole organism: the expression of genes encoding major shell matrix proteins clearly indicates a regular separation of calcite and aragonite secretory activity. The main control on the structural and compositional features of mollusc she

  13. Biomechanics of turtle shells: how whole shells fail in compression.

    PubMed

    Magwene, Paul M; Socha, John J

    2013-02-01

    Turtle shells are a form of armor that provides varying degrees of protection against predation. Although this function of the shell as armor is widely appreciated, the mechanical limits of protection and the modes of failure when subjected to breaking stresses have not been well explored. We studied the mechanical properties of whole shells and of isolated bony tissues and sutures in four species of turtles (Trachemys scripta, Malaclemys terrapin, Chrysemys picta, and Terrapene carolina) using a combination of structural and mechanical tests. Structural properties were evaluated by subjecting whole shells to compressive and point loads in order to quantify maximum load, work to failure, and relative shell deformations. The mechanical properties of bone and sutures from the plastral region of the shell were evaluated using three-point bending experiments. Analysis of whole shell structural properties suggests that small shells undergo relatively greater deformations before failure than do large shells and similar amounts of energy are required to induce failure under both point and compressive loads. Location of failures occurred far more often at sulci than at sutures (representing the margins of the epidermal scutes and the underlying bones, respectively), suggesting that the small grooves in the bone created by the sulci introduce zones of weakness in the shell. Values for bending strength, ultimate bending strain, Young's modulus, and energy absorption, calculated from the three-point bending data, indicate that sutures are relatively weaker than the surrounding bone, but are able to absorb similar amounts of energy due to higher ultimate strain values. PMID:23203474

  14. Epidemiology, etiology, and motivation of alcohol misuse among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: a descriptive review.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2015-01-01

    The per capita alcohol consumption of the Northern Territory, Australia, is second highest in the world, estimated 15.1 liters of pure alcohol per year. Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory consume approximately 16.9 liters of pure alcohol per year. This descriptive review is based on current published and grey literature in the context of high risk alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and social factors, to predict alcohol misuse among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Northern Territory. The methodology involved a descriptive search on PubMed, Northern Territory government reports, health databases, and Web sites with an emphasis on the etiology and epidemiology of high-risk alcohol consumption among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory. This review has its own limitations because it does not rely on systematic review methodologies. However, it presents real data on the motives for binge drinking and alcohol-related violent assaults of this vulnerable population. Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related harms are considerably high among the rural and remote communities where additional research is needed. High-risk alcohol misuse within Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders communities often leads to a series of physical and social consequences. This review highlights the need for culturally appropriate intervention approaches focusing on alcohol misuse among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population of the Northern Territory. PMID:25629929

  15. Favourable IFNL3 Genotypes Are Associated with Spontaneous Clearance and Are Differentially Distributed in Aboriginals in Canadian HIV-Hepatitis C Co-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Moqueet, Nasheed; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Platt, Robert W.; Young, Jim; Cooper, Curtis; Hull, Mark; Walmsley, Sharon; Klein, Marina B.

    2015-01-01

    Canadian Aboriginals are reported to clear Hepatitis C (HCV) more frequently. We tested the association of spontaneous clearance and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the Interferon-lambda 3 (IFNL3) gene (rs12979860, rs8099917, functional variant rs8103142) and compared the SNP frequencies between HIV-HCV co-infected whites and Aboriginals from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort. HCV treatment-naïve individuals with at least two HCV RNA tests were included (n = 538). A spontaneous clearance case was defined as someone with two consecutive HCV RNA-negative tests, at least six months apart. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards adjusted for sex and ethnicity. Advantageous variants and haplotypes were more common in Aboriginals than Caucasians: 57% vs. 46% had the rs12979860 CC genotype, respectively; 58% vs. 48%, rs8103142 TT; 74% vs. 67%, the rs12979860 C allele; and 67% vs. 64% the TCT haplotype with three favourable alleles. The adjusted Hazard Ratios (95% CI) for spontaneous clearance were: rs12979860: 3.80 (2.20, 6.54); rs8099917: 5.14 (2.46, 10.72); and rs8103142: 4.36 (2.49, 7.62). Even after adjusting for rs12979860, Aboriginals and females cleared HCV more often, HR (95% CI) = 1.53 (0.89, 2.61) and 1.42 (0.79, 2.53), respectively. Our results suggest that favourable IFNL3 genotypes are more common among Aboriginals than Caucasians, and may partly explain the higher HCV clearance rates seen among Aboriginals. PMID:25803108

