Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.
Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other countries with decriminalization of abortion should also be assessed. Factors considered should include the true impunity of abortion, public health problems and socioeconomic problems generated by the state through criminalization of abortion, and the psychological and economic implications for women of the criminal status of abortion. Systems of decriminalization should be examined to decide which would be appropriate for Mexico. These systems include authorizing complete freedom of choice for the 1st trimester and permitting abortion only for specific indications. All penal codes in Mexico now use the system of abortion for specific indications. Few cases are accepted for legal pregnancy termination. PMID:12158044
Perez Duarte, A E
During a period of one year (1988-1989), a questionnaire was distributed to women applying for legal abortion at Frederikssund Hospital in Denmark. Two hundred and ninety-one answered the questions on the reasons for their wanting an abortion (91%). 75% were younger than 20 years old, older than 34 years old, had already two children or did not cohabit with a man. Among the reasons given by the women, consideration for their employment or education was the most frequent. Housing conditions and financial circumstances were given as the second most frequent reason. There was some variation in the answers the women gave. The older women did not want more children, and the younger women did not feel that they were mature enough for motherhood. Women with children stated frequently that they wanted an abortion for the sake of the family. Only 19% stated lack of or unstable cohabitation with a man as the reason. In comparison with the findings of previous studies, more women stated that they could not afford a child at present. PMID:2399619
Vestermark, V; Petersen, F V; Asping, U I
Women who wish to terminate a pregnancy, and physicians willing to perform abortions, are subject to increasing harassment from groups which challenge the constitutional abortion right upheld by the Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade. Their vulnerability, in fact, parallels the vulnerability of the abortion right. This Article analyzes the inherent weakness and impending obsolescence of the trimester framework established in Roe. Present medical evidence of maternal health risks and fetal viability demonstrates that the trimester framework is inconsistent with current medical knowledge, and will likely be rendered obsolete by developments in medical technology. The Article suggests that adoption of an alternative constitutional basis for legal abortion is necessary to preserve the abortion right, and explores the utility of two arguments grounded in the equal protection doctrine. Finally, it discusses means of preserving legal abortion within the confines of the trimester framework established in Roe v. Wade. PMID:3068986
Mangel, C P
Access to abortion remains a controversial issue worldwide. In Ireland, both north and south, legal restrictions have resulted in thousands of women travelling to England and Wales and further afield to obtain abortions in the last decade alone, while others purchase the 'abortion pill' from Internet sources. This paper considers the socio-legal context in both jurisdictions, the data on those travelling to access abortion and the barriers to legal reform. It argues that moral conservatism in Ireland, north and south, has contributed to the restricted access to abortion, impacting on the experience of thousands of women, resulting in these individuals becoming 'abortion tourists'. PMID:24617662
Bloomer, Fiona; O'Dowd, Kellie
Despite advances in scientific evidence, technologies, and human rights rationale for providing safe abortion, a broad range of cultural, regulatory, and health system barriers that deter access to abortion continues to exist in many countries. When conscientious objection to provision of abortion becomes one of these barriers, it can create risks to women's health and the enjoyment of their human rights. To eliminate this barrier, states should implement regulations for healthcare providers on how to invoke conscientious objection without jeopardizing women's access to safe, legal abortion services, especially with regard to timely referral for care and in emergency cases when referral is not possible. In addition, states should take all necessary measures to ensure that all women and adolescents have the means to prevent unintended pregnancies and to obtain safe abortion. PMID:24332236
Johnson, Brooke R; Kismödi, Eszter; Dragoman, Monica V; Temmerman, Marleen
Between August 1969, when the amendment to the Criminal Code went into effect, and December 1978 about 397 000 legal abortions were performed in hospitals with therapeutic abortion committees in Canada. During the 5-year period 1974-78 abortions in females under 20 years of age accounted for 30.9% of all the legal abortions performed in Canada on Canadian residents, and the abortion rate per 1000 women aged 15 to 19 years increased from 13.6 to 16.3. During 1974-77 the proportion of women in whom the gestation period was more than 12 weeks at the time of abortion was 25.3% for teenagers (females under 20 years of age) but only 14.6% for women aged 20 years or over. In 1976 the teenage abortion rate was lower in Canada (14.5) than in the United States (36.2%), Sweden (28.5), Hungary (26.4), Denmark (26.0), Norway (22.7), Finland (20.3), and England and Wales (15.4).
Wadhera, A.; Nair, C.
According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. PMID:12293809
Findings from empirical research differ greatly from the Supreme Court's assumptions about psychological factors in adolescent abortion. Psychologists should preserve adolescent clients' privacy in counseling about pregnancy-related decisions. Government should encourage counseling services for pregnant adolescents and research on psychological…
American Psychologist, 1987
Pregnancy interruption before fetal viability limit is inherent to a multidisciplinary reflection, due to the conflicts involved. Portuguese laws have been altered along time in the way of women's health protection, allowing the needed information and support towards a free, informed and enlightened decision. Deontological determinants about health professionals towards abortion indicate the practice accordingly the law. Nevertheless, it is safeguarded their right to consciousness objection. Ethical discussion about abortion, in its different ways, includes the concern about the value of intrauterine human life, and also the respect for individual autonomy. Even though the debate about intrauterine human life moral status is viewed from different theories and points of view, it is concluded that different perspectives about this matter are acceptable, in an interpersonal diversity valorization point of view. PMID:22863486
Canário, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Ricou, Miguel
Vacuum aspiration, dilatation and curettage, hysterotomy, and, in some cases, hysterectomy comprise surgical methods of abortion. Oral administration of RU-486, epostane, prostaglandins E and F2 and vaginal suppositories of prostaglandins E and F2 are medical abortion methods. The traditional or clandestine methods are usually performed by unqualified persons and pregnant women themselves. These methods tend to be inefficient and harmful. They include oral preparations of herbs and drugs (e.g., quinine and ergot), introduction of fluids (e.g., household disinfectants) into the vagina, introduction of foreign bodies (e.g., twigs, stems, hollow tubes, needles, wire) into the uterus. Hospital records, death certificates, and community-based surveys are common sources of data on abortion. Worldwide, 40-70/1000 women of childbearing age undergo an abortion. 20-33% of all pregnancies are terminated. Abortion is always legal when it is performed to save a pregnant woman's life. In most countries, it is legal to protect the woman's physical or mental health against serious danger. The risk of death from a legal abortion is rare. On the other hand, when an abortion is performed by an unqualified, unskilled abortionist and/or under unhygienic conditions (all of which are common in countries who have a law against abortion) the risk of death is much higher. In fact, abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal death in many countries (25% and 86% of maternal deaths in Bangladesh and Romania, respectively). Common complications of abortion are incomplete abortion, trauma to pelvic organs (e.g., uterine perforation), tetanus, and infertility. In some developing countries, the cost of treating abortion complications account for up to 50% of maternity hospital budgets. Ways to reduce mortality from unsafe abortion include promoting contraceptive use, legalizing abortion, allowing trained practitioners to perform abortions for health reasons, and improving clinical management of abortion complications. PMID:12345783
In a prospective study, 288 women were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in the cervix prior to legal abortion. In the control group (n = 259), CT culturing was carried out only when postoperative infection was suspected. CT was isolated in 14.2% of asymptomatic women. These patients were treated preoperatively with Doxycycline. In this group, no cases of postoperative infection were detected. Among those cases where CT was not detected, 4.9% contracted the infection, while in the control group the rate of infection was 9.7%. In the control group all the infections due to CT gave late symptoms after the operation (1-4 weeks). PMID:3618133
Giertz, G; Kallings, I; Nordenvall, M; Fuchs, T
Reviews court cases dealing with abortion and the counselor's legal responsibility to both the student and parents. Provides practical recommendations on abortion counseling with minors and suggests that counselors urge minors to discuss abortion plans with parents. Counselor should consider local mores and be knowledgeable about appropriate…
Talbutt, Lou Culler
The new Penal Code in 2009 was an opportunity for Timor-Leste to allow some legal grounds for abortion, which was highly restricted under Indonesian rule. Public debate was contentious before ratification of the new code, which allowed abortion to save a woman’s life and health. A month later, 13 amendments to the code were passed, highly restricting abortion again. This
Suzanne Belton; Andrea Whittaker; Zulmira Fonseca; Tanya Wells-Brown; Patricia Pais
Background China has a national policy regulating the number of children that a woman is allowed to have. The central concept at the individual level application is "illegal pregnancy". The purpose of this article is to describe and problematicize the concept of illegal pregnancy and its use in practice. Methods Original texts and previous published and unpublished reports and statistics were used. Results By 1979 the Chinese population policy was clearly a policy of controlling population growth. For a pregnancy to be legal, it has to be defined as such according to the family-level eligibility rules, and in some places it has to be within the local quota. Enforcement of the policy has been pursued via the State Family Planning (FP) Commission and the Communist Party (CP), both of which have a functioning vertical structure down to the lowest administrative units. There are various incentives and disincentives for families to follow the policy. An extensive system has been created to keep the contraceptive use and pregnancy status of all married women at reproductive age under constant surveillance. In the early 1990s FP and CP officials were made personally responsible for meeting population targets. Since 1979, abortion has been available on request, and the ratio of legal abortions to birth increased in the 1980s and declined in the 1990s. Similar to what happens in other Asian countries with low fertility rates and higher esteem for boys, both national- and local-level data show that an unnaturally greater number of boys than girls are registered as having been born. Conclusion Defining a pregnancy as "illegal" and carrying out the surveillance of individual women are phenomena unique in China, but this does not apply to other features of the policy. The moral judgment concerning the policy depends on the basic question of whether reproduction should be considered as an individual or social decision.
