Countries are grouped by the nature and extent of access to legal abortion. The categories include abortion on demand, for social reasons, for health reasons, for rape or incest or to save a mother's life, and only to save a mother's life. Abortion on demand is available for about 40% of the world's population and may have restrictions, such as parental consent or approval of state committees or physicians. There are 22 countries in Europe, 12 in the former Soviet Union, four in Asia, four in the Americas, one in the Middle East (Turkey), and one in Africa (Tunisia) which provide access to early abortion on demand. Abortion for social and economic reasons is available to 21% of the world's population in five countries in Asia, three in Europe (Great Britain, Finland, and Hungary), and one in Africa (Zambia). Abortion for health reasons is available to 16% of the world's population located in 21 countries in Africa, eight in the Americas, seven in Asia, five in Europe, and four in the Middle East. Laws governing about 5% of the world's population permit abortion only in the case of rape, incest, or when a mother's life is in danger (Brazil, Mexico, and Sudan). 18% of the world's population is covered by laws which permit an abortion only when a mother's life is in danger; this includes 19 countries in Africa, 11 in the Americas, nine in Asia, seven in the Middle East, and one in Europe (Ireland). PMID:12287145
Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.
|Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.|
|A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…
Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others
In 1969, the Center for Disease Control initiated surveillance of legal abortions in the United States. Since then, abortion laws, abortion reporting, and abortion ratios in the United States have changed dramatically. In 1969, there were 9 states with li...
We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly eighteen years after abortion legalization. The five states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater
John J. Donohue; Steven D. Levitt
We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater
John J. Donohue; Steven D. Levitt
Focusing on the legal aspects of abortion, this chapter considers the development of constitutional law on the right to abortion, rights for adults and minors, conscience clauses, and abortion and malpractice issues. In 1973 the US Supreme Court in the cases of Roe v. Wade held that the right of privacy grounded in the concept of personal liberty guaranteed by the 9th and 14th amendment to the US Constitution included a woman's right to decide whether or not to have an abortion. The cases held unconstitutional any statute that prohibited abortion and statutes that imposed such stringent requirements on abortion as to make abortion unavailable. The Court recognized the state's interest in protecting maternal health and preserving the life of the fetus but said that a woman's right to privacy was a paramount fundamental right and could be interfered with only if the state could show a compelling interest. The Court analyzed the right to abortion based on different stages of pregnancy. During the 1st trimester, a woman has a virtually unfettered right to have an abortion free from interference by state or federal government; the decision is between the woman and her physician. Due to the fact that abortions during the 2nd trimester are more dangerous to the health of the mother, the state can regulate the abortion procedure so long as the regulations are limited to preservation and protection of maternal health. Thus, the state can establish licensing requirements for facilities in which the procedure is to be performed as well as requirements concerning reporting and record keeping. During the 3rd trimester, the viability of the fetus allows the state's compelling interest in the protection of fetal life to be dominant over the mother's right to privacy. During this trimester, the state may, but is not required to, proscribe abortion except where necessary to preserve the life or health of the mother. During the 1973-83 period, numerous attempts were made to chip away at the Court's ruling. Most frequent efforts were to pass state statutes making it unreasonably difficult to obtain an abortion. A basic legal rule for medical practice is that a procedure cannot occur without first obtaining consent from the patient, and to obtain informed consent, the patient must be told of the risks, benefits, and alternatives to any procedure. The Supreme Court has stated that not all consent requirements for minors would be unconstitutional. Although parents cannot have an absolute veto power over their child's abortion decision, state statutes requiring parental notification are valid. The Court has held that spousal consent is unconstitutional since the right of privacy is specific to the pregnant woman. The Court has made it clear that the right to an abortion does not imply the duty of the state or federal government to pay for abortion for indigent women. In the summer of 1983 the Supreme Court decided a trilogy of cases involving the regulation of abortion by state and local governmental units. The Supreme Court imposed some limitations on abortion but upheld the Roe case. PMID:3709009
Goldman, E B
We assess whether adolescents who faced a higher risk of having been aborted are more likely to use controlled substances. We find that adolescents born in states that legalized abortion before national legalization in 1973, during the years when only those states permitted abortion, were much less likely to use drugs than persons from the same birth cohorts born elsewhere.
|The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…
Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip
This paper views the present state of legalized abortion in the USA from the point of view of the history of the philosophy of law combined with the history of the various practices of the murder of the innocent. In pre-Christian civilizations there has been widespread practice of the putting to death of either the innocent or the defenseless. These
Gordon E. Whitney
For the last three decades, government and health institutions have recognised that unsafe abortion is an important social and public health problem in Mexico. Although the Penal Code in every state defines at least one situation in which abortion is legal, access to legal abortion services is restricted for women throughout Mexico. In August 2000, the Mexico City Legislative Assembly
Deborah L Billings; Claudia Moreno; Celia Ramos; Deyanira González de León; Rubén Ram??rez; Leticia Villaseñor Mart??nez; Mauricio Rivera D??az
Analysis of 2 recent surveys of the attitudes of US women on the morality and legality of abortion and the political implications of those attitudes, and on the characteristics of women who report having had abortions. About 70% of women surveyed believed legal abortion should be available for any woman who wants 1, but only 1/3 believed abortion to be morally justified under all circumstances. Only a minority believed that abortion was wrong under the most commonly given reasons for abortion, and a substantial majority believed it is justified for reasons of health or in cases of rape or incest or a defective fetus. Because there was no single circumstance among the 10 choices which were held to be immoral by a majority of the women, a legal restriction which would not violate the consciences of a majority of women would be difficult to construct. While opponents of abortion are more likely than supporters to support political candidates solely on the abortion issue, supporters so far outnumber opponents that single issue voters are twice as likely to be prochoice than antiabortion. Little differences were found among Catholics and nonCatholics in the proportions that support legal abortions, although Catholics were more likely to have moral reservations. Strongest support for legal abortion was found among women who had had abortions, blacks, and from women who attend religious services less than once a month. Majorities in opposition to legal abortions were found in none of the subgroups. Comparison with surveys of abortion providers showed that the truthfulness with which women reported their abortion experience in these polls was greater among younger women: 80% and 60% of women under age 25 reported truthfully, while 32% and 53% of those aged 25-44 underreported abortion experience. Among other findings of the polls: at least 4 million US women now living have had illegal abortions; Catholic and Protestant women are about as likely to obtain an abortion; women who attend religious services regularly are relatively less likely to obtain them; older women of higher socioeconomic status were more likely to have obtained an abortion during the period when they were illegal; the overwhelming majority of women who had abortions believed it to have been right to do so and that they are better off for having done so. PMID:7095107
Henshaw, S K; Martire, G
This paper situates the current abortion practice and policy in Puerto Rico within the historical, political, and economic context of the colonial domination of the United States (US) over Puerto Rico. In particular, we pay attention to the hurdles that women face to obtain abortion services in Puerto Rico as a result of its colonial legality. Of particular significance is the overall low abortion ratio, and differential abortion ratio and access issues faced by women when grouped by an age-ethnicity category: unmarried teenagers, adult Puerto Rican women and, adult immigrant women from the Dominican Republic. The present hurdles to abortion access--related to information, abortion providers, economic situation, and government policies--are discussed within the colonial legality of abortion based on the US Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade. Puerto Rico's case is situated within its broader history of population policies developed by the State since the 1930's. Of particular relevance is the antagonism that State managers have had towards abortion in spite of its legality. In this sense, abortion in Puerto Rico continues to be an unfinished business, in spite of its legality. PMID:9642718
Azize-Vargas, Y; Avilés, L A
Women who wish to terminate a pregnancy, and physicians willing to perform abortions, are subject to increasing harassment from groups which challenge the constitutional abortion right upheld by the Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade. Their vulnerability, in fact, parallels the vulnerability of the abortion right. This Article analyzes the inherent weakness and impending obsolescence of the trimester framework established in Roe. Present medical evidence of maternal health risks and fetal viability demonstrates that the trimester framework is inconsistent with current medical knowledge, and will likely be rendered obsolete by developments in medical technology. The Article suggests that adoption of an alternative constitutional basis for legal abortion is necessary to preserve the abortion right, and explores the utility of two arguments grounded in the equal protection doctrine. Finally, it discusses means of preserving legal abortion within the confines of the trimester framework established in Roe v. Wade. PMID:3068986
Mangel, C P
In Zimbabwe, where over 70,000 illegal abortions are performed each year and complications from clandestine abortion are a leading cause of maternal mortality, the abortion law debate has been re-opened. Under the present law, abortion is legal only to save the life of the mother and women who undergo illegal abortion face strict criminal sanctions. Timothy Stamps, the Minister of Health and Child Welfare, has stated, "The first rights of a child are to be desired, to be wanted, and to be planned." Dr. Illiff, of the University of Zimbabwe's Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, has noted, "We cannot stop abortion. The choice is how safe it is." Illiff pointed out that urban Zimbabwe women run a 262 times greater risk of dying of abortion complications than their counterparts in the UK where abortion is legal. As the Women's Action Group has observed, men have dominated the current debate on abortion. The group has issued an appeal to women to enter into this debate that concerns their bodies to ensure that another law is not imposed on them. The group's appeal for action states: "We as Women's Action Group believe that every woman should decide what's right and what's wrong in her life. She and only she should be the master of her destiny. Her voice should be heard louder than anyone else's." PMID:12318723
The Angels asked God: Is there a solution for the abortion debate? God: Yes, of course my Angels. It will be resolved. The Angels: When? God: Not in my lifetime. (Oktay Kadayifçi) The abortion debate is an emotional, sensitive and complicated issue that interests society and religion. Our intention is not to convince you to accept either side of the
Oktay Kadayifçi; Orellana Kadayifçi; Ibrahim Ferhat Ürünsak
The purpose of the present study is to determine the factors that affect the abortion decision at the individual level. Using individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and state-level data on abortion providers and legal restrictions on abortions, results suggest that legal restrictions had no statistically significant effects on the abortion decision, but that the number
Mark Paul Gius
Findings from empirical research differ greatly from the Supreme Court's assumptions about psychological factors in adolescent abortion. Psychologists should preserve adolescent clients' privacy in counseling about pregnancy-related decisions. Government should encourage counseling services for pregnant adolescents and research on psychological…
American Psychologist, 1987
Abortion is a social problem and criminal sanctions are very ineffective in limiting it and are seldom applied (133 legal actions vs. 65,600 cases of induced abortion in 1965). Abortion is a social disease, as are prostitution, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse, and so far has been an insoluble problem. Colombian laws should be modified to reflect reality. Sex education must be emphasized, because ignorance is one of the main causes of abortion. Leniency should be applied toward women who cooperate with the authorities in identifying the person who performed an abortion. Legalization of abortion and enforcement of strict laws against it are considered as possible solutions, but both are rejected. The former is regarded as morally unacceptable and as imposing an excessive burden on scarce health services, the latter as even worse, imposing an equivalent burden on the court system, without s olving either health or social problems. The best and probably only solution is to improve education in family planning, to promote knowledge and motivation to enable the population to make sound and responsible decisions. PMID:4804875
Umaña, A O
Trends in public attitudes toward legal abortion were analyzed for 1972 and 1978. Data were drawn from seven independent probability samples (N = 10,652) of English-speaking persons 18 years of age or older living in noninstitutional arrangements within the continental United States. Attitudes were derived from responses to six items asking whether it should be possible for a pregnant woman to obtain a legal abortion under six different conditions. Guttman Scalogram Analysis revealed two predominant patterns; approval for all six reasons and approval only for the hard reasons (safeguarding the woman's health, preventing birth of a deformed child, or treating rape). Two major shifts were noted in the level of approval; a considerable increase in 1973 for each reason and a sharp decline in 1978 for all but woman's health and rape. These shifts paralleled the introduction of laws pertaining to abortion. PMID:3852356
Moldanado, S A
Focuses on ethical and legal issues that arose in the evaluation of abortion services. Discusses the development of decision rules and tradeoffs in dealing with these issues to reach rational and objective decisions. Places the discussion in the context of balancing usefulness and propriety with respect to informed consent and privacy and makes…
Ferris, Lori E.
|Focuses on ethical and legal issues that arose in the evaluation of abortion services. Discusses the development of decision rules and tradeoffs in dealing with these issues to reach rational and objective decisions. Places the discussion in the context of balancing usefulness and propriety with respect to informed consent and privacy and makes…
Ferris, Lori E.
Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used.Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades.This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women's experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal.Women's personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support.Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660
Zamberlin, Nina; Romero, Mariana; Ramos, Silvina
|This analysis examines whether the legalization of abortion changed high school graduation rates among the children selected into birth. Unless women in all socio-economic circumstances sought abortions to the same extent, increased use of abortion must have changed the distribution of child development inputs. I find that higher abortion ratios…
The National Hospital Discharge Survey records for medical-legal, spontaneous, and "other" abortions (ICDA-8 640-641, 643, and 644 respectively) for 1970-1977 were analyzed to investigate the impact of liberalized access to abortion on abortion-related morbidity in the United States. The analysis suggests that in census regions where an increase in medical-legal abortions performed in hospitals occurred over the study period there was an associated decreased likelihood of a "spontaneous" or "other" abortion. The spontaneous and "other" abortion codes appear to have been used synonymously and a small number of each used to classify complications of both illegal and legal abortions performed outside hospitals. There was a significant reduction in length of stay for spontaneous and other abortions between 1970 and 1977. This is suggestive of decreasing severe presenting symptomatology for complicated abortion. The study further suggests that: during 1970-77 illegal abortions were largely replaced by legal procedures; increases in legal abortions beyond those replacing illegal have not resulted in increased rates of hospitalization for complicated abortion; and, the case morbidity rate for legal abortion appears to have declined.
Bracken, M B; Freeman, D H; Hellenbrand, K
Russia legalized abortion in 1920. State policy was pronatalist. Regional abortion commissions were established in order to monitor costs and maintain records. The physicians before the legal change were mainly against legalization. In 1923 the abortion rate was 2.91 abortions per live birth. A 1923 study by M. Karlin, M.D., found among 1362 women that the health risk to women of zero parity with an induced abortion was higher than giving birth. Public discussion of abortion was limited between 1921 and 1924. Russian physicians between 1925 and 1927 both publicly and privately discussed the problems; greater attention to demographic concerns occurred during the 1930s. The connection between abortion and the declining birth rate was established in a limited way in a May 1927 obstetricians' society meeting in Kiev, Ukraine. The albeit unreliable statistics appeared to confirm the decline in the birth rate due to increased numbers of abortions. The literature in the 1920s was devoted to the well-being of women as workers; abortion policy favored the interests of working women and was set up for prevention of unsafe illegal abortions. Russian demographers were more concerned with population movements. Surveys found that the profiled abortion client was indeed not destitute, but better off and married. Roesle, a German demographer, considered legal abortion beneficial in reducing maternal mortality, but he was criticized for obscuring abortions' impact on the birth rate. The debate in Russia was tangled in ideology. A comparison of abortion rates in Vienna and Moscow by a Viennese demographer Peller found similar rates regardless of legality. Peller further suggested that contraception had more to do with birth rates. Even though rural populations were hard hit by famine in 1931 and forced collectivization in 1929, increased rural abortions were blamed for the declining rural birth rates. The demographic argument against abortion became prominent again in 1931/32 after a hiatus between 1927 and the late 1930s. PMID:7691465
Solomon, S G
Couseling in legal abortions have previously focused only on the women who seek such abortions and has neglected their partners. A program of group counseling for these men was developed at an abortion clinic. The program was influenced by two major theoretical approaches: crisis intervention and group psychotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to propose a foundation for further
Robert H. Gordon; Cheryl A. Kilpatrick
In Defending Life: A Moral and Legal Case Against Abortion Choice (2007) and an earlier article in this journal, "Defending Abortion Philosophically"(2006), Francis Beckwith argues that fetuses are, from conception, prima facie wrong to kill. His arguments are based on what he calls a "metaphysics of the human person" known as "The Substance View." I argue that Beckwith's metaphysics does not support his abortion ethic: Moral, not metaphysical, claims that are part of this Substance View are the foundation of the argument, and Beckwith inadequately defends these moral claims. Thus, Beckwith's arguments do not provide strong support for what he calls the "pro-life" view of abortion. PMID:21597083
The new Penal Code in 2009 was an opportunity for Timor-Leste to allow some legal grounds for abortion, which was highly restricted under Indonesian rule. Public debate was contentious before ratification of the new code, which allowed abortion to save a woman's life and health. A month later, 13 amendments to the code were passed, highly restricting abortion again. This paper describes the socio-legal context of unsafe abortion in Timor-Leste, based on research in 2006-08 on national laws and policies and interviews with legal professionals, police, doctors and midwives, and community-based focus group discussions. Data on unsafe abortions in Timor-Leste are rarely recorded. A small number of cases of abortion and infanticide are reported but are rarely prosecuted, due to deficiencies in evidence and procedure. While there are voices supporting law reform, the Roman Catholic church heavily influences public policy and opinion. Professional views on when abortion should be legal varied, but in the community people believed that saving women's lives was paramount and came before the law. The revised Penal Code is insufficient to reduce unsafe abortion and maternal mortality. Change will be slow, but access to safe abortion and modern contraception are crucial to women's ability to participate fully as citizens in Timor-Leste. PMID:19962638
Belton, Suzanne; Whittaker, Andrea; Fonseca, Zulmira; Wells-Brown, Tanya; Pais, Patricia
In opposition to Mexico City's legalization of first-trimester abortion, 17 Mexican states (53 percent) have introduced initiatives or reforms to ban abortion entirely, and other states have similar legislation pending. We conducted an opinion survey in eight states--four where constitutional amendments have already been approved and four with pending amendments. Using logistic regression analyses, we found that higher education, political party affiliation, and awareness of reforms/initiatives were significantly associated with support for the Mexico City law. Legal abortion was supported by a large proportion of respondents in cases of rape (45-70 percent), risk to a woman's life (55-71 percent), and risk to a woman's health (48-68 percent). A larger percentage of respondents favored the Mexico City law, which limits elective legal abortion to the first 12 weeks of gestation (32-54 percent), than elective abortion without regard to gestational limit (14-31 percent). PMID:21972672
Valencia Rodríguez, Jorge; Wilson, Kate S; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; García, Sandra G; Sánchez Fuentes, Maria Luisa
|Joyce's failure to uncover a negative relationship between crime and abortion was because of his decision to concentrate on a non-representative six-year period. Evidence supporting the claims that the crack-cocaine epidemic hit the high-abortion early-legalizing states earlier and more severely than other states of the U.S in 1970 is presented.|
Donohue, John J., III; Levitt, Steven D.
In this paper we examine the long-term impact of legalized abortion on teenage out-of-wedlock childbearing in the United States using the birth data from the Vital Statistics of the U. S. Our fundamental argument is analogous to Donahue and Levitt’s (2001): by decreasing the number of unwanted children, legalized abortion had potentially a negative impact on the likelihood of the
In Hungary, with 10 million inhabitants, the number of induced abortions in the 1960's first approached and then reached 200,000 cases annually. These data mean that the number of induced abortions has increased substantially compared with earlier decades. A qualitative change has also occurred, from criminal abortions to, in most cases, legally induced abortions performed in hospitals. On the basis of 32 deaths directly resulting from legal induced abortion in the first trimester during 1960-1972, maternal mortality is about 1.5 per 100,000 abortions in Hungary, the lowest rat observed until the present anywhere in the world. According to a special survey conducted in Budapest in 1966, the overall morbidity rate was 41.6 per 1,000 abortions of which 0.9 was due to perforations, 22.7 to post-abortal hemorrhages, and 18.0 to inflammatory complications, i.e., early post-abortal complications had to be reckoned with in every 25th case. Data in the present study suggest a correlation between induced abortions and the incidence of placenta previa, premature separation of the placenta, and premature births.
Bognar, Z; Czeizel, A
Many women need access to abortion care in the second trimester. Most of this care is provided by a small number of specialty clinics, which are increasingly targeted by regulations including bans on so-called partial birth abortion and requirements that the clinic qualify as an ambulatory surgical center. These regulations cause physicians to change their clinical practices or reduce the maximum gestational age at which they perform abortions to avoid legal risks. Ambulatory surgical center requirements significantly increase abortion costs and reduce the availability of abortion services despite the lack of any evidence that using those facilities positively affects health outcomes. Both types of laws threaten to further reduce access to and quality of second-trimester abortion care.
Jones, Bonnie Scott
Background Unsafe abortion has been a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. Since legalization in 2002, more than 1,200 providers have been trained and 487 sites have been certified for the provision of safe abortion services. Little is known about health care workers’ views on abortion legalization, such as their perceptions of women seeking abortion and the implications of legalization for abortion-related health care. Methods To complement a quantitative study of the health effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, we conducted 35 in-depth interviews with physicians, nurses, counsellors and hospital administrators involved in abortion care and post-abortion complication treatment services at four major government hospitals. Thematic analysis techniques were used to analyze the data. Results Overall, participants had positive views of abortion legalization – many believed the severity of abortion complications had declined, contributing to lower maternal mortality and morbidity in the country. A number of participants indicated that the proportion of women obtaining abortion services from approved health facilities was increasing; however, others noted an increase in the number of women using unregulated medicines for abortion, contributing to rising complications. Some providers held negative judgments about abortion patients, including their reasons for abortion. Unmarried women were subject to especially strong negative perceptions. A few of the health workers felt that the law change was encouraging unmarried sexual activity and carelessness around pregnancy prevention and abortion, and that repeat abortion was becoming a problem. Many providers believed that although patients were less fearful than before legalization, they remained hesitant to disclose a history of induced abortion for fear of judgment or mistreatment. Conclusions Providers were generally positive about the implications of abortion legalization for the country and for women. A focus on family planning and post-abortion counselling may be welcomed by providers concerned about multiple abortions. Some of the negative judgments of women held by providers could be tempered through values-clarification training, so that women are supported and comfortable sharing their abortion history, improving the quality of post-abortion treatment of complications.
|This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning.…
Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.
This article explores the legal status of abortion in the States if the Supreme Court overrules Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973), and Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179 (1973), as modified by Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833 (1992). Although an overruling decision eventually could have a significant effect on the legal status of abortion, the immediate impact of such a decision would be far more modest than most commentators on both sides of the issue believe. More than two-thirds of the States have expressly repealed their pre-Roe laws or have amended those laws to conform to the trimester scheme of Roe v. Wade, which allows abortions for any reason before viability and for virtually any reason after viability. Those laws would not be revived by the overruling of Roe. Only a few of those States have enacted post-Roe laws that would prohibit most abortions if Roe were overruled. Slightly less than one-third of the States have not expressly repealed their pre-Roe laws. Many of those laws would notbe effective to prohibit abortion if Roe were overruled either because they allow abortion on demand, for undefined reasons of health or for mental health reasons; because enforcement would be precluded on state constitutional grounds; or because the pre-Roe laws prohibiting abortion have been repealed by implication with the enactment of post-Roe laws regulating abortion. In sum, no more than eleven States, and very possibly as few as eight, would have laws on the books that would prohibit most abortions if Roe were overruled. PMID:22696839
Linton, Paul Benjamin
This paper attempts to forecast the change in adolescent childbearing among New York City residents following a ban on legalized abortion. With monthly data on the number of births to white and black adolescents from January, 1963 to December, 1987 we used an interrupted time-series analysis to estimate the change in adolescent childbearing that followed the liberalization of the New
Theodore J. Joyce; Naci H. Mocan
This article explores the legal status of abortion in the States if the Supreme Court overrules Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973), and Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179 (1973), as modified by Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833 (1992). Although an overruling decision eventually could have a significant effect on the legal status of abortion, the immediate impact of such a decision would be far more modest than most commentators-on both sides of the issue-believe. More than two-thirds of the States have repealed their pre-Roe laws or have amended those laws to conform to Roe v. Wade, which allows abortion for any reason before viability and for virtually any reason after viability. Pre-Roe laws that have been expressly repealed would not be revived by the overruling of Roe. Only three States that repealed their pre-Roe laws (or amended them to conform to Roe) have enacted post-Roe laws attempting to prohibit some or most abortions throughout pregnancy. Those laws have been declared unconstitutional by the federal courts and are not now enforceable. Of the less than one-third of the States that have retained their pre-Roe laws, most would be ineffective in prohibiting abortions. This is (1) because the laws, by their express terms or as interpreted, allow abortion on demand, for undefined health reasons or for a broad range of reasons (including mental health), or (2) because of state constitutional limitations. In yet other States, the pre-Roe laws prohibiting abortion may have been repealed by implication, due to the enactment of comprehensive post-Roe laws regulating abortion. In sum, no more than twelve States, and possibly as few as eight, would have enforceable laws on the books that would prohibit most abortions in the event Roe, Doe and Casey are overruled. In the other States (and the District of Columbia) abortion would be legal for most or all reasons throughout pregnancy. Although the long-term impact of reversing Roe could be quite dramatic, the author concludes that the immediate impact of such a decision would be very limited. This article is current through May 1st, 2007. PMID:17703698
Linton, Paul Benjamin
Francis Beckwith’s Defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice defends the pro-life position on moral, legal and political grounds. In this critical notice I consider three key issues and argue that Beckwith’s treatment of each of them is unpersuasive. The issues are: (1) whether abortion is politically justified by the principle that we should err on the
Unsafe abortion's significant contribution to maternal mortality and morbidity was a critical factor leading to liberalization of Nepal's restrictive abortion law in 2002. Careful, comprehensive planning among a range of multisectoral stakeholders, led by Nepal's Ministry of Health and Population, enabled the country subsequently to introduce and scale up safe abortion services in a remarkably short timeframe. This paper examines factors that contributed to rapid, successful implementation of legal abortion in this mountainous republic, including deliberate attention to the key areas of policy, health system capacity, equipment and supplies, and information dissemination. Important elements of this successful model of scaling up safe legal abortion include: the pre-existence of postabortion care services, through which health-care providers were already familiar with the main clinical technique for safe abortion; government leadership in coordinating complementary contributions from a wide range of public- and private-sector actors; reliance on public-health evidence in formulating policies governing abortion provision, which led to the embrace of medical abortion and authorization of midlevel providers as key strategies for decentralizing care; and integration of abortion care into existing Safe Motherhood and the broader health system. While challenges remain in ensuring that all Nepali women can readily exercise their legal right to early pregnancy termination, the national safe abortion program has already yielded strong positive results. Nepal's experience making high-quality abortion care widely accessible in a short period of time offers important lessons for other countries seeking to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity from unsafe abortion and to achieve Millennium Development Goals.
Postabortion care providers who breach patient confidentiality endanger women's health and violate ethics. A 1998 abortion ban in El Salvador likely spurred an increase in the number of women investigated, because many women were reported to legal authorities by health care providers. Having analyzed safeguards of confidentiality in laws and ethical guidelines, we obtained information from legal records on women prosecuted from 1998 to 2003 and identified factors that may lead to reporting through a survey of obstetrician-gynecologists (n=110). Although ethical and human rights standards oblige providers to respect patients' privacy, 80% of obstetrician-gynecologists mistakenly believed reporting was required. Most respondents (86%) knew that women delay seeking care because of fear of prosecution, yet a majority (56%) participated in notification of legal authorities. PMID:16571690
McNaughton, Heathe Luz; Mitchell, Ellen M H; Hernandez, Emilia G; Padilla, Karen; Blandon, Marta Maria
The scope of this study was to analyze perceptions of health professionals at Fernando Magalhães Public Hospital regarding situations involving the practice of legal abortion. With this in mind, we sought to characterize the professionals interviewed, understand the qualifying process for assistance of women requiring abortion and identify the perceptions of the professionals regarding the practice of legal abortion. The quantitative and qualitative approach in terms of methodology was adopted. The instruments used were analysis of institutional documentation and semi-structured interviews based on a script with informed consent. The results of this research revealed: the inappropriate use of the right to conscientious objection by health professionals; the existence of difficulties faced by professionals in construction of a posture that ensures access to legally sanctioned abortion; and the interference of ethical and religious values as an important element in professional attitudes that discourage the practice of legal abortion. Measures for the ongoing education of professionals and the monitoring of actions applied to technical norms are recommended. PMID:22872337
Farias, Rejane Santos; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele
Francis Beckwith's Defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice defends the pro-life position on moral, legal and political grounds. In this critical notice I consider three key issues and argue that Beckwith's treatment of each of them is unpersuasive. The issues are: (1) whether abortion is politically justified by the principle that we should err on the side of liberty in the face of reasonable disagreement over the moral status of the fetus; (2) whether the fetus's natural capacity or genetic propensity to develop rationality and communication is sufficient to give it a moral right to life; and (3) whether abortion is morally justified on the basis of bodily rights. I also show that Beckwith's book fails to consider several important issues and arguments. PMID:18974412
Abortion is the most common and controversial issue in many parts of the world. Approximately 46 million abortions are performed worldwide every year. The world ratio is 26 induced abortions per 100 known pregnancies. Pakistan has an estimated abortion rate of 29 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age, despite the procedure being illegal except to save a woman's life. 890,000 abortions are performed annually in Pakistan. Many government and non-government organizations are working on the issue of abortion. Muslim jurists are unanimous in declaring that after the fetus is completely formed and has been given a soul, abortion is haram (forbidden). PMID:19957496
Ilyas, Muhammad; Alam, Mukhtar; Ahmad, Habib; Sajid-ul-Ghafoor
Rights to life for unborn humans and to abortion with impunity are incompatible. This observation by the German legal philosopher Norbert Hoerster contains a fundamental criticism of the state regulation on abortion in Germany. The regulation regards abortion as unlawful, but declines to prosecute if the abortion is conducted within the first three months of pregnancy and the pregnant woman received counseling at least three days prior to terminating the pregnancy. In contrast to the German legislature, Hoerster is in favor of setting the beginning of a right to life at birth. With this suggestion and the consequent demand for a general legalization of abortion, Hoerster himself has become the target of harsh criticism. The following article analyzes Hoerster's position and that of his opponents against the background of the current abortion debate in Germany. The consequences for dealing with the handicaps of Hoerster's suggested regulations will also be addressed. PMID:10833137
Women in the African region are overburdened with unsafe abortion. Abortion regimes that fail to translate any given abortion rights into tangible access are partly to blame. Historically, African abortion laws have been highly restrictive. However, the post-independence era has witnessed a change toward liberalizing abortion law, even if incremental for many jurisdictions. Furthermore, Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa has significantly augmented the regional trend toward liberalization by recognizing abortion as a human right in given circumstances. However, states are failing to implement abortion laws. The jurisprudence that is emerging from the European Court of Human Rights and United Nations treaty bodies is a tool that can be used to render African governments accountable for failure to implement domestic abortion laws. PMID:22944215
Ngwena, Charles G
The objective of this qualitative study, carried out in two maternity-hospitals in Salvador da Bahia, was to investigate the experience and representations of health professionals, and particularly obstetricians-gynecologists, regarding legal abortion in comparison with their representations and experience with illegal abortion. A questionnaire was distributed and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals (13 obstetricians-gynecologists) in a hospital providing legal abortion (P) and with 20 health professionals (9 obstetricians-gynecologists) in another hospital that does not provide this service (F). The factors that influence the representations and experience of abortion of most obstetricians-gynecologists and explain the high rate of conscientious objection at Hospital P were: 1- the criminalization of abortion and the fear of being denounced; 2- the stigmatization of abortion by certain religious groups and by the physicians themselves; 3- training in obstetrics and the lack of good training in the epidemiology of maternal morbidity-mortality and abortion; 4- representations on gender relations. The main factors associated with liberal attitudes were: age - under 30 and over 45 years of age - experience with high maternal mortality rates due to abortion and experience with legal abortion. PMID:22872336
De Zordo, Silvia
Much social science research suggests that men and women have similar abortion policy preferences. But this inference may be incorrect because studies have focused on understanding preferences regarding the reasons women may seek abortions, while neglecting preferences as they pertain to the timing of abortions. Analysis of responses to a team module of the 2006 Cooperative Congressional Election Study indicated
L. J. Zigerell; David C. Barker
Abortion is illegal in Thailand unless the woman's health is at risk or pregnancy is due to rape. This study, carried out in 1999 in 787 government hospitals, examined the magnitude and profile of abortion in Thailand, using data collected prospectively through a review of 45,990 case records (of which 28.5% were classified as induced and 71.5% as spontaneous abortions)
Suwanna Warakamin; Nongluk Boonthai; Viroj Tangcharoensathien
In Planned Parenthood of Southern Pennsylvania v. Casey, the U.S. Supreme Court directly confronted the question of Roe v. Wade's continuing viability. Many commentators speculated that Roe would be overruled, tossing the abortion issue to Congress and state legislatures. Yet a majority of the Justices refused to overrule the central holding of Roe, which provides constitutional protection for limited abortion
Tom R. Tyler
Recently, we have seen various proposed laws that would require that women considering abortions be given ultrasounds along with explanations of these ultrasounds. Proponents of these laws could argue that they are assisting with autonomous abortion choices by providing needed information, especially about the ontological status of the fetus. Arguing against these proposed laws, I first claim that their supporters
Recently, we have seen various proposed laws that would require that women considering abortions be given ultrasounds along with explanations of these ultrasounds. Proponents of these laws could argue that they are assisting with autonomous abortion choices by providing needed information, especially about the ontological status of the fetus. Arguing against these proposed laws, I first claim that their supporters fail to appreciate how personalized an abortion choice must be. Second, I argue that these laws would provide the pregnant woman no control over when and to what extent emotion is inserted into her deliberation. This unjustly inhibits her autonomy, making these ultrasound laws unjustified. PMID:22787957
In Argentina, unsafe abortions are the primary cause of maternal mortality, accounting for 32% of maternal deaths. During reform of the National Constitution in 1994, the women's movement effectively resisted the reactionary government\\/church position on abortion. Health professionals, including obstetrician–gynaecologists, played conflicting roles in this debate. This article presents results from a study carried out in 1998–1999 of the views
Mónica Gogna; Mariana Romero; Silvina Ramos; Mónica Petracci; Dalia Szulik
In October 2010 the District Court sitting in Cairns, Queensland, found Tegan Leach not guilty of attempting to procure her own abortion and Sergie Brennan not guilty of supplying Leach with the drugs Mifepristone and Misoprostol to procure an abortion. Brennan obtained the drugs from his sister in the Ukraine through the regular postal system. R v Brennan and Leach was the first case in Queensland's history where a woman was charged with procuring her own abortion. The drugs are accepted by the medical profession worldwide for medical abortions. A prosecution witness gave evidence that Mifepristone is not harmful or injurious to the health of a woman and it is listed as an essential medicine by the World Health Organisation and approved for use by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. The jury found the defendants not guilty because they were not satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that the combination of the drugs Mifepristone and Misoprostol was a "noxious" substance under the Criminal Code (Old). This article concludes that there is no regulatory miracle which will stop the traffic of Mifepristone and Misoprostol into Australia and therefore an intelligent regulatory response is required which would make it unnecessary for women to seek Mifepristone and Misoprostol from overseas networks and the internet. Among other things, this would include the repeal of confusing, inappropriate and ineffective abortion laws. PMID:21528743
The relevance and importance of research for understanding policy processes and influencing policies has been much debated, but studies on the effectiveness of policy theories for predicting and informing opportunities for policy change (i.e. prospective policy analysis) are rare. The case study presented in this paper is drawn from a policy analysis of a contemporary process of policy debate on legalization of abortion in Indonesia, which was in flux at the time of the research and provided a unique opportunity for prospective analysis. Applying a combination of policy analysis theories, this case study provides an analysis of processes, power and relationships between actors involved in the amendment of the Health Law in Indonesia. It uses a series of practical stakeholder mapping tools to identify power relations between key actors and what strategic approaches should be employed to manage these to enhance the possibility of policy change. The findings show how the moves to legalize abortion have been supported or constrained according to the balance of political and religious powers operating in a macro-political context defined increasingly by a polarized Islamic-authoritarian-Western-liberal agenda. The issue of reproductive health constituted a battlefield where these two ideologies met and the debate on the current health law amendment became a contest, which still continues, for the larger future of Indonesia. The findings confirm the utility of policy analysis theories and stakeholder mapping tools for predicting the likelihood of policy change and informing the strategic approaches for achieving such change. They also highlight opportunities and dilemmas in prospective policy analysis and raise questions about whether research on policy processes and actors can or should be used to inform, or even influence, policies in 'real-time'. PMID:21183461
Surjadjaja, Claudia; Mayhew, Susannah H
The relevance and importance of research for understanding policy processes and influencing policies has been much debated, but studies on the effectiveness of policy theories for predicting and informing opportunities for policy change (i.e. prospective policy analysis) are rare. The case study presented in this paper is drawn from a policy analysis of a contemporary process of policy debate on legalization of abortion in Indonesia, which was in flux at the time of the research and provided a unique opportunity for prospective analysis. Applying a combination of policy analysis theories, this case study provides an analysis of processes, power and relationships between actors involved in the amendment of the Health Law in Indonesia. It uses a series of practical stakeholder mapping tools to identify power relations between key actors and what strategic approaches should be employed to manage these to enhance the possibility of policy change. The findings show how the moves to legalize abortion have been supported or constrained according to the balance of political and religious powers operating in a macro-political context defined increasingly by a polarized Islamic-authoritarian—Western-liberal agenda. The issue of reproductive health constituted a battlefield where these two ideologies met and the debate on the current health law amendment became a contest, which still continues, for the larger future of Indonesia. The findings confirm the utility of policy analysis theories and stakeholder mapping tools for predicting the likelihood of policy change and informing the strategic approaches for achieving such change. They also highlight opportunities and dilemmas in prospective policy analysis and raise questions about whether research on policy processes and actors can or should be used to inform, or even influence, policies in ‘real-time’.