  16. 21 CFR 886.3800 - Scleral shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scleral shell. 886.3800 Section 886.3800 Food and... Prosthetic Devices § 886.3800 Scleral shell. (a) Identification. A scleral shell is a device made of glass or plastic...

  17. 21 CFR 886.3800 - Scleral shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scleral shell. 886.3800 Section 886.3800 Food and... Prosthetic Devices § 886.3800 Scleral shell. (a) Identification. A scleral shell is a device made of glass or plastic...

  18. 21 CFR 886.3800 - Scleral shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scleral shell. 886.3800 Section 886.3800 Food and... Prosthetic Devices § 886.3800 Scleral shell. (a) Identification. A scleral shell is a device made of glass or plastic...

  19. 21 CFR 886.3800 - Scleral shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scleral shell. 886.3800 Section 886.3800 Food and... Prosthetic Devices § 886.3800 Scleral shell. (a) Identification. A scleral shell is a device made of glass or plastic...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT FRESH FRUITS...Split shell means a shell having any crack which is open and conspicuous for a...shell, measured in the direction of the...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT FRESH FRUITS...Split shell means a shell having any crack which is open and conspicuous for a...shell, measured in the direction of the...

  2. Improved Connector Shell for Cable Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, A. L.; Rotta, J. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Cable connector shell improves electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by electrically connecting cable braid around entire circumference. Connector cable braid is slipped over ferrule and sleeve is slipped over braid, clamping it tightly to shell. Connector shell completely shields cable conductors.

  3. Cylindrical thin-shell wormholes

    E-print Network

    Ernesto F. Eiroa; Claudio Simeone

    2004-04-12

    A general formalism for the dynamics of non rotating cylindrical thin-shell wormholes is developed. The time evolution of the throat is explicitly obtained for thin-shell wormholes whose metric has the form associated to local cosmic strings. It is found that the throat collapses to zero radius, remains static or expands forever, depending only on the sign of its initial velocity.

  4. Tuna Sea Shell Pasta Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Tuna Sea Shell Pasta Ingredients: 8 ounces pasta shells 12 ounces tuna in water, canned 1 onion 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one

  5. Discrete Shells Origami Rob Burgoon

    E-print Network

    Discrete Shells Origami Rob Burgoon Graduate student Computer Science Calif. Polytechnic State Univ introduce a way of simulating the creation of simple Origami (paper folding). The Origami is created- edge advances in the field of discrete shell modeling to meet the challenge of simulating Origami. We

  6. Delamination Analysis of Layered Shells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Babaei; M. Epstein; S. A. Lukasiewicz

    2001-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical and numerical treatment of delaminations in composite shells. A large deformation theory for layered shells of arbitrarily varying thickness, including interface delamination and transverse shear effects, is developed. Asystem of layer coordinates and conjugate coordinates is introduced which allows the results to be presented in a simple compact form analogous to the theory of monocoque

  7. Determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites in three Orang Asli (Aborigines) communities in Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Sabitha, P; Awang, I P R; Ong, G P; Hassan, A K R