Hemminki, Elina; Wu, Zhuochun; Cao, Guiying; Viisainen, Kirsi
The new Penal Code in 2009 was an opportunity for Timor-Leste to allow some legal grounds for abortion, which was highly restricted under Indonesian rule. Public debate was contentious before ratification of the new code, which allowed abortion to save a woman's life and health. A month later, 13 amendments to the code were passed, highly restricting abortion again. This paper describes the socio-legal context of unsafe abortion in Timor-Leste, based on research in 2006-08 on national laws and policies and interviews with legal professionals, police, doctors and midwives, and community-based focus group discussions. Data on unsafe abortions in Timor-Leste are rarely recorded. A small number of cases of abortion and infanticide are reported but are rarely prosecuted, due to deficiencies in evidence and procedure. While there are voices supporting law reform, the Roman Catholic church heavily influences public policy and opinion. Professional views on when abortion should be legal varied, but in the community people believed that saving women's lives was paramount and came before the law. The revised Penal Code is insufficient to reduce unsafe abortion and maternal mortality. Change will be slow, but access to safe abortion and modern contraception are crucial to women's ability to participate fully as citizens in Timor-Leste. PMID:19962638
Belton, Suzanne; Whittaker, Andrea; Fonseca, Zulmira; Wells-Brown, Tanya; Pais, Patricia
In opposition to Mexico City's legalization of first-trimester abortion, 17 Mexican states (53 percent) have introduced initiatives or reforms to ban abortion entirely, and other states have similar legislation pending. We conducted an opinion survey in eight states--four where constitutional amendments have already been approved and four with pending amendments. Using logistic regression analyses, we found that higher education, political party affiliation, and awareness of reforms/initiatives were significantly associated with support for the Mexico City law. Legal abortion was supported by a large proportion of respondents in cases of rape (45-70 percent), risk to a woman's life (55-71 percent), and risk to a woman's health (48-68 percent). A larger percentage of respondents favored the Mexico City law, which limits elective legal abortion to the first 12 weeks of gestation (32-54 percent), than elective abortion without regard to gestational limit (14-31 percent). PMID:21972672
Valencia Rodríguez, Jorge; Wilson, Kate S; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; García, Sandra G; Sánchez Fuentes, Maria Luisa
CONTEXT: In 2007, first-trimester abortion was legalized in Mexico City. Limited research has been conducted to understand clients'perceptions of the abortion services available in public-sector facilities. METHODS: Perceptions of quality of care were measured among 402 women aged 18 or older who had obtained abortions at any of three public-sector sites in Mexico City in 2009. Six domains of quality
Davida Becker; Claudia Díaz-Olavarrieta; Clara Juárez; Sandra G. García; Patricio Sanhueza; Cynthia C. Harper
Joyce's failure to uncover a negative relationship between crime and abortion was because of his decision to concentrate on a non-representative six-year period. Evidence supporting the claims that the crack-cocaine epidemic hit the high-abortion early-legalizing states earlier and more severely than other states of the U.S in 1970 is presented.
Donohue, John J., III; Levitt, Steven D.
Selective abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome is discussed in terms of abortion perspectives, genetic testing, legislation, and ethical principles. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice are offered as guidelines for the examination of legal standards imposed by legislation. (Author/PB)
Glover, Noreen M.; Glover, Samuel J.
The present study aims to increase knowledge about coping with legal abortion by studying women's reasoning, reactions and emotions over a period of 1 year. The study comprises interviews focusing on the experiences and effects of abortion in 58 women, 4 and 12 months after the abortion. The women also answered a questionnaire before the abortion concerning their living conditions, decision-making process and feelings about the pregnancy and the abortion. Majority of the women did not experience any emotional distress post-abortion and almost all the woman reported that they had coped well at the 1-year follow-up, although 12 had had severe emotional distress directly post-abortion. Furthermore, almost all described the abortion as a relief or a form of taking responsibility and more than half reported only positive experiences such as mental growth and maturity of the abortion process. Those without any emotional distress post-abortion stated clearly before the abortion that they did not want to give birth since they prioritised work, studies and/or existing children. The study shows that women generally are able to make the complex decision to have an abortion without suffering any subsequent regret or negative effects, as ascertained at the 1-year follow-up. PMID:15081205
Kero, A; Högberg, U; Lalos, A
This report summarizes information received from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources regarding abortions reported to the Center for Disease Control for the April-June quarter of 1971. Data in tabular and narrative form are given for abortion ratios by state, reported abortions by menstrual weeks of…
Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.
Background Unsafe abortion has been a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. Since legalization in 2002, more than 1,200 providers have been trained and 487 sites have been certified for the provision of safe abortion services. Little is known about health care workers’ views on abortion legalization, such as their perceptions of women seeking abortion and the implications of legalization for abortion-related health care. Methods To complement a quantitative study of the health effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, we conducted 35 in-depth interviews with physicians, nurses, counsellors and hospital administrators involved in abortion care and post-abortion complication treatment services at four major government hospitals. Thematic analysis techniques were used to analyze the data. Results Overall, participants had positive views of abortion legalization – many believed the severity of abortion complications had declined, contributing to lower maternal mortality and morbidity in the country. A number of participants indicated that the proportion of women obtaining abortion services from approved health facilities was increasing; however, others noted an increase in the number of women using unregulated medicines for abortion, contributing to rising complications. Some providers held negative judgments about abortion patients, including their reasons for abortion. Unmarried women were subject to especially strong negative perceptions. A few of the health workers felt that the law change was encouraging unmarried sexual activity and carelessness around pregnancy prevention and abortion, and that repeat abortion was becoming a problem. Many providers believed that although patients were less fearful than before legalization, they remained hesitant to disclose a history of induced abortion for fear of judgment or mistreatment. Conclusions Providers were generally positive about the implications of abortion legalization for the country and for women. A focus on family planning and post-abortion counselling may be welcomed by providers concerned about multiple abortions. Some of the negative judgments of women held by providers could be tempered through values-clarification training, so that women are supported and comfortable sharing their abortion history, improving the quality of post-abortion treatment of complications.
In April 2007, elective first-trimester abortion was legalized in Mexico City. As of June 2011, more than 60,000 women from Mexico City and other Mexican states have obtained legal abortions in the city's public hospitals and health centers, with private facilities providing additional abortion services. This study examines women's experiences of abortion services in one public and two private clinic settings in 2008. Twenty-five in-depth interviews were conducted: 15 with women who obtained abortions in a public health center and 10 who obtained the procedure at either of two private clinics. Participants were highly satisfied with services at both public and private sites, although some had to go to more than one site before receiving services. None expressed doubts about their decision to have an abortion, and they felt unanimously that they were treated with respect. Furthermore, participants were pleased with the counseling they received and most accepted a contraceptive method after the procedure. PMID:21972669
van Dijk, Marieke G; Arellano Mendoza, Luis Jorge; Arangure Peraza, Ana Gabriela; Toriz Prado, Aldo Alberto; Krumholz, Abigail; Yam, Eileen A
The present contribution is part of a research developed with qualitative social research methods. It offers part of the results attained in a study performed at a clinic belonging to Mexico City´s Government, and explores the effects on staff of the implementation of Legal Pregnancy Termination (ILE, for its initials in Spanish). The results highlights that, besides diminishing health risks in the women who abort, the use of misoprostol prompted assertive attitudes in many women, that reduced the negative effects produced by the stigma of abortion. It also acknowledges the persistence of stigma in the opinions of the health personnel. The empowering of the self-image of women who become subject to this procedure is due to the full exercise of their legal right. PMID:24912521
This study examines the experiences and opinions of health-care professionals after the legalization of abortion in Mexico City in 2007. Sixty-four semistructured interviews were conducted between 1 December 2007 and 16 July 2008 with staff affiliated with abortion programs in 12 hospitals and 1 health center, including obstetricians/gynecologists, nurses, social workers, key decisionmakers at the Ministry of Health, and others. Findings suggest that program implementation was difficult because of the lack of personnel, space, and resources; a great number of conscientious objectors; and the enormous influx of women seeking services, which resulted in a work overload for participating professionals. The professionals interviewed indicate that the program improved significantly over time. They generally agree that legal abortion should be offered, despite serious concerns about repeat abortions. They recommend improving family planning campaigns and post-procedure contraceptive use, and they encourage the opening of primary health-care facilities dedicated to providing abortion services. PMID:21972671
Contreras, Xipatl; van Dijk, Marieke G; Sanchez, Tahilin; Smith, Patricio Sanhueza
Postabortion care providers who breach patient confidentiality endanger women’s health and violate ethics. A 1998 abortion ban in El Salvador likely spurred an increase in the number of women investigated, because many women were reported to legal authorities by health care providers. Having analyzed safeguards of confidentiality in laws and ethical guidelines, we obtained information from legal records on women prosecuted from 1998 to 2003 and identified factors that may lead to reporting through a survey of obstetrician-gynecologists (n=110). Although ethical and human rights standards oblige providers to respect patients’ privacy, 80% of obstetrician-gynecologists mistakenly believed reporting was required. Most respondents (86%) knew that women delay seeking care because of fear of prosecution, yet a majority (56%) participated in notification of legal authorities.