Surjadjaja, Claudia; Mayhew, Susannah H
The course of the debate on abortion following the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion has been marked by a variety of medical and scientific developments. Many of these new developments have important legal, psychologic, social, moral, and political implications. The cumulative impact of all these developments may pose a significant challenge to the social and legal foundations of Roe v. Wade. PMID:3523563
BACKGROUND: Ghana has a high maternal mortality rate of 540 per 100 000. Although abortion complications usually are treatable, the risks of morbidity and death increase when treatment is delayed. Delay in care may occur when women have difficulty accessing treatment because health care providers are not trained, equipped, or willing to treat the complications of abortion. Gaps in the
Gertrude Voetagbe; Nathaniel Yellu; Joseph Mills; Ellen Mitchell; Amanda Adu-Amankwah; Koma Jehu-Appiah; Felix Nyante
We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971 to 1975 to demonstrate that women traveled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A 100-mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233
Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu
The subject of abortion is fraught with politics, emotions, and misinformation. A widespread practice reaching far back in history, abortion is again in the news. Psychiatry sits at the intersection of the religious, ethical, psychological, sociological, medical, and legal facets of the abortion issue. Although the religions that forbid abortion are more prominent in the media, many religions have more liberal approaches. While the basic right to abortion has been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court, several limitations have been permitted, including parental notification or consent (with the possibility of judicial bypass) for minors, waiting periods, and mandatory provision of certain, sometimes biased, information. Before the Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion in 1973, many women were maimed or killed by illegal abortions, and psychiatrists were sometimes asked to certify that abortions were justified on psychiatric grounds. Currently, there are active attempts to convince the public and women considering abortion that abortion frequently has negative psychiatric consequences. This assertion is not borne out by the literature: the vast majority of women tolerate abortion without psychiatric sequelae. The psychiatric outcome of abortion is best when patients are able to make autonomous, supported decisions. Psychiatrists need to know the medical and psychiatric facts about abortion. Psychiatrists can then help patients prevent unwanted pregnancies, make informed decisions consonant with their own values and circumstances when they become pregnant, and find appropriate social and medical resources whatever their decisions may be. PMID:15985924
Stotland, Nada L
The rights of adolescents and young people in international law and agreements have evolved significantly from a focus on protection to a recognition of "evolving capacities" and decision-making ability. Unclear policies and regulations and variations in actual practice may leave providers with little clarity on how to support adolescent decision-making and instead create unintended barriers. This study in Mexico City in 2009 explored whether regulations and clinical attitudes and practice were supporting or hindering the access of adolescent girls aged 12-17 to information regarding abortion and to abortion services. We surveyed abortion clinic directors and staff, and adolescents arranging or just having had an abortion, and sent mystery clients to clinics to ask for information. While providers were generally positive about adolescents' ability to decide on abortion, they had different understandings about the need for adult accompaniment and who that adult should be, and mystery clients seeking information were more likely to receive complete information if accompanied by an adult. Clarification of consent and accompaniment requirements is needed, and providers need to be made aware of them; adolescents should have access to information and counselling without accompaniment; and improvements in privacy and confidentiality in public sector clinics are also needed. These all support complementary concepts of protection and autonomy in adolescent decision-making on abortion. PMID:23684199
Clyde, Jessie; Bain, Jennifer; Castagnaro, Kelly; Rueda, Marcela; Tatum, Carrie; Watson, Katherine
Background Evidence from developed countries has shown that abortion-related mortality and morbidity has decreased with the liberalization of the abortion law. This study aimed to assess the trend of hospital-based abortion complications during the transition of legalization in Ethiopia in May 2005. Methods Medical records of women with abortion complications from 2003 to 2007 were reviewed (n ¼ 773). Abortion
Yirgu Gebrehiwot; Tippawan Liabsuetrakul
If the Supreme Court were to overturn its basic decision making abortion legal, abortions would not suddenly become illegal. This issue would revert to the states. State legislatures would have to pass new laws if they wanted to ban abortions. Using the Senate vote on the proposed Hatch\\/Eagleton Amendment, which would have reversed the Supreme Court's decision to legalize abortion,
Marshall H. Medoff
This report summarizes and describes data reported to CDC regarding legal induced abortions obtained in the United States in 1999. CDC began abortion surveillance in 1969 to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortion...
The latest World Health Organization data estimate that the total number of unsafe abortions globally has increased to 21.6 million in 2008. There is increasing recognition by the international community of the importance of the contribution of unsafe abortion to maternal mortality. However, the barriers to delivery of safe abortion services are many. In 68 countries, home to 26% of the world's population, abortion is prohibited altogether or only permitted to save a woman's life. Even in countries with more liberal abortion legal frameworks, additional social, economic, and health systems barriers and the stigma surrounding abortion prevent adequate access to safe abortion services and postabortion care. While much has been achieved to reduce the barriers to comprehensive abortion care, much remains to be done. Only through the concerted action of public, private, and civil society partners can we ensure that women have access to services that are safe, affordable, confidential, and stigma free. PMID:23477700
Culwell, Kelly R; Hurwitz, Manuelle
This report describes the findings of a preliminary investigation of women who sought treatment for abortion from the Gynecological Emergency Ward at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. Barriers to obtaining legal abortions are identified and the harsh experiences of women seeking treatment for complications of illegally induced abortion are discussed. The data contribute to an understanding of the intensity of abortion for Zambian women and draw attention to the value of small-scale, qualitative research on women's reproductive health care needs. It is suggested that a study be planned at UTH to determine how health care delivery can be improved for women who seek abortion. PMID:2219228
Castle, M A; Likwa, R; Whittaker, M
BACKGROUND: In order to ensure that legalized abortion in South Africa improves reproductive health, women must know that abortion is a legal option in the case of unwanted pregnancy. This study investigated knowledge of abortion legislation eight years after the introduction of legal abortion services in one province of South Africa. METHODS: In 2004\\/2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study among
Chelsea Morroni; Landon Myer; Kemilembe Tibazarwa
This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil. PMID:22303535
Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula
One of the most sensitive subjects in the field of non military foreign assistance is aid for abortion. Consequently, it is very difficult to gather data. Information from interviews was combined with scattered fragments of existing data in the effort to construct a composite picture of the international abortion scene. Apart from any outside intervention, induced abortion is a common practice in developing countries. Abortion is frequent and is a prominent cause of death and illness among women of childbearing age. Foreign aid is a small proportion of the total aid for population activities, and, with the exception of the United Nations agencies, most organizations supplying funds for abortion operate on a clandestine and usually illegal basis. The most common type of foreign aid involves the technique known as uterine aspiration, which goes under various code phases. Abortion can be a profit-making proposition in developing countries. In the United States the politics of abortion have had an overwhelming impact on foreign aid for abortion. As of 1979 only a handful of international donors were involved in direct support of abortion activities in the developing countries; others provided indirect assistance for research, meetings, and information activities. The Agency for International Development (AID) was an ardent supporter of abortion until it was brought to a standstill by the Helms Amendment of 1973. AID was forced to withdraw from most abortion activities. The only agencies operating openly in this field are the World Bank and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities. The International Planned Parenthood Federation has been the most outspoken advocate of legal abortion services in developing countries. PMID:7372467
Warwick, D P
Since the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, medical and scientific developments have focused greater public and professional attention on the status of the fetus. Their cumulative effect may influence legal, social, and moral thought and set the stage for a change in public opinion and a challenge to legalized abortion. There is as yet no inexorable convergence of medical data and legal opinion that would undermine the rational of Roe v. Wade. But the prochoice movement must find room for an open airing of the moral questions if abortion is to remain what it should be--a legally acceptable act. PMID:3514547
The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users.
Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.
In order to determine why and how women in South Africa obtain illegal abortions, a descriptive study was conducted in six public hospitals in four provinces. Data were gathered via semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 25 women hospitalized with complications of self-confessed induced abortion (64% Africa, 20% Indian, and 16% Colored). 3 of the 5 married women were separated from their husbands. Almost half of the subjects were adolescents, and the mean age was 25 years. All of the women were aware of contraceptives but failed to use them or used them improperly. In some cases, the male partners disapproved of contraception or initiated intercourse in such a way that disempowered the women, making them unable to negotiate contraceptive usage. Most of the women felt they had no choice but to seek abortion because their sexual relationships or financial circumstances were unstable. The compulsion to seek abortion overrode all legal and religious considerations. The women, who had to self-induce or seek illegal abortion, felt that the current law placed a tremendous burden on them at a time of extreme trauma. The women also complained about their treatment at the hands of the abortionists and, later, by the hospital staff. Thus, the 1975 abortion and Sterilization Act has failed to limit the number of abortions. The law should be amended to make abortion accessible, safe, and less expensive to obtain. In addition, men should be targeted recipients of family planning and contraception information. PMID:9418421
Maforah, F; Wood, K; Jewkes, R
For more than two decades, legal abortion has been the subject of heated political debate and adversarial social movement activity; however, national polls have shown little change in aggregate levels of support for abortion. This analysis examines how the determinants of abortion attitudes have changed between 1977 and 1996, using data from the General Social Surveys. While in early time
Jennifer Strickler; Nicholas L. Danigelis
Abortion was completely illegal in Portugal until 1984. Illegal abortion provision was a matter of silence until then and treated as a "black market" issue rather than as a health issue. The first attempts to change the abortion law began in 1982 after two trials and a national campaign for legal abortion and contraception. In 1984, the law was changed and abortion became legal on four grounds: risk to the woman's life, risk to her physical or mental health, fetal malformation and pregnancy resulting from rape. At the beginning of the 1990s, the Family Planning Association (APF), some women's organisations, trade unions, health professional associations and other NGOs came together to form the Right to Choose Platform. In 1993 a Report on the Abortion Situation in Portugal was presented to the Parliament and Ministries of Health and Justice, followed by public debates. In 1998 the law was changed to allow existing grounds to be applied beyond 12 weeks of pregnancy but bills and a referendum to make abortion available on request to 12 weeks of pregnancy were lost by a tiny margin twice in this period. At the end of 2001 the biggest trial on illegal abortion started in Maia, a small town in the north of the country, which had an immediate and enormous impact on public opinion. An increasing number of public opinion-makers, some prestigious health professionals and even the President of the Republic have recently declared that the law should be changed. The election of a right-wing parliamentary majority in March 2002, however, means that abortion law reform will again be postponed. PMID:12369320
Ending the silent pandemic of unsafe abortion is an urgent public-health and human-rights imperative. As with other more visible global-health issues, this scourge threatens women throughout the developing world. Every year, about 19-20 million abortions are done by individuals without the requisite skills, or in environments below minimum medical standards, or both. Nearly all unsafe abortions (97%) are in developing countries. An estimated 68 000 women die as a result, and millions more have complications, many permanent. Important causes of death include haemorrhage, infection, and poisoning. Legalisation of abortion on request is a necessary but insufficient step toward improving women's health; in some countries, such as India, where abortion has been legal for decades, access to competent care remains restricted because of other barriers. Access to safe abortion improves women's health, and vice versa, as documented in Romania during the regime of President Nicolae Ceausescu. The availability of modern contraception can reduce but never eliminate the need for abortion. Direct costs of treating abortion complications burden impoverished health care systems, and indirect costs also drain struggling economies. The development of manual vacuum aspiration to empty the uterus, and the use of misoprostol, an oxytocic agent, have improved the care of women. Access to safe, legal abortion is a fundamental right of women, irrespective of where they live. The underlying causes of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion today are not blood loss and infection but, rather, apathy and disdain toward women. PMID:17126724
Grimes, David A; Benson, Janie; Singh, Susheela; Romero, Mariana; Ganatra, Bela; Okonofua, Friday E; Shah, Iqbal H
In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236
Abortion has been legalized in Nepal since September 2002 by 11 th amendment to the Muluki Ain. The present study was conducted in Paropakar Shree Panch Indra Rajya Laxmi Devi Maternity Hospital to assess the magnitude of induced abortion, its causes and the types of complications, in the post legalization phase. Prospective descriptive analyses of the patients who were admitted
Ojha N; Sharma S; Paudel J
In Brazil, abortion is only permitted to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. The principal effect of legal restrictions is not to make induced abortion practice less prevalent but to force poor women to resort to abortions performed under unhygience conditions or attempt self-induced abortion. Within this context, misoprostol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1, was introduced
S. H. Costa
Objective: This review aims to provide the latest global and regional estimates of the incidence and trends in induced abortion, both safe and unsafe. A related objective is to document maternal mortality due to unsafe abortion. The legal context of abortion and the international discourse on preventing unsafe abortion are reviewed to highlight policy implications and challenges in preventing unsafe
Iqbal Shah; Elisabeth Åhman
This paper summarises the findings of a study on second trimester abortion in England and Wales in 2005. Second trimester abortions constitute a relatively small proportion of the total number of legal abortions performed in these countries yet attract quite substantial public, and particularly media, attention. Discussion of these abortions has, however, been conducted within a context of little understanding
Roger Ingham; Ellie Lee; Steve Joanne Clements; Nicole Stone
There are important and compelling reasons why women have second trimester abortions, which constitute a significant percentage of all abortions performed. Laws vary widely around the world on the legality of these abortions. In many cases, they are quite restrictive. Indeed, the later in pregnancy an abortion is sought, the more restrictive the law tends to be. However, many laws
This privately posted page offers extensive and highly credible information on legislation and jurisprudence relating to abortion in the US. The site offers thoroughly linked discussions of constitutional law, Roe v. Wade, Planned Parenthood v. Casey, state and federal abortion laws, including partial-birth abortion laws, and much more. The hypertext links are to primary documents including court decisions, texts of legislation, court briefs, and oral argument transcripts. There is also an index to primary documents for ease of access. We found the page to have no political agenda. As the author states, "this page is being constructed to help people, regardless of their political bent, understand the background and state of abortion law in America, and access related legal material--especially that which is less available and less well known."
In Planned Parenthood vs. Casey, the US Supreme Court upheld all but 1 provision of Pennsylvania law that further restricts access to abortion. The law has a 24-hour waiting period, parental consent for minors with a judicial bypass, husband notification, and the circumstances of each abortion are to be reported to the state for statistical purposes. The Court overturned the husband notification provision even though it had a bypass procedure. The most important aspect of the decision was the change from the strict scrutiny in which abortion was to be left alone unless the state could show a compelling need to regulate it to an undue burden test in which the state is allowed to regulate abortion so long as it does not place an undue burden on women trying to seek abortion services. The 24-hour waiting period was upheld; however, it was also acknowledged that since 83% of women live in counties without abortion services, this may turn out to be an undue burden and it is open to review at later date when statistical evidence is available. The Opinion was written by Justices O'Connor, Kennedy, and Souter. Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justices Scalia, White, and Thomas dissented saying that the undue burden standard was unprecedented in constitutional law and undefinable in practice. It is likely now that the Court will begin writing abortion policy as it clarifies each specific point of the law rather than ruling on fundamental legal principles. PMID:1351612
National politics in the US, Poland, and Ireland have in recent years been afire with debate over abortion. Conflicting abortion laws almost scuttled the reunification of Germany. This paper describes how the abortion debate took hold in post-Communist Poland and how the issue came to be so entrenched in US politics in the wake of the US Supreme Court's 1973 decision on abortion in the case of Roe vs. Wade. It focuses upon abortion mainly as a method of birth control which women have always sought when needed regardless of the procedure's legal status. The controversies and campaigns recorded and the ideas offered focus upon women's access to affordable, safe, and legal abortion. The author argues that Poland is no place to be a woman and presents sections on the country's church, government, and medical profession; Roe vs. Wade; who opposes abortion rights and their broad success; the 1992 US presidential election; Bill Clinton's presidency; why the abortion debate has been different in Britain; and new issues on abortion. PMID:12290677
Illegal abortion is responsible for up to half of maternal deaths and consumes a large proportion of health resources in many developing countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America. The legal situation of abortion in a country does not influence the abortion rate, but illegality is associated with a much greater risk of complications and death. To make abortion legal
A. Faúndes; E. Hardy
An overview is presented of the history of abortion legislation in North Carolina, and statistical analysis is employed to assess the effects of legalized abortion and public family planning programs on levels of fertility, fetal death, and infant death i...
In Viet Nam, abortion has been legal up to 22 weeks of pregnancy since the 1960s. There are about one million induced abortions every year. First trimester abortion is provided at central, provincial, district and commune level, while second trimester abortion is provided only at central and provincial level. For second trimester abortion, dilatation and evacuation (D&E) has been introduced
Tuyet Hoang TD; Thuy Phan; Trang Huynh NK
In 1973, Roe v. Wade constitutionalized a woman's right to an abortion. But, while Roe removed most legal obstacles to abortion, it did not address the limited availability of abortion services in the nation. The case examined here, Ragsdale v. Turnock, revolved around an Illinois statute that imposed far-reaching restrictions on abortion clinics, the site of most U.S. abortions since
Susan Gluck Mezey; Raymond Tatalovich; Michael Walsh
This article utilizes legal documents, policy statements and ethnographic data to compare abortion law and practice in China and the United States. It outlines Chinese abortion law from ancient to modern times, identifies categories of reasons for aborting, and describes both folk remedies and the most common methods of modern medicine for inducing abortion. The contemporary incidence of abortion is
Susan M. Rigdon
This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion. PMID:12284546
Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E
The legalization of abortion in the United States by the Supreme Court in 1973 bypassed the political process in the majority of the states. Since then, however, political controversy and agitation in relation to abortion has become nationwide. From largely Catholic-based opposition, it has grown to encompass religious fundamentalists and to be a major part of the New Right's agenda. Abortion is now, pro and con, part of the platform of both political parties. The sweeping nature of the Supreme Court's decisions leaves the opposition with very little room to restrict abortion, short of overturning the decisions through a constitutional amendment. Such an amendment requires a two-thirds majority of Congress and passage is unlikely. However, funding bans on scores of federal programmes have succeeded in restricting access to abortion for the poor, the young and minorities. These restrictions are part of a long-term strategy to educate the public as to the evils of abortion with the aim of making it illegal again, either through the adoption of a constitutional amendment or by obtaining a reversal by a hoped-for change in membership of the Supreme Court. PMID:3849417
Rosoff, J I
Mr. Corrie's argument for the Abortion (Amendment) Bill is based on a misunderstanding of the problem. All evidence supports the conclusion that is is impossible to prevent abortion by legislation. It was a recognition of this fact which persuaded many people of the necessity for a liberal Act in 1967. Since that time nothing has changed to alter the supposition that a large proportion of women denied legal abortion will seek an illegal abortion. The major medical establishment bodies recognize and accept this and are opposed to the Corrie Bill. Those who work in this area know that what is needed is a much greater effort in providing sex education and access to contraceptive advice and methods for those with special problems. 1 of the ironies of the proposed legislation is that abortion rates have until very recently been declining, following the major expansion of family planning provision in 1974. The attempt to lower the accepted limit for abortion to 20 weeks would only add to the anguish and problems of women and doctors in the very small proportion of cases involved, and it is difficult to see why the Lane Committee recommendation of 24 weeks cannot be accepted as a compromise. Of the 3 principle changes introduced in the Bill, it is the 1 which aims to separate counseling from operating which has the most important consequences. This measure is aimed at the 2 primary abortion charities which were established to meet the deficiencies of provision by the National Health Service. Between them they account for 30-40% of the abortions performed. There is no evidence for the suggestion that people working for these charities have a financial interest in drumming up work. PMID:6101772
Abortion is the termination of pregnancy prior to the 180th day, during which time the fetus is not yet viable outside the womb. Spontaneous abortion is the body's expulsion of a fetus during the 1st months of pregnancy. It is usually not very painful, does not involve much bleeding, and is rarely complicated by infection. Spontaneous abortion is much more frequent at the outset of pregnancy and may occur unnoticed. Its causes are unknown in over half of cases. The most important causes are developmental problems in the products of conception. Causes of spontaneous abortions of maternal etiology are most frequently uterine malposition or malformation. Serious illness in the mother is a less common cause of spontaneous abortion than once believed. Induced abortion is caused by the destruction of a normally implanted and healthy embryo. Its complications are related to the amount of bleeding or the introduction of germs from outside which can spread rapidly. Placental retention is a danger of all induced abortions. Induced abortion is common and in some countries it even creates demographic problems. Abortion is legal in many countries as an expression of the right to choose, but in others it is only legal on therapeutic grounds. Defenders and detractors of abortion have written extensively about it, with some works being sincere and some only tactical. The great majority of moralists are opposed to abortion, while biologists and scientists are divided on the question. The Spanish penal code punishes all persons who cause the death of a fetus or impede the process of gestation. The Catholic Church has considered abortion a homicide and against divine and natural laws. Legal or illegal, it is certain that the number of abortions increases each day. In the face of this reality, the need is for measures to avoid abortion whenever possible. Sex education in schools, full information on contraceptive methods and creation of family planning centers are some means of avoiding abortions. Women who have decided to seek abortions will do so whether or not they are legal. Spanish women who can't afford to spend a weekend in London resort to illegal abortions in unhygienic and dangerous conditions. Very early abortions are similar to late menstrual periods. When the fetus is older the effort to produce the abortion must be greater, and the discomfort to the woman may also be greater. Generally, 10-20% of women who have had complicated abortions suffer from later gynecological disorders such as sterility, dysmenorrheic pains, menstrual problems or obstetric accidents, or from psychological sequelae. At present, when the Spanish government is considering a reform of the penal code regarding abortion, it is important to consider that Spain is a democratic society, in which each citizen has a right to individual freedoms. PMID:6554010
Bastit i Costa, M A
Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (t...
CDC began conducting abortion surveillance in 1969 to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions and to monitor this outcome of unintended pregnancies. This report is based on abortion data for 2001 provided volunta...