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children and adult Orang Aslis (Aborigines) from different locations in Perak. Faecal samples were collected and analyzed using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation technique. Some of the faecal samples were stained using the Modified Acid fast stain for Cryptosporidium. Nail clippings of the respondents and the soil around their habitat were also analyzed. Of the 77 stool samples examined, 39 (50.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The most common parasite detected was Trichuris trichiura (39.0%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.9%), Entamoeba coli (5.2%), Giardia lamblia (5.2%), Blastocystis hominis (3.9%), hookworm (3.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.3%) respectively. Some respondents had single parasites (24.7%), some with two parasites (18.2%). Some with three parasites (6.5%) and one had four parasites species (1.3%). The parasites were slightly more common in females (54.7%) than males ((41.7%). The parasites were more common in the 13-20 year age group (90.9%) followed by 1-12 years (69.6%), 21-40 year age group (34.8%) and least in the 41-60 year age group (27.8%). Nail examinations of the respondents did not show any evidence of parasites. One had a mite, three had pollen grains and one had yeast cells isolated from the finger nails. Soil samples taken around their houses showed only one sample with a nematode ova and one with oocyst which was of a non human origin. PMID:22735840

  8. Bacterial Genetic Signatures of Human Social Phenomena among M. tuberculosis from an Aboriginal Canadian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pepperell, Caitlin; Hoeppner, Vernon H.; Lipatov, Mikhail; Wobeser, Wendy; Schoolnik, Gary K.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a widespread global distribution and highly variable disease phenotype, there is little DNA sequence diversity among isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, many regional population genetic surveys have revealed a stereotypical structure in which a single clone, lineage, or clade makes up the majority of the population. It is often assumed that dominant clones are highly adapted, that is, the overall structure of M. tuberculosis populations is the result of positive selection. In order to test this assumption, we analyzed genetic data from extant populations of bacteria circulating in Aboriginal communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Demographic parameters of the bacterial population were estimated from archival epidemiological data collected over ?130 years since the onset of epidemic tuberculosis in the host communities. Bacterial genetic data were tested against neutral theory expectations and the local evolutionary history of M. tuberculosis investigated by phylogenetic analysis. Our findings are not consistent with positive selection on the bacterial population. Instead, we uncovered founder effects persisting over decades and barriers to gene flow within the bacterial population. Simulation experiments suggested that a combination of these neutral influences could result in the stereotypical structure of M. tuberculosis populations. Some aspects of population structure were suggestive of background selection, and data were on the whole consistent with combined effects of population bottlenecks, subdivision, and background selection. Neutral phenomena, namely, bottlenecks and partitions within populations, are prominent influences on the evolution of M. tuberculosis and likely contribute to restricted genetic diversity observed within this species. Given these influences, a complex evolutionary model will be required to define the relative fitness of different M. tuberculosis lineages and, ultimately, to uncover the genetic basis for its success as a pathogen. PMID:19861642

  9. Bacterial genetic signatures of human social phenomena among M. tuberculosis from an Aboriginal Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Pepperell, Caitlin; Hoeppner, Vernon H; Lipatov, Mikhail; Wobeser, Wendy; Schoolnik, Gary K; Feldman, Marcus W

    2010-02-01

    Despite a widespread global distribution and highly variable disease phenotype, there is little DNA sequence diversity among isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, many regional population genetic surveys have revealed a stereotypical structure in which a single clone, lineage, or clade makes up the majority of the population. It is often assumed that dominant clones are highly adapted, that is, the overall structure of M. tuberculosis populations is the result of positive selection. In order to test this assumption, we analyzed genetic data from extant populations of bacteria circulating in Aboriginal communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Demographic parameters of the bacterial population were estimated from archival epidemiological data collected over approximately 130 years since the onset of epidemic tuberculosis in the host communities. Bacterial genetic data were tested against neutral theory expectations and the local evolutionary history of M. tuberculosis investigated by phylogenetic analysis. Our findings are not consistent with positive selection on the bacterial population. Instead, we uncovered founder effects persisting over decades and barriers to gene flow within the bacterial population. Simulation experiments suggested that a combination of these neutral influences could result in the stereotypical structure of M. tuberculosis populations. Some aspects of population structure were suggestive of background selection, and data were on the whole consistent with combined effects of population bottlenecks, subdivision, and background selection. Neutral phenomena, namely, bottlenecks and partitions within populations, are prominent influences on the evolution of M. tuberculosis and likely contribute to restricted genetic diversity observed within this species. Given these influences, a complex evolutionary model will be required to define the relative fitness of different M. tuberculosis lineages and, ultimately, to uncover the genetic basis for its success as a pathogen. PMID:19861642