McNaughton, Heathe Luz; Mitchell, Ellen M.H.; Hernandez, Emilia G.; Padilla, Karen; Blandon, Marta Maria
The author refers to a previous article in the November 1972 issue which contains inaccuracies with regard to the state of the New Zealand law concerning abortions. The abortion law is not Section 182 of the Crimes Act as stated but Sections 183-187 of the Crimes Act under which everyone commits a crime who unlawfully uses any means with intent to produce a miscarriage. It is no defense that the patient was in fact not pregnant. All induced or attempted miscarriages are unlawful except when the doctor acts only in good faith to preserve the woman's life or to save her from becoming a physical or mental wreck. The law makes no provision for abortion in cases of rape, fetal deformity, girls under 16, idiots, or women incapable of being mothers. Abortion is unlawful even for the most drastic nonmedical indications. The quality of life of the mother is not a criterion. Section 186 prohibits the supply or procuring of any drug or instrument intended for unlawfully procuring a miscarriage. By Section 187, it is no defense that the instrument, drug, or other device was in fact incapable of procuring a miscarriage. PMID:4512497
Rights to life for unborn humans and to abortion with impunity are incompatible. This observation by the German legal philosopher Norbert Hoerster contains a fundamental criticism of the state regulation on abortion in Germany. The regulation regards abortion as unlawful, but declines to prosecute if the abortion is conducted within the first three months of pregnancy and the pregnant woman received counseling at least three days prior to terminating the pregnancy. In contrast to the German legislature, Hoerster is in favor of setting the beginning of a right to life at birth. With this suggestion and the consequent demand for a general legalization of abortion, Hoerster himself has become the target of harsh criticism. The following article analyzes Hoerster's position and that of his opponents against the background of the current abortion debate in Germany. The consequences for dealing with the handicaps of Hoerster's suggested regulations will also be addressed. PMID:10833137
Women in the African region are overburdened with unsafe abortion. Abortion regimes that fail to translate any given abortion rights into tangible access are partly to blame. Historically, African abortion laws have been highly restrictive. However, the post-independence era has witnessed a change toward liberalizing abortion law, even if incremental for many jurisdictions. Furthermore, Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa has significantly augmented the regional trend toward liberalization by recognizing abortion as a human right in given circumstances. However, states are failing to implement abortion laws. The jurisprudence that is emerging from the European Court of Human Rights and United Nations treaty bodies is a tool that can be used to render African governments accountable for failure to implement domestic abortion laws. PMID:22944215
Ngwena, Charles G
Objective First trimester abortion was decriminalized in Mexico City in 2007. We studied client views of family planning services provided during abortion care at public facilities and acceptance of postabortion contraception. Methods We surveyed 402 clients seeking first trimester abortion care in Mexico City. We used logistic regression to test whether postabortion contraception varied by abortion visit characteristics or client sociodemographics. Results Most participants (81.6%) reported being offered contraception at their visit and 89.5% selected a contraceptive method postabortion, with 58.9% selecting the IUD. Surgical abortion clients were more likely to report being offered contraception than medical abortion clients (p<.001), as were clients attended by a female physician (p<.05). Clients at the general hospital were less likely to report being offered contraception (p<.001). Conclusion Public sector facilities in Mexico City are providing a generally high level of postabortion family planning care and uptake of postabortion contraception is high.
Becker, Davida; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia, Sandra G.; Harper, Cynthia C.
Recently, we have seen various proposed laws that would require that women considering abortions be given ultrasounds along with explanations of these ultrasounds. Proponents of these laws could argue that they are assisting with autonomous abortion choices by providing needed information, especially about the ontological status of the fetus. Arguing against these proposed laws, I first claim that their supporters
Recently, we have seen various proposed laws that would require that women considering abortions be given ultrasounds along with explanations of these ultrasounds. Proponents of these laws could argue that they are assisting with autonomous abortion choices by providing needed information, especially about the ontological status of the fetus. Arguing against these proposed laws, I first claim that their supporters fail to appreciate how personalized an abortion choice must be. Second, I argue that these laws would provide the pregnant woman no control over when and to what extent emotion is inserted into her deliberation. This unjustly inhibits her autonomy, making these ultrasound laws unjustified. PMID:22787957
Despite the Supreme Court decision in 1973, Roe v. Wade, making abortion legally available without impedi ment during the first two trimesters of pregnancy, neither the legal nor ethical problems of abortion have been solved. Congressional opposition to federal financial support of abor tion, as well as a wide disparity in availability of abortion, indicates the still unsettled state of
The relevance and importance of research for understanding policy processes and influencing policies has been much debated, but studies on the effectiveness of policy theories for predicting and informing opportunities for policy change (i.e. prospective policy analysis) are rare. The case study presented in this paper is drawn from a policy analysis of a contemporary process of policy debate on legalization of abortion in Indonesia, which was in flux at the time of the research and provided a unique opportunity for prospective analysis. Applying a combination of policy analysis theories, this case study provides an analysis of processes, power and relationships between actors involved in the amendment of the Health Law in Indonesia. It uses a series of practical stakeholder mapping tools to identify power relations between key actors and what strategic approaches should be employed to manage these to enhance the possibility of policy change. The findings show how the moves to legalize abortion have been supported or constrained according to the balance of political and religious powers operating in a macro-political context defined increasingly by a polarized Islamic-authoritarian-Western-liberal agenda. The issue of reproductive health constituted a battlefield where these two ideologies met and the debate on the current health law amendment became a contest, which still continues, for the larger future of Indonesia. The findings confirm the utility of policy analysis theories and stakeholder mapping tools for predicting the likelihood of policy change and informing the strategic approaches for achieving such change. They also highlight opportunities and dilemmas in prospective policy analysis and raise questions about whether research on policy processes and actors can or should be used to inform, or even influence, policies in 'real-time'. PMID:21183461
Surjadjaja, Claudia; Mayhew, Susannah H
Discursive constructions of abortion are embedded in the social and gendered power relations of a particular socio-historical space. As part of research on public discourses concerning abortion in South Africa where there has been a radical liberalisation of abortion legislation, we collected data from male group discussions about a vignette concerning abortion, and newspaper articles written by men about abortion. Our analysis revealed how discourses of equality, support and rights may be used by men to subtly undermine women's reproductive right to 'choose' an abortion. Within an Equal Partnership discourse, abortion, paired with the assumption of foetal personhood, was equated with violating an equal heterosexual partnership and a man's patriarchal duty to protect a child. A New Man discourse, which positions men as supportive of women, was paired with the assumption of men as rational and women as irrational in decision-making, to allow for the possibility of men dissuading women from terminating a pregnancy. A Rights discourse was invoked to suggest that abortion violates men's paternal rights. PMID:23768420
Macleod, Catriona Ida; Hansjee, Jateen
We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971 to 1975 to demonstrate that women traveled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A 100-mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233
Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu
The rights of adolescents and young people in international law and agreements have evolved significantly from a focus on protection to a recognition of "evolving capacities" and decision-making ability. Unclear policies and regulations and variations in actual practice may leave providers with little clarity on how to support adolescent decision-making and instead create unintended barriers. This study in Mexico City in 2009 explored whether regulations and clinical attitudes and practice were supporting or hindering the access of adolescent girls aged 12-17 to information regarding abortion and to abortion services. We surveyed abortion clinic directors and staff, and adolescents arranging or just having had an abortion, and sent mystery clients to clinics to ask for information. While providers were generally positive about adolescents' ability to decide on abortion, they had different understandings about the need for adult accompaniment and who that adult should be, and mystery clients seeking information were more likely to receive complete information if accompanied by an adult. Clarification of consent and accompaniment requirements is needed, and providers need to be made aware of them; adolescents should have access to information and counselling without accompaniment; and improvements in privacy and confidentiality in public sector clinics are also needed. These all support complementary concepts of protection and autonomy in adolescent decision-making on abortion. PMID:23684199
Clyde, Jessie; Bain, Jennifer; Castagnaro, Kelly; Rueda, Marcela; Tatum, Carrie; Watson, Katherine
This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom." PMID:12178914
Hisel, L M
Professor Walker (June 13, p. 1319) is right in saying that it is best to use both the weight of the fetus and its presumed gestational age as the criteria for the registration of a stillbirth, and that any fetus delivered before the end of the 22nd week, and weighing less than 500 g, can be assumed to have had no chance of survival and should therefore be regarded as an abortion and not as a stillbirth. The difficulty when using the dates alone, "fairly and honestly and properly assessed," in order to determine the legality of a procured abortion is that it is seldom easy to be be sure that they have been accurately reported, depending as they often do upon the word of the mother. Most of the distressing stories of aborted fetuses crying, or showing other signs of life, before 24 weeks probably mean that they were considerably older than was originally supposed. A medical practitioner responsible for procuring an abortion under the 1967 Act, who honestly believed that the child was incapable of surviving, and therefore not protected under the Infant Life (Preservation) Act 1929, would not be guilty of an offense if this belief turned out to have been mistaken, provided it had been formed in good faith after proper inquiries, and provided that everything possible had been done to save the child as soon as it was realized that it might have had a chance of survival. If the child had been viable, and had died as a in the belief that it was not, then it cannot be regarded as an abortion and thus be excluded from the perinatal mortality statistics. To make sure that this will not happen, the regulations would have to be amended to require that the notification sent to the (CMO) Chief Medical Officer should record not only the date of the last menstrual period (as to the present) but also the weight of the fetus at delivery. If this is under 500 g, it can be counted as an abortion, but if it is above the figure there ought to be an independent postmortem examination, with a report to the CMO as to whether, and, if so, why (e.g., because the lungs were not inflatable) the fetus was considered not to have been viable. Failing such positive evidence of inviability, any child over, say 500 g, which dies before or after a procured "abortion" ought to be recorded as a perinatal death. PMID:6113390
Goodhart, C B
CDC began abortion surveillance in 1969 to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions. This report summarizes and describes data reported to CDC regarding legal induced abortions obtained in the United States in 200...
Induced abortion and sexual sterilization are the most common contraceptive methods in the world today. There were an estimated 40 million abortions in 1979, notwithstanding the fact that Islamism, Catholicism, and Buddhism are strongly against the practice. Some international and powerful organizations, notably the IPPF, are trying to expand abortion and sterilization services in the third world, while in the countries of the socialist block abortion as a contraceptive measure is being slowly replaced by oral contraception. On the other hand, in North America, England, and in the Scandinavian countries abortion and sterilization are gradually replacing oral contraception as the most used method of fertility control. The number of abortions in France is now estimated to be 30-40/100 live births, a percentage that very probably underestimates the reality; in France the number of abortions is almost the same in rural and in urban areas. Modern and highly effective methods of contraception are still preferred to abortion and sterilization. It would seem important to warn women against the clinical dangers of repeated abortions, and against the psychological dangers of sterilization and against the banalization of both such radical procedures. The responsibility for such medical acts does not only belong to women or to couples and to physicians, but to politicians and to members of the legal professions. PMID:7455552
Soutoul, J H
Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742
In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236
This privately posted page offers extensive and highly credible information on legislation and jurisprudence relating to abortion in the US. The site offers thoroughly linked discussions of constitutional law, Roe v. Wade, Planned Parenthood v. Casey, state and federal abortion laws, including partial-birth abortion laws, and much more. The hypertext links are to primary documents including court decisions, texts of legislation, court briefs, and oral argument transcripts. There is also an index to primary documents for ease of access. We found the page to have no political agenda. As the author states, "this page is being constructed to help people, regardless of their political bent, understand the background and state of abortion law in America, and access related legal material--especially that which is less available and less well known."