L. T. Strauss J. Herndon J. Chang W. Y. Parker
This article gives an overview of what is known about second trimester abortions in India, including the reasons why women seek abortions in the second trimester, the influence of abortion law and policy, surgical and medical methods used, both safe and unsafe, availability of services, requirements for second trimester service delivery, and barriers women experience in accessing second trimester services. Based on personal experiences and personal communications from other doctors since 1993, when I began working as an abortion provider, the practical realities of second trimester abortion and case histories of women seeking second trimester abortion are also described. Recommendations include expanding the cadre of service providers to non-allopathic clinicians and trained nurses, introducing second trimester medical abortion into the public health system, replacing ethacridine lactate with mifepristone-misoprostol, values clarification among providers to challenge stigma and poor treatment of women seeking second trimester abortion, and raising awareness that abortion is legal in the second trimester and is mostly not requested for reasons of sex selection. PMID:18772082
Dalvie, Suchitra S
National and international courts and tribunals are increasingly ruling that although states may aim to deter unlawful abortion by criminal penalties, they bear a parallel duty to inform physicians and patients of when abortion is lawful. The fear is that women are unjustly denied safe medical procedures to which they are legally entitled, because without such information physicians are deterred
R. J. Cook; J. N. Erdman; B. M. Dickens
A college survey showed strong support by a majority for legalized abortion, governmental support of abortion and family planning services, voluntary sterilization, and sex education and birth control information and/or services in the schools. Important differences of opinion among subgroups were, however, indicated. (Author/MJB)
Hamrick, Michael H.; And Others
Legal, procedural, and institutional restrictions on safe abortion services—such as laws forbidding the practice or policies preventing donors from supporting groups who provide legal services—remain a major access barrier for women worldwide. However, even when abortion services are legal, women face social and cultural barriers to accessing safe abortion services and preventing unwanted pregnancy. Interpersonal communication interventions play an important
Allison Bingham; Jennifer Kidwell Drake; Lorelei Goodyear; C. Y. Gopinath; Anne Kaufman; Sanju Bhattarai
Abortion is highly stigmatized in the United States and elsewhere. As a result, many women who seek or undergo abortion keep their decision a secret. In many regions of the world, stigma is a recognized contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion, even when abortion is legal. Women may self-induce abortion in ways that are dangerous, or seek unsafe clandestine abortion from inadequately trained health care providers out of fear that their sexual activity, pregnancy, or abortion will be exposed if they present to a safe, licensed facility. However, unsafe abortion rarely occurs in the United States, and accordingly, stigma as a cause of unsafe abortion in the United States context has not been described. I consider the relationship of stigma to two serious abortion complications experienced by U.S. patients. Both patients wished to keep their abortion decision a secret from family and friends, and in both cases, their inability to disclose their abortion contributed to life-threatening complications. The experiences of these patients suggest that availability of legal abortion services in the United States may not be enough to keep all women safe. The cases also challenge the rhetoric that "abortion hurts women," suggesting instead that abortion stigma hurts women. PMID:23168775
Harris, Lisa H
This article describes the urgent need for modern family planning (FP) services and supplies in the Soviet Union, and presents the nation's high induced abortion rate as one of its most serious medical and social problems. With more than 6 million legal abortions per year, and another estimated 6 million performed illegally, the problem of induced abortion is placed on par with heart disease and cancer in the Soviet Union. Induced abortion is the primary method of birth control, responsible for terminating 2 out of 3 pregnancies. Many abortion seekers, especially those employing illegal services, suffer complications resulting in loss of ability to work or even death. The maternal mortality rate for 1988 was 43.0/10,000. Efforts to decrease the level of abortion have increased during reconstruction, and have been witness to a decline in the number of abortions by 866,000 over the period 1985-1988. Contributory factors behind this decline, as well as the decrease of the abortion ratio, are an increased contraceptive prevalence level totalling 13.7% of reproductive-age women, stabilization of the birth rate at a low level, a smaller proportion of reproductive-age women in the population, and rate reporting changes. Nonetheless, inadequate family planning services prevail in the Soviet Union. Instead of focusing upon abortion and contraception, services focus upon diagnosing and treating infertility, and offer neither FP information nor services for premarital youths. Moreover, contraceptive supplies suffer serious, ongoing shortages. Research is needed on the social, demographic, medical, and biological aspects of reproductive behavior in the Soviet Union. Regional differences, abortion law, public opinion on illegitimate pregnancy, abortion methods, health personnel training, and maternal and child health are also discussed. PMID:12284299
Khomassuridze, A G
Students (N = 118) were classified as pro-choice, anti-abortion, or mixed on the basis of their responses to ten fictitious case histories of females who requested abortion. The distribution of participants on the abortion issue was quite similar to the results of a 1979 national survey. As expected, these groups differed on attitudes toward abortion as murder, the legalization of abortion, and the morality of premarital sex. The groups differed significantly in levels of sex guilt, but did not exhibit significant differences in levels of sexual knowledge. The results were discussed within the context of the public controversy over abortion. It was suggested that the affective messages accompanying the sexual socialization of children and adolescents may be more predictive of orientations toward abortion than the weight of intellectual arguments regarding the rights of the fetus, the point at which a fetus becomes viable, or a woman's right to have control over her own body. PMID:7270307
Allgeier, A R; Allgeier, E R; Rywick, T
In 1985 Spain adopted a new abortion law that allows women to have abortions if: 1) the pregnancy poses a physical or mental risk, 2) the fetus risks a defect, 3) in cases of rape. 94% of all abortions are carried out in private clinics. Before the law only 411 abortions were reported, after the law 16,766 were reported the next year. 52% of the women were unmarried, 49% had no children, and 93% were less than 12 weeks pregnant. The availability of safe abortions is limited by: 1) lack of centers in most geographical regions and 2) lack of clinics or hospitals in the public health system that will give abortion services. The addition of 4th ground for abortion would not significantly improve access to abortion services since 98% of all abortions are performed under the mental risk indication. A better solution would be to adopt a time limit system similar to other European countries. Since 93% of all abortion occur within 12 weeks of pregnancy, it would accommodate most women. However, whether by executive order or legislation, increasing legal access will still not increase access. There simply is n system in place to accommodate the number of women who would seek abortions i they became legal (it is estimated that 200000 women got to England annually seeking abortion.) Doctors do not want to perform abortions and there is no social or legal standing to force them to do so. PMID:12284545
Worldwide some 20 million unsafe abortions take place each year and account for approximately 13% of all maternal mortality and serious complications associated with it, such as sepsis, hemorrhage and trauma. Only a quarter of all women in the world do not have any access to legal abortion, whereas 40% have a legal right to decide for themselves. This liberalization
K Singh; S. S Ratnam
The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to seeking safe abortion. Some countries lack adequately trained medical personnel and supplies. Mortality and morbidity declines are considered possible with legalization, more trained health personnel, and family planning programs for youth and education for parents. PMID:12287144
In 1969, the reform of the Criminal Code legalized contraception, abortion, and homosexual acts between consenting adults. Yet the conditions under which legal abortion was now permissible were so restrictive that the new abortion law provoked widespread discontent. One womenâ€™s liberation group, the fledging Vancouver Womenâ€™s Caucus (VWC), outlined a plan to travel to Ottawa between February and May 1970
Christabelle Sethna; Steve Hewitt
This article examines the economics of abortion safety in Egypt. Under Egyptian law induced abortion is restricted to cases in which two physicians certify that the pregnancy presents a danger to the health or life of the mother. Despite this legal restriction, the available data indicate that abortion is quite widely practiced. Multifaceted strands of legal, religious, economic, and health
Jok Madut Jok; Mawaheb T. El-Mouelhy
A nationally representative survey was conducted among 3000 Catholics in Mexico during 2009 and 2010. Respondents were presented with a hypothetical situation about a young woman who decided to have an abortion and were asked their personal opinion of her. On the basis of a stigma index, it was found that the majority (61%) had stigmatizing attitudes about abortion; however, 81% believed that abortion should be legal in at least some circumstances. Respondents were significantly more likely to stigmatize abortion if they disagreed with the Mexico City law legalizing the procedure (odds ratio 1.66; 95% CI, 1.30-2.11) and believed that abortion should be prohibited in all cases (odds ratio 3.13; 95% CI, 2.28-4.30). Such stigma can lead women to seek unsafe abortions to avoid judgment by society. PMID:22920621
McMurtrie, Stephanie M; García, Sandra G; Wilson, Kate S; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Fawcett, Gillian M
Though the law in India has permitted medical termination of pregnancy on broad legal grounds for over two decades, unsafe abortions carried out by unqualified providers show no signs of decreasing. A community-based study was undertaken in rural South India to determine the prevalence of induced abortion, women's reasons for seeking abortion, who was providing abortions and whether the procedures
Prathibha Varkey; Padma Priya Balakrishna; Jasmine Helan Prasad; Sulochana Abraham; Abraham Joseph
National and international courts and tribunals are increasingly ruling that although states may aim to deter unlawful abortion by criminal penalties, they bear a parallel duty to inform physicians and patients of when abortion is lawful. The fear is that women are unjustly denied safe medical procedures to which they are legally entitled, because without such information physicians are deterred from involvement. With particular attention to the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Human Rights Committee, the Constitutional Court of Colombia, the Northern Ireland Court of Appeal, and the US Supreme Court, decisions are explained that show the responsibility of states to make rights to legal abortion transparent. Litigants are persuading judges to apply rights to reproductive health and human rights to require states' explanations of when abortion is lawful, and governments are increasingly inspired to publicize regulations or guidelines on when abortion will attract neither police nor prosecutors' scrutiny. PMID:17889879
Cook, R J; Erdman, J N; Dickens, B M
This investigation shall focus upon the issue of legalized abortion. I believe the complex controversy surrounding the issue of abortion, demonstrates more clearly than any other single contemporary issue the social, political, moral and religious forces working for change in a post-Reagan America. I shall examine in depth the theology, writings, strategies and activities of those Americans who seek to
Kenneth W. Barber
In the 1984 election, Ronald Reagan, the Republican presidential incumbent and an opponent of legal abortion, defeated Walter Mondale, a prochoice Democrat, by a wide margin. Despite Reagan's sweep of 49 states, however, conservatives lost a little ground in the Senate, where four of the seven new senators elected take a prochoice position on abortion. On the other hand, antiabortion forces registered some gains in the House of Representatives. The voting groups were more divided over the abortion issue in 1984 than they had been in 1980: In 1980, Reagan voters and Carter voters did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward abortion, but in 1984, Reagan voters were significantly more likely to be opposed to abortion than were Mondale voters. Nevertheless, only a small minority of voters considered abortion to be a major national issue, and the two voter groups were far more divided on several other issues than they were on abortion. There was no antiabortion consensus among the electorate as a whole, or among Reagan voters in particular. The level of approval for legalized abortion has, in fact, remained quite stable since 1973, and a popular base in favor of banning abortion seems to be lacking. PMID:3595819
In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the life-threatening impact that stigma, financial restraints, and confusion regarding abortion law have on the women of Ghana who seek abortion. They posit that the vast majority of serious abortion complications arise in the setting of clandestine or self-induced second trimester attempts, suggesting that training greater numbers of physicians to perform second trimester abortion is prerequisite to reducing maternal mortality. They also recognized that an adequate supply of abortion providers alone is a necessary but insufficient step toward reducing death from unsafe abortion. Rather, improved accessibility and cultural acceptability of abortion are integral to the actual utilization of safe services. Their insights suggest that any comprehensive plan aimed at reducing maternal mortality must consider avenues that address the multiple dimensions which influence the practice and utilization of safe abortion, especially in the second trimester. PMID:24069757
Payne, Carolyn M; Debbink, Michelle Precourt; Steele, Ellen A; Buck, Caroline T; Martin, Lisa A; Hassinger, Jane A; Harris, Lisa H
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began conducting abortion surveillance in 1969 to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions and to monitor this outcome of unintended pregnancies. This report is bas...
L. T. Strauss J. Herndon J. Chang W. Y. Parker S. V. Bowens C. J. Berg
Data for a sample of 89 countries are used to examine societal-level predictors of the legal status of abortion and its incidence as indicated by abortion rates. Measures of socioeconomic development, women's labor force participation, and dominant religion are considered as predictors of abortion. Logistic regression analysis reveals that socioeconomic development has a positive effect on the probability of abortion being legal. Both a greater dominance of Catholicism and Islam in a society reduce the probability that abortion is legal. Results of tobit analyses show that development has curvilinear effects on abortion rates, with lower rates of abortion at both the lower and higher ends of development. Findings also indicate a positive effect of female labor force participation on the abortion rate that initially grows stronger with increases in socioeconomic development, but weakens with further increases. Finally, a greater proportion of Catholics in a population lowers the abortion rate. PMID:10842502
Trent, K; Hoskin, A W
In Mexico, recent political events have drawn increased public attention to the subject of abortion. In 2000, using a national probability sample, we surveyed 3,000 Mexicans aged 15–65 about their knowledge and opinions on abortion. Forty-five per cent knew that abortion was sometimes legal in their state, and 79% felt that abortion should be legal in some circumstances. A majority
Charlotte Ellertson; C TATUM; D BECKER; K SWANSON; K LOCKWOOD
Between 1972 and 1978, as legal abortion became more widely available nationally, abortion rates (abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (abortions per 1,000 live births) increased for all American teenagers; from 1972 to 1975, the rates and ratios for teenagers for Black and other races increased faster than those for White teenagers. For all seven years, abortion rates were higher for teenagers of Black and other races than for white teenagers. This reflected both higher proportions of sexually active teenagers of Black and other races and a greater risk of pregnancy in these teenagers compared with White teenagers. Race-specific differences in legal abortion ratios narrowed during the seven-year interval, as did differences in alternative outcomes of teenage premarital pregnancies (term births, illegal abortions).
Ezzard, N V; Cates, W; Kramer, D G; Tietze, C
Abortion is illegal in Rwanda except when necessary to protect a woman's physical health or to save her life. Many women in Rwanda obtain unsafe abortions, and some experience health complications as a result. To estimate the incidence of induced abortion, we conducted a national sample survey of health facilities that provide postabortion care and a purposive sample survey of key informants knowledgeable about abortion conditions. We found that more than 16,700 women received care for complications resulting from induced abortion in Rwanda in 2009, or 7 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Approximately 40 percent of abortions are estimated to lead to complications requiring treatment, but about a third of those who experienced a complication did not obtain treatment. Nationally, the estimated induced abortion rate is 25 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44, or approximately 60,000 abortions annually. An urgent need exists in Rwanda to address unmet need for contraception, to strengthen family planning services, to broaden access to legal abortion, and to improve postabortion care. PMID:23185868
Basinga, Paulin; Moore, Ann M; Singh, Susheela D; Carlin, Elizabeth E; Birungi, Francine; Ngabo, Fidele
Abortion continues to be a major public health issue that evokes social, political, legal, cultural and religious sentiments and debates in all societies. This is particularly so in countries with restrictive abortion laws. It is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. Despite variations in the legal status of abortions in favor of restrictiveness in developing countries compared with developed countries, overall rates are quite higher in the developing countries. This review article therefore, examines the historical perspectives of induced abortion as well as the issues and controversies associated with induced abortion. Also, a review of the Nigeria national abortion law is made. We believe that this is capable of identifying useful interventions for designing programs that will lead to a reduction in the burden of unsafe abortion in developing countries. PMID:22066329
Omo-Aghoja, L O; Omo-Aghoja, V W; Feyi-Waboso, P; Onowhakpor, E A
During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives.
Cook, R J; Dickens, B M
Emotional distress in a group of Israeli women who requested legal abortion was compared with that in a group of women on the verge of delivery and in a random group of nonpregnant women on measures of anxiety and depression. Emotional consequences of the abortion were evaluated by before-and-after comparisons of the same measures in a subgroup of the aborting women. Findings indicated significantly greater distress in the aborting women, with lower levels after the abortion. The effects on emotional well-being of personal and contextual factors and their interactions were also examined. PMID:8484432
Teichman, Y; Shenhar, S; Segal, S
Presents findings from a 1980 survey undertaken with the cooperation of the National Abortion Rights Action League (NARAL) and the National Right to Life Committee (NRLC), conducted among 750 members of each organization (response rates were 63% among NARAL and 57% among NLRC members). NRLC members were found to be more likely to have come from large families, and to prefer and have large families. About 70% of NRLC members are Roman Catholic, compared to 4% of NARAL members and about 28% of the general population. 17% of NARAL members are Jewish, compared to almost no NRLC members and 2% for the general population. Protestants and blacks are relatively underrepresented in both organizations. 9 in 10 NRLC members report that religion is very important to them and that they attend services at least once a week, compared to 1 in 5 NARAL members. NRLC members are more likely to have experienced difficulties becoming pregnant, to have had a miscarriage and to have had an unplanned pregnancy. NARAL members are much more likely to have used birth control pills or to be surgically sterilized. Of those who had had an abortion, among the women surveyed, 94% had joined NARAL and only 6% had joined NRLC. High levels of fertility and fertility aspirations among NRLC members appear to reflect a generally conservative approach to personal morality. NRLC members are much more likely to oppose sex education in schools, and birth control information for teenagers, and to favor stricter public policy on divorce. They are also relatively more likely to be opposed to premarital, extramarital, and homosexual relations, and contraceptive sterilization among married couples. The majority of NLRC members oppose the Equal Rights Ammendment; majority of NARAL supports it. The majority of members of both organizations support political, social and economic equality of women in other respects. Attitudes toward abortion were about as expected, although 7 in 10 NRLC members favored legal abortion if the woman's life would be endangered otherwise, and 4 in 10 NARAL members oppose abortion to prevent the birth of a child not of the desired sex. NRLC members are much more likely to be Republicans and describe themselves as conservative. But while more than 8 in 10 NRLC members would oppose a candidate they otherwise support if they disagreed with their abortion stand, fewer than 1/2 the NARAL members say they are 1 issue voters. PMID:7286166
José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion. PMID:20064638
With the possibility of the Supreme Court overturning the landmark Roe v. Wade (1973) case legalizing abortion, a review of abortion practices pre-Roe is instructive. Abortion became criminalized in the US around 1870, yet many abortions were performed. While estimates for the yearly number of pre-Roe illegal abortions roughly resemble today's number of legal abortions, the difference between legal and illegal abortion rests in the difference between the large number of women who died or were injured then, and the very few women who now die from illegal abortions. Along with the self-induced abortion, different categories of providers performed illegal abortions: physicians, nonphysicians, nurses, midwives, and lay people; all with varying skill, experience, and motives. While there were "butchers" and sexual exploiters, there were also competent, beloved physicians. There were the financially motivated physicians providing abortions full time, and the occasional providers acting with a sense of conscience, risking successful practices and jail. Within this "conscience" group of 44 interviewees gathered through personal networks, ads, etc., abortions were: performed outside of hospitals, reducing the risk of discovery, but creating greater medical risks; begun outside of a hospital with the intrusion into the uterus of an object, provoking a "spontaneous abortion" (miscarriage) needing completion by D and C (dilation and curettage) within a hospital, but only a limited number of such patients could be referred before arousing suspicion; and in a hospital under disguised circumstances, a very tricky undertaking with severe limitations, available only a few times before risking detection. Avoidance and lack of training by today's physicians and the well organized antiabortion groups will undoubtedly make illegal abortions even more difficult to engage in than the pre-Roe days. PMID:12317573
Background Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students’ attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. Methods and Results A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students’ pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students’ attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. Conclusions Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights.
Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su'ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M. S. L.; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li
A story is recounted of how 1 physician, trained for and concerned about the preservation of life and health, dealt with question of voluntary abortion. Abortion is easy and safe, and if accomplished with all of the modern medical safeguards, abortion in the 1st 3 months of gestation is 10 times safer for a woman than continuing through a normal pregnancy and delivery. abortion from 13 weeks onwards is at least as safe as having a normal pregnancy and delivery. Thus, it is a medical fact that abortion does not exact a penalty from the woman. If she makes the decision early and is aborted in the 1st trimester, her safety is enhanced. This is the reasoning that influenced the justices of the Supreme Court of the US to arrive at the landmark decisions that now are law. If everyone agreed with what is legal and justifiable, this discussion would not bt taking place. Responsible people differ widely in their response to the questions of whether a fetus can be considered alive and is a fetus entitled to the same protection as that afforded any living person. A logical starting place is the moment of conception. Some people have argued that conception alone is not enough and that the conceptus cannot be considered "human" until implantation occurs. Various timetables have been suggested. 1 is that the fetus becomes "human" and assumes rights when it develops a human appearance. Another proposal is that the detection of fetal electrical brain activity be taken as a landmark. In traditional Judaism, a conceptus of up to 40 days has been considered to be nothing but an amorphous fluid. Temporally, the the next possible criterion for the assumption of rights by the fetus could be fetal movement. Viability, the ability of the fetus to survive if separated from the mother, has also been proposed as a criterion for granting rights to the fetus. All of these suggest that to define "human life" results not in an absolute truth but in answers which change with time, culture, technical ability, and even with underlying motivation. This physician can defend to himself that any woman has a right toprotect herself against the dangers of childbearing, that such risks can only be assumed voluntarily, and that this position has traditional roots. But the ethical questions continue. A society's desire for population increase should not be enforced upon the bodies of its women. This physician concurs with the judicial decision that society's interest in abortion should be confined to insuring the safety of the procedure and to treating abortion equally with all other medical procedures. At the same time abortion poses professional ethical problems for the physician. Such problems should be resolved privately between the physician and the patient. PMID:6608671
Rovinsky, J J
Small island exigencies and a legacy of colonial jurisprudence set the stage for this three-year study in 2001-2003 of abortion practice on several islands of the northeast Caribbean: St. Martin, St. Maarten, Anguilla, Antigua and St Kitts. Based on in-depth interviews with 26 physicians, 16 of whom were performing abortions, it found that licensed physicians are routinely providing abortions in contravention of the law, and that those services, tolerated by governments and legitimised by European norms, are clearly the mainstay of abortion care on these islands. Medical abortion was being used both under medical supervision and through self-medication. Women travelled to find anonymous services, and also to access a particular method, provider or facility. Sometimes they settled for a less acceptable method if they could not afford a more comfortable one. Significantly, legality was not the main determinant of choice. Most abortion providers accepted the current situation as satisfactory. However, our findings suggest that restrictive laws were hindering access to services and compromising quality of care. Whereas doctors may have the liberty and knowledge to practise illegal abortions, women have no legal right to these services. Interviews suggest that an increasing number of women are self-inducing misoprostol abortions to avoid doctors, high fees and public stigma. The Caribbean Initiative on Abortion and Contraception is organising meetings, training providers and creating a public forum to advocate decriminalisation of abortion and enhance abortion care. PMID:18450240
Pheterson, Gail; Azize, Yamila
In the 25 years since the US Supreme Court's landmark Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing abortion, activists on both sides of the issue have drawn further apart as they have vied for the support of the majority of US voters who express ambivalence towards the law. These voters believe that abortion may be murder but that it must be legal. The Roe vs. Wade anniversary has sparked new legislative priorities on both sides. Abortion-rights activists will seek legislation that attempts to decrease the need for abortion by increasing funding for family planning services in the US and abroad, supporting funding for contraceptive research, and requiring health insurers to pay for contraceptives. Abortion opponents will continue to press for "partial birth" abortion bans and will support efforts to make it a federal crime for an adult to transport a minor across state lines to evade state parental notification or consent laws. PMID:9652629
The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare is again considering legalization of steroid oral contraceptives. Approval could greatly reduce the incidence of abortion in Japan, which is at least twice that officially reported.
Hiromi Maruyama; James H. Raphael; Carl Djerassi
The International Congress on Population and Development (ICPD) Programme of Action urged governments and intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations to reduce women's recourse to abortion through improved family planning services; reliable information and counseling should be readily accessible to women who have unwanted pregnancies; where abortion is legal, it should be safe; and in all cases, quality services for management of
Anibal Faúndes; Kamini Rao; Leonel Briozzo
Discusses the U.S. Supreme Court's recent indication of willingness to accept state restrictions on a woman's right to abortion. Presents several key reasons why parental involvement should not be legally required for minors' abortions, and suggests that family practitioners are in an excellent position to inform the public and policymakers about…
Introduction: Despite its legalization, abortion remains a controversial issue, one that has many divided on either side of the political spectrum. While there have been several changes made to abortion policy over the past few decades, one that continues to have many asking questions is the Woman’s Right to Know Act, a piece of state imposed abortion legislation that has
Context: The legal status of induced abortion helps determine the availability of safe, afford- able abortion services in a country, which in turn influences rates of maternal mortality and mor- bidity. It is important, therefore, for health professionals to know both the current status of abor- tion laws worldwide and the extent to which those laws are changing. Methods: Abortion-related
Anika Rahman; Laura Katzive; Stanley K. Henshaw
|Examines coverage of the abortion issue prior to, during, and after the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing elective abortion in daily newspapers in Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and Washington, D.C. Considers the effect on news coverage of local religious composition, income levels, race, and abortion rate. (GW)|
Pollock, John Crothers; And Others
Second trimester abortion has been legal in the Netherlands since 1984. Factors influencing second trimester abortion in the Netherlands may be different from those that play a role in first trimester abortions. This is important for professionals in counselling and education. In this paper national registration data are used to complement data from a small, qualitative, exploratory file study conducted
Olga Loeber; Cecile Wijsen
Abortion remains a highly contentious moral issue, with the debate usually framed as a battle between the fetus's right to life and the woman's right to choose. Often overlooked in this debate is the impact of the concurrent legalization of abortion and the development of new prenatal screening tests on the birth prevalence of many inherited diseases. Most proponents of abortion support abortion for fetuses with severe congenital diseases, but there has unfortunately been, in our opinion, too little debate over the moral appropriateness of abortion for much less severe congenital conditions such as Down's syndrome, deafness, and dwarfism. Due to scientific advances, we are looking at a future in which prenatal diagnosis will be safer and more accurate, raising the specter, and the concomitant ethical concerns, of wholesale abortions. Herein, we present a reframing of the abortion debate that better encompasses these conditions and offers a more nuanced position. PMID:20561739
Jotkowitz, Alan; Zivotofsky, Ari Z
In England, Scotland and Wales legislation has facilitated the process of procuring an abortion to the point at which, in 2007, it appears to have been effectively assimilated into contemporary life. However, despite the legal acceptance of abortion it remains an ethically contentious subject. Arguments in favour of, or in opposition to, abortion can arouse vociferous and, on occasions, extreme reactions. At the heart of the abortion debate lie questions concerning rights, autonomy and the way in which society views disability (if a pregnancy is terminated for this reason alone). It is important that health professionals comprehend the basis of the abortion debate, from the perspective of their profession, society as a whole and the individual woman who may have had or is considering an abortion or has been affected by the subject in some way. This article examines some of the key ethical issues concerning abortion. PMID:17550004
Jones, Kiera; Chaloner, Chris
Although legal and safe-induced abortion services are available on request in Vietnam, second-trimester abortion still occurs. Given the increased risks and higher costs associated with later-term abortions, we conducted a qualitative study to understand the determinants of delaying abortion until the second trimester. We used purposive sampling to conduct semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 60 women aged 14–47 receiving an abortion
Maria F. Gallo; Nguyen C. Nghia
This paper gives a historical, international and cultural outlook on the debate related to the 1982 legalization of abortion in the modern democratic republic of Turkey. A belief that the country is under-populated and subsequent pro-natalist concerns of the turn of the century seem to have strongly influenced the legal prohibition of abortion. The paper first discusses the widespread social
|While there has been an increasing liberalization of attitudes toward legalized abortion in the past 15 years, by 1975 the trend began to change and attitudes became slightly more conservative. By 1978, the conservative trend was pronounced. These changes are a function of selected demographic variables. (Author)|
Ebaugh, Helen Rose Fuchs; Haney, C. Allen
IntroductionAbortion is one of the most widely discussed medical-ethical subjects in medical, legal, philosophical, and religious literature as well as in the lay press. There is hardly a religion or country in the world that is not currently concerned about this issue. The complexity of the topic relates to the fact that it deals with a being that is close
OBJECTIVES: In 2 successive decades since 1967, legal accommodation of abortion has grown in many countries. The objective of this study was to assess whether liberalizing trends have been maintained in the last decade and whether increased protection of women's human rights has influenced legal reform. METHODS: A worldwide review was conducted of legislation and judicial rulings affecting abortion, and legal reforms were measured against governmental commitments made under international human rights treaties and at United Nations conferences. RESULTS: Since 1987, 26 jurisdictions have extended grounds for lawful abortion, and 4 countries have restricted grounds. Additional limits on access to legal abortion services include restrictions on funding of services, mandatory counseling and reflection delay requirements, third-party authorizations, and blockades of abortion clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive liberalization has moved abortion laws from a focus on punishment toward concern with women's health and welfare and with their human rights. However, widespread maternal mortality and morbidity show that reform must be accompanied by accessible abortion services and improved contraceptive care and information.
Cook, R J; Dickens, B M; Bliss, L E
In 1965, 71% of legal abortions in the United States were performed using the surgical procedure of dilation and curettage. By 1972, a mere seven years later, approximately the same percentage (72.6%) of legal abortions in the United States were performed using a completely new abortion technology: the electrical vacuum aspirator. This article examines why, in less than a decade, electric vacuum suction became American physicians' abortion technology of choice. It focuses on factors such as political and professional feasibility (the technology was able to complement the decriminalization of abortion in the US, and the interests, abilities, commitments, and personal beliefs of physicians); clinical compatibility (it met physician/patient criteria such as safety, simplicity and effectiveness); and economic viability (it was able to adapt to market factors such as production, cost, supply/demand, availability, and distribution). PMID:19230345
Tunc, Tanfer Emin
Abstract: In the late 1960s, states began to liberalize their abortion laws, and a new era in women’s health began. Under the leadership of Jack Smith, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established a voluntary abortion surveillance system that provided the first nationwide information on the numbers and characteristics of women having abortions. Studies of abortion morbidity done
Willard Cates; David A. Grimes; Kenneth F. Schulz
A practicing physician reviews the contribution of Jewish ethics, as it relates to the structure of Jewish law, to the issue of abortion. The topics approached include the status of the fetus, the relationship of fetus to mother, abortion and murder, therapeutic abortion, and the rights of the mother. The discussion describes rabbinic answers to abortion requests and is followed
Tomas J. Silber
Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor ‘essential’ and relies upon power disparities and inequalities for its formation. In this paper, we identify social and political
Anuradha Kumar; Leila Hessini; Ellen M. H. Mitchell
Specific guidance functions and trajectory design of return to launch site (RTLS) and transoceanic abort landing (TAL) intact abort profiles, as well as the increasing emphasis on contingency aborts, are presented. Various systems failures including Space Shuttle main engine failures and detailed technical analyses, including the design of powered flight abort trajectories, are considered. The most critical of flight abort situations is the RTLS, while TAL is the preferred abort when uphill capability is no longer available. It is concluded that one principle must remain to ensure continuing success of Space Shuttle flights: namely that intact and contingency aborts necessitate development to ensure safe return of the vehicle, payload, and crew whenever possible.
Schmidgall, Richard A.
This article examines the technique and legality of induced abortion of one or more fetuses in a multiple pregnancy, where the aim is the destruction of some but not all of the fetuses present (selective reduction of pregnancy). It concludes that since the legal status of the procedure in English law is unclear, it may be a criminal offence to
eens who abort are up to 4 times more likely to commit suicide than adults who abort eens who abort are up to 4 times more likely to commit suicide than adults who abort eens who abort are up to 4 times more likely to commit suicide than adults who abort eens who abort are up to 4 times more
The present paper, based on the results of international studies, is focused on the reconsideration of the psychological aspects of induced abortion. By presenting a narrow cross-section of the Hungarian demographic data, we would like to emphasise the necessity and the significance of a deeper understanding of the subject. Factors behind the decision-making, short- and long term outcomes of the intervention influencing primarily the mental health of women and partner-relationship aspects are discussed in details. While acknowledging the complexity of the subject deriving from the legal, ethical, moral, religious, medical, social and sociological concerns, our aim is to call attention to the psychological aspects of induced abortion and the importance of psychological care of women undergoing surgical operation. PMID:22232522
Sz Makó, Hajnalka; Veszprémi, Béla
It is well recognised that unsafe abortions have significant implications for women's physical health; however, women's perceptions and experiences with abortion-related stigma and disclosure about abortion are not well understood. This paper examines the presence and intensity of abortion stigma in five countries, and seeks to understand how stigma is perceived and experienced by women who terminate an unintended pregnancy and influences her subsequent disclosure behaviours. The paper is based upon focus groups and semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with women and men in Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and the United States (USA) in 2006. The stigma of abortion was perceived similarly in both legally liberal and restrictive settings although it was more evident in countries where abortion is highly restricted. Personal accounts of experienced stigma were limited, although participants cited numerous social consequences of having an abortion. Abortion-related stigma played an important role in disclosure of individual abortion behaviour. PMID:21745033
Shellenberg, Kristen M; Moore, Ann M; Bankole, Akinrinola; Juarez, Fatima; Omideyi, Adekunbi Kehinde; Palomino, Nancy; Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Tsui, Amy O
In an apparent attempt to defuse acrimony at the International Conference on Population and Development, underway in Cairo, the US delegation is softening its stance on abortion decriminalization. US Vice President Al Gore, the head of the delegation, has stated, "The United States does not seek to establish a new international right to abortion, and we do not believe that abortion should be encouraged as a method of family planning." The Vatican and Muslim fundamentalists remain concerned, however, that the Cairo gathering represents an opportunity for the US to impose its abortion rights agenda on other countries. The draft prepared for presentation to the conference makes no explicit mention of legal abortion. Rather, it advocates safe motherhood, complete reproductive health care, and fertility control-- phrases the Vatican insists mask an intent to promote the use of abortion for family planning. PMID:12318927
In 1969, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions, to monitor unintended pregnancy, and to assist efforts to identify and reduce prev...
In early 1991 the abortion debate in Poland entered its new stage. The prolife and prochoice options had already clashed in the early 1930s over a new penal code and backstreet abortions. According to the code of 1932, induced abortion was allowed in cases of rape, incest, or for medical indications. Abortion was legalized in 1956, but subsequently it came under attack from Catholic circles, and by 1989 the Unborn Child Protection Bill was drafted which criminalized abortion. Only 11% of Polish women use modern contraceptives. The less efficient methods are the most prevalent: the natural method (Ogino-Knaus calendar), 35% of couples; coitus interruptus, 34%; condoms, 15%; oral contraceptives 7%; chemical spermicides, 2.5%; and the IUD 2%. According to size of Catholic Church estimate there are 600,000 abortions yearly. In contrast, official statistics indicate that the number of abortions is decreasing: 137,950 in 1980; 105,300 in 1988; 80,100 in 1989; 59,400 in 1990. In January 1991 the Constitutional Tribunal dismissed the motion of the Polish Feminist Association against the restrictive regulations of the Ministry of Health concerning abortion. After a parliamentary stalemate on the Unborn Child Protection Bill a commission consisting of 46 persona (1.2 of them women, 20 persons from the prochoice and 24 from the prolife lobby) continued the debate on the bill. Public opinion polls conducted by independent groups in November 1990 showed that about 60% of citizens were against the Senate's draft. Since then interest in the abortion issue has dwindled, and only 200 women and men took part in a prochoice demonstration in front of the parliament on January 25, 1991. In the spring of 1989 and in September 1990 thousands had participated in similar demonstrations. The prevailing attitude is that if the antiabortion bill is passed nothing can be done. PMID:12285924
This paper discusses issues of legal abortion and women's rights in the US. Abortion has been a political issue since the 1970s in the US. Following the Supreme Court's decision in the case of Roe vs. Wade, conservatives and liberals were divided based on their stand on abortion laws. Moreover, gender affects the range of opinions. Gender gap in abortion attitudes is most evident among conservatives. Conservative and extremely conservative women are against legal abortion more strongly than men with those same political views. Liberal and extremely liberal women have about the same amount of support for legal abortion as liberal men do. Labor force participation, marriage, education, and religion have impact on women and men's attitudes toward abortion; yet none of these explain the politicization of abortion. The change in support for legal abortion by political views and time period (1974-93) is shown in this paper. Women's rights are at the core when issues on abortion are to be discussed; the circumstances of the pregnancy and not the fetus become the focus. Although some women¿s groups support this stand, it faces a continuing debate with pro-life groups. The prevailing ideologies attempt to accommodate the new ideas expressed by the movement, while some of its stronger views are tempered in order to win a measure of political success. PMID:12349270
The objective of this study was to examine induced abortion in Côte d'Ivoire. A nationwide cross-sectional descriptive study of induced abortion was carried out in 2007 among 3,057 women aged 15-49 years. The study showed that induced abortion is a widespread practice in Côte d'Ivoire, with a prevalence estimated at 42.5%. The women who had undergone an abortion were generally under 25, unmarried, and illiterate, and had used contraception. More than half (52.1%) of all induced abortions were performed at home by traditional abortionists or were self-induced with plants or decoctions. The main reasons for induced abortion were concern about the reaction of parents (27.7%), age (22.2%), a lack of financial resources (21.3%) and the desire of women to continue their education. More than half of the participants (55.8%) stated that they had suffered complications, which were more common after a home abortion than after a hospital abortion. Political and legal measures or reforms aimed at changing abortion laws in Côte d'Ivoire and better access to family planning are required in order to prevent or treat the social issue of induced abortion. PMID:22789290
Vroh, Joseph Benie Bi; Tiembre, Issaka; Attoh-Toure, Harvey; Kouadio, Daniel Ekra; Kouakou, Lucien; Coulibaly, Lazare; Kouakou, Hyacinthe Andoh; Tagliante-Saracino, Janine
In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required.
Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastian; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C
The antiabortion groups and their lawyers have added a new weapon to their arsenal against physicians who perform abortions in the US: malpractice lawsuits. The nonprofit educational organization Life Dynamics generates material for personal injury lawyers and is participating in 80 cases. It has assembled 642 lawyers and 500 physicians in its abortion malpractice program. Life Dynamics calls for persons to support lawsuits to increase malpractice insurance rates of abortionists, thereby forcing them out of business. Its 2-day 1994 seminar in Texas addressed abortion injuries, an alleged link between abortion and breast cancer, and abortion as a likely source of post-traumatic stress disorder. A lawyer and general counsel of the Arizona Right-to-Life has filed two lawsuits against a Phoenix physician who performs abortion. The trial judge dismissed both cases and fined the lawyer for frivolous lawsuits. An appeal overturned the fines. The lawyer has three more lawsuits on the docket. The physician had complained to the Arizona Bar Association about the lawyer. Even though the physician's insurance company did not pay any claims, its underwriters deemed him an actuarial risk, thereby making him essentially uninsurable. Local medical associations have failed to take a position on the lawyer's legal misconduct because they do not want to alienate some members. The Planned Parenthood Federation of America agreed that the lawsuits brought against the Phoenix physician were fraudulent and that they do not aim to protect women but to revoke their right to choose. PMID:7728049
Charatan, F B
Experience with 50 first time aborters, 50 second time aborters, and 50 third time aborters residing in an urban area of Copenhagen suggests that women having a repeat abortion are more similar than dissimilar to women having a first induced abortion. There were no differences in socioeconomic status, educational level, or stated reasons for choosing abortion (usually socioeconomic and family
Mogens Osler; Henry P David; Janine M Morgall
An epidemiological study was conducted of the risk of spontaneous abortion among cosmetologists using more refined exposure data than the job title alone. The results suggest moderately increased risks of spontaneous abortion among cosmetologists who work...
E. M. John
This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity." PMID:12178893
Hisel, L M
|Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…
Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne
Explores the complex feelings which can surround the subject of abortion and the difficulty some teachers may experience in trying to reconcile their personal beliefs with their professional responsibilities. Gives reasons for including abortion in the school curriculum rather than relying on parents\\/carers to cover the subject at home. Looks at how the subject of abortion can fit into different
Medical tourism in Ireland, like in many Western states, is built around assumptions about individual agency, choice, possibility, and mobility. One specific form of medical tourism—the flow of women from Ireland traveling in order to secure an abortion—disrupts and contradicts these assumptions. One legacy of the bitter, contentious political and legal battles surrounding abortion in Ireland in the 1980s and 1990s has been securing the right of mobility for all pregnant Irish citizens to cross international borders to secure an abortion. However, these mobility rights are contingent upon nationality, social class, and race, and they have enabled successive Irish governments to avoid any responsibility for providing safe, legal, and affordable abortion services in Ireland. Nearly twenty years after the X case discussed here, the pregnant female body moving over international borders—entering and leaving the state—is still interpreted as problematic and threatening to the Irish state. PMID:21114071
Gilmartin, Mary; White, Allen
The United Nations Population Information Network (POPIN) has recently published a collection of data tables that outline the abortion policies for regions and nations around the world. The tables display the grounds on which abortion is legally permitted, as well as national and international data on abortion rates, total fertility rates (births per woman), maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births), and the rate of contraceptive use by married women. The data are divided into six regional tables (Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Northern America, and Oceania). Each regional table is organized by geographic area (e.g., Eastern Asia, Southeastern Asia, South Central Asia, and Western Asia) to facilitate comparisons.
The January 1973 Supreme Court decision concerning abortion did not settle the issue. In fact, the issue becomes increasingly more critical. Supporters of "freedom of choice" thought the victory was theirs when the decision was announced by the Court, but advocates of an anti-abortion position were incensed by the decision. After a few months of letter writing, the anti-abortion forces developed a more comprehensive, long-range strategy. Their objective is a constitutional amendment barring abortion. Supporters of "freedom of choice" do have several important elements in their favor. 1st, the majority of public opinion is on the side of freedom of choice. 2nd, the position being advocated is clearly non-discriminatory and non-coercive. Unlike the opposition, those who support freedom of choice are not trying to impose their beliefs on any other group of people and are actually trying to protect each and every individual's freedom of choice. This seasoned and reasonable view needs to be presented nationally in a seasoned and reasonable manner. More mail from both men and women needs to be directed toward each member of the House and Senate with special emphasis on the members of the House and Senate Judiciary committees. In addition to sending more mail, Zero Population Growth chapters and members could help by: 1) initiating "freedom of choice" letters to editors of local newspapers; 2) having persons representing the "freedom of choice" point of view appear on local television shows and before community groups; and 3) enlisting the help of the local medical and legal communities to lend their expertise to an intelligent discussion of the issue. PMID:12276913
Assessing the current status of rights relating to abortion in the U.S. is a complex matter. From a public health perspective, if one looks at the statistics comparing maternal mortality in the U.S. to countries in which abor- tion remains illegal and unsafe, the situation in the U.S. looks extremely positive. Abortion has been legal since 1973, and it is
Marlene Gerber Fried
Abortion has provided one of the most noxious, disturbing, and unending of all American moral and legal struggles. The issue forces us to think about the most difficult kind of ethical issues, e.g., the moral status of the fetus and the meaning of human "life" and "personhood." The win-at-all-costs attitude among the leading advocacy groups has created gross stereotypes. While most arguments heard today were also heard prior to the Roe vs. Wade decision, the tone has radically changed. Better organization has meant hotter rhetoric and a nastier public style. We need to move the abortion debate along; it is now as stagnate as it is nasty. We need creative discussion and realistic compromise. The pre-Roe arguments in favor of choice have changed. Then, the movement to legalize abortion rested on the following: 1) illegal abortions were killing and maiming women; 2) women should have a backup to ineffective contraception; 3) the number of unwanted pregnancies should be reduced; only wanted children should be born, as a matter of child welfare; 4) women should have the right to make the abortion decision; 5) everything possible should be done to change the economic and domestic circumstances forcing women into unwanted pregnancies. The argument benefited women, children, and society. The many abortion myths that have since taken prominence cloud an already difficult issue. The ongoing tension rests with the conflict between the moral and legal issues. Is it possible to combine legal freedom and seriousness about the moral questions? Only if we recognize the equality of both positions' moral traditions, accept public discussion, the need for compromise, the need to do everything possible to change the economic and social circumstance leading to the abortion choice, and the need for meaningful counseling of women considering abortion. PMID:1451361
The topic of induced abortion as a method of birth control in the formersocialist European countries has been a subject of\\u000a broad debate. Legal or illegal abortion, depending on legislation restrictions, was widely used in periods when people had\\u000a reduced control over their reproductive life. Romania, a former socialist country, is an interesting case to study because\\u000a of the very
Because the number of physicians available to perform abortions in the US is dwindling, certified nurse-midwives, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants should be trained and permitted to perform abortions. Roadblocks to this change are the fact that the Supreme Court would likely allow states to prevent mid-level practitioners from performing abortions in the name of protecting the health of the mother. Also, existing statutes would probably not be interpreted by courts to allow mid-level practitioners to perform abortions. However, physician assistants have been performing abortions in Vermont since 1975, and a 1981-82 comparative study affirmed that physician assistants are well-equipped to perform abortions (of 2458 procedures, the complication rate/1000 was 27.4 for physician assistants and 30.8 for physicians). However, controversy surrounds the provision of abortion by these physician assistants in Vermont, since the relevant statute suggests that abortion is illegal unless performed by a physician. However, the statute has not been changed since Roe vs. Wade and is likely unconstitutional. Court cases in Missouri and Tennessee suggest that courts may be willing to include abortion within the scope of progressive nursing practice acts, but a recent similar case in Massachusetts resulted in a narrow interpretation of nursing practice statutes. Because the definition of professional nursing varies with each state statute, it will be a formidable task to convince every jurisdiction to include abortion as a permissible mid-level practice. Even in Vermont, the nursing practice statute defines in an exclusive list what services the professional nurse may perform (whereas the physician assistant regulations limit their scope of practice only to that delegated by a supervising physician). States could, of course, pass statutes which include abortion as a permissible practice for the mid-level practitioner. However, specific legislation would provide a clear target for anti-choice forces and legal challenges. Other practical problems include a possible uproar in the medical community where obstetrical/gynecology specialists already oppose allowing nurse practitioners to provide routine gynecologic services. Also, if mid-level practitioners were allowed to perform abortions, physicians may abandon the practice altogether. However, given the present state of affairs, this may be the only practical starting point for approaching the crisis caused by the scarcity of abortion providers. PMID:8118134
Kowalczyk, E A
Unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity which impede the nation in achieving the targets of MDG 5. In the developing world, it is estimated that 13% of all maternal deaths are due to unsafe abortions. Despite having certain liberty in the law and religion, Pakistan has a relatively high prevalence of unsafe abortion. Poverty, unintended pregnancies, ineffective use of contraceptive methods and unawareness about the law are the root causes for the rise in the number of women seeking abortions. Nonetheless, with all these opening points of having permission in the law and religion could direct us that if we just follow them we can reduce the number of unsafe and illegal abortions.Therefore, there is a strong interventions would be required in health and legal aspects, which would decrease maternal mortality and morbidity. PMID:23865142
Khowaja, Shaneela Sadruddin; Pasha, Aneeta; Begum, Shamshad; Mustafa, Mehr-un-Nisa
Background: Unsafe abortion is an important cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly marked in developing countries with restrictive abortion laws. It has both bioethical and human rights implications, violating their key principles and components. Objective: To highlight the magnitude of complications of unsafe abortion and examine the legal,bioethical, sexual and reproductive right implications of unsafe abortion as well as to review post abortion care (PAC) in Nigeria. Data Source: Information derived from online web-search, literature review of articles from learned journals, serials and monographs from local and supra-national agencies working on abortion, and reproductive health. Results: About 20 million unsafe abortions are performed annually globally resulting in about 80, 000 maternal deaths. Asia and Africa have the highest number of maternal deaths. In Nigeria, 760, 000 abortions are performed annually. Abortion law in Nigeria is restrictive. Unsafe abortion violates three key bioethical principles at micro and mega-ethical levels. It also violates eleven of the twelve components of sexual and reproductive rights. PAC is approved as an effective approach to reducing abortion morbidity and mortality and promoting women's reproductive rights. Conclusion: Stakeholders can promote the ethical, sexual and reproductive rights of women through the following interventions: advocacy, liberalization of restrictive abortion law, training of health workers on PAC services, inter-organisational collaboration, development of right based code of ethics and inclusion into medical training curriculum. Socio-economic empowerment of women, provision of PAC services equipments in health facilities, and improvement of access to quality family planning services will also help promote the rights of women. PMID:22669827
The Case Against Non-Compliance with the Fundamental Principle concerning Anencephaly, under review by the Brazilian Supreme Court, is a milestone in the debate on abortion in Latin America. Since the currently prevailing version of the Brazilian Penal Code was enacted in 1940, there has been fierce resistance to any change in the country's abortion policy. This article discusses the arguments and political strategies used in the anencephaly suit brought before the Supreme Court, particularly the ethical and legal position that interruption of pregnancy in cases of anencephaly does not constitute abortion, but should be considered a therapeutic anticipation of delivery. PMID:15905929
Legal Bytes, provided by the firm of George, Donaldson & Ford, L.L.P, of Austin, Texas, is a "periodic publication" of "summaries and brief discussions of emerging legal issues in the field of computer law." Recent issues have included articles on the Communications Decency Act, ownership of "real-time" sports information, legal risks of on-line advertising, and copyright law, among others. Note that Legal Bytes is not intended to "be relied upon as legal advice."
Small island exigencies and a legacy of colonial jurisprudence set the stage for this three-year study in 2001-2003 of abortion practice on several islands of the northeast Caribbean: Anguilla, Antigua, St Kitts, St Martin and Sint Maarten. Based on in-depth interviews with 26 physicians, 16 of whom were performing abortions, it found that licensed physicians are routinely providing abortions in contravention of the law, and that those services, tolerated by governments and legitimised by European norms, are clearly the mainstay of abortion care on these islands. Medical abortion was being used both under medical supervision and through self-medication. Women travelled to find anonymous services, and also to access a particular method, provider or facility. Sometimes they settled for a less acceptable method if they could not afford a more comfortable one. Significantly, legality was not the main determinant of choice. Most abortion providers accepted the current situation as satisfactory. However, our findings suggest that restrictive laws were hindering access to services and compromising quality of care. Whereas doctors may have the liberty and knowledge to practise illegal abortions, women have no legal right to these services. Interviews suggest that an increasing number of women are self-inducing abortions with misoprostol to avoid doctors, high fees and public stigma. The Caribbean Initiative on Abortion and Contraception is organising meetings, training providers and creating a public forum to advocate decriminalisation of abortion and enhance abortion care. PMID:16291485
Pheterson, Gail; Azize, Yamila
Objective: Whether Canadian physicians can refuse to refer women for abortion and whether private clinics can charge for abortions are matters of controversy. We sought to identify barriers to access for women seeking therapeutic abortion and to have them identify what they considered to be most important about access to abortion services. Methods: Women presenting for abortion over a two-month
Ellen R. Wiebe; Supna Sandhu
The purpose of this article is to show that the current level of scientific evidence linking induced abortion with increased breast cancer risk is sufficient to support an ethical and legal duty to disclose fully the risk to women who are considering induced abortion. The article examines the relationship between this evidence and the elements of a medical malpractice claim alleging failure to obtain informed consent. The first part focuses on the elements of informed consent, which require the plaintiff to establish that the physician had a duty to disclose information, which he failed to disclose, that this failure to disclose was a legal cause of the plaintiff's decision to undergo the procedure, and the procedure was a legal cause of the plaintiff's injury. The second part compares two prevalent standards for determining which risks a physician has a duty to disclose. Part three reviews the scientific evidence of the abortion/breast cancer (ABC) link and explains why it survives both the Frye and the Daubert tests for admissibility of expert testimony. The fourth part assesses the materiality of the risk posed by the ABC link. Parts five and six discuss evidentiary issues and the possibility of punitive damage awards. PMID:10758700
Abortion surfaced as a community problem when, following the passage of the 1967 Abortion Act in England and the subsequent rapid rise in medically induced abortion, a few doctors and a group of lay people in Auckland founded the Society for the Protection of the Unborn Child. Soon after this the opposition formed the Abortion Law Reform Association whose aims came to be vocalized by women's liberation groups like Women's Electoral Lobby and WONAAC. As in other countries, the media gave the proabortion movement a good boost and the medical profession did little to discourage it. A bold and significant move was made by the abortion promoters when they established a clinic in Remuera to carry out abortion in Auckland. There was a reaction and eventually (September 1974) a police raid and a court case based on a dozen cases that looked like infringements of the law. Dr. Woolnough, principal operator, was tried but the jury failed to agree. On a retrail he was acquitted. In August 1974 Dr. Gerard Wall introduced a private member's bill aimed at restricting therapeutic abortion to public hospitals. The bill was amended so that duly licensed institutions other than public hospitals were also acceptable for abortion procedures. The Remuera clinic which had ceased working when the provision of the Wall bill became operative transferred its operations to the Aotea Clinic in Epsom which had applied for and obtained a license. The following year the late Air Commodore Frank Gill introduced another bill (August 1976) aimed at changing the situation back toward Wall's position, i.e., restricting induced abortion to public hospitals. In December 1977 a law called the Contraception, Sterilization and Abortion Act was passed, which in essence allowed abortion where it seemed that the mother's life or mental or physical health would be seriously endangered, where the mother was very young or somewhat old, where the child was conceived of incest. Abortion figures raise the question of what has changed to make induced abortions increase markedly in Wellington and in the country. The 1st paradox of abortion is that the more science, the more technical advance, the more clinical skills, yet more induced abortions. There are other paradoxical aspects like the continued surfacing of mental health as a reason for induced abortion when so much psychiatric literature indicates that there are no neurotic or psychotic conditions for which abortion is beneficial. Whether or not the law has been subject to abuse, there has been a change in the handling of abortion by doctors. PMID:6578442
Bergin, J D
Abortion is a universal phenomenon, occurring throughout recorded history and at all levels of societal organization. Techniques are highly varied, as are the circumstances under which it is practised. The status of and attitudes towards abortion in Western civilization are variable and have, in most cases, been changing. As of 1982, 10% and 18% of the world's population respectively, lived in countries where abortion was totally prohibited or where it was permitted only to save the mother's life. In the USA, various national surveys indicate liberalization of public attitudes towards pregnancy termination between 1965 and the years immediately following the Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision (1973) which legalized abortion. More recent polls demonstrate little attitudinal change since 1972-1973: between 80% and 90% of Americans approve of abortion in the case of poor health, a seriously defective fetus, or rape, and between 40% and 50% indicate approval for all other reasons as well. Only 10% of the American population would like to see abortion prohibited under all circumstances. Sociodemographic analyses indicate that individuals who disapprove of abortion differ from those who approve of its availability in that they are more likely to be Roman Catholic or fundamentalist Protestant; are, in general, more strongly committed to organized religion; are on the traditional/conservative end of the spectrum with regard to women's role in life, premarital sex, sex education and civil liberties; and tend to have achieved a relatively low educational level. 'Pro-life' and 'pro-choice' activists tend to be women who are completely different from one another in sociodemographic characteristics and in overall values, particularly as these relate to traditional versus modern female roles. PMID:3519038
Shain, R N
This dissertation is a new defense of the moral permissibility of abortion. The first chapter gives definitions, methodology, and an overview of the current abortion debate. The first chapter also addresses the Benefit of the Doubt Argument, which says that abortion should be treated as morally wrong on the chance that the anti-abortion position is correct and abortion is murder.
Kurt Charles Liebegott
OBJECTIVES--To assess women's preferences for, and the acceptability of, medical abortion and vacuum aspiration in the early first trimester. DESIGN--Patient centred, partially randomised trial. Medical abortion was performed with mifepristone 600 mg followed 48 hours later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginal pessary. Vacuum aspiration was performed under general anaesthesia. SETTING--Teaching hospital in Scotland. PATIENTS--363 women undergoing legal induced abortion at
R C Henshaw; S A Naji; I T Russell; A A Templeton
Laws concerning abortion have been at the center of public discussion during the last third of the 20 th century in many western democracies. Different from other legal topics being usually left to some experts the abortion-debate transcended the limits of juridical expert circles and went into the public realm ending up as an issue everybody has to take a
Abortion represents a particularly interesting subject for a social movements analysis of healthcare issues because of the involvement of both feminist pro-choice activists and a segment of the medical profession. Although both groups have long shared the same general goal of legal abortion, the alliance has over time been an uneasy one, and in many ways a contradictory one. This
C. E. Joffe; T. A. Weitz; C. L. Stacey
Abortion is one of the most controversial and contentious issues of our time. Few topics generate as much public debate or leave as little room for political compromise. This article presents a discussion of selected United States Supreme Court decisions on abortion and the legal reasoning supporting those decisions. It should be noted initially…
Uerling, Donald F.
|Abortion is one of the most controversial and contentious issues of our time. Few topics generate as much public debate or leave as little room for political compromise. This article presents a discussion of selected United States Supreme Court decisions on abortion and the legal reasoning supporting those decisions. It should be noted initially…
Uerling, Donald F.
This Article explores equality-based arguments for abortion rights, revealing both their necessity and their pitfalls. It first uses the narrowness of the “health exception” to abortion regulations to show why equality arguments are needed—because our legal tradition's conception of liberty is based on male experience, and we have no theory of basic human rights grounded in women's reproductive experiences. Next,
Jennifer S. Hendricks
n Overall rates of abortion in the United States peaked soon after the procedure was legalized in 1973, remained fairly constant through the 1980s, and have declined steadily since then. However, the overall rate masks large differences and varying patterns across time for demo- graphic subgroups. n A substantial drop in the abortion rates of teenagers and women aged 20-24
Stanley K. Henshaw; Kathryn Kost
Sex-selective abortion is the major direct cause of the severe imbalance in the sex ratio at birth – contributing to the phenomenon of over 100 million ‘missing’ females worldwide and 40 million in China alone. Internationally as well as in China, moral condemnation and legal prohibition constitute the mainstream and official position on sex-selective abortion. This paper characterises the dominant
The author explores the possible relationship between psychopathology and abortion. The paper starts with the updating of epidemiological data regarding the incidence of abortion, especially in the current Spanish society. In this partnership there are three sections in the study of these possible relations between the abortion and the psychopathology: (a) in the new emerging sexual behaviour, especially among young people, and psychopathological factors possibly determining their sexual behaviour; (b) in the psychological and psychopathological context that makes the decision to abort, in regard to the factors of the couple and their families of origin and social context, and (c) in the frequent psychopathological disorders that seem to arise from the abortion, according to recent data reported by many researchers in the international scientific community. The study of the so-called Post-Abortion Syndrome (PAS) puts an end to this cooperation, distinguishing psychopathological profile characteristic that distinguishes the various stages of this syndrome. PMID:19799478
Polaino Lorente, Aquilino
This note focuses on the issue of the state's application of the criminal law as a sanction against women who choose to have abortions. History reveals that pre-Roe criminal-abortion law-both by its terms and in its application-expressed an incoherent attitude toward the culpability of these women. While criminal-abortion laws treated the abortionist as a serious felon, sending him to prison
Samuel W. Buell
The political debates about legal abortion in the United States have intensified the ideological content of the issue. At\\u000a the time that Roe v. Wade legalized abortion nation-wide, conservatives were divided on the issue, as were liberals. By the late 1990s, conservatives\\u000a had moved toward a pro-life stance while liberals reached consensus on supporting choice. Women began the politicization,\\u000a beginning
Partial-birth abortion bans patterned after the federal bill passed by both houses of Congress are constitutional. The clear legislative definition can be easily distinguished from other abortion procedures. Abortion precedents do not apply to such bans because the abortion right pertains to unborn human beings, not to those partially delivered. Such bans are also rationally-related to legitimate state interests. Even if abortion jurisprudence is deemed to apply in the partial-birth abortion context, a ban is still constitutional under Casey because a ban on partial-birth abortions does not impose an undue burden on the abortion right. PMID:9707939
Bopp, J; Cook, C R
\\u000a After reading this chapter and answering the discussion questions that follow, you should be able to\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Critically analyze the history, incidence, and reasons for abortion from a global perspective.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Identify and discuss differences in implementation of abortion laws and policies across different countries, and the public\\u000a health implications with particular attention to unsafe abortion and abortion-related mortality and
Traditionally, the medical community has sided against abortion. However, over the past century there has been a change in this stance. This paper will explore the position of the physician and the medical community in regards to abortion. From the physician's perspective, is there not a conflict between performing an abortion and the physician's duty to save life? Does the physician not feel some hypocrisy in working to save some fetuses and aborting others? The issue of abortion can also lead to the question of what the physician's obligations are; is he or she obligated to the woman and her best interests or to the principle of upholding life? Another discussion will be devoted to abortion in Israel and the factors affecting the decision making process of the "Abortion Committees". Members of these committees weigh issues that are not expressed forthrightly in the law, such as the social situation of the pregnant woman under consideration. Furthermore, the physician's outlook and even conscience can sway his or her decision in some cases. A review committee set up by the Ministry of Health found that in many cases in which abortion was permitted, there was no legal back up for the decision. That is to say, in some cases there was found to be no correlation between the decision and the legal guidelines set out. In light of this, the committee made a number of recommendations. One of these recommendations was that in cases that permission for an abortion was granted based on a reasonable concern for the welfare of the mother or fetus, this decision should be based on medical evidence that there was in fact danger to the mother or fetus. PMID:12362485
This metasite is a useful starting-point for any search for online legal information, pulling together a wide array of international, federal, state, and organizational resources. Links are organized in numerous sections, including Caselaw, specific Legal Topics (Cyberlaw, Intellectual Property, Family Law, etc.), Reference Aids, Trial Advocacy, and Federal Rules, among others. Legal Engine also features link collections aimed at professors, students, and lawyers, as well as numerous other related search and legal sites. Please note that most linked pages are displayed within a frame at the Legal Engine site.
|Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…
Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others
Sir Dugald Baird sketches the history of abortion legislation in Great Britain from the beginning of the century. In his views the 1967 Abortion Act has been one of the most important and beneficial pieces of social legislation enacted in Britain in the last 100 years. It has, however, brought problems both of administration in the hospitals and to individual
We describe case histories of three women with post-abortion mania, including two women who underwent a change in diagnosis from bipolar II to bipolar I disorder and another woman who had no prior history of psychiatric disturbance. It is argued that the study of post-abortion mania should provide an opportunity to better understand the aetiology of puerperal mania. PMID:23381493
Sharma, Verinder; Sommerdyk, Christina; Sharma, Sapna
Objectives. We investigated systematic barriers, identified by previous research, that prevent women from obtaining Medicaid coverage for an abortion even when it should legally be available: when the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest or threatens the mother's life. We also aimed to document strategies to improve access to federal Medicaid funding in qualifying cases. Methods. We conducted in-depth interviews from 2007 to 2009 with representatives of 49 facilities that provided abortions in 11 states. Interviews focused on participants’ experiences and strategies in seeking federal Medicaid funding for abortions. We coded data both inductively and deductively and analyzed them thematically. Results. Common strategies described by the few participants who secured Medicaid funding for abortions in cases of rape, incest, and life endangerment were facility-level interventions, such as developing relationships with Medicaid staff, building savvy billing departments, and encouraging clients to advocate for themselves, as well as broader legal and collaborative strategies. Conclusions. Multipronged state-level interventions that combine advocacy, legal, and on-the-ground resources show the most promise of increasing access to federal Medicaid funding for abortion care.
Blanchard, Kelly; Cordova, Denisse
Unsafe abortion in Sudan results in significant morbidity and mortality. This study of treatment for complications of unsafe abortion in five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan, included a review of hospital records and a survey of 726 patients seeking abortion-related care from 27 October 2007 to 31 January 2008, an interview of a provider of post-abortion care and focus group discussions
Joyce Kinaro; Tag Elsir Mohamed Ali; Rhonda Schlangen; Jessica Mack
Candidates wanting to air advertisements containing graphic depictions of aborted fetuses presented television stations with a dilemma. Sections 312(a)(7) and 315(a) of the Communications Act prevent broadcasters from censoring or restricting the political advertisements of legally qualified candidates seeking federal office. Under the United States Criminal Code, broadcasting material deemed indecent may result in penalties. Also, the Federal Communications Commission
WHEN THE REFORM New York abortion law was passed and came into effect in July, 1970, one of the most extraordinary upheavals in medical practice occurred in U.S. history. An operation which had been illegal, stigmatized, and clandestinely performed under the most sordid circumstances suddenly became legal and accessible, at least in New York City. Most traditional medical practitioners and
WARREN M. HERN; MARLENE R. GOLD; ANNAGAIL OAKS
A strong collective pro-choice mentality was recently manifested in Mexico when a legislative initiative to revoke the legal right ofrape survivor to abortion in the state of Guanajuato awakened national indignation. Pro-choice values were expressed in public opinion with such force that it sparked off the passage of liberalising law reforms in Mexico City and the state of Morelos. In
Marta Lamas; Sharon Bissell
This article, prepared for the 2011 Wiley A. Branton Symposium at Howard Law School, provides a snapshot of how current law and practice generate mixed messages about prenatal genetic testing and abortion. The ability to screen and to test for genetic conditions prenatally is expanding, not only because of technological innovations but also because of increased legal and financial incentives.
Rachel Rebouché; Karen H. Rothenberg
When the Berlin Wall crumbled on November 9, 1989, few Germans could foresee the coming dramatic changes. But by 1992 Germany faced deep internal divisions as it attempted to merge 2 very different societies. One such division was over abortion. In the West, women had access to abortion services only when they met very specific criteria. In the East, access to abortion within the first trimester had been unhindered since 1972. As agreed to under unification treaty terms, the Federal Republic had until the end of 1992 to design and enact new legislation that would create a legal basis for abortion within united Germany. Under West Germany's criminal code, abortion was allowed only 1) when the physical health of the mother was in danger; 2) when abnormalities in the fetus existed; 3) in cases of rape or incest; or 4) if serious social, psychological, or economic factors made the raising of a child difficult. In the primarily Catholic southern and southwestern portions of West Germany, state governments strictly regulated the use of the social indicator clause. In East Germany abortion costs were covered by social security, and the government guaranteed access to abortion services. The widespread use of contraception kept abortion levels comparatively low to moderate in the East (350 per 1000 births). During the 1970s, as population growth rates in the East shrank to negative levels, a pronatalist policy extended maternity leaves in 1976, and women rearing 2 or more children at home received 90% of their salaries for 1 year. In the West, changes in women's status and levels of income and education have led to a decrease in the size of families. All 5 parties have reform proposals ranging from the further restriction of abortion to the complete removal of existing restrictions. A sizable majority of Germans support a liberalization of the West German criminal codes regarding abortion. PMID:12284783
Maternal mortality remains a huge problem in the developing world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa.1 According to the World Health Organization, efforts intended to decrease maternal deaths need to recognize and address unsafe abortions as a significant contributor to the high rates of maternal mortality found in developing countries.2,3 In Africa, where abortions are highly restricted, 680 women die per 100,000 abortions, compared with 0.2-1.2 women per 100,000 in developed countries, where most abortions are legal.4. PMID:23584467
Dalton, Vanessa K; Xu, Xiao; Mullan, Patricia; Danso, Kwabena A; Kwawukume, Yao; Gyan, Kofi; Johnson, Timothy R B
Between June 1978, when the Law nr. 194 was introduced, and the end of 1979, about 250,000 legal abortions were carried out in Italy. Wide discrepancies exist among Italian Regions. Generally, in Northern and Central Italy the incidence of abortion is comparable to most other Countries with liberalized laws. The Region of Emilia Romagna, where social and medical facilities are easily available, con probably offer a better estimate of abortion occurrence in Italy. Minors and Women in the second trimester of pregnancy are still particularly prone to recourse to clandestine abortion. Conscientious objection is a major limiting factor in the implementation of the law. PMID:7211112
Filicori, M; Flamigni, C
The sexual violence's committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are from their scales and consequences on women, real public health, politico-legal, and socio-economical challenges. More than a million of women have been victims of sexual violence on a period of less than fifteen years. Systematic rapes of women were used as war weapon by different groups involved in the Congolese war. Sexual violence against women has impacted public health by spreading sexually transmissible diseases including HIV/AIDS, causing unwanted pregnancies, leading to the gynaecological complications of rape-related injuries, and inflicting psychological trauma on the victims. Despite high level of unwanted pregnancies observed, the Congolese law is very restrictive and interdict induced abortion. This paper presents three arguments which plead in favour of legalizing abortion in DRC: 1) a restrictive law on abortion forces women to use unsafe abortion and increase incidence of injuries and maternal mortality ; 2) DRC has ratified the universal Declaration of human rights, the African union charter, and has than to promote equality between sexes, in this is included women reproductive rights; 3) an unwanted birth is an additional financial charge for a woman, a factor increasing poverty and psychologically unacceptable in case of rape. From the politico-legal point of view, ending rape impunity and decriminalizing abortion are recommended. Decriminalizing abortion give women choice and save victims and pregnant women from risks related to the pregnancy, a childbirth, or an eventual unsafe abortion. These risks increase the maternal mortality already high in DRC (between 950 and 3000 for 100000 live births). PMID:23167138
Kalonda, J C Omba
The authors investigate the effect of abortion access on teen birthrates using county-level panel data. Past research suggested that prohibiting abortion led to higher teen birthrates. Perhaps surprisingly, the authors find that more recent restrictions in abortion access, including the closing of abortion clinics and restrictions on Medicaid funding, had the opposite effect. Small declines in access were related to
Thomas J Kane; Douglas Staiger
Working in abortion care presented a unique set of social, emotional and practical challenges for staff. Because of working in abortion care some staff expressed a sense of isolation from other colleagues. They said that those who didn’t work in abortion care considered it an unpopular job and perceived patients requesting abortion as more ‘challenging ‘and ‘problematic’ than other patients,
Edna M Astbury-Ward
The Swedish abortion legislation of 1975 gave women the right to make a decision about abortion before the end of the 18th week of pregnancy. The number of abortions is rising in Sweden as a chosen method of birth control. The attitudes of students toward abortion were studied in 1986–1987. A questionnaire containing items on how sex education is taught,
Marianne E. Lindell; Henny M. Olsson
In the US the abortion debate has transcended the realm of medicine, pervaded the public consciousness, and entered national politics. Anti-abortion activists have never been more vocal and visible than in the past 5 years, and some profile activists have resorted to violence. Anti-abortion activists have gained increased influence under the Reagan administration. The President has embraced right-to-life leaders. With the approval of President Reagan, the Justice Department has asked the Supreme Court to overturn the landmark 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. The Supreme Court established with that decision that a woman's right to privacy entitles her to a safe, legal abortion, but that this right is not unqualified. It ruled that decisions about abortion in the 1st trimester of pregnancy be left to the woman and her physician and not be regulated by the state. The Court ruled that 2nd trimester abortions could be regulated by the state "in ways that are reasonably related to maternal health" (i.e., restricted to hospitals, but this restriction was eased in the 1983 Supreme Court decisions which affirmed Roe v. Wade). The Court allowed states to regulate, and even proscribe, abortions performed in the "stage subsequent to viability." In its brief, the Justice Department charges that the Roe decision was "a source of instability in the law" to be reconsidered and abandoned, as the principles of the 1973 ruling were so sweeping that they block "modest and reasonable" state and local governmental efforts to control legalized abortions. The brief was filed July 15, 1985 in 2 appeals involving Illinois and Pennsylvania laws that restrict abortions. This request marks the 1st time in 31 years that the government has asked the justices to reverse themselves on a basic constitutional decision. Parties on both sides of the abortion debate agree that it is unlikely that the same justices who voted 6 to 3 in a similar case 2 years ago to reaffirm a woman's right to an abortion would overturn the 7-to-2 Roe decision. In 1981, most abortions were obtained by young women, unmarried women, and white women. About 1.6 million abortions were reported for the US in 1981, representing about 26% of pregnancies that year. The US abortion rate remained essentially stable in 1981 and 1982 after rising each year between 1973 and 1980. The annual increases in the years just prior to 1980 were small. In 1981, as in 1980, 91% of abortions were performed at 12 or fewer weeks past the last menstrual period. Abortion services are most available, and rates are highest on the East and West coasts. 12 years after abortion was made legal in the US, the debate may get louder as prochoice activists launch efforts to match the campaign of the right-to-life movement. PMID:12267463
|Legal rights of the fetus and selective abortion are the major focus of a review of legal cases and educational literature concerning fetuses that may be handicapped or have the potential to be handicapped at birth. Related issues include parental immunity, protection of an unborn child, and quality of life. (Author/JW)|
Cohen, Libby G.