  10. Self-efficacy and self-rated oral health among pregnant aboriginal Australian women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-efficacy plays an important role in oral health-related behaviours. There is little known about associations between self-efficacy and subjective oral health among populations at heightened risk of dental disease. This study aimed to determine if low self-efficacy was associated with poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for confounding among a convenience sample of pregnant women. Methods We used self-reported data from 446 Australian women pregnant with an Aboriginal child (age range 14–43 years) to evaluate self-rated oral health, self-efficacy and socio-demographic, psychosocial, social cognitive and risk factors. Hierarchical entry of explanatory variables into logistic regression models estimated prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for fair or poor self-rated oral health. Results In an unadjusted model, those with low self-efficacy had 2.40 times the odds of rating their oral health as ‘fair’ or ‘poor’ (95% CI 1.54–3.74). Addition of socio-demographic factors attenuated the effect of low self-efficacy on poor self-rated oral health by 10 percent (POR 2.19, 95% CI 1.37–3.51). Addition of the psychosocial factors attenuated the odds by 17 percent (POR 2.07, 95% CI 1.28–3.36), while addition of the social cognitive variable fatalism increased the odds by 1 percent (POR 2.42, 95% CI 1.55–3.78). Inclusion of the behavioural risk factor ‘not brushing previous day’ attenuated the odds by 15 percent (POR 2.11, 95%CI 1.32–3.36). In the final model, which included all covariates, the odds were attenuated by 32 percent (POR 1.80, 95% CI 1.05, 3.08). Conclusions Low self-efficacy persisted as a risk indicator for poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for confounding among this vulnerable population. PMID:24690235

  11. Crack problems in cylindrical and spherical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    Standard plate or shell theories were used as a starting point to study the fracture problems in thin-walled cylindrical and spherical shells, assuming that the plane of the crack is perpendicular to the surface of the sheet. Since recent studies have shown that local shell curvatures may have a rather considerable effect on the stress intensity factor, the crack problem was considered in conjunction with a shell rather than a plate theory. The material was assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous, so that approximate solutions may be obtained by approximating the local shell crack geometry with an ideal shell which has a solution, namely a spherical shell with a meridional crack, a cylindrical shell with a circumferential crack, or a cylindrical shell with an axial crack. A method of solution for the specially orthotropic shells containing a crack was described; symmetric and skew-symmetric problems are considered in cylindrical shells with an axial crack.

  12. Glass shell manufacturing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, R. L.; Ebner, M. A.; Nolen, R. L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Highly-uniform, hollow glass spheres (shells), which are used for inertial confinement fusion targets, were formed from metal-organic gel powder feedstock in a vertical furnace. As a result of the rapid pyrolysis caused by the furnace, the gel is transformed to a shell in five distinct stages: (a) surface closure of the porous gel; (b) generation of a closed-cell foam structure in the gel; (c) spheridization of the gel and further expansion of the foam; (d) coalescence of the closed-cell foam to a single-void shell; and (e) fining of the glass shell. The heat transfer from the furnace to the falling gel particle was modeled to determine the effective heating rate of the gel. The model predicts the temperature history for a particle as a function of mass, dimensions, specific heat, and absorptance as well as furnace temperature profile and thermal conductivity of the furnace gas. A model was developed that predicts the gravity-induced degradation of shell concentricity in falling molten shells as a function of shell characteristics and time.