The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation--head and heart counseling--departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade. PMID:23153144
As with the delivery of any medical service, abortion has definite public health effects that should be evaluated. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has monitored the impact of abortion in three ways: (a) conducting epidemiologic surveillance of legally induced abortion beginning in 1969. (b) funding a multicenter study of abortion morbidity beginning in 1971, and (c) undertaking surveillance of abortion-related mortality beginning in 1972. These activities are intended to identify health problems related to abortion, to assess the magnitude of these problems, and to make recommendations directed at eliminating the problems. In addition to the Programmatic uses of abortion data, the CDC statistics have also provided a basis for both legislative and judicial decisions that have had national and local impact. The CDC and the National Center for Health Statistics are currently working collectively to strengthen the reporting of national abortion statistics so that the public health need for abortion statistics can be met.
Smith, J C; Cates, W
The clinical value of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as a guide to the outcome of threatened abortion was assessed. After the thirteenth week of gestation, abortion occurred more frequently (10/12) in women with abnormal serum AFP levels than in those (2/12) whose AFP concentrations were within the normal range. Low levels were present in women with blighted ovum and high concentrations were associated with intrauterine fetal death. In legal first and second trimester abortions, the circulating maternal AFP levels in postabortion samples were often higher than before abortion, irrespective of whether abortion was performed instrumentally or induced with prostaglandins. Maternal serum AFP levels provide a new means for prediction of the outcome of threatened abortion. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2
Seppala, Markku; Ruoslahti, Erkki
I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes. PMID:16969440
Read, Christine Margaret
This study aimed at determining the knowledge and perception of physicians in Nigeria on abortion related deaths, and also to find out if they will support the liberalization of abortion as a means of reducing deaths from unsafe abortion. Physicians' willingness to offer abortion services was also explored. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of physicians in Delta state of Nigeria. Physicians were equally divided on whether legal liberalization of abortion would significantly reduce maternal mortality in Nigeria. Only 13.4% of the doctors were willing to offer abortion services if legally liberalized. The majority of the doctors considered promoting abstinence from pre-marital sex and contraceptive use as best effective strategies for reducing abortion-related deaths. However, liberalization of abortion law in Nigeria was not considered a very effective strategy. PMID:20636247
Okonta, Patrick I; Ebeigbe, Peter N; Sunday-Adeoye, Ileogben
Spontaneous abortion, which is the loss of a pregnancy without outside intervention before 20 weeks' gestation, affects up to 20 percent of recognized pregnancies. Spontaneous abortion can be subdivided into threatened abortion, inevi- table abortion, incomplete abortion, missed abortion, septic abortion, complete abortion, and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Ultrasonography is helpful in the diagnosis of spontaneous abortion, but other testing may
CRAIG P. GRIEBEL; JOHN HALVORSEN; THOMAS B. GOLEMON
In 2011, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) issued two landmark decisions. In Alyne da Silva Pimentel v. Brazil, the first maternal death case decided by an international human rights body, it confirms that States have a human rights obligation to guarantee that all women, irrespective of their income or racial background, have access to timely, non-discriminatory, and appropriate maternal health services. In L.C. v. Peru, concerning a 13-year-old rape victim who was denied a therapeutic abortion and had an operation on her spine delayed that left her seriously disabled as a result, it established that the State should guarantee access to abortion when a woman's physical or mental health is in danger, decriminalise abortion when pregnancy results from rape or sexual abuse, review its restrictive interpretation of therapeutic abortion and establish a mechanism to ensure that reproductive rights are understood and observed in all health care facilities. Both cases affirm that accessible and good quality health services are vital to women's human rights and expand States' obligations in relation to these. They also affirm that States must ensure national accountability for sexual and reproductive health rights, and provide remedies and redress in the event of violations. And they reaffirm the importance of international human rights bodies as sources of accountability for sexual and reproductive rights violations, especially where national accountability is absent or ineffective. PMID:22789080
Kismödi, Eszter; de Mesquita, Judith Bueno; Ibañez, Ximena Andión; Khosla, Rajat; Sepúlveda, Lilian
This article presents current estimates of the number, rate, and proportion of abortions for all countries which make such data available. 76% of the world's population lives in countries where induced abortion is legal at least for health reasons. Abortion is legal in almost all developed countries. Most developing countries have some laws against abortion, but it is permitted at least for health reasons in the countries of 67% of the developing world's population. The other 33%--over 1 billion persons--reside mainly in subSaharan Africa, Latin America, and the most orthodox Muslim countries. By the beginning of the 20th century, abortion had been made illegal in most of the world, with rules in Africa, Asia, and Latin America similar to those in Europe and North America. Abortion legislation began to change first in a few industrialized countries prior to World War II and in Japan in 1948. Socialist European countries made abortion legal in the first trimester in the 1950s, and most of the industrialized world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. The worldwide trend toward relaxed abortion restrictions continues today, with governments giving varying reasons for the changes. Nearly 33 million legal abortions are estimated to be performed annually in the world, with 14 million of them in China and 11 million in the USSR. The estimated total rises to 40-60 million when illegal abortions added. On a worldwide basis some 37-55 abortions are estimated to occur for each 1000 women aged 15-44 years. There are probably 24-32 abortions per 100 pregnancies. The USSR has the highest abortion rate among developed countries, 181/1000 women aged 15-44, followed by Rumania with 91/1000, many of them illegal. The large number of abortions in some countries is due to scarcity of modern contraception. Among developing countries, China apparently has the highest rate, 62/1000 women aged 15-44. Cuba's rate is 59/1000. It is very difficult to calculate abortion rates in countries where the procedure is illegal. On the basis of hospital reports and other fragmentary information, the true rate appears to be relatively high in Latin America and the Far East. The abortion rate for Latin America in the mid-1970s was estimated at 65/1000 fertile aged women, and rates were believed to be higher in urban areas. Sub-Saharan Africa, where women desire very large families, apparently had the lowest rates. Up to 68% of pregnancies in the USSR, 57% in Rumania, and 55% in Japan may end in abortion. The proportion in developing countries ranged from 8% in Vietnam to 43% in China. Women undergoing abortion in developed countries tend to be young, childless, and single, while those in developing countries tend to be older, high parity, and married. Abortion mortality is still high in countries where large numbers of illegal abortions are performed by unqualified personnel, as in many parts of Latin America. PMID:12269047
Henshaw, S K
Positive and negative aspects of therapeutic abortion are discussed upon review of trends found in the 6201 abortions performed in San Francisco between 1968 and 1970 (since Abortion was legalized in California in 1967). On the positive side, legalized abortion appears to have reduced the septic abortion rate (68 per 1000 live births in 1967 to 22 per 1000 in 1969) indicating a decline in criminal abortion. Maternal mortality has also declined from 8 per 100,000 to just over 3 per 100,000 from 1967 to 1969. Patients requesting abortion have averaged in age from 20-24 (26% were less than 19) and approximately half have been nulliparous. 37% of teenagers had saline abortions. Negative aspects have included the increasing morbidity rate associated with saline abortion, a second-trimester method. Compared to abortions performed at 12 weeks' gestation or less (usually done by vacuum aspiration), saline abortions required 5.7% second admissions (only 1.2% of the early abortions required readmission) and necessitated transfusion 3 times as often (in 2.3% of the cases). Regardless of the procedure used, later abortion involved a greater risk of hermorrhage and infection (2.7% incidence at 5-6 weeks' gestation compared to 12.9% at 11-12 weeks). Morbidity accompanying saline abortion was similar at 15 and 20 weeks however. Fortunately a trend toward earlier abortion is indicated. (74% of abortions were by suction and 22% by saline in 1970). Hysterotomy plus tubal ligation and hysterectomy accounted for only 4% of abortions but were accompanied by hemorrhage rates of 31% and 27% respectively and had respective infection rates of 13% and 22%. Private patients received abortions 3 times more often than ward patients although ward patients were subjected to more traumatic procedures: hysterectomies for ward patients were 2.0% vs .9% for private patients; sterilization by tubal ligation following suction abortion was 3.5% vs 1.7%. Additionally, black women had later abortions more often than white patients (33% of the black women were seen after 14 weeks gestation compared to 20% of the white women). Obstructions to early abortion must be eliminated to avoid such discrepancies in opportunity. Psychiatric examinations are unnecessary and causes for administrative delays must be remedied. Cost still presents a barrier for some women. The long-term effects of abortion now suggested by data from countries such as Czechoslovakia indicate that abortion is best viewed as a back-up measure to contraception making increased sex education, counseling and contraceptive practice essential. PMID:5024298
Goldstein, P; Stewart, G
Utilizing data from Edmonton Area Surveys of 1977, 1984, and 1987, this paper examines the attitudes of Canadian men toward the contentious issue of abortion. Respondents were presented with various different circumstances for abortion and asked to indicate the conditions in which they feel women ought to or ought not to be allowed to obtain a legal abortion. Findings reveal
Nearly 20% of the 208 million pregnancies that occur annually are aborted. More than half of these (21.6 million) are unsafe, resulting in 47,000 abortion-related deaths each year. Accurate reports on the prevalence of abortion, the conditions under which it occurs, and the experiences women have in obtaining abortions are essential to addressing unsafe abortion globally. It is difficult, however, to obtain accurate and reliable reports of attitudes and practices given that abortion is often controversial and stigmatized, even in settings where it is legal. To improve the understanding and measurement of abortion, specific considerations are needed throughout all stages of the planning, design, and implementation of research on abortion: Establishment of strong local partnerships, knowledge of local culture, integration of innovative methodologies, and approaches that may facilitate better reporting. This paper draws on the authors' collaborative research experiences conducting abortion-related studies using clinic- and community-based samples in five diverse settings (Poland, Zanzibar, Mexico City, the Philippines, and Bangladesh). The purpose of this paper is to share insights and lessons learned with new and established researchers to inform the development and implementation of abortion-related research. The paper discusses the unique challenges of conducting abortion-related research and key considerations for the design and implementation of abortion research, both to maximize data quality and to frame inferences from this research appropriately. PMID:21530843
Gipson, Jessica D; Becker, Davida; Mishtal, Joanna Z; Norris, Alison H
A nationally representative survey was conducted among 3000 Catholics in Mexico during 2009 and 2010. Respondents were presented with a hypothetical situation about a young woman who decided to have an abortion and were asked their personal opinion of her. On the basis of a stigma index, it was found that the majority (61%) had stigmatizing attitudes about abortion; however, 81% believed that abortion should be legal in at least some circumstances. Respondents were significantly more likely to stigmatize abortion if they disagreed with the Mexico City law legalizing the procedure (odds ratio 1.66; 95% CI, 1.30-2.11) and believed that abortion should be prohibited in all cases (odds ratio 3.13; 95% CI, 2.28-4.30). Such stigma can lead women to seek unsafe abortions to avoid judgment by society. PMID:22920621
McMurtrie, Stephanie M; García, Sandra G; Wilson, Kate S; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Fawcett, Gillian M
Background Since the legalization of abortion services in the United States, provision of abortions has remained a controversial issue of high political interest. Routine abortion training is not offered at all obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) training programs, despite a specific training requirement by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Previous studies that described Ob-Gyn programs with routine abortion training either examined associations by using national surveys of program directors or described the experience of a single program. Objective We set out to identify enablers of and barriers to Ob-Gyn abortion training in the context of a New York City political initiative, in order to better understand how to improve abortion training at other sites. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 22 stakeholders from 7 New York City public hospitals and focus group interviews with 62 current residents at 6 sites. Results Enablers of abortion training included program location, high-capacity services, faculty commitment to abortion training, external programmatic support, and resident interest. Barriers to abortion training included lack of leadership continuity, leadership conflict, lack of second-trimester abortion services, difficulty obtaining mifepristone, optional rather than routine training, and antiabortion values of hospital personnel. Conclusions Supportive leadership, faculty commitment, and external programmatic support appear to be key elements for establishing routine abortion training at Ob-Gyn residency training programs.