The issue of conscientious objection (CO) arises in healthcare when doctors and nurses refuse to have any involvement in the provision of treatment of certain patients due to their religious or moral beliefs. Most commonly CO is invoked when it comes to induced abortion. Of the EU member states where induced abortion is legal, invoking CO is granted by law in 21 countries. The same applies to the non-EU countries Norway and Switzerland. CO is not legally granted in the EU member states Sweden, Finland, Bulgaria and the Czech Republic. The Icelandic legislation provides no right to CO either. European examples prove that the recommendation that CO should not prevent women from accessing services fails in a number of cases. CO puts women in an unequal position depending on their place of residence, socio-economic status and income. CO should not be presented as a question that relates only to health professionals and their rights. CO mainly concerns women as it has very real consequences for their reproductive health and rights. European countries should assess the laws governing CO and its effects on women's rights. CO should not be used as a subtle method for limiting the legal right to healthcare. PMID:23848269
Heino, Anna; Gissler, Mika; Apter, Dan; Fiala, Christian
In late imperial China, a number of purported methods of abortion were known; but who actually attempted abortion and under what circumstances? Some historians have suggested that abortion was used for routine birth control, which presupposes that known methods were safe, reliable, and readily available. This paper challenges the qualitative evidence on which those historians have relied, and presents new evidence from Qing legal sources and modern medical reports to argue that traditional methods of abortion (the most common being abortifacient drugs) were dangerous, unreliable, and often cost a great deal of money. Therefore, abortion in practice was an emergency intervention in a crisis: either a medical crisis, in which pregnancy threatened a woman's health, or a social crisis, in which pregnancy threatened to expose a woman's extramarital sexual relations. Moreover, abortion was not necessarily available even to women who wanted one. PMID:21328808
Sommer, Matthew H
Computer models provide a framework for better understanding of complex phenomena. Events such as launch aborts are rare, and detailed field information about the chemical load they introduce into the atmosphere is rare. A good model will make predictions...
B. B. Brady A. McIlroy L. R. Martin
Because abortion is illegal in Senegal, it is not easy to determine its frequency. Women suffering complications of illegal abortions are often unwilling to aid in their own treatment by divulging the means used to induce the abortion. Clandestine abortions are associated with poor hygienic conditions exposing the woman to risk of infection. Abortion operators are often ignorant of elementary notions of genital anatomy and unskilled in gynecological surgery. Death may result in a few minutes from shock or embolism. The operator is unable to take any action because of the illegal status of the abortion. Secondary complications may appear because of local trauma, infection, or from caustic or toxic agents. Hemorrhage may be external and abundant, originating in the cervix, vagina, or uterine cavity. It may occur within the abdominal cavity if an organ is perforated. In both cases surgical treatment may be required to save the woman's life. An infection or a state of toxicity may result from the abortion, or both may occur simultaneously. Infections of varying degrees of seriousness may be localized in the genital organs (pelviperitonitis), spread throughout the abdomen (general peritonitis), or spread throughout the organism. Pelviperitonitis results from performing abortions under septic conditions and from uterine retention of part of the embryo. Symptoms include abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, and arrest of intestinal transit. Symptoms are often masked by uninformed use of antibiotics, which allows the infection to spread to the other abdominal organs. Generalized peritonitis results from grave lesions of the genital or intestinal tracts produced by traumatizing instruments. In the absence of medical and surgical treatment, the patient's condition rapidly deteriorates and death ensues. Generalized infection may be due to septicemia, tetanus, or hepatonephritis. Hospitalization in a specialized service is required. Thromboembolic complications may also follow clandestine abortions. Late complications and sequelae may include chronic abdominal pain, menstrual disturbances, secondary sterility, or inability to have sexual relations because of vaginal lesions caused by caustic agents. Later pregnancies may be ectopic, or may spontaneously abort because of cervical lesions caused by trauma. Psychic sequelae may include depression or confusion. Information and contraceptive services should be made available to young girls to prevent illegal abortions. Social legislation should be modified to assist future mothers. PMID:12315024
Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded fetal livers and lungs from 139 cases of swine abortion were investigated retrospectively for chlamydiae by means of immunohistochemistry. Using a genus-specific anti- body, chlamydial antigen was found in eight livers obtained from five (3.6%) abortion cases from different herds. All lung sections were negative. Chlamydiae were also labeled in five of the eight positive livers using a
R. Thoma; F. Guscetti; I. Schiller; N. Schmeer; L. Corboz; A. Pospischil
In the US attitudes toward abortion in the 1980s seem to have reached a more liberal plateau, much more favored than in the 1960s or earlier, but not longer moving in a liberal direction. Catholic attitudes basically have followed the same trend. Traditionally Catholic support has been slightly lower than Protestant, and both are less inclined to support abortion than Jews or the nonreligious. During the 1970s support among non-black Catholics averaged about 10 percentage points below non-black Protestants. Blacks tend to be anti-abortion and thereby lower support among Protestants as a whole. A comparison of Protestants and Catholics of both races shows fewer religious differences -- about 7 percentage points. There are some indications that this gap may be closing. In 1982, for the 1st time, support for abortions for social reasons, such as poverty, not wanting to marry, or not wanting more children, was as high among Catholics as among Protestants. 1 of the factors contributing to this narrowing gap has been the higher level of support for abortion among younger Catholics. Protestants show little variation on abortion attitudes, with those over age 65 being slightly less supportive. Among Catholics, support drops rapidly with age. This moderate and possibly vanishing difference between Catholics and Protestants contrasts sharply with the official positions of their respective churches. The Catholic Church takes an absolute moral position against abortion, while most Protestant churches take no doctrinaire position on abortion. Several, such as the Unitarians and Episcopalians, lean toward a pro-choice position as a matter of social policy, though fundamentalist sects take strong anti-abortion stances. Few Catholics agree with their church's absolutist anti-abortion position. The big split on abortion comes between what are sometimes termed the "hard" abortion reasons -- mother's health endangered, serious defect in fetus, rape, or incest. Support among Catholics for "hard" reasons ranges from about 80-88%. Abortion for social reasons such as poverty or not wanting additional children ranges from 35-50%. Catholic support for abortion also varies by geographical region, community type, and ethnic group. Support tends to be strongest in the Northeast, in large cities, and among descendants of immigrants from Italy, Eastern Europe, and France. Support is weakest among Catholics in the Southwest, in small towns or rural areas, and among the Irish and Hispanics, especially Mexican-Americans. Among Catholics, many factors cause opinion to deviate from the national average. A 2nd major political implication is the comparative dedication or commitment of supporters and opponents. Analysis of election returns in 1978 in particular failed to demonstrate any measurable anti-abortion vote, but this does not mean that in a particular constituency it could not be made a serious issue. PMID:12178931
Smith, T W
The collapse of communism across East Central Europe was marked by a renewal of debates around reproduction, with abortion debates surfacing in Romania, Germany and Poland. Reproductive politics and more specifically abortion debates typically come to the forefront in times of crisis or societal transformation. Struggles over women's reproductive rights in Poland, as evidenced by continuing debate around the legal
In the thirty-three years since the April 25, 1974, Carnation Revolution, there have been sporadic efforts by progressive forces to legalize abortion in Portugal. This activity has intensified over the past nine years, culminating with two national referenda on the subject, one in 1998 which nar- rowly affirmed the ban on abortion, and the second in 2007 which allowed for
Paul Christopher Manuel; Maurya N. Tollefsen
This paper provides an overview of legal, religious, medical and social factors that serve to support or hinder women's access to safe abortion services in the 21 predominantly Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where one in ten pregnancies ends in abortion. Reform efforts, including progressive interpretations of Islam, have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. However, medical and social factors limit access to safe abortion services in all but Turkey and Tunisia. To address this situation, efforts are increasing in a few countries to introduce post-abortion care, document the magnitude of unsafe abortion and understand women's experience of unplanned pregnancy. Religious fat?wa have been issued allowing abortions in certain circumstances. An understanding of variations in Muslim beliefs and practices, and the interplay between politics, religion, history and reproductive rights is key to understanding abortion in different Muslim societies. More needs to be done to build on efforts to increase women's rights, engage community leaders, support progressive religious leaders and government officials and promote advocacy among health professionals. PMID:17512379
The decline in mortality from abortions after Roe vs Wade was probably a result of the introduction of safer procedures for abortions, but the decline in mortality was greater for induced abortions than for other types of abortions. PMID:12530723
Smargisso, Dana M; Lester, David
The purpose of this study is to describe the knowledge and attitudes regarding abortion of a sample of health professionals in Mexico. In particular, we aim to explore their association with the practice of abortion and the care of post-abortion complications, taking into consideration the present legal framework in Mexico. The data come from an anonymous and computerized survey applied to participants attending a national meeting of gynecology and obstetrics in Mexico in 2009 (n=418). The attitudes of health professionals in relation to abortion play a key role in promoting access to both medical and surgical abortion services. We did not find a statistical association between living in a largely restrictive federal entity and the practice of abortions, which may be explained by the lack of knowledge that these survey participants had about abortion laws in their federal entity. This lack of knowledge about abortion legislation can hinder a woman's access to these services even when the legal framework such access. PMID:23989628
García-Núñez, Nubia Naneri; Atienzo, Erika Elizabeth; Dayananda, Ila; Walker, Dilys
In Jewish law right and wrong, good and evil, are absolute values which transcend time, place, and environment. They defy definition by human intuition or expediency. Jewish law derives from the Divine revelation at Mount Sinai as expounded by sages faithful to, and authorized by, its writ. The Talmud rules that if a woman is in hard travail, and her life must be saved, the child must be aborted and extracted. The mother's life comes first. The fetus is not a human life until it is born. But 19th century Rabbinical works state that it is immoral to destroy a monster child. Modern rabbis are unanimous in condemning abortion, feticide, or infanticide as an unconscionable attack on human life. However, Jewish law allows abortion if the pregnancy will cause severe psychological damage to the mother. No civilized society could survive without laws which occasionally cause some suffering or personal anguish. One human life is worth a million lives, because each life is infinite in value. In cases of rape or incest Jewish law still does not sanction abortion. Man's procreative responsibilities are serious and carry rights and obligations which would be upset by liberalized abortion laws. If a person kills a person who is mortally wounded, the killer is guilty of a moral offense. PMID:12309928
This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…
Medoff, Marshall H.
|This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…
Medoff, Marshall H.
The article considers three theses about postabortion regret which seek to illustrate its pertinence to reasoning about abortion, and which are often deployed, either explicitly or implicitly, to dissuade women out of that reproductive choice. The first is that postabortion regret renders an abortion morally unjustified. The second is that that a relatively high incidence of postabortion regret-compared with a lower incidence of postnatal regret in the relevant comparator field-is good evidence for the moral impermissibility of abortion choice. The third is that high rates of postabortion regret suggest that abortion is not the most prudent or welfare-maximising choice for the woman concerned. All three theses argue for the compellingness of knowledge about postabortion regret in moral and practical reasoning about abortion, especially from the pregnant woman's point of view. This article argues that all three theses are flawed. In particular, it seeks to remind readers that feelings of regret directed at past decisions are often decoupled from the fact of the matter about their moral or rational justification. Moreover, certain features of reproductive decisions in particular make regret an especially unsuitable yardstick for actual justification in this context, and even less epistemically reliable as evidence for a lack of justification than it may be in other fields of decision-making. The implication is that rates of postabortion regret, even if they can be presumed to be higher than rates of postnatal regret, are not as pertinent to moral and practical reasoning about abortion as is sometimes suggested. PMID:22930678
ExtractAlthough many microorganisms can cause sporadic intrauterine infections in ewes, only a few are responsible for the classical outbreaks of abortion that result in significant financial loss. New Zealand is free from major causes of infectious abortion such as Chlamydophila abortus (enzootic abortion), Coxiella burnetii, Salmonella enterica serovar Abortus-ovis, Brucella melitensis, and the viruses of Bluetongue, Wesselsbron disease and Akabane
Attitudes toward the desirability of abortion were significaantly related to sex, college, classification, level of church activity, residence background, family size, exposure to abortion, and attitude toward premarital sex. The data suggest an increasing acceptance of abortion in the future. (Author)
Maxwell, Joseph W.
|Attitudes toward the desirability of abortion were significaantly related to sex, college, classification, level of church activity, residence background, family size, exposure to abortion, and attitude toward premarital sex. The data suggest an increasing acceptance of abortion in the future. (Author)|
Maxwell, Joseph W.
Violence against abortion clinics and other activities directed toward patients and staff of abortion facilities have been termed terrorism by the pro?choice movement. However, the Federal Bureau of Investigation denies that these actions are terrorism. Instances of abortion clinic violence for 1982–1987 were examined in order to determine whether there is a correspondence between these incidents and definitions or models
Michele Wilson; John Lynxwiler
Women having an induced abortion in an urban clinic were studied. First, second, and third time aborters (N=150) were interviewed. Variables including reasons for choosing abortion, life situations, contraceptive risk-taking, and ease of becoming pregnant were examined. Related studies and suggestions for postabortion counseling are discussed.…
Osler, Mogens; David, Henry P.; Morgall, Janine M.
|Women having an induced abortion in an urban clinic were studied. First, second, and third time aborters (N=150) were interviewed. Variables including reasons for choosing abortion, life situations, contraceptive risk-taking, and ease of becoming pregnant were examined. Related studies and suggestions for postabortion counseling are discussed.…
Osler, Mogens; David, Henry P.; Morgall, Janine M.
This article gives an overview of what is known about second trimester abortions in India, including the reasons why women seek abortions in the second trimester, the influence of abortion law and policy, surgical and medical methods used, both safe and unsafe, availability of services, requirements for second trimester service delivery, and barriers women experience in accessing second trimester services.
Suchitra S Dalvie
The Israeli law of abortions (1977) legally authorises hospital committees to decide upon women's requests for selective abortion. One of the law's clauses determines that abortions can be approved in cases of an embryopathy. However, the law does not provide any clear definitions of those fetal 'physical or mental defects' in terms of severity and/or likelihood, which remain open to interpretation by the committee members. This paper aimed to determine which ethical methodologies are used by committee members and advisors as they face the dilemma of abortion approval due to mild to moderate possible embryopathy. Twenty interviews demonstrated that they use mainly a combination of deontology and a contextual-relational model. Their ethical considerations are both contextual such as the family's/woman's relational network and are influenced by the ethical principles of autonomy and in cases of late abortions the value of life. The findings reveal a paradoxical picture: on the one hand, committee members hold liberal perceptions and in practice abortion requests are very seldom rejected. On the other hand, the Israeli abortion law and practice of abortion committees is still problematical from liberal and feminist rights perspectives. This paradox is discussed further by reflecting upon the relevant theory as well as the Israeli context. The paper concludes by suggesting that within the specific Israeli sociopolitical climate the requirement for committee approval of what should be a private decision might be necessary in order to placate religious or other opposition to abortion. PMID:21693566
Rimon-Zarfaty, Nitzan; Jotkowitz, Alan
Targeted Regulation of Abortion Provider laws (or TRAP laws) are state laws that apply only to abortion providers and impose on them licensing fees, physical plant\\/personnel regulations, and requirements that exceed those imposed on other comparable health-care providers or medical facilities. According to prochoice supporters, the explicit or implicit goal of TRAP laws is to drive abortion providers from the
Marshall H. Medoff
This article explores the context within which abortion law and discourse in Northern Ireland must be situated and understood,\\u000a relying in part on post-modern insights into the wider and long-term implications of feminists engaging law and by examining\\u000a the strategies employed in Northern Ireland around the issue of abortion. In 2001,the Family Planning Association (Northern\\u000a Ireland) took legal action to
Eileen V. Fegan; Rachel Rebouche
My research in European abortion laws and restrictions focuses on the migration of thousands of Irish women who travel to\\u000a England each year to access safe and legal abortion services. This article is an investigation of the Irish-English border\\u000a as a symbol for reproductive freedom and the new value systems in which Irish women participate when they cross its boundary.
This article explores recent efforts to resurrect casuistry as an effective means for resolving public policy debates on difficult issues such as abortion. The essay begins by comparing casuistical and legal methods of decision-making and goes on to consider the possible benefits of a casuistical approach to abortion policy. On the basis of a detailed examination ofRoe v. Wade andPlanned
Lucinda Joy Peach
Standard approaches to the morality of abortion typically founder on the question of the “personhood” of the fetus. This paper attempts to avoid this problem by developing an alternative approach in which philosophical positions are derived not from a presumed right to life but from the special moral obligations of parents to nurture their immature children. After a discussion of
M. E. Winston
Although it has received comparatively little attention in the literature, the question of what exactly grounds a parent's obligation to his or her offspring is of central importance to the abortion debate. This essay argues that the true ground of such obligations lies in the biological bond that exists between parents and children, a bond that is forged at conception
Andrew J. Peach
Repetitive abortions reveal an ambivalence towards contraception. The desire for pregnancy does not always go along with a desire for motherhood. It is a neurotic expression full of guilt that shows that these women did not overcome a childish rivality with their mothers, and remain within a symbiotic relationship with them. PMID:10758588
Abortion, particularly later-term abortion, and neonaticide, selective non-treatment of newborns, are feasible management strategies for fetuses or newborns diagnosed with severe abnormalities. However, policy varies considerably among developed nations. This article examines abortion and neonatal policy in four nations: Israel, the US, the UK and Denmark. In Israel, late-term abortion is permitted while non-treatment of newborns is prohibited. In the US, on the other hand, later-term abortion is severely restricted, while treatment to newborns may be withdrawn. Policy in the UK and Denmark bridges some of these gaps with liberal abortion and neonatal policy. Disparate policy within and between nations creates practical and ethical difficulties. Practice diverges from policy as many practitioners find it difficult to adhere to official policy. Ethically, it is difficult to entirely justify perinatal policy in these nations. In each nation, there are elements of ethically sound policy, while other aspects cannot be defended. Ethical policy hinges on two underlying normative issues: the question of fetal/newborn status and the morality of killing and letting die. While each issue has been the subject of extensive debate, there are firm ethical norms that should serve as the basis for coherent and consistent perinatal policy. These include 1) a grant of full moral and legal status to the newborn but only partial moral and legal status to the late-term fetus 2) a general prohibition against feticide unless to save the life of the mother or prevent the birth of a fetus facing certain death or severe pain or suffering and 3) a general endorsement of neonaticide subject to a parent's assessment of the newborn's interest broadly defined to consider physical harm as well as social, psychological and or financial harm to related third parties. Policies in each of the nations surveyed diverging from these norms should be the subject of public discourse and, where possible, legislative reform. PMID:12211246
Gross, Michael L
This paper gives a historical, international and cultural outlook on the debate related to the 1982 legalization of abortion in the modern democratic republic of Turkey. A belief that the country is under-populated and subsequent pro-natalist concerns of the turn of the century seem to have strongly influenced the legal prohibition of abortion. The paper first discusses the widespread social practice and the permissive attitudes towards abortion in the late Ottoman Empire and in contemporary Turkey. The contrast between the above social situation and until recently the strict, non-permissive religious and secular attitudes are presented with a discussion of the effects of the westernization and secularization processes in the late Ottoman Empire. Moral concerns and judgements regarding abortion seem to have penetrated Ottoman society as part of the above processes beginning in the nineteenth century. The present day official religious interpretations seem to conform with the more conservative Islamic schools of thought rather than the more liberal Islamic interpretations. Furthermore, the 1982 laws which legalize abortion until the eight week of pregnancy consider family planning to be a family issue and bring the restriction of making married women have their husband's permission before preceding with abortion. As such, the present legal platform opens to question the rationales and population control motives behind the law and the importance of who it is that can make the decision to proceed with abortion. Thus, in the last 70 years a historical and ideological progression can be discerned in the line of assuming first the state and then the family to have decision making legitimacy as regards reproductive choices. Today, the platform of radical discussion has shifted to evaluating the importance of individual women in making this reproductive choice. In this context, in conclusion, the paper discussed the rationale and the logic behind and the implications for gender power structures of the existing legal situation in Turkey. PMID:8643979
In major health facilities in Vietnam, many patients wait for an abortion while few patients are in family planning consultation rooms. The abortion procedure takes no more than 2 minutes/ patient. Anesthesia is rarely used. In the north, the predominant abortion method for first trimester abortions is dilatation and curettage (D&C) while, in the south, it is vacuum aspiration. For second trimester abortions, the methods from which to choose are D&C or saline solution. After the abortion, the patients rests for 30 minutes before returning home, often by bicycle or moped. Adolescent pregnancies are rare in Vietnam because of strict rules on premarital sex. At a clinic in Hanoi, only 7% of all abortions involve adolescents. Abortion is a fertility control method in Vietnam. The abortion rate is 2-4 abortions/live birth. 50% of the population of reproductive age use no contraception. 33% use IUDs. The 1992 total fertility rate was 3.2. While waiting for an abortion, women are suppose to receive counseling on contraception, but that is not the case. Clinics do not always have adequate equipment or antiseptics to perform abortions. They perform 30-50 abortions/2 hour sessions. During this time, sterilization of instruments is supposed to occur, which leaves little time for counseling. Abortions are performed the same day as requested. Women have no opportunity to discuss them with their husband or to obtain family consent. About 90% of women know at least 1 modern family planning method. About 50% of them have ever used a modern method. Most family planning practitioners are women (80% of physicians and all nurses and midwives). One week of formal training for midwives covers family planning. Midwives and general practitioners are authorized to perform menstrual regulation and to insert and remove IUDs. Medical students are required to work in an obstetrics/gynecology department for 20 weeks. PMID:12222254
A 16-year-old girl is admitted with a paracetamol overdose, but refuses treatment. This article explores the legal, ethical and practical aspects of this case, which led ultimately to an application to the court for a judicial order. PMID:23213141
Lopez, Tony; Howells, Rachel; Lindsay, Simon
Despite the lessening of federal restraints to abortion providers and the fact that the US Supreme Court has not overthrown Roe vs. Wade, access to abortion still remains a problem for women because there are not enough providers, especially in rural areas where the number dropped 51% from 1977 to 1988. A 1985 survey showed that only 34% of gynecologists perform abortions, with two-thirds doing no more than 4/month. Yet, 84% said abortion was necessary in some cases, and only 13% said it should never be done. These percentages have not changed since a survey 14 years earlier, but the number of disincentives to performing abortions, including harassment by anti-abortion forces, has grown. Also, financial renumeration has increased little in 2 decades, and younger physicians are not inspired by memories of the damage caused by illegal abortionists. Physicians who begin to perform abortions immediately after their residencies are not benefitting from as much training as was given in the past, despite the fact that studies show that residents have higher complication rates than experienced physicians and that proper training reduces complications. One explanation for the failure of residency programs to include abortion training is the fact that 90% of abortions occur in free-standing clinics rather than in hospitals. If abortion training is offered at all, it is usually offered as an elective, not part of a required rotation. There are some residency programs, however, which offer exemplary training in abortion, many at their own clinics. In these cases, residents rotate through the abortion training in their second or third year, with exemptions for those with moral objections. Abortion issues should also be covered in the public health, reproductive medicine, or ethics courses of medical schools; in fact, long before the students see abortions performed. The training programs which are failing to train gynecologic specialists are also ignoring medical generalists. In addition, abortion is rarely included in postgraduate refresher or continuing education courses. The shortage of physicians willing to provide abortions has raised the possibility of nurse-practitioners, physician's assistants, or even lay persons being trained to provide abortions. However, in some areas, paramedical personnel are in greater demand than physicians. In addition, they may not be able to obtain the necessary insurance and state laws would have to be changed to allow them to perform this procedure. Of course, the same disincentives that exist for physicians would exist for them. The solution to this problem lies in providing abortion education to all health care professionals and in making abortion training readily available to all interested physicians. Laws governing harassment and violence should be enforced, and compensation should be comparable to that of other medical procedures. PMID:8274871
Darney, P D
US Vice President Al Gore is pessimistic about the likelihood of consensus on abortion and contraception at the 1994 World Population Conference given opposition on the part of the Vatican, governments of nations with large Roman Catholic populations, and Muslim fundamentalists. Although the Clinton Administration is advocating safe, legal abortion and accessible contraception, it does not intent to push for abortion rights in countries where the procedure is illegal. On the other hand, Gore has expressed confidence that the Cairo conference will forge a new approach to population and development based on improvements in women's status. PMID:12319073
First trimester legal abortions were induced in 20 patients by i.m. injection of a single dose of 1,000, 1,200 or 1,500 ?g of sulprostone. Complete expulsion of the conceptus within 24 h occurred in 16 of the women. There was a tendency to a higher rate of complete expulsion, as well as gastrointestinal side effects, at higher dosages. No association
Bertil Larsson; Aino Jonasson; Kjell Carlström
AbstractThis article examines The Center for Bio-Ethical Reform's claim that abortion is genocide, assessing it against legal, trait-based and “dynamic process” definitions of genocide. The purpose of this exercise is not to give credence to what many consider an outrageous claim, nor is it to merely refute this claim based upon a close reading of existing definitions of genocide; instead,
Woolford Jessica; Woolford Andrew
They only certain outcomes of the Webster decision is that state legislatures will be stimulated to enact more legislation regulating abortion. However it is unlikely that the worst prochoice fears will be realized. A return to the 19th century abortion prohibition era is very unlikely because of trends in Western societal attitudes and laws. Since 1973 and the Roe decision there have been more than 300 bills or acts enacted by state legislatures that regulate abortion. Whether it is criminal prohibitions, licensing requirements, zoning restrictions, parental participation, spousal participation, informed consent, health and sanitation regulations, post viability regulations, laws protecting the right of health care workers not to participate in abortion, public funding restrictions, or regulations of fetal experimentation, abortion regulations have definitely been wide spread. The democratic process is going to produce a moderate position on abortion as a result of the Webster decision for 7 reasons: (1) the period before Roe was a time when abortion legislation was in a trend towards moderation. In 1962 abortion prohibitions were in place in all states. In 1967 4 states adopted an abortion reform position that allowed for abortion in the hard cases: (1) maternal health, (2) fetal defect, (3) rape/incest. Over the next 5 years 9 more states followed and 3 others went even farther by allowing unrestricted abortion during early pregnancy. (2) public opinion is consistent and strong in favoring abortion restrictions except for the hard cases. (3) the trend towards moderation in abortion regulations is closely related to other legal trends toward moderation. No fault divorce was a move towards moderation. The abortion experience in Western Europe was towards moderation. (5) Medical technological developments are putting the power of abortion in the hands of women. Abortificant drugs that can be used without medical assistance give women greater freedom. (6) The history of abortion law enforcement is very moderate. (7) Judicial power continues as all member of the Supreme Court have stated publicly that the Constitution does allow some room for abortion. PMID:2628653
Wardle, L D
Despite legal restriction, induced abortions and resulting complications are common in Nigeria. Misoprostol administration for incomplete abortion was introduced in 3 Nigerian hospitals. The feasibility of the hospitals, patient and provider acceptability were assessed using questionnaire and interview guides administered to 205 women and 17 providers respectively. Amongst the women, 194 (95%) were satisfied and very satisfied with misoprostol, 176 (86%) would choose misoprostol again if another incomplete abortion occurred and 191 (93%) would recommend it to another woman in a similar situation. Providers were highly satisfied with misoprostol. The ease of use and ability to redirect surgical resources to more complicated issues were positive features cited by them. The providers agreed that integration of misoprostol was straightforward and required few resources. Therefore, misoprostol for incomplete abortion is safe, efficacious and acceptable to providers and patients. In remote areas of Nigeria with limited post-abortion care (PAC), misoprostol administration is an important potential PAC treatment modality. Features of misoprostol-low cost, room temperature stability, and ease of introduction-render it an important treatment option, particularly in low resource and rural settings. PMID:22571104
Dah, Talemoh; Akiode, Akinsewa; Awah, Paschal; Fetters, Tamara; Okoh, Mathew; Ujah, Innocent; Oji, Ejike
The increase in induced abortion produces large numbers of cells, tissues and organs, which are used in several fields of Medicine, either in research or in treatment. The main uses are in Cardiology, Hematology, Metabolism, Embryology, Neurology, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Dermatology and Transplantations. Flavor enhancers and cosmetics also benefit. Utilitarianism has led to an increase in abortion-originated cell and tissue banks. Abortion is justified through the manipulation of language. Vested interests give rise to complicity in researchers and society as a whole. Abortion and tissue 'donation' cannot be split; since fresh tissues are involved there is a symbiotic relationship between them. Valid consent is not possible. A contradiction emerges, the nasciturus is not desired or valued but fetal organs are. When someone is deprived of his rights it is because another wants to enslave them. Research must have a moral base. Knowledge should not be increased at any price. Something that is legal and well intentioned is not always morally acceptable. The duty of omission is applicable. Means to achieve a goal must be ethical means. Educational efforts to restore respect for the human embryo and fetus must be promoted. Technical advances are not always in accordance with human nature and dignity. Research and treatment that do not resort to cells, tissues and organs obtained from induced abortions should be promoted. PMID:23320641
Redondo Calderón, José Luis
Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective.
Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; AlFaleh, Khalid M.
Women phoning to request an abortion at a free-standing abortion clinic who were less than 46 days from the last menstrual period were given a choice between a surgical abortion and a medical abortion induced with methotrexate and misoprostol. Twenty-six percent (116 of 405 women) chose a medical abortion. Younger women were more likely to choose a surgical abortion. There
Ellen R. Wiebe
This essay argues that Sandra Day O'Connor's moral reasoning concerning abortion cases represents a female-associated jurisprudence. A female-associated jurisprudence negotiates a moral ground that values the rights of individuals as interdependent members of communities. From the recognition of the need to balance such interests emerges a jurisprudence that emphasizes the interconnectedness of all parties and all competing interests in a
Patricia A. Sullivan; Steven R. Goldzwig
A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized. PMID:12178856
Hunt, M E
Objective: To study incidence and determinants of emotional distress following induced abortion. Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lund University, University Hospital Malmö, Sweden. Subjects: A series of 854 participants at 12-month postabortion follow-up, representing 66.5% of the 1?285 women undergoing induced abortion at Malmö, 1989. Methods: Analysis of data elicited at a semistructured interview 1 year after induced abortion,
Hanna Söderberg; Lars Janzon; Nils-Otto Sjöberg
This article responds to two important recent treatments of abortion rights. I will mainly discuss Ronald Dworkin's recent writings concerning abortion: his article "Unenumerated rights: whether and how Roe should be overruled," and his book Life's Dominion. In these writings Dworkin presents a novel view of what the constitutional and moral argument surronding abortion is really about. Both debates actually turn, he argues, on the question of how to interpret the widely shared idea that human life is sacred. At the heart of the abortion debate is the essentially religious notion that human life has value which transcends its value to any particular person; abortion is therefore at bottom a religious issue. Dworkin hopes to use this analysis to show that the religion clauses of the First Amendment provide a "textual home" for a woman's right to choose abortion. I wish to scrutinize this suggestion here; I want to probe the precise consequences for abortion rights of such an understanding of their basis. I will argue that the consequences are more radical than Dworkin seems to realize. The other work I will examine here is the important 1992 Supreme Court decision on abortion, Planned Parenthood v. Casey. The controlling opinion in that case, written jointly by Justices Kennedy, O'Connor, and Souter, strongly reaffirmed Roe v. Wade, but also upheld most of the provisions of a Pennsylvania statute that had mandated various restrictions on abortion. The justices' basis for upholding these restictions was their introduction of a new constitutional standard for abortion regulations, an apparently weaker standard than those that had governed previous Supreme Court abortion decisions. I think there is a flaw in Casey's new constitutional test for abortion regulations, and I will explain, when we turn to Casey, what it is and why it bears a close relation to Dworkin's reluctance to carry his argument as far as it seems to go. PMID:11660187
US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation. PMID:9328746
Stotland, N L
At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure personhood, the government should not define it. The right to an abortion is secured in the same Constitution that secures the right to speak out and to pray to whomever one wants. Moral values are not eht issue but the value of individual freedom is. It is necessary at this time to reintroduce the women into the public dialogue. She seems to be forgotten in this most recent wave of concern over fetal rights. The task is to present a "heart" argument, that is, to remember the woman. The opponents of abortion want to spread the belief that women who have abortions are all the same -- selfish and cold hearted people who choose abortion simply as a matter of convenience. This is not the case, and it is necessary to remind people of the woman's point of view. PMID:12340405
In this Journal in 1972, 100 leaders in obstetrics and gynecology published a compelling statement that recognized the legalization of abortion in several states and anticipated the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade. They projected the numbers of legal abortions that likely would be required by women in the United States and described the role of the teaching hospital in meeting that responsibility. They wrote to express their concern for women's health in a new legal and medical era of reproductive control and to define the responsibilities of academic obstetrician-gynecologists. Forty years later, 100 professors examine the statement of their predecessors in light of medical advances and legal changes and suggest a further course of action for obstetrician gynecologists. PMID:23500455
In this Journal in 1972, 100 leaders in obstetrics and gynecology published a compelling statement that recognized the legalization of abortion in several states and anticipated the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade. They projected the numbers of legal abortions that likely would be required by women in the United States and described the role of the teaching hospital in meeting that responsibility. They wrote to express their concern for women's health in a new legal and medical era of reproductive control and to define the responsibilities of academic obstetrician-gynecologists. Forty years later, 100 professors examine the statement of their predecessors in light of medical advances and legal changes and suggest a further course of action for obstetrician gynecologists. PMID:24034806
Abortion is a frequent topic in political discourse, but few opportunities are available for women to discuss their complex emotions and experiences concerning abortion. Popular belief holds that many women need "counseling" about their decision to have an abortion, but little systematic after-abortion emotional care is available. The authors of this study conducted semi-structured interviews (N = 7) and focus groups (N = 2; 13 participants) with staff members and volunteer counselors at four abortion support talklines between February 2009 and March 2010 for their insights into the post-abortion needs of callers. The authors found evidence that some women needed a space devoid of politics for processing their experience and emotions over time. Talklines begin to meet these needs, especially the episodic processing needs of women experiencing emotional difficulty at any time after an abortion. However, some mental health needs are still unmet, including those among women experiencing emotional difficulty due to preexisting conditions co-occurring with, but not caused by, the abortion. The authors of this study call for integrating after-abortion emotional support more fully into the work of abortion provision and women's mental health advocates. The authors warn against using these findings to support legal mandates for post-abortion support, highlighting the negative consequences of such mandates in the pre-abortion arena. PMID:22324360
Kimport, Katrina; Perrucci, Alissa; Weitz, Tracy A
Abortion in dairy cattle is commonly defined as a loss of the fetus between the age of 42 days and approxi- mately 260 days. Pregnancies lost before 42 days are usually referred to as early embryonic deaths, whereas a calf that is born dead between 260 days and full term is defined a stillbirth. A low rate of abortions is
"This essay...examines the abortion option [using] two standard economic welfare criteria, efficiency and equity, to evaluate different distributions of property rights." The author critically examines a 1971 article by Judith Jarvis Thomson concerning fetal personhood and the maternal right to privacy. He asserts that "the efficiency of different output allocations and even output and wealth as such are neither ethically neutral nor ordinally invariant but depend on the range of property rights and distributions, wealth-constrained valuations, and populations considered. The results suggest that, insofar as claims of efficiency and equity are met or accepted as appropriate, economic criteria may affect the constitution of justice and behavior as legal and normative constraints." PMID:12343064
Meeks, T J
The debate over abortion remains controversial as ever. This article offers an explanation of the main Islamic attitudes towards abortion and areas of need to change in the related rules and regulations in Islamic communities with a special attention to Iran. A selected collection of Islamic references, as well as discussions with experts have been used as a basis for
The reasons why women choose medical abortion vary in different countries. In most countries, the most common reasons for choosing medical abortion are as follows: (a) avoidance of surgery or general anesthesia; (b) perception that it is safer; and (c) perception that it is more natural than a surgical procedure. In most studies, over 80% of women who chose medical
Pak Chung Ho
The decision to seek an abortion is never easy. Women have different reasons for choosing an abortion and their social, economic and religious background may influence how they cope. Furthermore, once pregnant, the alternatives of childbirth and adoption or keeping the baby may not be psychologically neutral. Research studies in this area have been hampered by methodological problems, but most of the better-quality studies have shown no increased risk of mental health problems in women having an abortion. A consistent finding has been that of pre-existing mental illness and subsequent mental health problems after either abortion or childbirth. Furthermore, studies have shown that only a minority of women experience any lasting sadness or regret. Risk factors for this include ambivalence about the decision, level of social support and whether or not the pregnancy was originally intended. More robust, definitive research studies are required on mental health after abortion and alternative outcomes such as childbirth. PMID:20303831
In 1991, the abortion literature was characterized by articles relating to 1) epidemiologic issues in abortion care, 2) advances in knowledge and experience with medical abortifacients such as mifepristone (RU 486), and 3) cervical ripening prior to abortion with the use of both mifepristone and prostaglandins. Technical methods of achieving termination of pregnancy continue to be similar in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe, although induction-abortion times are generally slower in Europe than in the United States. Surgically, dilatation and evacuation procedures continue to be more common in the United States than in other countries. The effectiveness of mifepristone is undisputed, and the recommended dose for early first-trimester termination is being compared with lower dose alternative regimens. There is additional evidence that at least in the short term, the negative psychological sequelae of abortion are infrequent and are inconsequential as a public health issue. PMID:1504270
Blumenthal, P D
Kernels cultured in vitro were induced to abort by high temperature (35°C) and by culturing six kernels/cob piece. Aborting kernels failed to enter a linear phase of dry mass accumulation and had a final mass that was less than 6% of nonaborting field-grown kernels. Kernels induced to abort by high temperature failed to synthesize starch in the endosperm and had elevated sucrose concentrations and low fructose and glucose concentrations in the pedicel during early growth compared to nonaborting kernels. Kernels induced to abort by high temperature also had much lower pedicel soluble acid invertase activities than did nonaborting kernels. These results suggest that high temperature during the lag phase of kernel growth may impair the process of sucrose unloading in the pedicel by indirectly inhibiting soluble acid invertase activity and prevent starch synthesis in the endosperm. Kernels induced to abort by culturing six kernels/cob piece had reduced pedicel fructose, glucose, and sucrose concentrations compared to kernels from field-grown ears. These aborting kernels also had a lower pedicel soluble acid invertase activity compared to nonaborting kernels from the same cob piece and from field-grown ears. The low invertase activity in pedicel tissue of the aborting kernels was probably caused by a lack of substrate (sucrose) for the invertase to cleave due to the intense competition for available assimilates. In contrast to kernels cultured at 35°C, aborting kernels from cob pieces containing all six kernels accumulated starch in a linear fashion. These results indicate that kernels cultured six/cob piece abort because of an inadequate supply of sugar and are similar to apical kernels from field-grown ears that often abort prior to the onset of linear growth.
Hanft, Jonathan M.; Jones, Robert J.
BACKGROUND: Until recently, premarital examination for both men and women was a legal requirement before marriage in China. Researchers have carried out surveys of attendees' sexual activity, pregnancy and abortion before their marriages, trying to map out reproductive health needs in China, according to this unique population-based data. To systematically identify, appraise and summarise all available studies documenting pregnancy and
Xu Qian; Shenglan Tang; Paul Garner
Over the past three decades, active euthanasia and abortion have received increasing international attention. Since both these practices are relevant to the role of the nurse-midwife, it is important to know what influences their attitudes towards them. Therefore, the purpose of this study was: 1, to survey the attitudes of nurse-midwives' to active euthanasia and its legalization; 2, to determine
C. F Musgrave; I Soudry
Does a pregnant woman who is in prison or jail still have the constitutional right to decide whether to continue her pregnancy or to have an abortion? The simple legal answer is yes. Of course, this provides little, if any, insight into what actually happens when thousands of women each year must make this decision while living behind prison walls.*
Presents two court cases to illuminate school counselors' legal responsibilities in academic advising and abortion counseling. The cases are presented to show how appellate court decisions can guide and inform future decision making in a variety of malpractice situations, and to equip professionals to exercise even greater care for their minor…
|Presents two court cases to illuminate school counselors' legal responsibilities in academic advising and abortion counseling. The cases are presented to show how appellate court decisions can guide and inform future decision making in a variety of malpractice situations, and to equip professionals to exercise even greater care for their minor…
The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more likely to reject the abortion alternative. Vital statistics suggest that, for the most part, it is abortion rather than contraception that exerts an ameliorating effect on the birthrate of the younger mothers. The most disturbing aspect of these statistics is the magnitude of the very real problems associated with children bearing children. 2/3 of all women who have their 1st baby before the age of 20 will be below the poverty level. A correlation exists between poor marital adjustment and early childbearing. The divorce rate is 3 times higher when 1 spouse is younger than age 20. There are also problems for the infant of the teenage mother, including an increase in stillbirths and prematurity, and increase in small for date infants, and physical, psychological and social disadvantages over time for children born to mothers in their early teens. PMID:6608673
Morgenthau, J E
In its American context the case of baby Messenger, a preterm infant disconnected from life-support by his father and allowed to die has generated debate about neonatal treatment protocols. Limited by the legal and ethical norms of the United States, this case did not consider treatment protocols that might be available in other countries such as Denmark and Israel: threshold protocols whereby certain classes of newborns are not treated, and preemptive abortion allowing one to choose late-term abortion rather than risk delivery. Each offers a viable and ethically sound avenue for dealing with the economic and social expense of anomalous newborns by aborting or not treating those most likely to burden the health care system. Objections that these protocols are antithetical to American bioethical principles are considered but rejected as each policy answers to economic justice, utility and respect for autonomy. Key Words: Abortion • selective non-treatment of newborns • comparative bioethics • neonatal care • neonaticide
Many women are unprepared to make prenatal decisions about fetuses diagnosed with Down Syndrome because of societal pressures to have "normal" children, a negative view of persons with disabilities by many in society, a fear of legal liability by those in the medical community, the lack of genuine informed consent before undergoing genetic testing and abortion, and the failure of non-directive pre-abortion counseling in the medical community. Moreover, medical professionals fail to communicate correct and unbiased information before and during the genetic screening, diagnostic testing, and abortion decision-making process. This article addresses the contributing factors and causes that ultimately lead to a lack of informed consent and a very high abortion rate for fetuses diagnosed with Down Syndrome. PMID:18771038
Dixon, Darrin P
Women from Northern Ireland (NI) have to travel to Britain and pay for their terminations as the Abortion Act (1967) does not apply in that part of the UK. This paper analyses the attitudes of gynaecologists. A questionnaire was posted in 2009 to all NHS gynaecologists in NI (43). One had retired. After three mailings, 37 replied; a response rate of 88% (37.42). We found that of these, 21 (57%) favoured a liberalisation of the law in NI. If all the non-responders were against liberalisation, then still half (21/42) would be in favour. A total of 35% (13/37) wanted unrestricted access in the 1st trimester, a more liberal position than allowed by the current law in Great Britain. A total of 29 (78%) were in favour of free abortions for women from NI, as is largely the case in England and Wales. A total of 19 (51%) were in favour of the abortion charities being licensed to carry out legal abortions in Northern Ireland but 38% were opposed to this proposal. PMID:21280994
Francome, C; Savage, W
The objective of this study was to analyze physicians' attitudes towards induced abortion with normal fetuses and fetuses known to have an abnormality in various degrees. A total of 193 physicians (internists, pediatricians, gynecologists and neurologists) answered a self-administered questionnaire. The questions were about voluntary abortion; voluntary abortion with malformed fetus; abortion because the fetus has anencephaly; and two questions
E. Casanueva; R. Lisker; A. Carnevale; E. Alonso
As a result of the moral and social conflicts surrounding abortion, workers involved in counseling potential abortion recipients are subject to certain strains. The author uses observations made at one abortion clinic to support her conclusion that these strains, as well as the methods of coping developed by staff and administration, must be considered in formulating any policy on abortion. PMID:10244755
Induced abortion is widely practiced in Indonesia by both married and unmarried women. This paper draws on ethnographic research, conducted between 1996 and 1998, which focused on reproductive health and sexuality among young single women on the island of Lombok in Eastern Indonesia. While abortion for married women is tacitly accepted, especially for women with two or more children, premarital pregnancy and abortion remain a highly stigmatised and isolating experience for single women. Government family planning services are not legally permitted to provide contraception to single women and their access to reproductive health care is very limited. Abortion providers were highly critical of unmarried women who sought abortions, despite their willingness to carry out the procedure. The quality of abortion services offered to single women was compromised by the stigma attached to premarital sex and pregnancy. Women who experienced unplanned premarital pregnancy faced personal and familial shame, compromised marriage prospects, abandonment by their partners, single motherhood, a stigmatised child, early cessation of education, and an interrupted income or career, all of which were not desirable options. Young women were only able to legitimately continue premarital pregnancy through marriage. In the absence of an offer of marriage, single women necessarily resorted to abortion to avoid compromising their futures. PMID:11468844
Bennett, L R
The World Health Organization estimates that 3.1 percent of East African women aged 15-44 have undergone unsafe abortions. This study presents findings regarding abortion practices and beliefs among adolescents and young adults in Tanzania, where abortion is illegal. From 1999 to 2002, six researchers carried out participant observation in nine villages and conducted group discussions and interviews in three others. Most informants opposed abortion as illegal, immoral, dangerous, or unacceptable without the man's consent, and many reported that ancestral spirits killed women who aborted clan descendants. Nonetheless, abortion was widely, if infrequently, attempted, by ingestion of laundry detergent, chloroquine, ashes, and specific herbs. Most women who attempted abortion were young, single, and desperate. Some succeeded, but they experienced opposition from sexual partners, sexual exploitation by practitioners, serious health problems, social ostracism, and quasi-legal sanctions. Many informants reported the belief that inopportune pregnancies could be suspended for months or years using traditional medicine. We conclude that improved reproductive health education and services are urgently needed in rural Tanzania. PMID:19248715
Plummer, Mary L; Wamoyi, Joyce; Nyalali, Kija; Mshana, Gerry; Shigongo, Zachayo S; Ross, David A; Wight, Daniel
Reliable medically assisted sex selection which does not involve abortion or infanticide has recently become available, and has been used for non-medical reasons. This raises questions about the morality of sex selection for non-medical reasons. But reasonable people continue to disagree about the answers to these questions. So another set of questions is about what the law should be on medically assisted sex selection for non-medical reasons in the face of reasonable disagreement about the morality of sex selection. This paper sketches a way of thinking about what the law should be, and concludes, contrary to what the law is in many places, that medically assisted sex selection for non-medical reasons ought to be legal. Key Words: Sex selection • law • morality • liberalism • abortion • non-identity problem
This study used data from a community-based survey to examine women's experiences of abortion in Nigeria. Fourteen percent of respondents reported that they had ever tried to terminate a pregnancy, and 10% had obtained an abortion. The majority of women who sought an abortion did so early in the pregnancy. Forty-two percent of women who obtained an abortion used the services of a non-professional provider, a quarter experienced complications and 9% sought treatment for complications from their abortions. Roughly half of the women who obtained an abortion used a method other than D&C or MVA. The abortion prevalence and conditions under which women sought abortions varied by women's socio-demographic characteristics. Because abortion is illegal in Nigeria except to save the woman's life, many women take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Reducing the incidence of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion can significantly impact the reproductive health of women in Nigeria. PMID:17711597
Bankole, Akinrinola; Sedgh, Gilda; Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Adewole, Isaac F; Hussain, Rubina; Singh, Susheela
Nearly 20% of the 208 million pregnancies that occur annually are aborted. More than half of these (21.6 million) are unsafe, resulting in 47,000 abortion-related deaths each year. Accurate reports on the prevalence of abortion, the conditions under which it occurs, and the experiences women have in obtaining abortions are essential to addressing unsafe abortion globally. It is difficult, however,
Jessica D. Gipson; Davida Becker; Joanna Z. Mishtal; Alison H. Norris
This qualitative study was done in rural Bangladesh among the women seeking abortion-related care at six health facilities in two rural sub-districts of Bangladesh in 1996–1997. It looked at contraceptive use, why women had abortions, who made the abortion decision, who provided the abortions, the complications of abortion that developed, where and how soon the women sought treatment. A majority
Shameem Ahmed; Ariful Islam; Parveen A. Khanum
A mild, short, depressive and guilt ridden period following abortion is quite common, but a severe psychological reaction is rare. The indication for the abortion and the preabortal psychological state of the patient are the two most important factors. Almost all reported instances of postabortion psychoses have occurred in patients who had severe preabortal psychiatric problems. Women undergoing abortion for socioeconomic or psychosocial indications appear to be at minimal risk for long-term negative psychological sequelae. In contrast, women in whom abortion is carried out because of exposure to rubella and the risk of fetal malformation, maternal organic disease or the prenatal diagnosis of a genetically defective fetus are at greater risk and may need supportive psychotherapy. PMID:1099808
Blumberg, B D; Golbus, M S
Abortion is an important health issue for Australian women, yet there are large variations across Australia in abortion service provision and in state laws regulating abortion practice. We conducted a survey of tertiary students in Far North Queensland to ascertain their knowledge of local abortion services and of abortion law in Queensland. Important gaps were demonstrated in their knowledge of the law and of the availability of abortion services. PMID:22413818
Phillips, Tegan; Eltherington, Jessica; de Costa, Caroline; Woods, Cindy
Abortion is illegal in Uganda except to save the life of the woman. Nevertheless, the practice is quite common: about 300,000 induced abortions occur annually among Ugandan women aged 15-49 (Singh et al., 2005) and a large proportion of these women require treatment for post-abortion complications. In the male-dominant culture of Uganda, where men control most of the financial resources, men play a critical part in determining whether women receive a safe abortion, or appropriate treatment if they experience abortion complications. This study examines men's roles in determining women's access to a safer abortion and post-abortion care. It draws on in-depth interviews carried out in 2003 with 61 women aged 18-60 and 21 men aged 20-50 from Kampala and Mbarara, Uganda. Respondents' descriptions of men's involvement in women's abortion care agreed that men's stated attitudes about abortion often prevented women from involving them in either the abortion or post-abortion care. Most men believe that if a woman is having an abortion, it must be because she is pregnant with another man's child, although this does not correspond with women's reasons for having an abortion--a critical disjuncture revealed by the data between men's perceptions of, and women's realities regarding, reasons for seeking an abortion. If the woman does experience post-abortion complications, the prevailing attitude among men in the sample was that they cannot support a woman in such a situation seeking care because if it had been his child, she would not have had a covert abortion. Since money is critical to accessing appropriate care, without men's support, women seeking an abortion may not be able to access safer abortion options and if they experience complications, they may delay care-seeking or may not obtain care at all. Barriers to involving men in abortion decision-making endanger women's health and possibly their lives. PMID:20846465
Moore, Ann M; Jagwe-Wadda, Gabriel; Bankole, Akinrinola
Background: We investigated the outcomes of women under age 21 who participated in a multi-center case series of early medical abortion using methotrexate and misoprostol.Methods: We enrolled 1973 women in a case series for medical abortion in the first seven weeks of pregnancy, using a standardized protocol and consent for methotrexate (50 mg\\/m2) and misoprostol (800 mg vaginally, repeated as
Lynn Borgatta; Amanda French; Olivera Vragovic; Michael Burnhill
Cytogenetic data on products of conception from spontaneous abortions studied over a 10-year period have been reviewed for\\u000a double trisomies. A total of 3034 spontaneous abortions were karyotyped between 1986 and 1997. Twenty-two cases with double\\u000a trisomy, one case with triple trisomy, and a case with a trisomy and monosomy were found. The tissues studied were mostly\\u000a sac, villi, or
K. S. Reddy
A study of 1,505 women obtaining abortions in a freestanding abortion clinic in Western New York state revealed that women having repeat abortions were more likely to be using contraception at the time of conception than women having first abortions. However, nearly one-half the non-contracepting repeaters were not contracepting at the time of the repeat pregnancy. Repeaters who were not contracepting at the time of the repeat pregnancy listed medical contraindications or lack of supplies as the major reasons for not contracepting at the time of the present conception--indicating that they had tried one or more methods since their first abortion. Repeaters were sexually more active than first timers, thus increasing their statistical risk of unwanted pregnancy even as they contracepted more than first timers. The data indicate that both first timers and repeaters overwhelmingly reject the premise that abortion is a primary or even a back-up birth control method. The essential difficulty for repeaters appears to be that they are victims of technological, organizational, and logistical inadequacies as well as statistical probabilities rather than being motivationally deficient or indifferent to the dangers of unprotected sexual intercourse.
Howe, B; Kaplan, H R; English, C
A Paris court last week challenged a 1993 law that makes it a criminal offense to obstruct abortions. The court acquitted nine anti-abortion protestors who had broken into the maternity ward of the public hospital Pitie-Salpetriere last November and prayed at the entrance of a ward where patients are admitted for abortions. The judges ruled that the protestors had not interfered with abortions being carried out because none were taking place at the time of the demonstration; furthermore, the judges stated, because the fetus could be considered a person (child), the protestors were protected by other laws which give immunity to those breaking a law in order to protect another person's life, or to defend a child that had been abandoned. The court continued to say that a fetus should be protected, whether or not it was considered a person, because it was definitely more than nothing. The Syndicat de la Magistrature, the association of French magistrates, believes the tribunal has denied the right to abortion guaranteed in the 1975 law. Veronique Neietz, who drafted the 1993 law, was "scandalized" by the decision and believes the decision of the court was made in retribution for a recent parliamentary decision to exclude anti-abortion protestors from the general amnesty given after presidential elections to minor offenders. During the same week of this court decision, two tribunals, in Lyons and in Bourg-en-Bresse, sentenced 45 anti-abortionists to suspended prison terms with fines. PMID:7613424
Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past. PMID:21814081
Stotland, Nada L
Epidemiologists compared data on 845 white women who were diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1983 and April 1990, were born after 1944, and lived in King, Pierce, or Snohomish counties in Washington State with data on 961 white women with no breast cancer from the same counties. They wanted to determine whether induced abortion increases the risk of breast cancer. Restricting cases to women born after 1944 allowed the researchers to focus only on legal induced abortions. When the researchers limited the analysis only to women who had been pregnant at least once, the risk of developing breast cancer in women who had had at least 1 induced abortion was 50% greater than those who had not had an induced abortion. This risk differed depending on the age at which the women underwent the induced abortion and the duration of that pregnancy. A gestational age (at the time of the first aborted pregnancy) of 9-12 weeks carried the highest risk of breast cancer (RR = 1.9 vs. 1.4 for =or 8 weeks and =or 13 weeks). Further, the breast cancer risk was greatest among women who underwent the induced abortion when they were less than 18 years old (relative risk [RR] = 2.5). It was especially high for women who were less than 18 years old and who had the abortion between 9 and 24 weeks of gestation (RR = 9). It was also high for those who were at least 30 years old at the time of the abortion (RR = 2.1). Spontaneous abortion was not associated with an increased risk (RR = 0.9). Neither the number of induced abortions nor the history of a completed pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. These findings suggest that an induced abortion during the last month of the first trimester increases the risk of breast cancer and that women who were at a very young age at the time of the first induced abortion face an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:7932822
Daling, J R; Malone, K E; Voigt, L F; White, E; Weiss, N S
The advent of RU 486 (mifepristone), a steroid analogue capable of inducing menses within 8 to 10 weeks of a missed menstrual period, has provoked a firestorm of concern and controversy. When used in conjunction with prostaglandin (RU 486/PG), it is at least 95% effective. Used in France principally to terminate confirmed pregnancies very early in the process of gestation, RU 486 raises many interesting legal questions. This article focuses on whether and how RU 486/PG can be accommodated within the framework of the world's current abortion laws. Four avenues are explored and conclusions drawn. First, it is clear that RU 486/PG can be used readily, if approved, within the regimens established by liberal abortion laws, as has been the experience in France, the United Kingdom, and even China. Second, although unlikely, the introduction of this new technology may inspire a reexamination of restrictive abortion statutes themselves. Third, some of the presently restrictive laws may be interpreted to permit RU 486/PG use as a legal procedure, for a very narrow range of reasons. Finally, in some settings the early use of RU 486/PG (before pregnancy can be confirmed) may fall outside the reach of abortion legislation and hence be acceptable from a legal point of view.
Banwell, S S; Paxman, J M
This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally wrong even though that human being is not being deprived of a "valuable future". So Marquis would be wrong in thinking that what is essential about the wrongness of killing an adult human being is that they are being deprived of a valuable future. This paper shows that whichever way the concept of "valuable future" is interpreted, the proposed counterexamples fail: if it is interpreted as "future like ours", the proposed counterexamples have no bearing on Marquis's argument. If the concept is interpreted as referring to the patient's preferences, it must be either conceded that the patients in Strong's scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims. PMID:19407035
Di Nucci, E
Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282
This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines, counseling 7. End-of-life measures: right to refuse 8. Comprehensive laws: right to refuse. PMID:20866024
Pope, Thaddeus Mason
The HIV/AIDS field is addressing how legal and policy restrictions affect access to health promotion and care, e.g., in relation to criminalization of HIV transmission, drug use and sex work. Work to address the reproductive rights of women living with HIV, particularly regarding unwanted pregnancy and abortion, has nevertheless lagged behind, despite its potential to contribute to broader advocacy for access to comprehensive reproductive health information and services for all women. It is in that context that this paper examines abortion in relation to the rights of women and girls living with HIV. The paper first presents findings from recent research on HIV-positive women's reasons for seeking abortions and experiences with abortion-related care. This is followed by a discussion of abortion in relation to human rights and how this has been both addressed and neglected in policy and guidance related to the reproductive health of women living with HIV. The concluding remarks offer recommendations for expanding efforts to provide comprehensive, human rights-based sexual and reproductive health care to women living with HIV by including abortion-related information and services. PMID:23177682
de Bruyn, Maria
This article examines the impact of the continuing politicization of the abortion issue in the US on the rights of women and on the emerging concept of fetal rights. The introduction 1) attributes the "final and total politicization" of a woman's right to control her reproduction to the "undue burden" standard introduced by the Supreme Court in its 1992 Casey decision and 2) claims that, if unchecked, the concept of fetal rights may give the state's interest in protecting potential life supremacy over women's rights. The next section presents an in-depth discussion of the politicization of the right to abortion that covers such topics as how the courts before Casey became the forum for debating abortion policy, how the "undue burden" standard fails to set definite parameters of acceptable state behavior, how the Casey decision in effect abandons the trimester-based framework of reference provided in Roe vs. Wade, how Casey allows states to subtly coerce women seeking abortions, how the Casey decision failed to reduce the intense politicization of abortion, and how the court failed to protect individual rights to health care and abortion funding from states. Part 3 of the article begins its exploration of the concept of "fetal rights" with a sketch of the history of this concept in the US courts starting in 1884 when damages for miscarriage were denied. Ways in which fetal rights compete with the rights of a pregnant woman are described, the Supreme Court is blamed for allowing states to develop this concept, and issues of patient confidentiality versus reporting requirements are considered. It is concluded that the Supreme Court will have to act to limit fetal rights. PMID:12348324
Marsh, F H
The article reports upon the characteristics of 300 abortion applicants in Arkansas manifesting significant stress from unwanted pregnancy between May 1, 1970 and June 30, 1971. The sample is limited by the fact that all of these women had been willing to seek medical aid. Patients ranged from ages 13-47, 131 of them ages 17-21. 35% had had some college education; another 29% were high school graduates. 50.6%, 20.6%, and 27.3% were single, divorced, and married, respectively. 59.6% of the patients were primiparas. 18.3%, 9.6%, and 12.3% were classified as being neurotic, having psychophysiologic tendencies (gastrointestinal problems, obesity, chronic headaches), and having sociopathic features (passive-aggressive, frankly rebellious, delinquent, antisocial, alcoholic), respectively. 12 women had noticeable schizoid features; 4 women had mildly active schizophrenia. Fathers of the women were usually blue-collar workers (55.3%) or white-collar workers (24.6%). The most frequent ordinal sibling position among the women was oldest child (38%). Parental instability (1 or both parents lost through death, divorce, father usually away working, chronic alcoholism, etc.) was reported by 39.6% of the patients. Patients' attitudes toward the unwanted pregnancy included dislike of inexpediency of the situation (82.6%), self-depreciation (55.6%), and aversion (28.6%). Precipitated psychiatric disorders were for the greatest part mild. Manifesting symptoms included depression (66.7%), anxiety (21%), and mixed anxiety and depression (12.2%). Suicidal threats and gestures were made by 22 and 8 patients, respectively. In summary, the study reveals a group of predominantly Caucasian women from unstable, middle-class urban families who were going through an adjustment reaction to adolescence or adult life. PMID:4265812
Henker, F O
Medical abortion studies have traditionally relied on ultrasound to confirm gestational age, intrauterine location and abortion completion. However, the routine dependence on ultrasound can limit access to safe services for women living in low resource settings that are often most in need of safe abortion care. This review discusses the literature surrounding the safe provision of medical abortion without the
Bliss Kaneshiro; Alison Edelman; Robyn K. Sneeringer; Rodolfo Gomez Ponce de Leon
The objectives of this surveillance are twofold: (1) to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining abortions, and (2) to eliminate preventable mortality and morbidity related to abortion. This report documents the most recent data availabl...