  13. Optimum rotationally symmetric shells for flywheel rotors

    DOEpatents

    Blake, Henry W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A flywheel rim support formed from two shell halves. Each of the shell halves has a disc connected to the central shaft. A first shell element connects to the disc at an interface. A second shell element connects to the first shell element. The second shell element has a plurality of meridional slits. A cylindrical shell element connects to the second shell element. The cylindrical shell element connects to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim support having a disc connected an outer diameter of a shaft. Two optimally shaped shell elements connect to the optimally shaped disc at an interface. The interface defines a discontinuity in a meridional slope of said support. A cylindrical shell element connects to the two shell elements. The cylindrical shell element has an outer surface for connecting to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim casing includes an annular shell connected to the central shaft. The annular shell connects to the flywheel rim. A composite shell surrounds the shaft, annular shell and flywheel rim.

  14. Optimum rotationally symmetric shells for flywheel rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, H.W.

    2000-04-04

    A flywheel rim support formed from two shell halves. Each of the shell halves has a disc connected to the central shaft. A first shell element connects to the disc at an interface. A second shell element connects to the first shell element. The second shell element has a plurality of meridional slits. A cylindrical shell element connects to the second shell element. The cylindrical shell element connects to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim support having a disc connected an outer diameter of a shaft. Two optimally shaped shell elements connect to the optimally shaped disc at an interface. The interface defines a discontinuity in a meridional slope of said support. A cylindrical shell element connects to the two shell elements. The cylindrical shell element has an outer surface for connecting to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim casing includes an annular shell connected to the central shaft. The annular shell connects to the flywheel rim. A composite shell surrounds the shaft, annular shell and flywheel rim.

  15. Comparative study of shell swab and shell crush methods for the recovery of Salmonella from shell eggs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swabbing (SW) is the standard methodology for the recovery of resident microorganisms from shell eggs in Japan. A comparative study of shell swab (SW) and a shell crush (CR) technique was performed to recover the laboratory-inoculated Salmonella from shell eggs. It was found that the recovery of ...

  16. Correlates of Plant Biodiversity in Mediterranean Baja California, Mexico.

    E-print Network

    Vanderplank, Sula Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    56 Figure 2.2 (a & b). Abalone shells, with nacreous calciteFigure 2.2 (a & b). Abalone shells, with nacreous calciteabalone) is evidenced in the presence of large middens, defined by the presence of discarded shells,

  17. States in a free state of nature: aboriginal criteria for 21st-century marine minerals resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, E.W.S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper explores principles of international law for managing nonsovereign marine minerals under conditions of severe chronic global shortage - which herein is defined as existing whenever exploitation consistently exceeds natural rates of renewal restoration. The main data source lies in how man has managed shortage in the past, where the most fertile ground is found in the ways of the natural societies of pre-Neolithic man and contemporary hunter-gatherer bands. The result has a broader compass than the original goal namely the means (a) to restore ecological balance to man's relationship to his resource environment, and (b) to achieve universal fairness of individual access to the global patrimony. These goals may be realized without sudden disruption of the international community of sovereign States or its economic system of laissez-faire capitalism. The means to these ends posit the readoption of aboriginal Ethics to order the adaptive relationship of man to man and of man to Nature, including the revitalization of the original social compact of reciprocal rights and obligations among all individuals. The turn to aboriginal Ethics suggests a series of proposals for managing global shortage implemented by economic incentives and penalties which are compatible with the ways of contemporary international society.

  18. An ancient common origin of aboriginal Australians and New Guinea highlanders is supported by alpha-globin haplotype analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts-Thomson, J. M.; Martinson, J. J.; Norwich, J. T.; Harding, R. M.; Clegg, J. B.; Boettcher, B.