Guiahi, Maryam; Lim, Sahnah; Westover, Corey; Gold, Marji; Westhoff, Carolyn L.
The author is pleased to see the publication of A Lawyer Looks at Abortion because legal scholars have much to contribute to the understanding of public questions. Lay readers too often receive distorted impressions of legal issues from the media, and those who understand the system best are frequently too busy writing for the legal community to contribute to popular
Thomas B. McAffee
Habitual abortion is not a frequent reproductive problem, but it is associated with a high degree of anxiety and frustration. The causes are considered according to genetic, endocrine, uterine and immunologic factors, and a plan of investigation and management is suggested. The importance of psychological support is stressed.
Poland, B. J.
Approximately 9 months after a legal therapeutic abortion, 188 Canadian women were interviewed. One half were single and the rest were married, separated or divorced. They were matched closely for a number of demographic variables with control women who had not had abortions. Neurotic disturbance in several areas of personality functioning was assessed from questionnaire responses. Out of 27 psychological scales, differences between the abortion and control groups were found on only 3: in general, women who had had abortions were more rebellious than control women, abortion tended to be associated with somewhat greater depression in married women, and single women who had had abortions scored higher on the shallow-affect scale. However, all the personality scores were well within the normal range. Perceived social support was strongly associated with favourable psychological reactions after abortion. Use of contraceptives improved greatly after the abortion, when over 90% of women reported using contraceptives regularly.
Greenglass, E. R.
During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives.
Cook, R J; Dickens, B M
In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237
There is a global trend toward the liberalization of abortion laws driven by women's rights, public health, and human rights advocates. This trend reflects the recognition of women's access to legal abortion services as a matter of women's rights and self-determination and an understanding of the dire public health implications of criminalizing abortion. Nonetheless, legal strategies to introduce barriers that impede access to legal abortion services, such as mandatory waiting periods, biased counseling requirements, and the unregulated practice of conscientious objection, are emerging in response to this trend. These barriers stigmatize and demean women and compromise their health. Public health evidence and human rights guarantees provide a compelling rationale for challenging abortion bans and these restrictions. PMID:23409915
Finer, Louise; Fine, Johanna B
There will always be women who need abortions after 12 weeks of pregnancy, and their reasons are often compelling. Although second trimester abortions carry relatively more risks than first trimester abortions, abortion is still very safe throughout the second trimester if done in safe conditions. This paper is about law and policy on second trimester abortions, which are allowed on more restrictive grounds than first trimester abortions in most countries, if at all. It focuses on countries where most or at least some second trimester abortions are allowed, including in Europe, where many women are still forced to travel for second trimester abortions, and countries in the developing world, where most second trimester abortions remain unsafe. The need for second trimester abortion should be met in a safe, timely and sympathetic manner. Abortion should be legal at the woman's request up to 24 weeks and on therapeutic grounds after that, and no other barriers or hurdles should be imposed on women seeking second trimester abortion. In-depth, country-based research is needed, to bring out the facts on second trimester abortion, as evidence of why it should be treated as a legitimate form of women's health care and supported in public health policy. PMID:18772078
In April 2007, the Mexico City legislature passed landmark legislation decriminalizing elective abortion in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. In Mexico City, safe abortion services are now available to women through the Mexico City Ministry of Health's free public sector legal abortion program and in the private sector, and over 89,000 legal abortions have been performed. By contrast, abortion has continued to be restricted across the Mexican states (each state makes their own abortion laws) and there has been an anti-choice backlash against the legislation in 16 states. Mexico City's abortion legislation is an important first step in improving reproductive rights, but unsafe abortions will only be eliminated if similar abortion legislation is adopted across the entire country.
In April 2007, the Mexico City, Mexico, legislature passed landmark legislation decriminalizing elective abortion in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. In Mexico City, safe abortion services are now available to women through the Mexico City Ministry of Health's free public sector legal abortion program and in the private sector, and more than 89 000 legal abortions have been performed. By contrast, abortion has continued to be restricted across the Mexican states (each state makes its own abortion laws), and there has been an antichoice backlash against the legislation in 16 states. Mexico City's abortion legislation is an important first step in improving reproductive rights, but unsafe abortions will only be eliminated if similar abortion legislation is adopted across the entire country. PMID:23409907
Becker, Davida; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia
In 1969, CDC began abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions, to monitor unintended pregnancy, and to assist efforts to identify and reduce preventable causes of morbidity and mortality ass...
L. M. Koonin L. T. Strauss C. E. Chrisman M. A. Montalbano L. A. Bartlett J. C. Smith
Discusses the U.S. Supreme Court's recent indication of willingness to accept state restrictions on a woman's right to abortion. Presents several key reasons why parental involvement should not be legally required for minors' abortions, and suggests that family practitioners are in an excellent position to inform the public and policymakers about…
This article presents the history and grounds of the official position of the Roman Catholic Church that abortion under any circumstances, including abortion to save the life of the mother, should be prohibited. After an introduction that deplores the lack of mercy shown to killers of abortionists while Catholic priests threatened by pro-abortion forces are not offered protection, the article traces the historic development of the Catholic abortion policy and rebuts arguments that abortion was permitted in the early Christian Church. The next section explains Catholic views on the personhood of a conceptus and refutes the contentions of Joseph Donceel that early abortion should be permitted because of uncertainty about the nature of the conceptus and the possibility of delayed animation. The fourth section of the paper debates the points raised by Susan Teft Nicholson who maintains that the Catholic position regarding abortion rests on the Church's animosity towards sexual pleasure. The paper goes on to criticize Nicholson's claims that the Roman Catholic position on abortion is inconsistent with the Church's own understanding of the Principle of Double Effect because the Church fails to allow abortion in many cases where it would be permissible under the Principle. Section 6 describes the underlying motive of the Roman Catholic Church's abortion position as an attempt to protect the innocent fetus from deliberate death and to justify the Church's application of protection from deliberate killing to those who are innocent of aggressive action. This discussion is followed by a justification of the Church's prohibition of abortion in cases of aggression, such as the aggression ascribed to a fetus when a pregnancy imperials the life of a mother. It is concluded that the US will likely legalize suicide and mercy killing as it has the killing of innocent fetuses who are probably ensouled with personhood and are not formal aggressors. PMID:12348326
Erde review three works that in his opinion have made important contributions to the abortion debate: Abortion Policy: An Evaluation of the Consequences For Maternal and Infant Health, by Jerome S. Legge, Jr. (Albany: State University of New York Press; 1985); Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood, by Kristen Luker (Berkeley: University of California Press; 1984); and Abortion: Moral and Legal Perspective, edited by J.L. Garfield and P. Hennessey (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press; 1984). A later issue of the Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics will carry Erde's review of two additional scholarly books on abortion: Abortion: Understanding the Differences, edited by Sidney Callahan and Daniel Callahan (New York: Plenum Press; 1984), and Abortion and the Status of the Fetus, edited by William B. Bondeson, H.T. Engelhardt, Jr., S.F. Spicker, and D.H. Winship (Boston: D. Reidel; 1983). PMID:11655806
Erde, Edmund L
Abortion remains a highly contentious moral issue, with the debate usually framed as a battle between the fetus's right to life and the woman's right to choose. Often overlooked in this debate is the impact of the concurrent legalization of abortion and the development of new prenatal screening tests on the birth prevalence of many inherited diseases. Most proponents of abortion support abortion for fetuses with severe congenital diseases, but there has unfortunately been, in our opinion, too little debate over the moral appropriateness of abortion for much less severe congenital conditions such as Down's syndrome, deafness, and dwarfism. Due to scientific advances, we are looking at a future in which prenatal diagnosis will be safer and more accurate, raising the specter, and the concomitant ethical concerns, of wholesale abortions. Herein, we present a reframing of the abortion debate that better encompasses these conditions and offers a more nuanced position. PMID:20561739
Jotkowitz, Alan; Zivotofsky, Ari Z