... Public Health Advisory: Sepsis and Medical Abortion. ... The approved Mifeprex regimen for a medical abortion through 49 days' pregnancy is: ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders
In 1993, President Clinton modified military policy on providing abortions at military medical facilities. Under the change, military medical facilities were allowed to perform abortions if paid for entirely by non-DOD funds (i.e., privately funded). Alth...
D. F. Burrelli
Background Clandestine induced abortions are a public health problem in many developing countries where access to abortion services is legally restricted. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, clandestine induced abortions in a Latin American country. Methods We conducted a large population-based survey of women aged 18–29 years in 20 cities in Peru. We asked questions about their history of spontaneous and induced abortions, using techniques to encourage disclosure. Results Of 8242 eligible women, 7992 (97.0%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of reported induced abortions was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9%– 12.4%) among the 7962 women who participated in the survey. It was 13.6% (95% CI 12.8%– 14.5%) among the 6559 women who reported having been sexually active. The annual incidence of induced abortion was 3.1% (95% CI 2.9%– 3.3%) among the women who had ever been sexually active. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for induced abortion were higher age at the time of the survey (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.07– 1.15), lower age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.84– 0.91), geographic region (highlands: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23– 1.97; jungle: OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41– 2.31 [v. coastal region]), having children (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68– 0.98), having more than 1 sexual partner in lifetime (2 partners: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23– 2.09; ? 3 partners: OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.12– 3.67), and having 1 or more sexual partners in the year before the survey (1 partner: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01– 1.72; ? 2 partners: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14– 2.02). Overall, 49.0% (95% CI 47.6%– 50.3%) of the women who reported being currently sexually active were not using contraception. Interpretation The incidence of clandestine, potentially unsafe induced abortion in Peru is as high as or higher than the rates in many countries where induced abortion is legal and safe. The provision of contraception and safer-sex education to those who require it needs to be greatly improved and could potentially reduce the rate of induced abortion.
Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; White, Peter J.; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Hughes, James P.; Gonzales, Marco A.; Garcia, Patricia J.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Holmes, King K.
In today’s legal environment, it is unlikely that a physician will complete a medical career without being introduced to the legal system in some way. Despite this, medical education often does not incorporate a basic teaching of general legal principles, and many physicians are left unaware of some of the important legal aspects of practicing medicine. The purpose of this article is to provide a background of the essential legal principles of a malpractice action as well as review the fundamentals of the legal process, provide published caselaw of prior dermatological pitfalls, and ultimately, provide suggestions to better prepare the dermatologist to practice medicine.
Michaels, Brent D.; Momin, Saira B.
This research examines the impact of religiosity and race on the abortion attitudes of African and White Americans. Data from the 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994 and 1996 years of the General Social Survey were used in the logical regression analysis. These surveys contain items that measure attitudes towards abortion, religious affiliation, public religious participation, and theological conservatism. In contrast to previous research, the findings indicated that African Americans are significantly more pro-choice than White Americans when measures of church attendance and Biblical literalism are included. The pro-choice stance of African Americans is grounded in the African American Protestants' social gospel and the critical role that religion plays in shaping members' attitudes. The ministries of the African American church have constantly adjusted and adapted to the needs and lifestyles of their members, and many of their religious leaders combined the principles of Christianity with tolerance for civil liberties. As a result African American attenders and Biblical literalists possess attitudes toward legal abortion that reflect more liberal sociopolitical outlooks concerning individual rights. PMID:12349298
Gay, D; Lynxwiler, J
Based on the coalition agreement of 2005 aimed at improving the situation regarding late-term abortions, the author examines to what extent the current legislation on abortion requires amendment. In an historical overview, he explores the long tradition of the step-wise protection of life commensurate with the gradual "animation" of the fetus, the abortion of which by "human hand" was a punishable crime. Having been observed in civil codes of modern times for centuries, this tradition finally perished in section sign 218 of 1871. With the embryopathic indication of 1974, a comparatively late deadline of 22 weeks came back into force. However, since the German Bundestag overruled this indication in 1995, only the unlimited (until birth) medico-social indication (section sign 218 par. 2 of the German criminal code) applies to late terminations, according to which even late terminations of fetuses of extrauterine viability are "not unlawful". While examining both decisions of the German Federal Constitutional Court and the literature, the author makes the case for restricting section sign 281 a par. 2 with extrauterine viability of the child--according to the constitutional preservation of life and our legal tradition--strictly to those cases where the pregnant woman's life is in danger. PMID:18787861
This paper discusses examples, particularly hypotheticals, their use and generation, in legal reasoning. It examines the use of sequences of hypotheticals. I INTRODUCTION In the legal domain, as in many others like mathematics, linguistics and computer science, examples are crucial to reasoning. In the law, cases play the role of examples; many of the examples considered are \\
Edwina L. Rissland
The legal status of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been rapidly changing. Legal prohibitions on this plant native to Oaxaca, Mexico have emerged at the state level, a phenomenon that has not occurred since the passage of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Included will be a brief description of the plant that has only recently crept into the popular
O. Hayden Griffin; Bryan Lee Miller; David N. Khey
The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women’s mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women’s responses following abortion. This article reflects and updates the report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Mental
Brenda Major; Mark Appelbaum; Linda Beckman; Mary Ann Dutton; Nancy Felipe Russo; Carolyn West
Students (N=118) were classified as pro-choice, anti-abortion, or mixed on the basis of their responses to 10 fictitious case histories of women who requested abortion. Attitudinal differences are discussed in the context of the public controversy over abortion. (Author/CM)
Allgeier, A.R.; And Others
This paper examines the extent to which there may be differences in attitudes toward abortion and intentions when one is faced with making an abortion decision for oneself. Data from a 1977 national survey were used. The results indicated that while such differences existed only on a limited scale in medically indicated situations of abortion, discretionary situations had a sizable
B. K. Singh; J. Sherwood Williams
|This report hypothesized that Indian university students approve of abortion, that religiosity neutralizes the influence of education in abortion attitudes, and that Indian students are more liberal in their attitudes on abortion than American Catholic students. To test these hypotheses, the author collected data from 150 students from two…
Bardis, Panos D.
The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…
Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn
Contributes to rhetoric, moral reasonings scholarship, and journalism scholarship by examining public rhetoric on abortion and American popular media coverage (1940s to 1990s). Finds that the feminine means of moral reasoning has emerged into the foreground of discourse on abortion. Compares emergence of a common-ground rhetoric on abortion with a…
Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hall, Megan Williams
|Contributes to rhetoric, moral reasonings scholarship, and journalism scholarship by examining public rhetoric on abortion and American popular media coverage (1940s to 1990s). Finds that the feminine means of moral reasoning has emerged into the foreground of discourse on abortion. Compares emergence of a common-ground rhetoric on abortion with…
Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hall, Megan Williams
|The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…
Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn
This review examines the relationship between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and spontaneous abortions. Although very high spontaneous abortion rates have been reported for alcoholic women, it is still uncertain if this is due to the direct effects of alcohol or the indirect effects of alcoholism-re lated disorders such as cirrhosis. The higher rates of spontaneous abortion among alcoholics may
ERNEST L. ABEL
The doctor's task is to heal where possible, to relieve suffering and always to comfort. He attempts to prevent illness and to promote health, within the framework of primum non nocere ('do no harm'). Therapeutic abortion for fetal indications cannot be considered therapeutic, and should therefore be called iatrogenic abortion. The doctor has sufficient responsibilities of his own, and should not take over the responsibilities of other people or help them shirk their own. The philosophies of materialism, totalitarianism and hedonism are evil, and very dangerous for society. PMID:7089763
de Muelenaere, C W
A prospective study of the maternal mortality and morbidity and other related social problems among 144 cases of procured abortion in Ilorin, Nigeria over a 24-month period is presented. A mortality rate of 90.3 per thousand procured abortions was recorded. Genital sepsis, haemorrhagic anaemia, gut injury, uterine perforation and vesico vaginal fistulae (VVF) were encountered. Poor referral system, late presentation, poor blood transfusion services and inadequate availability of drugs had adverse effects on the patients. The implications (the menace and frequency) of these and possible measures like improving the literacy level, the moral standards, contraceptive practice and family life education (sex education) are discussed. PMID:7498012
Anate, M; Awoyemi, O; Oyawoye, O; Petu, O
This paper examines the impact anti-abortion activities have on state abortion rates. Using 1992 data from the 50 U.S. states, the empirical results find that anti-abortion harassment activities (picketing, picketing with contact, vandalism, bomb threats, and stalking) did not significantly reduce the demand for abortion within a state nor did they cause a change in the location of the abortion
Marshall H. Medoff
:Progressive men and women have found it extremely difficult to address issues of reproductive and sexual behavior-abortion, above all. Reproductive politics, in left circles, is not just about fighting the antiabortion movement or right-wing sexual conservatives for the hearts and minds of \\
In Sweden, contraceptive methods for birth control are readily available, but one in four pregnancies was legally terminated during the period from 1975 to 1990. Our purpose in conducting the present study was to describe young women's choices and use of contraceptive methods and their attitudes to abortion. The participants were 305 Swedish women ages 23–29 years. Eighty?eight percent of
Marianne E. Lindell; Henny M. Olsson
This project uses three approaches to explore the genesis and dynamics of the drive to abolish legal abortion in the United States. First, the phenomenon is examined as a moral crusade in the first part of its history after the Supreme Court's decision in Roe v. Wade. Second, its tenure as a social movement is explored, beginning near the end
Kerry Noel Stephenson Jacoby
Since the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, abortion has occupied a lot of the Court's time and energy. Beyond the legalization of the procedure, the Court has had to wrestle with several related issues, as well. Ranging from parental consent laws to waiting periods, from state-and federal-funding denials to procedural regulations, the Court has ruled on many
This paper reviews current abortion law and practice in Northern Ireland (NI). It explores the origins of NI's abortion law and its complexity in relation to current practice. It reviews issues relating to women seeking terminations in NI and Great Britain and reviews attempts by the Family Planning Association in NI to require the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety NI to clarify the current legal basis for termination of pregnancy and to provide guidance for health professionals engaged in this practice. The paper also discusses some of the issues surrounding abortion in NI and seeks to explain why this subject is causing controversy and debate, especially following a judicial review in February and Marie Stopes opening a termination service in Belfast. PMID:23901450
Daniels, Pauline; Campbell, Patricia; Clinton, Alison
Outlines content of a law-school course in legal scholarship, describes course mechanics, and reports on its success. A section explains why law students should be given additional instruction in jurisprudence, legal history, and social science. Discusses legal education's content and quality, effects of student-run law reviews, and…
Markovits, Richard S.
Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…
Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas
|The principal is faced with myriad legal issues on a daily basis, making it imperative that he or she keep abreast with developing legal issues. The first of four sections, "Students and the Law," surveys federal statutes and landmark Supreme Court decisions pertaining to the rights of students. It addresses legal issues regarding search and…
Camp, William E., Ed.; And Others
The rate of induced abortions (9/1000 women aged 15-49 y in 2011) is low in Finland. Ninety-two per cent of them are performed on grounds of social reasons. Use of medical abortion (combination of mifepristone and misoprostol) has increased to nearly 90 % of abortions, also in abortions of 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. Intrauterine contraception started at the time of abortion lowers the risk of future unplanned pregnancies. Prophylactic antibiotics are recommended in cases of surgical evacuation of the uterus. Written instructions for patients and professionals are introduced in the guideline. PMID:23720946
In 1973, the United States Supreme Court, in a landmark decision, ruled that the 50 states could not regulate abortion up to 24-28 weeks' gestation, except as necessary to insure the safety of the woman, and severely limited state legislation of abortion after 28 weeks by a broad interpretation of the "health" restriction. This article will explore (1) the history of abortion prior to 1973, (2) the scope of the Court decision, (3) abortion from the perspective of medical ethics, and (4) the sequelae of permissive abortion 16 years after Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton. PMID:10303844
Gerster, C F
Intelligent agents that are intended to work in dynamic environ- ments must be able to gracefully handle unsuccessful tasks and plans. In addition, such agents should be able to make rational de- cisions about an appropriate course of action, which may include aborting a task or plan, either as a result of the agent's own deliber- ations, or potentially at
John Thangarajah; James Harland; David Morley; Neil Yorke-smith
Most research on abortion has focused on the determinants of attitudes among the public or elites, or on the tactics of activists on both sides of the issue. To date, however, there has been little attention to the formation and behavior of pro-life and pro-choice organizations. This paper addresses these latter questions and compares the resources and strategies of PACs
In December 1989, following the fall of communism in Romania, the ban on access to abortion and birth controls methods was lifted. This paper attempts to analyze the educational achievements of children affected by the lift of this ban, using administrative data of secondary school admission exam scores and placement outcomes. We find robust evidence that children born after the
In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts. PMID:23637451
Purpose: To understand which adolescents in Havana, Cuba, seek abortions and reasons for pregnancy termination.Methods: The sample included all adolescents (n = 248) under the age of 20 years who sought pregnancy termination over a 1-month period in 1995. The participants completed a questionnaire exploring a range of issues including age of onset of sexual intercourse, pregnancy history, and reasons
Jorge Peláez Mendoz; Aldo Rodriguez Izquiendo; Cristina Lammers; Robert Wm Blum
The contention that abortion harms women constitutes a new strategy employed by the pro-life movement to supplement arguments about fetal rights. David C. Reardon is a prominent promoter of this strategy. Post-abortion syndrome purports to establish that abortion psychologically harms women and, indeed, can harm persons associated with women who have abortions. Thus, harms that abortion is alleged to produce are multiplied. Claims of repression are employed to complicate efforts to disprove the existence of psychological harm and causal antecedents of trauma are only selectively investigated. We argue that there is no such thing as post-abortion syndrome and that the psychological harms Reardon and others claim abortion inflicts on women can usually be ascribed to different causes. We question the evidence accumulated by Reardon and his analysis of data accumulated by others. Most importantly, we question whether the conclusions Reardon has drawn follow from the evidence he cites. PMID:19594725
Dadlez, E M; Andrews, William L
Debate exists over whether fetuses feel pain, and if so what to do about it. Because they cannot provide self-report, certitude on the question cannot be reached. The essay argues that a presumption of reasonable doubt is adequate to inform moral behavior. It looks at the most recent evidence from fetal anatomical, neurochemical, physiological and behavioral research and concludes that a reasonable doubt exists that fetuses from 20 to 23 weeks do not feel pain. It proposes that where abortion is legal, providers should be legally required both to provide full disclosure of the possibility of fetal pain starting at 20 weeks and to offer pain-relief measures to suppress fetal pain to all women seeking an abortion. PMID:23285794
Brugger, E Christian
The prochoice movement has expressed much hope that medical abortion will increase the pool of abortion providers because it does not require surgical training and does not need to be performed in specialized settings. By offering a detailed case study of the events surrounding a methotrexate abortion in a rural community health center by a family practice physician who had not previously performed surgical abortion, this article suggests that the diffusion of medical abortion to new providers and new settings may be more complex than some have suggested. The article illustrates that abortion is not only a medical procedure, but also a social process involving relations with large, often unfriendly bureaucracies as well as with the local community in which the abortion takes place. While still retaining optimism that medical abortion will ultimately increase the number of providers and hence increase access to abortion, the author believes that such a change will be considerably more gradual than commonly thought. PMID:10846326
Abortion is unlawful in Ireland except where it is necessary to save the life of the mother. The right to life of the unborn child is safeguarded under Article 40.3.3 degrees of Bunreacht na hEireann (the Irish Constitution). In 2003 the European Convention on Human Rights was incorporated into Irish domestic legislation, subject to the provisions of the Irish Constitution. The aim of this paper is to consider the potential impact of the ECHR on access to abortion services within the State. This paper commences with discussion of the statutory prohibition on abortion and the Constitutional provisions concerning the protection afforded to the unborn child. It will then be necessary to examine the implications for Ireland of recent European Court of Human Rights' decisions, in particular the recent judgment in A, B & C v Ireland, regarding the right to legal abortions given the unique nature of the legal status of the ECHR and its relationship with the Irish Constitution. PMID:21877470
This paper examines the recent developments in underage abortion and related questions in Spanish law. Despite the prevalence of the language of autonomy, like in Britain, children's interests are not defined in Spain by relying exclusively on the competent child's views. Parental opinion and societal expectations are given due weight, although sometimes only implicitly. Calculated ambiguity in legal practice and in the relevant legal texts provides evidence of the pervasive influence of deeply rooted distrust as against clear-cut rules favouring a young person's autonomy. PMID:22311671
Cultural resonance and movement success are not the same, and not all movement speakers seek success in terms resonant with in- stitutionalized discourses—some instead choose to be radical. Quan- titative comparison of German and U.S. newspapers in the period 1970-94 shows how differences in discursive opportunity affect both the strategic use of frames in the feminist repertoire about legal abortion
Myra Marx Ferree
This article takes an ethnographical approach to explore the "state of exception" through which legal technologies of abortion and adoption of "war-babies" (children born as a result of wartime rapes) in the Bangladesh war enabled the dekinning and elimination of certain childhoods while the raped women were rekinned within legitimate heterosexual…
|This article takes an ethnographical approach to explore the "state of exception" through which legal technologies of abortion and adoption of "war-babies" (children born as a result of wartime rapes) in the Bangladesh war enabled the dekinning and elimination of certain childhoods while the raped women were rekinned within legitimate…
I estimate the effect of state minimum legal drinking ages (MLDA) on teen pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates using individual level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results from a discrete-time hazard model indicate that a decrease in the MLDA below 21 years increases the probability of pregnancy among black teens and, surprisingly, decreases the probability of pregnancy
I estimate the effect of state minimum legal drinking ages (MLDA) on teen pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates using individual level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results from a discrete-time hazard model indicate that a decrease in the MLDA below 21 years increases the probability of pregnancy among black teens and, surprisingly, decreases the probability of pregnancy
NASA goals are set on resumption of human activity on the Moon and extending manned missions to Mars. Abort options are key elements of any system designed to safeguard human lives and stated requirements stipulate the provision of an abort capability throughout the mission. The present investigation will focus on the formulation and analysis of possible abort modes during the Earth departure phase of manned Mars interplanetary transfers. Though of short duration, the departure phase encompasses a mission timeline where failures have frequently become manifest in historical manned spacecraft necessitating the inclusion of a departure phase abort capability. Investigated abort modes included aborts to atmospheric entry, and to Earth or Moon orbit. Considered interplanetary trajectory types included conjunction, opposition, and free-return trajectory classes. All abort modes were analyzed for aborts initiated at multiple points along each of these possible departure trajectories across all launch opportunities of the fifteen-year Earth-Mars inertial period. The consistently low departure velocities of the conjunction trajectories facilitated the greatest abort capability. An analysis of Mars transportation architectures was performed to determine the amount of available delta V inherent in each candidate architecture for executing departure aborts. Results indicate that a delta V of at least 4 km/s is required to achieve a continuous departure phase entry abort capability with abort flights less than three weeks duration for all transfer opportunity years. Less demanding transfer years have a corresponding increase in capability. The Earth orbit abort mode does not become widely achievable until more than 6 km/s delta V is provided; a capacity not manifest in any considered architecture. Optimization of the Moon abort mode resulted in slight departure date shifts to achieve improved lunar alignments. The Moon abort mode is only widely achievable for conjunction transfers during the optimum transfer years and delta V values greater than 4 km/s. A lesser delta V potential of 3 km/s is sufficient to enable entry aborts during the least demanding transfer opportunity years. Extensive abort capability is achievable for high delta V capable Mars architectures. Less propulsively capable architectures achieve moderate abort capability during favorable opportunity years.
Dissel, Adam F.
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task execution, language difficulties, loosing perception of time and space, changes in mood and behaviour, personality alterations, loss of interests and initiative). Towards more accurate determination of legal competency the psychometric tests are being used. The appliance of these tests must be guided with basic question during evaluation: "For what is or is not he/she capable?" In prediction of possible dementia development, the modern diagnostic procedures are used as help for potentially demented individuals in order to plan own affairs and by oneself determine future guardian. This ensures the maximal respect and protection of rights among persons with dementia in order to independently manage life one step ahead of progressive illness. Finally, it is to be distinguished medical concept of legal capacity which is universal and judicial concept which is restricted by rules of national legal system differing from country to country. PMID:21755719
Filakovi?, Pavo; Eri?, Anamarija Petek; Mihanovi?, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
Context The last decade witnessed growing differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine despite demographic, social, and historical similarities of these nations. This paper investigates changes in birth control practices in the three countries and searches for an explanation of the diverging trends in abortion. Methods Official abortion and contraceptive use statistics, provided by national statistical agencies, were analysed. Respective laws and other legal documents were examined and compared between the three countries. To disclose inter-country differences in prevalence of the modern methods of contraception and its association with major demographic and social factors, an analysis of data from national sample surveys was performed, including binary logistic regression. Results The growing gap in abortion rate in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is a genuine phenomenon, not a statistical artefact. The examination of abortion and prevalence of contraception based on official statistics and three national sample surveys did not reveal any unambiguous factors that could explain differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. However, it is very likely that the cause of the inter-country discrepancies lies in contraceptive behavior itself, in adequacies of contraceptive knowledge and practices. Additionally, large differences in government policies, which are very important in shaping contraceptive practices of the population, were detected. Conclusion Since the end of the 1990s, the Russian government switched to archaic ideology in the area of reproductive health and family planning and neglects evidence-based arguments. Such an extreme turn in the governmental position is not observed in Belarus or Ukraine. This is an important factor contributing to the slowdown in the decrease of abortion rates in Russia.
Denisov, Boris P.; Sakevich, Victoria I.; Jasilioniene, Aiva
Male and female participants were surveyed on abortion attitudes, commitment, and abortion experience. Results revealed a normal distribution of abortion attitudes rejecting the notion that the vast majority of the sample would have significantly pro-choice views. No significant difference was found in overall abortion attitudes of males vs. females, however, individuals with direct abortion experience were found to have significantly
Casey L Carlton; Eileen S Nelson; Priscilla K Coleman
There will always be women who need abortions after 12 weeks of pregnancy, and their reasons are often compelling. Although second trimester abortions carry relatively more risks than first trimester abortions, abortion is still very safe throughout the second trimester if done in safe conditions. This paper is about law and policy on second trimester abortions, which are allowed on
Using data from 1,494 Greeks and 1,993 Americans, this study finds that social abortion attitudes are a separate dimension from physical abortion attitudes. According to our structural equation model, abortion attitudes are influenced significantly by religiosity and sexual liberalism. The model explains social abortion attitudes significantly better than physical abortion attitudes. Although the model is applicable to both countries, there
Stephen J. Bahr; Anastasios C. Marcos
Introduction: In spite of legalising abortion and making safe abortion available at affordable price at accessible distance to almost everyone, unsafe abortion especially second trimester abortion is still a big health problem in Nepal. Objective: The objective of the study is to fi nd the demographic profi le, reasons for seeking abortion and to see the effectiveness of Misoprostol in
V Shrivastava; L Bajracharya; S Thapa
During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.
DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.
\\u000a For better or for worse, abortion has become a touchstone for the so-called “culture wars” between liberals and secularists\\u000a on one side, and conservatives and religious believers on the other. Few issues have been more divisive or passion-inducing,\\u000a whether in the law courts, legislatures, or popular culture. This is perhaps nowhere more evident than in the United States,\\u000a where the
The somatic and flagellar serum agglutinin titre were determined in paired samples obtained from seventy-seven cases of bovine abortion associated with Salmonella dublin infection. The cases could be divided into four serological groups with an active infection being demonstrated in most cases. The serum agglutination test was shown to be a relatively specific diagnostic test but was of more limited value in the retrospective identification of convalescent cases.
Unwanted pregnancies put women in Kenya at risk of morbidity and mortality associated with childbearing; induced abortion is an option some women seek as a response to that situation. Qualitative research was carried out to document the case histories of 30 Kenyan women who underwent induced abortion. In-depth interviews were conducted among an urban group of low-income women to identify sources of information about induced abortion and the decision-making process, and to describe the abortion experience among this group. Being unmarried and unemployed contributed to the decision to abort. Two main types of induced abortion, one provided in private facilities by medical personnel, and the other performed by a variety of untrained practitioners, are described. PMID:1557793
Baker, J; Khasiani, S
The Family Planning Association Northern Ireland (F.P.A.N.I.) has recently been successful in holding the state accountable for its duty to safeguard women’s reproductive health and welfare, and clarify the circumstances in which abortion is lawful. By demanding that the Minister for Health investigate abortion provision and produce abortion guidance, F.P.A.N.I. hope to improve the quality of abortion services and alleviate
Objective: To assess age- and nationality-spe- cific trends in abortion rates over the last decade, and to describe women's characteristics, identify- ing risk factors for repeated abortion. Methods: From 1990-1999, the Health De- partment of Canton Vaud (Switzerland) received 13'857 abortion requests from residents aged 14-49. Population data were obtained to compute rates. Results: Both the number of abortions (1400
V. Addor; Françoise Narring; P.-A. Michaud
IntroductionIt is of great importance for repeat unwanted pregnancies to be prevented rather than aborted. We therefore sought to: determine the reasons for contraceptive failure in women seeking repeat abortions; audit the peri-abortion contraception services offered at our hospital, and make recommendations regarding peri-abortion contraception services based on the above findings.MethodA self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the contraceptive practices
Malini Garg; Madan Singh; Diana Mansour
This essay opens with an examination of US laws concerning fetal viability as they apply to induced abortion, to a mother's right to refuse medical treatment necessary to save the life of a fetus, and to the rights to file suit for the wrongful death of unborn children. The history of abortion policies in the US is traced from the common law period of the early 19th century to the restrictive post-Civil War laws and the decisions of the Supreme Court in Roe vs. Wade, which upheld the constitutionality of previability abortions; Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services, in which the Court assigned viability to the 20th week of pregnancy and acknowledged that States could have a compelling previability interest in the fetus; and the Casey decision, which provided tolerance for limits on the availability of abortion before viability as long as the limits did not create an "undue burden" on the woman seeking the abortion. Courts dealing with the issue of compelling a mother to undergo medical treatment to save her fetus have been inconsistent as they balanced the state's interest in the fetus against the mother's rights to privacy. Judges have tended to err on the side of forcing the medical interventions, but the most recent trend is against this sort of judgement. In these cases, fetal viability has also served as a dividing line. The inconsistency of the legal system is illustrated by the fact that, whereas the fetus now has a legal existence, wrongful death actions entered on behalf of a nonviable fetus have often been denied although courts have been more willing to extend protection to fetuses in wrongful death tort cases than in abortion or medical intervention cases. Criminal law has a unique set of rules for dealing with fetuses as some states have broadened their definitions of "homicide" to include fetuses, even nonviable fetuses. Courts, however, are reluctant to enlarge criminal statutes on their own. While the central position given to the role of viability in the Roe vs. Wade decision was intended to apply only to abortion (and is diminishing there), state courts have accepted viability as equating personhood and have used the concept to decide medical treatment, wrongful death, and criminal cases. In order to resolve the inconsistencies exhibited by these decisions, states should be allowed to make all decisions regarding the treatment of fetuses. PMID:8568420
A critical application of Ruddick's model of maternal thinking is the best way to grapple with the ethical dilemmas posed by sex-selective abortion which I view as a "moral mistake." Chief among these is the need to be sensitive to local cultural practices in countries where sex-selective abortion is prevalent, while simultaneously developing consistent international standards to deal with the dangers posed by the use of sex-selective abortion to eliminate female fetuses. PMID:11865874
Can one consistently deny the permissibility of abortion while endorsing the killing of human embryos for the sake of stem\\u000a cell research? The question is not trivial; for even if one accepts that abortion is prima facie wrong in all cases, there\\u000a are significant differences with many of the embryos used for stem cell research from those involved in abortion—most
David A. Jensen
Professor Judith Jarvis Thomson's seminal paper "A defence of abortion" published in 1971 has formed part of higher education syllabi for decades. In the paper Thomson criticizes one of the fundamental arguments against abortion, that is, the right of the foetus to life by denying that the foetus is a person. This article argues that her thought experiments do not compare to the reality of abortion and focuses on the influence of the paper on arguments concerning personhood. PMID:23350221
BackgroundMany misconceptions still prevail about the appropriateness of use of the intrauterine device (IUD), particularly for younger women. This study examines the factors associated with post abortion IUD use as compared to the combined oral contraceptive pill (COC). It then examines the effect of type of post abortion contraception with the likelihood of seeking subsequent abortions.
Helen Roberts; Martha Silva; Sylvia Xu
Psychology and psychiatry have tended to approach abortion as a health issue for individual women and to focus on the potentially negative psychological effects of the procedure. This individualistic approach has created an impression of abortion as intrinsically risky for women and has provided a very limited account of the relationship between the social context in which women experience abortion
Mary Boyle; Jane McEvoy
to require abortion providers to notify par- ents of abortions performed on minors, to impose restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion and to create 24-hour waiting periods. An unintended effect of such re- strictions may be an accelerated growth in nonmarital births that, in turn, increases the proportion of unmarried women heading families. Our study addresses a straightforward question with
Daniel T. Lichter; Diane K. McLaughlin; David C. Ribar
|Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…
Asserting that abortions are coerced and subject women to physical and emotional harms, South Dakota recently passed legislation prohibiting abortion except where it would prevent the death of a pregnant woman. The use of woman-protective antiabortion argument to defend the South Dakota ban reflects a shift from fetalfocused to gender-based justifications for abortion regulation. Although the South Dakota ban was
Reva B Siegel
Epizootic bovine abortion (EBA) is endemic in California's coastal range and the foothill regions of the Sierra Nevada, where it has been the primary diagnosed cause of abortion in beef cattle for >50 years. Investigation of these losses has defined a specific fetal syndrome characterized by late-term abortion or birth of weak or dead calves. Although the unusual clinical presentation
Donald P. King; Ching-I Chen; Myra T. Blanchard; Brian M. Aldridge; Mark Anderson; Richard Walker; John Maas; Don Hanks; Jeffrey L. Stott
Objective To characterize the backgrounds of women who have repeat abortions. Study Design In a cross-sectional study of 259 women (M=35.2±5.6 years), the relation between adverse experiences in childhood and risk of having 2+ abortions versus 0 or 1 abortion was examined. Self-reported adverse events occurring between ages 0-12 were summed. Results Independent of confounding factors, women who experienced more abuse, personal safety, and total adverse events in childhood were more likely to have 2+ versus 0 abortions (OR=2.56, 95% CI=1.15-5.71; OR=2.74, 95% CI=1.29-5.82; OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.21-2.09) and versus 1 abortion (OR=5.83, 95% CI=1.71-19.89; OR=2.23, 95% CI=1.03-4.81; OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.04-1.81). Women who experienced more family disruption events in childhood were more likely to have 2+ versus 0 abortions (OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.14-2.69) but not versus 1 abortion (OR=1.16, 95% CI=0.79-1.70). Conclusions Women who have repeat abortions are more likely to have experienced childhood adversity than those having 0 or 1 abortion.
BLEIL, Maria E.; ADLER, Nancy E.; PASCH, Lauri A.; STERNFELD, Barbara; REIJO-PERA, Renee A.; CEDARS, Marcelle I.
Psychological research is increasingly involved in debates regarding abortion. While recognizing the diversity of ethical and moral issues intertwined with abortion, the American Psychological Association (APA) has focused its involvement on psychological factors, most recently by appointing an expert panel to review the literature on psychological effects. This article notes the history of APA involvement and reports on the panel's conclusions. It presents evidence that abortion is not likely to be followed by severe psychological responses and that psychological aspects can best be understood within a framework of normal stress and coping rather than a model of psychopathology. Correlates of more negative responses following abortion are also discussed. PMID:1443858
Adler, N E; David, H P; Major, B N; Roth, S H; Russo, N F; Wyatt, G E
...2009-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050 Section 884...884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to...