    1996-01-01

    The origins of aboriginal Australians and their relationship with New Guineans and neighboring Southeast Asians remains controversial. We have studied the alpha-globin haplotype composition of an aboriginal tribe from central Australia, to address some of the ambiguities of previous studies. Australians have a haplotype repertoire that is shared with New Guinea highlanders, a fact that strongly supports a common origin of these two populations. Further, Australians and New Guinea highlanders have a different set of alpha haplotypes from Southeast Asians and a lower genetic diversity. This, coupled with the presence of many locally specific central Australian haplotypes, suggests that much of the original diversity was lost in a population bottleneck prior to or during the early colonization of Sahul and that subsequent recovery of diversity has been accompanied by the generation of new haplotypes. These conclusions contrast with some previous genetic studies suggesting links between Australians, coastal New Guineans, and present-day Southeast Asians. Much of this discrepancy appears to be due to more recent Southeast Asian admixture on the north coast of Australia. PMID:8651262

  19. "We're the Mob You Should Be Listening to": Aboriginal Elders at Mornington Island Speak up about Productive Relationships with Visiting Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores, with a qualitative framework, critical social theory and thematic analysis, the narratives of many Aboriginal elders of Mornington Island (Kunhanhaa) about their history and their potential to form productive kin-based relationships with visiting teachers in order to influence the curriculum and pedagogy delivered at the local…

  20. Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan. A Progress Report = Rassembler nos forces: Le plan d'action du Canada pour les questions autochtones. Rapport d'etape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Gathering Strength is an integrated government-wide plan to address the key challenges facing Canada's Aboriginal people. Following an initial section on reconciliation of historic grievances, this report describes initiatives in the four areas addressed by the action plan: (1) partnerships (all schools received public awareness materials;…

  1. Development of mental health first aid guidelines for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experiencing problems with substance use: a Delphi study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura M Hart; Sarah J Bourchier; Anthony F Jorm; Leonard G Kanowski; Anna H Kingston; Donna Stanley; Dan I Lubman

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Problems with substance use are common in some Aboriginal communities. Although problems with substance use are associated with significant mortality and morbidity, many people who experience them do not seek help. Training in mental health first aid has been shown to be effective in increasing knowledge of symptoms and behaviours associated with seeking help. The current study aimed to

  2. Rebuilding from Resilience: Research Framework for a Randomized Controlled Trial of Community-led Interventions to Prevent Domestic Violence in Aboriginal Communities1

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Neil; Shea, Beverley; Amaratunga, Carol; McGuire, Patricia; Sioui, Georges

    2010-01-01

    This research framework, which competed successfully in the 2008 CIHR open operating grants competition, focuses on protocols to measure the impact of community-led interventions to reduce domestic violence in Aboriginal communities. The project develops and tests tools and procedures for a randomized controlled trial of prevention of family violence. Women’s shelters mainly deal with victims of domestic violence, and the framework also addresses other types of domestic violence (male and female children, elderly, and disabled). The partner shelters are in Aboriginal communities across Canada, on and off reserve, in most provinces and territories. The baseline study applies a questionnaire developed by the shelters. Testing the stepped wedge design in an Aboriginal context, shelters randomized themselves to two waves of intervention, half the shelters receiving the resources for the first wave. A repeat survey after two years will measure the difference between first wave and second wave, after which the resources will shift to the second wave. At least two Aboriginal researchers will complete their doctoral studies in the project. The steering committee of 12 shelter directors guides the project and ensures ethical standards related to their populations. Each participating community and the University of Ottawa reviewed and passed the proposal. PMID:20975853

  3. On the feasibility of establishing the provenance of Australian Aboriginal artefacts using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and proton-induced X-ray emission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Creagh; M. E. Kubik; M. Sterns

    2007-01-01

    Museums and galleries in Australia have extensive collections of Aboriginal artefacts in their custody. In particular, the National Museum of Australia and the National Gallery of Australia are custodians of works of very considerable significance, in both cultural and financial terms. Art fraud can occur, documentation relating to artefacts can be mislaid, or the artefacts can be incorrectly filed. Because