Examines coverage of the abortion issue prior to, during, and after the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing elective abortion in daily newspapers in Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and Washington, D.C. Considers the effect on news coverage of local religious composition, income levels, race, and abortion rate. (GW)
Pollock, John Crothers; And Others
In Latin America, where abortion is almost universally legally restricted, medical abortion, especially with misoprostol alone, is increasingly being used, often with the tablets obtained from a pharmacy. We carried out in-depth interviews with 49 women who had had a medical abortion under clinical supervision in rural and urban settings in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, who were recruited through
María Mercedes Lafaurie; Daniel Grossman; Erika Troncoso; Deborah L Billings; Susana Chávez
In Latin America, where abortion is almost universally legally restricted, medical abortion, especially with misoprostol alone, is increasingly being used, often with the tablets obtained from a pharmacy. We carried out in-depth interviews with 49 women who had had a medical abortion under clinical supervision in rural and urban settings in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, who were recruited through
Maria Mercedes Lafaurie; Daniel Grossman; Erika Troncoso; Deborah L Billings; Susana Chaveze
Since the U.S. Supreme Court's 1992 Casey decision many states have enacted biased abortion counseling laws. These laws mandate that abortion providers furnish to women with unwanted pregnancies state-approved medical information about possible side effects from having an abortion that are false. The most egregious falsehoods are that abortion is linked to mental health problems (e.g., suicide, postabortion traumatic stress
Marshall H. Medoff
The enactment of Law 2/2010 on Sexual and Reproductive Health and on Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy represents a radical change in the regulation of abortion in Spain. The law moves from the medical indication model that has been in place since 1985 (which established certain cases in which abortion was legal) towards a time-limit model that, with some exceptions, allows free abortion during the first 14 weeks of pregnancy. Along with the hot debate that this fundamental change has caused, other features of the law have also arisen as a source of conflict, including the regulation of the informed consent of underage women for having an abortion and the rules regarding the conscientious objection by healthcare professionals. PMID:21970052
Requejo, María Teresa
Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor ‘essential’ and relies upon power disparities and inequalities for its formation. In this paper, we identify social and political
Anuradha Kumar; Leila Hessini; Ellen M. H. Mitchell
Lawyers are important actors shaping the abortion debate in Mexico. Of 250 private and public sector criminal lawyers surveyed from four regions, the majority knew about abortion laws in their states. At least 80% agreed with abortion in cases of rape, risk to a woman's life or health, and fetal malformations. Overall, 61% agreed with the Mexico City law and 84% would defend a woman denied a legal abortion. In multivariate analysis, being very knowledgeable of abortion laws was a significant predictor of more "progressive" abortion opinions, support for the Mexico City law, and support for the health indication. PMID:23066966
Wilson, Kate S; Garcia, Sandra G; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; McMurtrie, Stephanie M; Valencia, Jorge Armando; Diaz de Leon, Fernanda; Sanchez Fuentes, Maria Luisa
Specific guidance functions and trajectory design of return to launch site (RTLS) and transoceanic abort landing (TAL) intact abort profiles, as well as the increasing emphasis on contingency aborts, are presented. Various systems failures including Space Shuttle main engine failures and detailed technical analyses, including the design of powered flight abort trajectories, are considered. The most critical of flight abort situations is the RTLS, while TAL is the preferred abort when uphill capability is no longer available. It is concluded that one principle must remain to ensure continuing success of Space Shuttle flights: namely that intact and contingency aborts necessitate development to ensure safe return of the vehicle, payload, and crew whenever possible.
Schmidgall, Richard A.
On November 26-28, 1992, the Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network convened a meeting in Uruguay entitled, "Abortion in Latin America: Perspectives and Strategies." The first session was devoted to discussion of a paper that argues that a feminist ethic must be developed to counteract the dominant patriarchal ethic, which fails to improve women's lives. The next session covered the World Bank's concerns about the economic consequences of illegal abortion. The third session included descriptions of the experiences of the coordinator of the Sao Paulo Municipal Women's Health Program and of the new Argentine National Women's Health Network. Debate and discussion were generated by the next speaker, who presented a legislative proposal for the decriminalization of abortion in Latin America and noted that restrictive policies, which have failed to reduce abortion rates, will be difficult to change. It was proposed that regional campaigns be launched to legalize abortion as a first step in achieving reproductive rights for women. After a review of abortion-related activities in the region during the past year, participants composed a five-year plan of action in the areas of research, data centralization, petition campaigns, and publication of a review of abortion legislation. Finally, it was proposed that a counselor training course in sexual and reproductive rights be developed. PMID:12179717
Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom. PMID:12222235
This article grew out of a keynote address prepared for the conference, "From Abortion to Contraception: Public Health Approaches to Reducing Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion Through Improved Family Planning Services," held in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR in October 1990. The article reviews the legal, religious, and medical situation of induced abortion in Europe in historical perspective, and considers access to abortion services, attitudes of health professionals, abortion incidence, morbidity and mortality, the new antiprogestins, the characteristics of abortion seekers, late abortions, postabortion psychological reactions, effects of denied abortion, and repeat abortion. Special attention is focused on the changes occurring in Romania, Albania, and the former Soviet Union, plus the effects of the new conservatism elsewhere in the formerly socialist countries of central and eastern Europe, particularly Poland. Abortion is a social reality that can no more be legislated out of existence than the controversy surrounding it can be stilled. No matter how effective family planning services and practices become, there will always be a need for access to safe abortion services. PMID:1557791
David, H P
eens who abort are up to 4 times more likely to commit suicide than adults who abort eens who abort are up to 4 times more likely to commit suicide than adults who abort eens who abort are up to 4 times more likely to commit suicide than adults who abort eens who abort are up to 4 times more
The present paper, based on the results of international studies, is focused on the reconsideration of the psychological aspects of induced abortion. By presenting a narrow cross-section of the Hungarian demographic data, we would like to emphasise the necessity and the significance of a deeper understanding of the subject. Factors behind the decision-making, short- and long term outcomes of the intervention influencing primarily the mental health of women and partner-relationship aspects are discussed in details. While acknowledging the complexity of the subject deriving from the legal, ethical, moral, religious, medical, social and sociological concerns, our aim is to call attention to the psychological aspects of induced abortion and the importance of psychological care of women undergoing surgical operation. PMID:22232522
Sz Makó, Hajnalka; Veszprémi, Béla
It is well recognised that unsafe abortions have significant implications for women's physical health; however, women's perceptions and experiences with abortion-related stigma and disclosure about abortion are not well understood. This paper examines the presence and intensity of abortion stigma in five countries, and seeks to understand how stigma is perceived and experienced by women who terminate an unintended pregnancy and influences her subsequent disclosure behaviours. The paper is based upon focus groups and semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with women and men in Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and the United States (USA) in 2006. The stigma of abortion was perceived similarly in both legally liberal and restrictive settings although it was more evident in countries where abortion is highly restricted. Personal accounts of experienced stigma were limited, although participants cited numerous social consequences of having an abortion. Abortion-related stigma played an important role in disclosure of individual abortion behaviour. PMID:21745033
Shellenberg, Kristen M; Moore, Ann M; Bankole, Akinrinola; Juarez, Fatima; Omideyi, Adekunbi Kehinde; Palomino, Nancy; Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Tsui, Amy O
A survey of all married women aged 15-49 was conducted in 1976 in five rural villages in the predominantly Roman Catholic Philippines. Of 676 respondents, 17 percent admitted that they had had at least one induced abortion. Hilots, physicians, and drugstores were the major providers of abortion, and the methods used ranged from oral tablet to herb, injection, D&C, and massage. About 12 percent of respondents were hospitalized with complications from abortion, signifying a serious public health problem. An upward trend of abortion over time was speculated. There was an age differential in reported abortion experience. A large minority was aware of how an abortion could be performed and believed that abortions were easily obtained in their communities. Half the respondents approved of abortion, and 57 percent stated incorrectly that abortion is legal. PMID:7376237
Flavier, J M; Chen, C H
In 1969, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions, to monitor unintended pregnancy, and to assist efforts to identify and reduce prev...