...2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050 Section 884...884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to...
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070...Therapeutic Devices Â§ 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...
Multiple pregnancy is increasingly considered a complication of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and ovarian stimulation for natural fertilization. Harms to fetuses, newborn and older children, mothers, families, and healthcare systems are encouraging single embryo transfer. When patients knowingly accept multiple pregnancy risks from IVF or ovarian stimulation, they are unlikely to succeed in litigation against healthcare providers for wrongful pregnancy or wrongful birth. More challenging are impaired children's claims for "wrongful life." These are unlikely to succeed against parents, but courts are ambivalent to claims against healthcare providers. Historically, courts rejected these claims, under the principle that live birth is not a legal injury. European and other courts, however, have been more sympathetic to these claims. Multiple pregnancy treated by fetal reduction is not usually found to offend abortion laws. This poses ethical concerns, however, of "lifeboat ethics," involving how fetal reduction choices are made. PMID:18854244
Dickens, Bernard M; Cook, Rebecca J
Article 14(2)(c) of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women enjoins States Parties to take appropriate measures "to protect the reproductive rights of women by authorising medical abortion in cases of sexual assault, rape, incest, and where continued pregnancy endangers the mental and physical health of the mother or the life of the mother or the foetus." This paper considers the implications of Article 14 for access to safe, legal abortion. It is submitted that Article 14 has the potential to impact positively on regional abortion law, policy, and practice in 3 main areas. First, it takes forward the global consensus on combating abortion as a major public health danger. Second, it provides African countries with not just an incentive, but also an imperative for reforming abortion laws in a transparent manner. Third, if implemented in the context of a treaty that centers on the equality and non-discrimination of women, Article 14 has the potential to contribute toward transforming access to abortion from a crime and punishment model to a reproductive health model. PMID:20546748
Ngwena, Charles G
|Like most issues in higher education, the accreditation paradigm in the United States is defined in large measure by the legal and political climate in which the academy finds itself. In the case of accreditation in particular, the legal substrate is of particular importance given the central role of accreditation in a college's ability to…
Graca, Thomas J.
The perspectives of Lon L. Fuller on legal education in the 1940s and 1950s is outlined, including the responsibilities and tasks of the lawyer, curricular deficiencies, pedagogical deficiencies, the need for and objectives of a course in jurisprudence, research needs, and obstacles to good legal education. (MSE)
Summers, Robert S.
The legal aspects of globalization necessarily focus on achieving uniform corporate standards in an increasingly diverse world. This discussion will be divided into two parts: (1) resolving the tension between uniformity and diversity and (2) a legal analysis of certain practical examples of resolving the tension between uniformity and diversity.
Thomas F. McCaffery
People often act in ways that are inconsistent with their own stated desires. What, if anything, can or should legal policy do about this disjunction? In recent years, legal and social science scholarship has increasingly examined self-control and related concepts. In this review, I discuss the policy implications of this work. I begin by defining willpower, disaggregating it from other,
Lee Anne Fennell
The protozoa Neospora caninum is an important cause of bovine abortion world-wide. The objective of this survey was to determine the distribution pattern of infectious abortion in Southern Brazil with special reference to N. caninum infection. A total of 161 bovine aborted fetuses from 149 farms were analysed during a 1.5 year period. The cause of abortion was identified in
Luis G. Corbellini; Caroline A. Pescador; Fernanda Frantz; Elsio Wunder; David Steffen; David R. Smith; David Driemeier
Legal education fails to prepare students to engage in moral discourse, exploring the ethical/moral dimension of the profession. Moral discourse suggests that the lawyer's professional ethos is problematic for the good person, and moves the profession to confront more directly the public image of lawyers. (MSE)
Elkins, James R.
There have been attempts to define the beginning of life from a legal point of view. The German civil code of 1923 specified that only that entity can have birthright that was alive at the time of succession. Whoever was not alive at the time of succession but was already fertilized would be deemed as born before the succession. The law in this instance does not really define life, rather it regulates the hereditary right of the fetus. Less subject to misunderstanding is Paragraph 1 of the German Law Book, which refers to the legal rights of human beings from the completion of birth, specifying only the live born and not the still-born. The embryo protection law in force as of January 1, 1991, defines the beginning of life in a medical sense, to wit, the embryo is the fertilized egg cell capable of development already from the time of fertilization. Additionally every cell with the potential to divide and develop into an individual is assumed as an embryo. No other law explicitly provides a similar definition of the appearance of early human life. Some foreign legal precepts designate the embryonic conceptus the preembryo, which could be subjected to procedures in reproductive medicine to which more developed embryos could not be. According to the valid Paragraph 219 d of the Penal Code, a procedure is not considered an abortion when its effects occur before the completion of nidation of the fertilized egg cell in the uterus. This does not define the beginning of life, it only says something about the beginning of legal protection of unborn life. In the view of constitutional law Article 2, Section 2 of the German Basic Law, every person has the right to life and bodily integrity, which rights can only be infringed on in accordance with the law. However, personhood and life are not defined. PMID:8303918
Koch, H G
The precise nature and scope of healthcare confidentiality has long been the subject of debate. While the obligation of confidentiality is integral to professional ethical codes and is also safeguarded under English law through the equitable remedy of breach of confidence, underpinned by the right to privacy enshrined in Article 8 of the Human Rights Act 1998, it has never been regarded as absolute. But when can and should personal information be made available for statistical and research purposes and what if the information in question is highly sensitive information, such as that relating to the termination of pregnancy after 24 weeks? This article explores the case of In the Matter of an Appeal to the Information Tribunal under section 57 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000, concerning the decision of the Department of Health to withhold some statistical data from the publication of its annual abortion statistics. The specific data being withheld concerned the termination for serious fetal handicap under section 1(1)d of the Abortion Act 1967. The paper explores the implications of this case, which relate both to the nature and scope of personal privacy. It suggests that lessons can be drawn from this case about public interest and use of statistical information and also about general policy issues concerning the legal regulation of confidentiality and privacy in the future. PMID:21708829
McHale, Jean V; Jones, June
Objectives To quantify trends in changing sex ratios of births before and after the legalisation of abortion in Nepal. While sex-selective abortion is common in some Asian countries, it is not clear whether the legal status of abortion is associated with the prevalence of sex-selection when sex-selection is illegal. In this context, Nepal provides an interesting case study. Abortion was legalised in 2002 and prior to that, there was no evidence of sex-selective abortion. Changes in the sex ratio at birth since legalisation would suggest an association with legalisation, even though sex-selection is expressly prohibited. Design Analysis of data from four Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011. Setting Nepal. Participants 31?842 women aged 15–49. Main outcome measure Conditional sex ratios (CSRs) were calculated, specifically the CSR for second-born children where the first-born was female. This CSR is where the evidence of sex-selective abortion will be most visible. CSRs were looked at over time to assess the impact of legalisation as well as for population sub-groups in order to identify characteristics of women using sex-selection. Results From 2007 to 2010, the CSR for second-order births where the first-born was a girl was found to be 742 girls per 1000 boys (95% CI 599 to 913). Prior to legalisation of abortion (1998–2000), the same CSR was 1021 (906–1150). After legalisation, it dropped most among educated and richer women, especially in urban areas. Just 325 girls were born for every 1000 boys among the richest urban women. Conclusions The fall in CSRs witnessed post-legalisation indicates that sex-selective abortion is becoming more common. This change is very likely driven by both supply and demand factors. Falling fertility has intensified the need to bear a son sooner, while legal abortion services have reduced the costs and risks associated with obtaining an abortion.
Frost, Melanie Dawn; Puri, Mahesh; Hinde, Peter Richard Andrew
Although Ghana's abortion law is fairly liberal, unsafe abortion and its consequences remain among the largest contributors to maternal mortality in the country. This study analyzes data from the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey to identify the sociodemographic profiles of women who seek to induce abortion and those who are able to obtain safe abortion services. We hypothesize that women who have access to safe abortion will not be distributed randomly across different social groups in Ghana; rather, access will be influenced by social and economic factors. The results confirm this hypothesis and reveal that the women who are most vulnerable to unsafe abortions are younger, poorer, and lack partner support. The study concludes with policy recommendations for improving access to safe abortion for all subgroups of women, especially the most vulnerable. PMID:23239247
Sundaram, Aparna; Juarez, Fatima; Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela
Protozoa1 abortion in cattle was retrospectively studied by examining material submitted to the Batchelar Animal Health Laboratory in the years 1987–90. Only cases in which foetal brain had been submitted were examined. Histologically, protozoa1 lesions were seen in the brains of 28% of 320 aborted foetuses. Lesions were also seen in 10% of the hearts and 34% of the placentas
R. N. Thornton; E. J. Thompson; J. P. Duhey
Medical abortion opens a new choice to women wishing to terminate a pregnancy. Increasingly, providers in the developing and developed world will begin to offer this option. Yet, the nomenclature and concepts used for measuring failure of surgical abortion are not directly adaptable because of important differences inherent in the method and in the way it is offered in a
Beverly Winikoff; Charlotte Ellertson; Shelley Clark
Objective: To compare the efficacy of two routes of misoprostol administration (oral and vaginal) for treatment of missed abortion. Methods: Two hundred women with confirmed missed abortion received 800 mcg misoprostol either orally or vaginally. All women returned for follow-up care 2 days later. If the pregnancy was not completely evacuated at this time, women could wait an additional 5
N. T. N. Ngoc; J. Blum; E. Westheimer; T. T. V. Quan; B. Winikoff
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey, Youth Cohort, logistic regression models are estimated to show the impact of various sociodemographic and economic factors on the abortion decision for 1867 pregnancies occurring between 1983 and 1985 in the data set. The results suggest a profile of a woman choosing the abortion decision as being White, unmarried, residing in the Northeast
Lonnie K. Stevans; David N. Sessions
Thanks to initiatives since 1994, most reproductive health programmes for refugee women now include family planning and safe delivery care. Emergency contraception and post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortion are recommended, but provision of these services has lagged behind, while services for women who wish to terminate an unwanted pregnancy are almost non-existent. Given conditions in refugee settings, including
|Recently collected data from a survey of the attitudes of 1,843 elite members of both traditional and new institutions towards abortion indicate that, barring a major religious revival, a relatively permissive abortion policy will probably continue whether or not the Supreme Court curtails or overturns Roe vs. Wade. (FMW)|
Lerner, Robert; And Others
Results Most women (80%) presented with incomplete abortion. Approximately 34% of the women had reached the second trimester of pregnancy. Adolescents (14-19 years old) accounted for approximately 16% of the study sample. Manual vacuum aspiration was used to manage 80% of first trimester cases. The projected annual number of women with abortion complications admitted to public hospitals in Kenya is
Hailemichael Gebreselassie; Maria F. Gallo; Anthony Monyo; Brooke R. Johnson
The Supreme Court has relied on psychological assumptions in adolescent abortion cases, but it has failed to consider relevant empirical research. The Interdivisional Committee on Adolescent Abortion provides a model for organized psychology's integration, dissemination, and application of psychological knowledge to promote the public's interest.…
Melton, Gary B.; Russo, Nancy Felipe
Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…
Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.
|Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…
Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.
This study attempts to ascertain the reasons that l ead women to abortion and assess the extent of the involvement of their husband or male partner in the pregnancy decision making. A total 304 of women who received safe abortion services during the eigh t-month period from 8 clinics of Family Planning Association of Nepal (FPAN) constitute the sample s
Nirmal Duwadi; Paban Sun Shrestha
• Mothers with a history of previous abortion are more likely to use illegal drugs and alcohol during their next pregnancy. Compared to women who had previously given birth, women who had previously aborted were significantly more likely to use marijuana (929%), various illegal drugs (460%) and alcohol (122%) during their next pregnancy. Differences between the groups were even greater
Comparisons of the efficacy of different regimens of medical abortion are difficult because of the widely varying protocols (even for testing identical regimens), divergent definitions of success and failure, and lack of a standard method of analysis. In this article we review the current efficacy literature on medical abortion, highlighting some of the most important differences in the way that
James Trussell; Charlotte Ellertson
Psychological research is increasingly involved in debates regarding abortion. While recognizing the diversity of ethical and moral issues intertwined with abortion, the American Psychological Association (APA) has focused its involvement on psychological factors, most recently by appointing an expert panel to review the literature on psychological effects. This article notes the history of APA involvement and reports on the panel's
Nancy E. Adler; Henry P. David; Brenda N. Major; Susan H. Roth; Nancy Felipe Russo; Gail E. Wyatt
Tay-Sachs disease is a fatal recessive genetic disorder that effects the central nervous system of Ashkenazi Jewish infants. The disease is incurable. The only method of prevention is screening for heterozygotes with subsequent amniocentesis for at-risk couples and abortion of the genetically doomed infants. Genetic screening and abortion are complex ethical issues that bridge the worlds of religion and science
Introduction The fight against maternal deaths has gained attention as the target date for Millennium Development Goal 5 approaches. Induced-abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal deaths in developing countries which hamper this effort. In Ghana, alcohol consumption and unwanted pregnancies are on the ascendancy. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and maternal mortality from induced-abortion. We further analyzed the factors that lie behind the alcohol consumption patterns in the study population. Method The data we used was extracted from the Ghana Maternal Health Survey 2007. This was a national survey conducted across the 10 administrative regions of Ghana. The survey identified 4203 female deaths through verbal autopsy, among which 605 were maternal deaths in the 12 to 49?year-old age group. Analysis was done using Statistical software IBM SPSS Statistics 20. A case control study design was used. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between the different variables. Results Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with abortion-related maternal deaths. Women who had ever consumed alcohol (OR adjusted 2.6, 95% CI 1.38–4.87), frequent consumers (OR adjusted 2.6, 95% CI 0.89–7.40) and occasional consumers (OR adjusted 2.7, 95% CI 1.29–5.46) were about three times as likely to die from abortion-related causes compared to those who abstained from alcohol. Maternal age, marital status and educational level were found to have a confounding effect on the observed association. Conclusion Policy actions directed toward reducing abortion-related deaths should consider alcohol consumption, especially among younger women. Policy makers in Ghana should consider increasing the legal age for alcohol consumption. We suggest that information on the health risks posed by alcohol and abortion be disseminated to communities in the informal sector where vulnerable groups can best be reached.
Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women?s right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of ?health exception?. In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied. PMID:24100828
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between subfertility and spontaneous abortion. METHODS: A total of 1572 women in New York and Vermont reported 3269 pregnancies between 1980 and 1990 and were able to provide an estimate of the waiting time to conception for 2967. Subfertility was defined as a delay of 1 year or more before a recognized conception was achieved. Rates of spontaneous abortion were determined among women with and without subfertility, and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated via multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Spontaneous abortion rates were 23.0% in pregnancies preceded by subfertility and 14.0% in pregnancies without impaired fertility (adjusted OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.26, 2.94). The attributable risk of spontaneous abortion associated with subfertility was 6.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Subfertile women evidence an increased number of spontaneous abortions.
Gray, R H; Wu, L Y
BACKGROUND: A combination of mifepristone and misoprostol provides an effective method of medical abortion for early pregnancy. This is the first randomized trial comparing the use of sublingual misoprostol with vaginal misoprostol in combination with mifepristone for termination of early pregnancies up to 63 days. METHODS: A total of 224 women who requested legal termination of pregnancy up to 63
Oi Shan Tang; Carina C. W. Chan; Ernest H. Y. Ng; Sharon W. H. Lee; Pak Chung Ho
During a highly contested process, abortion was partially decriminalised in Colombia in 2006 by the Constitutional Court: when the pregnancy threatens a woman's life or health, in cases of severe fetal malformations incompatible with life, and in cases of rape, incest or unwanted insemination. However, Colombian women still face obstacles to accessing abortion services. This is illustrated by 36 cases of women who in 2006-08 were denied the right to a lawful termination of pregnancy, or had unjustified obstacles put in their path which delayed the termination, which are analysed in this article. We argue that the obstacles resulted from fundamental disagreements about abortion and misunderstandings regarding the ethical, legal and medical requirements arising from the Court's decision. In order to avoid obstacles such as demands for a judge's authorisation, institutional claims of conscientious objection, rejection of a claim of rape, or refusal of health insurance coverage for a legal termination, which constitute discrimination against women, three main strategies are suggested: public ownership of the Court's decision by all Colombian citizens, a professional approach by those involved in the provision of services in line with the law, and monitoring of its implementation by governmental and non-governmental organisations. PMID:21111356
Amado, Eduardo Díaz; Calderón García, Maria Cristina; Cristancho, Katherine Romero; Salas, Elena Prada; Hauzeur, Eliane Barreto
Modern thinking on abortion, reflected in recent legal developments around the world, has turned from concentration upon criminality in favor of female and family well-being. New laws enacted during the last decade are coming to focus upon conditions of health and social welfare of women and their existing families as indications for lawful termination of pregnancy. Regulations governing the delivery of services may be restrictive, however, so as to limit in practice access to means of safe, legal abortion made available in theory. Requirements may be imposed that only medical personnel with unduly high qualifications perform procedures, or that they be undertaken only in institutions meeting standards higher than similar health care requires. Approval procedures may be established involving second medical opinions or committees to monitor observance of the law, which may delay abortions and therefore increase their hazards. Parental and spousal consent requirements may exist in addition with the same effects, or to veto a pregnant female's request. Regulations may be employed more positively, however, to encourage contraceptive practice. A disappointment with legislative reform is that it may fail to improve circumstances if public resources are not applied to achieve the supply of services newly rendered legitimate, and illegal practice may persist.
Cook, R J; Dickens, B M
Abortion has been largely avoided in Muslim communities. However, Islamic jurists have established rigorous parameters enabling abortion of fetuses with severe congenital abnormalities. This decision-making process has been hindered by an inability to predict the severity of such prenatally-diagnosed conditions, especially in genetic disorders with clinical heterogeneity, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Heterogeneous phenotypes of SMA range from extremely severe type 1 to very mild type 4. Advances in molecular genetics have made it possible to perform prenatal diagnosis and to predict the types of SMA with its potential subsequent severity. Such techniques will make it possible for clinicians working in predominantly Muslim countries to counsel their patients accurately and in harmony with their religious beliefs. In this paper, we discuss and postulate that with our current knowledge of determining SMA types and severity with great accuracy, abortion is legally applicable for type 1 SMA. PMID:21060155
Sasongko, Teguh H; Salmi, Abd Razak; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Albar, Mohammed Ali; Mohd Hussin, Zabidi Azhar
Researchers are increasingly interested in creating chimeras by transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into animals early in development. One concern is that such research could confer upon an animal the moral status of a normal human adult but then impermissibly fail to accord it the protections it merits in virtue of its enhanced moral status. Understanding the public policy implications of this ethical conclusion, though, is complicated by the fact that claims about moral status cannot play an unfettered role in public policy. Arguments like those employed in the abortion debate for the conclusion that abortion should be legally permissible even if abortion is not morally permissible also support, to a more limited degree, a liberal policy on hESC research involving the creation of chimeras. PMID:20579247
Abortion has been largely avoided in Muslim communities. However, Islamic jurists have established rigorous parameters enabling abortion of fetuses with severe congenital abnormalities. This decision-making process has been hindered by an inability to predict the severity of such prenatally-diagnosed conditions, especially in genetic disorders with clinical heterogeneity, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Heterogeneous phenotypes of SMA range from extremely severe type 1 to very mild type 4. Advances in molecular genetics have made it possible to perform prenatal diagnosis and to predict the types of SMA with its potential subsequent severity. Such techniques will make it possible for clinicians working in predominantly Muslim countries to counsel their patients accurately and in harmony with their religious beliefs. In this paper, we discuss and postulate that with our current knowledge of determining SMA types and severity with great accuracy, abortion is legally applicable for type 1 SMA.
Sasongko, Teguh H.; Salmi, Abd Razak; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Albar, Mohammed Ali; Mohd Hussin, Zabidi Azhar
The autonomy granted to physicians is based on the claim that their decisions are grounded in scientific principles. But a case study of the evolution of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ abortion policy between 1951 and 1973 shows that decisions were only secondarily determined by science. The principal determinant was the need to preserve physician autonomy over the organization and delivery of services. As a result, the organization representing physicians who specialized in women’s reproductive health was marginal to the struggle for legalized abortion. But, the profession was central to decisions about whether physicians would perform abortions and how they would be done. This case study finding has implications for understanding the role that organized medicine might take in the ongoing debates about national health policy.
Legal scholars and those with an interest in the law will definitely want to take a look at the Global Legal Information Network (GLIN) website. Here visitors can search official full text legal documents, including judicial decisions, legislation, and laws. The database is provided courtesy of the Law Library of the United States Congress, and it draws from countries from around the world who wish to provide access to their own legal documents. Some of the countries who participate in the program include Brazil, Costa Rica, Kuwait, Peru, and Romania. Visitors will find that the ways to search the database are extremely helpful. Options include searching by jurisdiction, publication date, subject terms, and language. The site is rounded out by a section that provides answers to frequently asked questions about using the database.
Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs. PMID:3147672
Recurrent spontaneous abortion occurs in approximately 3% of women with diagnosed pregnancies. The etiology in approximately 40% of recurrent spontaneous abortion is unexplained. To elucidate unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion at the molecular level, we systemically identified differentially expressed genes during implantation window period in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion and characterized their functions in a human endometrial cell line. Expression levels
Jiae Lee; Jungsu Oh; Eunyoung Choi; Cecil Han; Do Han Kim; Bum-Chae Choi; Jeong-Wook Kim; Chunghee Cho
who had an abortion for the first time with those who had had a repeat abortion. 7 Most have concluded that there are only a few differences between the two groups. Berger, for example, found that in Cana- da, first-abortion patients were similar to repeat-abortion patients in contraceptive practice, education level, socioeconomic status, religious affiliation and religiosity, and attitudes about
John M. Westfall; Ken J. Kallail
This paper analyses the present state of knowledge on induced abortion in Latin America based on a critical review of information from regional meetings and seminars in the 1990.3 and articles in international journals in the field. It focuses on the incidence of abortion, the abortion decision-making process, and the political and public dimensions of induced abortion, and discusses theoretical
Juan José Llovet; Silvina Ramos
|The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…
Stigmatization is a deeply contextual, dynamic social process; stigma from abortion is the discrediting of individuals as a result of their association with abortion. Abortion stigma is under-researched and under-theorized, and the few existing studies focus only on women who have had abortions. We build on this work, drawing from the social science literature to describe three groups whom we
Alison Norris; Danielle Bessett; Julia R. Steinberg; Megan L. Kavanaugh; Silvia De Zordo; Davida Becker
Background The long-term safety of surgical abortion in the first trimester is well established. Despite the increasing use of medical abortion (abortion by means of medication), limited information is available regarding the effects of this procedure on subsequent pregnancies. Methods We identified all women living in Denmark who had undergone an abortion for non- medical reasons between 1999 and 2004
Jasveer Virk; Jun Zhang; Jørn Olsen
Sixteen years after the Supreme Court liberalized abortion policy, the United States continues to debate two competing and seemingly irreconcileable definitions of abortion. The experience of those who provide abortion has received relatively little research attention despite this unique set of historical circumstances. This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of 130 abortion workers (physicians, nurses and counselors). The
Kathleen M. Roe
Abortion is illegal in Ireland except when a pregnant woman is judged by physicians to be suicidal. According to early estimates for 1998 soon to be released by Ireland's Office for National Statistics, more than 6000 Irish women are therefore now traveling each year to Britain for induced abortion, the largest number of such women thus far recorded in Ireland. However, Tony O'Brien, head of the Irish Family Planning Association, believes that it is not so much that the abortion rate is rising, but that a larger percentage of women traveling to the UK for abortion are telling people about their journey and abortion. This new liberalism is reflected in an Irish newspaper poll released last week which shows that 59% of Irish adults over age 18 years, and 86% of adults under age 25 years, approve of couples having sex before marriage. Meanwhile, the government of Ireland has yet to publish the report of its working group on abortion, which it promised to do last summer. O'Brien condemns the recent Irish governments for failing to amend or repeal the country's criminal law against abortion. PMID:9880269
The HL-20 has been designed with the capability for rescue of the crew during all phases of powered ascent from on the launch pad until orbital injection. A launch-escape system, consisting of solid rocket motors located on the adapter between the HL-20 and the launch vehicle, provides the thrust that propels the HL-20 to a safe distance from a malfunctioning launch vehicle. After these launch-escape motors have burned out, the adapter is jettisoned and the HL-20 executes one of four abort modes. In three abort modes - return-to-launch-site, transatlantic-abort-landing, and abort-to-orbit - not only is the crew rescued, but the HL-20 is recovered intact. In the ocean-landing-by-parachute abort mode, which occurs in between the return-to-launch-site and the transatlantic-abort-landing modes, the crew is rescued, but the HL-20 would likely sustain damage from the ocean landing. This paper describes the launch-escape system and the four abort modes for an ascent on a Titan III launch vehicle.
Naftel, J. C.; Talay, T. A.
Can one consistently deny the permissibility of abortion while endorsing the killing of human embryos for the sake of stem cell research? The question is not trivial; for even if one accepts that abortion is prima facie wrong in all cases, there are significant differences with many of the embryos used for stem cell research from those involved in abortion--most prominently, many have been abandoned in vitro, and appear to have no reasonably likely meaningful future. On these grounds one might think to maintain a strong position against abortion but endorse killing human embryos for the sake of stem cell research and its promising benefits. I will argue, however, that these differences are not decisive. Thus, one who accepts a strong view against abortion is committed to the moral impermissibility of killing human embryos for the sake of stem cell research. I do not argue for the moral standing of either abortion or the killing of embryos for stem cell research; I only argue for the relation between the two. Thus the conclusion is relevant to those with a strong view in favor of the permissibility of killing embryos for the sake of research as much as for those who may strongly oppose abortion; neither can consider their position in isolation from the other. PMID:18398698
Jensen, David A
There is a very small correlation, if any, between the prior use of OCs and congenital malformations, including Down's syndrome. There are few, if any, recent reports on masculinization of a female fetus born to a mother who took an OC containing 1 mg of a progestogen during early pregnancy. However, patients suspected of being pregnant and who are desirous of continuing that pregnancy should not continue to take OCs, nor should progestogen withdrawal pregnancy tests be used. Concern still exists regarding the occurrence of congenital abnormalities in babies born to such women. The incidence of postoperative infection after first trimester therapeutic abortion in this country is low. However, increasing numbers of women are undergoing repeated pregnancy terminations, and their risk for subsequent pelvic infections may be multiplied with each succeeding abortion. The incidence of prematurity due to cervical incompetence or surgical infertility after first trimester pregnancy terminations is not increased significantly. Asherman's syndrome may occur after septic therapeutic abortion. The pregnancy rate after treatment of this syndrome is low. The return of menses and the achievement of a pregnancy may be slightly delayed after OCs are discontinued, but the fertility rate is within the normal range by 1 year. The incidence of postpill amenorrhea of greater than 6 months' duration is probably less than 1%. The occurrence of the syndrome does not seem to be related to length of use or type of pill. Patients with prior normal menses as well as those with menstrual abnormalities before use of OCs may develop this syndrome. Patients with normal estrogen and gonadotropin levels usually respond with return of menses and ovulation when treated with clomiphene. The rate for achievement of pregnancy is much lower than that for patients with spontaneous return of menses. The criteria for defining PID or for categorizing its severity are diverse. The incidence of PID is higher among IUD users than among patients taking OCs or using a barrier method. The excess risk of PID among IUD users, with the exception of the first few months after insertion, is related to sexually transmitted diseases and not the IUD. Women with no risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases have little increased risk of PID or infertility associated with IUD use. There appears to be no increased risk of congenital anomalies, altered sex ratio, or early pregnancy loss among spermicide users. All present methods of contraception entail some risk to the patient. The risk of imparied future fertility with the use of any method appears to be low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2209874
Huggins, G R; Cullins, V E
There is no published economic analysis of the potential impact of drug legalization on Social Welfare. This paper treats legal and illegal drugs as different qualities of the same good, and uses price theory to analyse the social welfare effects of drug legalization and the optimal price of legal drugs. Both of these are shown to depend in an intuitive
Andrew E. Clark
The serious health and social consequences of adolescent pregnancy call for the examination of the laws that affect adolescents' access to contraception and abortion. The general law of any country relating to the availability, sale, or distribution and financing of contraceptives affects adolescents. Similarly, a country's general law on abortion applies to adolescents faced with unwanted pregnancy and affects them accordingly. In addition, special legislation relating to adolescents, particularly legislation or court decisions concerning parental consent for contraception or abortion for a minor, has an important influence on the access that sexually active young people have to services. PMID:4060209
This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church. PMID:17614991
A prospective study was conducted on the incidence of intrauterine pathology after missed abortion diagnosed and treated by hysteroscopy. A hysteroscopy was performed in 100 women four to 12 weeks after a dilatation and curettage for missed abortions. Uterine malformations were found in 12 patients, intrauterine adhesions in seven and submucous myoma in two cases. As a side finding four cases of asymptomatic retained products of conception were found. Most cases of the intrauterine pathology were treated instantly by hysteroscopy, "see and treat" regimen was preferred. Post-missed abortion-hysteroscopy is a simple and useful method for early diagnosis and treatment of congenital and acquired intrauterine pathology. PMID:20695832
Kuzel, David; Horak, Petr; Hrazdirova, Lucie; Kubinova, Kristyna; Sosna, Ondrej; Mara, Michal
The most plausible pro-life argument claims that abortion is seriously wrong because it deprives the foetus of something valuable. This paper examines two recent versions of this argument. Don Marquis's version takes the valuable thing to be a 'future like ours', a future containing valuable experiences and activities. Jim Stone's version takes the valuable thing to be a future containing conscious goods, which it is the foetus's biological nature to make itself have. I give three grounds for rejecting these arguments. First, they lead to unacceptable inequalities in the wrongness of killing. Second, they lead to counterintuitive results in a range of imaginary cases. Third, they ignore the role of psychological connectedness in determining the magnitude or seriousness of deprivation-based harms: because the foetus is only weakly psychologically connected to its own future, it cannot be seriously harmed by being deprived of that future. PMID:15148946
The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been a leader in international family planning for almost 30 years, accounting for 46% of all funds in international family planning provided by OECD countries during 1991. Moreover, relative to other donor countries, the US supplies worldwide a disproportionate amount of contraceptives. While international family planning activities received $546 million in 1995, the budget was slashed in 1996 to $72 million. This unprecedented cut will have a profound effect upon the reproductive health and family planning choices of tens of millions of people in developing countries. Millions of additional unintended pregnancies and maternal and child deaths may result. 1996 began with the White House and Congress in political gridlock, with negotiations on foreign aid stalled on the issue of abortion. The Republican-led House of Representatives wanted to bar support of any nongovernmental organization (NGO) which also provided information on abortion, while Democratic President Bill Clinton affirmed that he would veto such legislation. At the end of January, the House passed the Balanced Budget and Down Payment Act (HR 2880) containing clauses which cut the aid budget by 35% and barring new money in the area of family planning until July 1. Spending was limited to the allocation of 6.5% of the total budget each month. Some social marketing programmers who distribute condoms and oral contraceptives are already feeling the pinch, and some programs will simply run out of contraceptives. This cut in funding also bodes ill for achieving the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. There is, however, hope that the cuts will be reversed for the next fiscal year. The author notes survey findings which indicate that US citizens support higher budgets for family planning. PMID:8596311
Aims: This study aimed to determine the sociological characteristics of abortion seekers according to marital status and previous induced abortions in a major regional hospital in Nanjing, China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire in women seeking abortion at Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital in China in 2003. Results: The average
Shenghui Wu; Linwei Tian; Fei Xu
One in four pregnancies worldwide is voluntarily terminated. Approximately 20 million terminations are performed under unsafe conditions, mostly in developing countries with restrictive abortion laws. A total of 100 consecutive