  4. Educational Equity in the Access to Post-Secondary Education: A Comparison of Ethnic Minorities in China with Aboriginals in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This study provides insight into equity issues in post-secondary education by exploring and assessing the history, the reality and the potential developments in higher education for minority students in China, in comparison to post-secondary education for aboriginal students in Canada. It highlights access to post-secondary education by these…

  5. "Closing the Gap" at the Peril of Widening the Void: Implications of the Ontario Ministry of Education's Policy for Aboriginal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Lorenzo; Hodson, John; Manley-Casimir, Michael; Muir, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    There is a crisis relevant to the publicly funded education of Aboriginal students in Ontario. This article, which presents the details of the crisis, analyzes recent policy statements released by the Ontario Ministry of Education designed to address that crisis. By defining the nature of this critical juncture, presenting how these policies may…

  6. Making the Spirit Dance Within: Joe Duquette High School and an Aboriginal Community. Our Schools/Our Selves Monograph Series, No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig-Brown, Celia, Ed.; Hodgson-Smith, Kathy L., Ed.; Regnier, Robert, Ed.; Archibald, Jo-ann, Ed.

    This book offers an in-depth study of an exemplary school for Native students, the Joe Duquette High School in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). The school's successes and its uniqueness are based on the consistent and insistent commitment of all involved to a focus on Aboriginal spirituality within the school and the human relationships there.…

  7. Crack-tip fields in anisotropic shells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. G. YUAN; S. YANG

    2002-01-01

    Asymptotic crack-tip fields including the effect of transverse shear deformation in an anisotropic shell are presented. The material anisotropy is defined here as a monoclinic material with a plane symmetry at x3 = 0. In general, the shell geometry near the local crack tip region can be considered as a shallow shell. Based on Reissner shallow shell theory, an asymptotic

  8. Unix et Programmation Shell Philippe Langevin

    E-print Network

    Faccanoni, Gloria

    Programmation Shell Automne 2013 4 / 1 #12;shell unix origine naissance de unix Parmi de nombreux hackers deux Programmation Shell Automne 2013 5 / 1 #12;shell unix origine naissance de unix Parmi de nombreux hackers deux naissance de unix Parmi de nombreux hackers deux pionniers des Bell labs sont `a l'origine du syst`eme unix

  9. 7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shell. 51.2289 Section 51.2289 Agriculture Regulations...Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody partition...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shell. 51.2289 Section 51.2289 Agriculture Regulations...Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody partition...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shell. 51.2289 Section 51.2289 Agriculture Regulations...Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody partition...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shell. 51.2289 Section 51.2289 Agriculture Regulations...Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody partition...

  13. The Digital Library Shell Yael Dubinsky

    E-print Network

    Yehudai, Amiram

    The Digital Library Shell Yael Dubinsky University of Rome "La Sapienza" Department of Computer Libraries The Digital Library (DL) Shell The project of development the DL shell Demonstration Summary and future work #12;3 Agenda Digital Libraries The Digital Library (DL) Shell The project of development

  14. Intergalactic shells at large redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. M.; Silk, J.

    1981-01-01

    The intergalactic shells produced by galactic explosions at large redshift, whose interiors cool by inverse Compton scattering off the cosmic background radiation, have a characteristic angular size of about 1 arcmin at peak brightness. At z values lower than 2, the shells typically have a radius of 0.5 Mpc, a velocity of about 50 km/sec, a metal abundance of about 0.0001 of cosmic values, and strong radiation in H I(Lyman-alpha), He II 304 A, and the IR fine-structure lines of C II and Si II. The predicted extragalactic background emission from many shells, strongly peaked toward the UV, sets an upper limit to the number of exploding sources at z values of about 10. Shell absorption lines of H I, C II, Si II, and Fe II, which may be seen at more recent epochs in quasar spectra, may probe otherwise invisible explosions in the early universe.

  15. Stability of elastic grid shells

    E-print Network

    Mesnil, Romain, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    The elastic grid shell is a solution that combines double curvature and ease of mounting. This structural system, based on the deformation of an initially at grid without shear stiffness was invented more than fifty years ...