This paper discusses issues of legal abortion and women's rights in the US. Abortion has been a political issue since the 1970s in the US. Following the Supreme Court's decision in the case of Roe vs. Wade, conservatives and liberals were divided based on their stand on abortion laws. Moreover, gender affects the range of opinions. Gender gap in abortion attitudes is most evident among conservatives. Conservative and extremely conservative women are against legal abortion more strongly than men with those same political views. Liberal and extremely liberal women have about the same amount of support for legal abortion as liberal men do. Labor force participation, marriage, education, and religion have impact on women and men's attitudes toward abortion; yet none of these explain the politicization of abortion. The change in support for legal abortion by political views and time period (1974-93) is shown in this paper. Women's rights are at the core when issues on abortion are to be discussed; the circumstances of the pregnancy and not the fetus become the focus. Although some women¿s groups support this stand, it faces a continuing debate with pro-life groups. The prevailing ideologies attempt to accommodate the new ideas expressed by the movement, while some of its stronger views are tempered in order to win a measure of political success. PMID:12349270
The Supreme Court in 1973 in Roe v. Wade established that decision of first trimester abortion is left to the physician, exercising his best medical judgment, in consultation with the patient. During this period the state may not regulate abortion determination since there is no compelling state interest; therefore a physician performing abortion will be precluded from civil or criminal liability. In second trimester abortion the state has a compelling interest in the health of the mother and may regulate the procedure to protect maternal health; although a previable fetus may be able to survive the abortion, Roe v. Danforth definitively places the woman's right to an abortion above the life of the fetus during the previable stage; therefore the state cannot seek to safeguard the life or health of the fetus during the abortion. Third trimester abortion implies a viable fetus; thus, a compelling state interest in the potential life arises and the state may regulate and proscribe abortion except when necessary for the life and health of the mother. The determination of when viability has been achieved is a matter of judgment resting with the physician who has the choice of techniques and operating procedures which may or may not be fatal to the unborn. It is a question of either termination of pregnancy or destruction of the fetus. In this last case the legal responsibility placed upon the physician is very serious, and involving a risk of civil and criminal liability. Uncertainties as to the boundaries of legal abortion and the threat of criminal liability can only result in a reluctance among physicians to perform second and third trimester abortions, which is against the fundamental right to abortion guaranteed by the Constitution. The Supreme Court will have to elaborate upon the scope of the abortion right, whether it encompasses fetal destruction or only termination of pregnancy, because it directly affects the extent and quality of maternal and fetal care that must be rendered by a physician. If only termination of pregnancy is included the Court must resolve whether the woman's health interests predominate, or whether the physician can be required to enhance fetal survival. Physicians have a right to know the full extent of legal ramifications and implications of legally induced abortion. PMID:11655468
Barber, Rosamond A
Discrimination toward men can be found in the legal definition of marriage, legal age requirements at marriage, support, child custody, unmarried fathers' rights, abortion, and cohabitation. With the increasing equality between the sexes, men will gain in their legal options of roles. (Author)
Aberg, Miriam; And Others
In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required. PMID:23271925
Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastián; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C
As for most of its Caribbean neighbours, Trinidad and Tobago's leading cause of maternal morbidity is unsafe abortion. Yet activism to introduce public policy and legislation that effectively address this aspect of women's reproductive rights and health has been met with public outcry. With almost hysterical opposition coming from certain religious quarters, there is the unsubstantiated impression that Trinidadians are overwhelmingly opposed to abortion law reform. A national survey was therefore carried out of people's knowledge and views on the current abortion law in Trinidad and Tobago. The survey found that although almost half of respondents had an unfavourable perception of abortion, more than half of them were in favour of broadening the legal grounds for accessing terminations. Incest, rape and danger to a woman's life were cited as the most significant circumstances under which abortions should be permitted. The vast majority of respondents agreed that voting on abortion law reform by members of the legislature should not be based on personal beliefs. The findings demonstrate that there is not the degree of opposition to abortion law reform that is widely assumed. On the other hand, given the wide variance of views and perceptions, we argue that public health concerns and human rights should always trump public opinion. PMID:17512381
Martin, Cedriann J; Hyacenth, Glennis; Suite, Lynette Seebaran
Public information campaigns are an integral component of reproductive health programmes, including on abortion. In India, where sex selective abortion is increasing, public information is being disseminated on the illegality of sex determination. This paper presents findings from a study undertaken in 2003 in one district in Rajasthan to analyse the content of information materials on abortion and sex determination and people's perceptions of them. Most of the informational material about abortion was produced by one abortion service provider, but none by the public or private sector. The public sector had produced materials on the illegality of sex determination, some of which failed to distinguish between sex selection and other reasons for abortion. In the absence of knowledge of the legal status of abortion, the negative messages and strong language of these materials may have contributed to the perception that abortion is illegal in India. Future materials should address abortion and sex determination, including the legal status of abortion, availability of providers and social norms that shape decision-making. Married and unmarried women should be addressed and the participation of family members acknowledged, while supporting independent decisions by women. Sex determination should also be addressed, and the conditions under which a woman can and cannot seek an abortion clarified, using media and materials accessible to low-literate audiences. Based on what we learned in this research, a pictorial booklet and educator's manual were produced, covering both abortion and sex determination, and are being distributed in India. PMID:16713891
Nidadavolu, Vijaya; Bracken, Hillary
This paper summarizes the barriers to abortion in the United States, including the determination of viability, cost and insurance coverage, waiting periods and parental consent laws, restrictions on medical abortion, provider unavailability, harassment, targeted regulation of abortion providers laws, refusal clauses, anti choice laws, and the fetal legal rights movement. Federally subsidized abstinence-only sex education, which has not been shown to decrease the rate of unintended pregnancy (and may increase it), has expanded and access to a full range of contraceptive options has been limited. The policies of the current and past administrations have strengthened barriers to abortion both at home and abroad. Preserving women's right to choose will require improved public and professional education, legislative and legal efforts, and advocacy by physicians and other health care professionals. PMID:16845763
The January 1973 Supreme Court decision concerning abortion did not settle the issue. In fact, the issue becomes increasingly more critical. Supporters of "freedom of choice" thought the victory was theirs when the decision was announced by the Court, but advocates of an anti-abortion position were incensed by the decision. After a few months of letter writing, the anti-abortion forces developed a more comprehensive, long-range strategy. Their objective is a constitutional amendment barring abortion. Supporters of "freedom of choice" do have several important elements in their favor. 1st, the majority of public opinion is on the side of freedom of choice. 2nd, the position being advocated is clearly non-discriminatory and non-coercive. Unlike the opposition, those who support freedom of choice are not trying to impose their beliefs on any other group of people and are actually trying to protect each and every individual's freedom of choice. This seasoned and reasonable view needs to be presented nationally in a seasoned and reasonable manner. More mail from both men and women needs to be directed toward each member of the House and Senate with special emphasis on the members of the House and Senate Judiciary committees. In addition to sending more mail, Zero Population Growth chapters and members could help by: 1) initiating "freedom of choice" letters to editors of local newspapers; 2) having persons representing the "freedom of choice" point of view appear on local television shows and before community groups; and 3) enlisting the help of the local medical and legal communities to lend their expertise to an intelligent discussion of the issue. PMID:12276913
The United Nations Population Information Network (POPIN) has recently published a collection of data tables that outline the abortion policies for regions and nations around the world. The tables display the grounds on which abortion is legally permitted, as well as national and international data on abortion rates, total fertility rates (births per woman), maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births), and the rate of contraceptive use by married women. The data are divided into six regional tables (Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Northern America, and Oceania). Each regional table is organized by geographic area (e.g., Eastern Asia, Southeastern Asia, South Central Asia, and Western Asia) to facilitate comparisons.
On 25 July 2001 the Polish Federation for Women and Family Planning organised a Tribunal on Abortion Rights in Warsaw, to publicize the negative consequences of the criminalization of abortion in Poland. A panel of Polish and foreign experts heard the testimonials of seven Polish women's experiences under the 1993 "Anti-Abortion Act". Only two of the seven women were able to tell their stories in person. One died in 2001, at the age of 21, of an unsafe abortion. One is legally blind after having carried her last pregnancy to term. One is in prison for infanticide, which in all likelihood was committed by her boyfriend. National and foreign journalists were in attendance, as well as observers from all walks of life--writers, students, mothers, activists, feminists, husbands. The evidence was clear and compelling. Restrictive abortion laws make abortion unsafe by pushing it underground, endanger women's health, create a climate where even those services that are allowed by law-become unavailable, and contravene standards set by international human rights law. The restrictive abortion law in Poland has not increased the number of births; it has only caused women and their families suffering. The Tribunal brought the issue of abortion into the media prior to an election campaign and galvanised Polish and other Eastern European women's groups to become more active in defence of abortion rights. PMID:12369330
Girard, Françoise; Nowicka, Wanda
Except for in Mexico City, abortion is legally restricted throughout Mexico, and unsafe abortion is prevalent. We surveyed 1,516 women seeking abortions in San Diego, California. Of these, 87 women (5.7%) self-identified as Mexican residents. We performed in-depth interviews with 17 of these women about their experiences seeking abortions in California. The Mexican women interviewed were generally well-educated and lived near the U.S.-Mexican border; most sought care in the United States due to mistrust of services in Mexico, and the desire to access mifepristone, a drug registered in the United States for early medical abortion. Several reported difficulties obtaining health care in Mexico or reentering the United States when they had postabortion complications. Several areas for improvement were identified, including outreach to clinics in Mexico. PMID:23066967
Grossman, Daniel; Garcia, Sandra G; Kingston, Jessica; Schweikert, Suzanne
This paper characterizes the Mexican abortion laws using the case of a girl aged 14 years, Paulina Ramirez Jacinta, who was raped, became pregnant, and chose to terminate the unwanted pregnancy, yet was denied an abortion. This case clearly showed that Mexican abortion law, despite its legality, is highly restrictive in nature and, in a way, violated the human rights of Paulina. Even though it permits first-trimester abortion procedures for rape victims or women whose lives are endangered by the pregnancy, many pregnant women still resort to illegal abortion. To further aggravate the restrictive nature of the law, Baja California state Rep. Martin Dominguez Rocha made a proposal to eliminate the rape exception in the state's penal code. The case of Paulina will be handled by the lawyers at the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy in order to arrive at a settlement favorable to Paulina. PMID:12322531
Latin America is undergoing profound social, economic, political, demographic, and epidemiologic change. Reproductive health indicators have generally improved over the past two decades, but most pregnancies are still unintended and more than 4 million are terminated annually. Clandestine abortions necessitated by restrictive legal and social structures cause more than 1,000 deaths and 500,000 hospitalizations per year, primarily among poor and marginalized women. Abortions are becoming safer and less frequent, however, as a consequence of increased modern contraceptive use, misoprostol adoption, emergency contraception availability, and postabortion care provision, notwithstanding many impediments to these changes. Advocacy and conflict over abortion have grown. The contested policy shifts include Mexico City's 2007 legalization of first-trimester abortion. Drawing on numerous sources of evidence, this article provides a regional analysis of the rapidly changing practice and context of abortion in Latin America, and examines emerging issues, legal and policy developments, and contrasting country situations. PMID:21972673
The purpose of this article is to show that the current level of scientific evidence linking induced abortion with increased breast cancer risk is sufficient to support an ethical and legal duty to disclose fully the risk to women who are considering induced abortion. The article examines the relationship between this evidence and the elements of a medical malpractice claim alleging failure to obtain informed consent. The first part focuses on the elements of informed consent, which require the plaintiff to establish that the physician had a duty to disclose information, which he failed to disclose, that this failure to disclose was a legal cause of the plaintiff's decision to undergo the procedure, and the procedure was a legal cause of the plaintiff's injury. The second part compares two prevalent standards for determining which risks a physician has a duty to disclose. Part three reviews the scientific evidence of the abortion/breast cancer (ABC) link and explains why it survives both the Frye and the Daubert tests for admissibility of expert testimony. The fourth part assesses the materiality of the risk posed by the ABC link. Parts five and six discuss evidentiary issues and the possibility of punitive damage awards. PMID:10758700
Legal Bytes, provided by the firm of George, Donaldson & Ford, L.L.P, of Austin, Texas, is a "periodic publication" of "summaries and brief discussions of emerging legal issues in the field of computer law." Recent issues have included articles on the Communications Decency Act, ownership of "real-time" sports information, legal risks of on-line advertising, and copyright law, among others. Note that Legal Bytes is not intended to "be relied upon as legal advice."