  16. Shell proteome of rhynchonelliform brachiopods.

    PubMed

    Immel, Françoise; Gaspard, Danièle; Marie, Arul; Guichard, Nathalie; Cusack, Maggie; Marin, Frédéric

    2015-06-01

    Brachiopods are a phylum of marine invertebrates that have an external bivalved shell to protect their living tissues. With few exceptions, this biomineralized structure is composed of calcite, mixed together with a minor organic fraction, comprising secreted proteins that become occluded in the shell structure, once formed. This organic matrix is thought to display several functions, in particular, to control mineral deposition and to regulate crystallite shapes. Thus, identifying the primary structure of matrix proteins is a prerequisite for generating bioinspired materials with tailored properties. In this study, we employed a proteomic approach to identify numerous peptides that constitute the shell proteins, in three rhynchonellid brachiopods from different localities. Our results suggest that the shell protein repertoires identified thus far, differ from that of better known calcifying metazoans, such as molluscs. PMID:25896726

  17. Nuclear Shell Structure Evolution Theory

    E-print Network

    Zhengda Wang; Xiaobin Wang; Xiaodong Zhang; Xiaochun Wang

    2012-02-29

    The Self-similar-structure shell model (SSM) comes from the evolution of the conventional shell model (SM) and keeps the energy level of SM single particle harmonic oscillation motion. In SM, single particle motion is the positive harmonic oscillation and in SSM, the single particle motion is the negative harmonic oscillation. In this paper a nuclear evolution equation (NEE) is proposed. NEE describes the nuclear evolution process from gas state to liquid state and reveals the relations among SM, SSM and liquid drop model (DM). Based upon SSM and NEE theory, we propose the solution to long-standing problem of nuclear shell model single particle spin-orbit interaction energy . We demonstrate that the single particle motion in normal nuclear ground state is the negative harmonic oscillation of SSM[1][2][3][4] Key words: negative harmonic oscillation, nuclear evolution equation, self-similar shell model

  18. Insulative laser shell coupler

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Andrew T. (Livermore, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A segmented coaxial laser shell assembly having at least two water jacket sections, two pairs of interconnection half rings, a dialectric break ring, and a pair of threaded ring sections. Each water jacket section with an inner tubular section that defines an inner laser cavity with water paths adjacent to at least a portion of the exterior of the inner tubular section, and mating faces at the end of the water jacket section through which the inner laser cavity opens and which defines at least one water port therethrough in communication with the water jackets. The water paths also define in their external surface a circumferential notch set back from and in close proximity to the mating face. The dielectric break ring has selected thickness and is placed between, and in coaxial alignment with, the mating faces of two of the adjacent water jacket sections. The break ring also defines an inner laser cavity of the same size and shape as the inner laser cavity of the water jacket sections and at least one water passage through the break ring to communicate with at least one water port through the mating faces of the water jacket sections.

  19. Nematic textures in spherical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelli, V.; Nelson, D. R.

    2006-08-01

    The equilibrium texture of nematic shells is studied as a function of their thickness. For ultrathin shells the ground state has four short (1)/(2) disclination lines but, as the thickness of the film increases, a three-dimensional escaped configuration composed of two pairs of half-hedgehogs becomes energetically favorable. We derive an exact solution for the nematic ground state in the one Frank constant approximation and study the stability of the corresponding texture against thermal fluctuations.

  20. Nematic textures in spherical shells

    E-print Network

    Vincenzo Vitelli; David R. Nelson

    2006-04-12

    The equilibrium texture of nematic shells is studied as a function of their thickness. For ultrathin shells the ground state has four short 1/2 disclination lines but, as the thickness of the film increases, a three dimensional escaped configuration composed of two pairs of half-hedgehogs becomes energetically favorable. We derive an exact solution for the nematic ground state in the one Frank constant approximation and study the stability of the corresponding texture against thermal fluctuations.