Abortion is a universal phenomenon, occurring throughout recorded history and at all levels of societal organization. Techniques are highly varied, as are the circumstances under which it is practised. The status of and attitudes towards abortion in Western civilization are variable and have, in most cases, been changing. As of 1982, 10% and 18% of the world's population respectively, lived in countries where abortion was totally prohibited or where it was permitted only to save the mother's life. In the USA, various national surveys indicate liberalization of public attitudes towards pregnancy termination between 1965 and the years immediately following the Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision (1973) which legalized abortion. More recent polls demonstrate little attitudinal change since 1972-1973: between 80% and 90% of Americans approve of abortion in the case of poor health, a seriously defective fetus, or rape, and between 40% and 50% indicate approval for all other reasons as well. Only 10% of the American population would like to see abortion prohibited under all circumstances. Sociodemographic analyses indicate that individuals who disapprove of abortion differ from those who approve of its availability in that they are more likely to be Roman Catholic or fundamentalist Protestant; are, in general, more strongly committed to organized religion; are on the traditional/conservative end of the spectrum with regard to women's role in life, premarital sex, sex education and civil liberties; and tend to have achieved a relatively low educational level. 'Pro-life' and 'pro-choice' activists tend to be women who are completely different from one another in sociodemographic characteristics and in overall values, particularly as these relate to traditional versus modern female roles. PMID:3519038
Shain, R N
Early medical abortion regimens, especially those that include mifepristone, have the potential to reshape the landscape of abortion provision in the United States. Because medical abortion does not require surgical training, it may attract new providers of abortion services from a variety of specialties, including advanced practice clinicians. The diffusion of abortion services into myriad clinical and office-based settings may
Using nineteenth century legal information combined with census information, I examine the effect of state laws that restricted American women's access to abortion on the ratio of children to women. I estimate an increase in the birthrate of 4 % to 12 % when abortion is restricted. In the absence of anti-abortion laws, fertility would have been 5 % to 12 % lower in the early twentieth century. PMID:24691632
Lahey, Joanna N
The need to allow threads to abort an attempt to ac- quire a lock (sometimes called a timeout) is an interest- ing new requirement driven by state-of-the-art database applications with soft real-time constraints. This paper presents a new composite abortable lock (CAL), a com- bination of abortable queue-based (QL) and test-and- set based backoff (BL) lock mechanisms, which provides non-blocking
Virendra J. Marathe; Mark Moir; Nir Shavit
Partial-birth abortion bans patterned after the federal bill passed by both houses of Congress are constitutional. The clear legislative definition can be easily distinguished from other abortion procedures. Abortion precedents do not apply to such bans because the abortion right pertains to unborn human beings, not to those partially delivered. Such bans are also rationally-related to legitimate state interests. Even if abortion jurisprudence is deemed to apply in the partial-birth abortion context, a ban is still constitutional under Casey because a ban on partial-birth abortions does not impose an undue burden on the abortion right. PMID:9707939
Bopp, J; Cook, C R
Safe abortion services are only legal in Nigeria to save the life of the woman. Widespread incidence of unsafe induced abortions often results in death or irreparable harm to women. The Campaign Against Unwanted Pregnancy (CAUP) was launched on 17 August 1991 to address this public health crisis through advocacy for reform of the abortion law, research, education and preparation of service providers, and development of a constituency to support provision of safe abortion to the full extent of the law. CAUP commissioned an evaluation in 2004 to examine and analyse the work of the campaign during its 14 years of existence, which included a review of documents, a participatory learning workshop with CAUP, and almost 50 interviews with different stakeholders. This article, adapted from the evaluation report, tells how CAUP took a taboo topic and, in the midst of an extremely complex political and cultural environment, made it a legitimate subject for public discussion and debate. The Campaign undertook groundbreaking research on abortion in Nigeria. Service providers are being trained to provide, to the full extent of the law, safe abortions and post-abortion care, and advocacy efforts are continuing to lay the groundwork for improving the abortion law. PMID:15938176
Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Long, Carolyn M; Adewole, Isaac F
Unsafe abortion accounts for a significant proportion of maternal deaths, yet it is often forgotten in discussions around reducing maternal mortality. Prevention of unsafe abortion starts with prevention of unwanted pregnancies, most effectively through contraception. When unwanted pregnancies occur, provision of safe, legal abortion services can further prevent unsafe abortions. If complications arise from unsafe abortion, emergency treatment must be available. Recommendations made on this issue during the Precongress Workshop held prior to the 2009 FIGO World Congress in Cape Town, South Africa, were part of a report that was adopted by the FIGO General Assembly. These recommendations address prevention of unsafe abortion and its consequences and support access to safe abortion care to the full extent allowed by national laws, along with 6 strategies for implementation, including integration of family planning into other reproductive health services, adequate training for providers, task-sharing with mid-level providers, and using evidence to discuss this issue with key stakeholders. PMID:20451196
Culwell, Kelly R; Vekemans, Marcel; de Silva, Upeka; Hurwitz, Manuelle; Crane, Barbara B
The monograph assesses the state of legal education as provided in law schools in the United States today. Positive aspects of legal education include technical proficiency, superb law faculties, good law students, and excellent facilities and libraries. The most striking negative aspect of legal education is its resistance to change. This…
McKay, Robert B.
The 26,939 abortions reported for the year were an 18.2% increase from calendar year 1976. The distribution of the number of abortions by age, marital status and procedure used, was in line with past experience. The age group 15-24 years included 69.8% of...
L. M. Sipes
Objectives. We investigated systematic barriers, identified by previous research, that prevent women from obtaining Medicaid coverage for an abortion even when it should legally be available: when the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest or threatens the mother's life. We also aimed to document strategies to improve access to federal Medicaid funding in qualifying cases. Methods. We conducted in-depth interviews from 2007 to 2009 with representatives of 49 facilities that provided abortions in 11 states. Interviews focused on participants’ experiences and strategies in seeking federal Medicaid funding for abortions. We coded data both inductively and deductively and analyzed them thematically. Results. Common strategies described by the few participants who secured Medicaid funding for abortions in cases of rape, incest, and life endangerment were facility-level interventions, such as developing relationships with Medicaid staff, building savvy billing departments, and encouraging clients to advocate for themselves, as well as broader legal and collaborative strategies. Conclusions. Multipronged state-level interventions that combine advocacy, legal, and on-the-ground resources show the most promise of increasing access to federal Medicaid funding for abortion care.
Blanchard, Kelly; Cordova, Denisse
Peri-viable birth raises an array of complex moral and legal concerns. This article discusses the problem with defining viability, touches on its relationship to abortion jurisprudence, and analyzes a few interesting normative implications of current medical practice at the time of peri-viable birth. PMID:24468570
Sayeed, Sadath A
The sexual violence's committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are from their scales and consequences on women, real public health, politico-legal, and socio-economical challenges. More than a million of women have been victims of sexual violence on a period of less than fifteen years. Systematic rapes of women were used as war weapon by different groups involved in the Congolese war. Sexual violence against women has impacted public health by spreading sexually transmissible diseases including HIV/AIDS, causing unwanted pregnancies, leading to the gynaecological complications of rape-related injuries, and inflicting psychological trauma on the victims. Despite high level of unwanted pregnancies observed, the Congolese law is very restrictive and interdict induced abortion. This paper presents three arguments which plead in favour of legalizing abortion in DRC: 1) a restrictive law on abortion forces women to use unsafe abortion and increase incidence of injuries and maternal mortality ; 2) DRC has ratified the universal Declaration of human rights, the African union charter, and has than to promote equality between sexes, in this is included women reproductive rights; 3) an unwanted birth is an additional financial charge for a woman, a factor increasing poverty and psychologically unacceptable in case of rape. From the politico-legal point of view, ending rape impunity and decriminalizing abortion are recommended. Decriminalizing abortion give women choice and save victims and pregnant women from risks related to the pregnancy, a childbirth, or an eventual unsafe abortion. These risks increase the maternal mortality already high in DRC (between 950 and 3000 for 100000 live births). PMID:23167138
Kalonda, J C Omba
The authors investigate the effect of abortion access on teen birthrates using county-level panel data. Past research suggested that prohibiting abortion led to higher teen birthrates. Perhaps surprisingly, the authors find that more recent restrictions in abortion access, including the closing of abortion clinics and restrictions on Medicaid funding, had the opposite effect. Small declines in access were related to
Thomas J Kane; Douglas Staiger
Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post-abortion care is daunting. There is the need for policymakers to intensify public education against indiscriminate abortion and to reduce unwanted pregnancies. In effect, there is need for effective alternative family planning methods. This is likely to reduce the demand for abortion. Further, with income found as a major constraint, post abortion services should be made accessible to both the rich and poor alike so as to prevent unnecessary maternal deaths as a result of abortion related complications.
The legal issues involved with the application of the United States Supreme Court decisions in Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton (1973) are reveiwed, particularly the question of whether an indigent pregnant woman now has the right to abortion on demand at public expense. The 2 decisions, based on the Fourteenth Amendment, established that a woman, in consultation with her physician, must be free to choose to terminate her pregnancy, at least in the first trimester. State laws are permitted only to regulate abortion procedures in the second trimester and may only regulate or proscribe abortion itself after the fetus becomes viable. The Court did not rule that indigents had a corollary right to the implementation of abortion, and thus free abortions do not appear to be constitutionally required. However, depending on the type of Medicaid coverage in which the individual state is participating, the medically indigent may receive Medicaid benefits for abortions, at least in the first trimester. Since Medicaid is voluntary for the state, it could drop out of the program entirely or the Congress could specifically exclude abortions from Medicaid coverage. Both actions appear unlikely, however, and abortions for medical reasons clearly seem to fall under Medicaid's purpose. Consequently, despite the Wade and Bolton decisions, the right to abortion is limited by the ability of indigents to pay for it. In the light of the serious complications of illegal abortion, it is concluded that legislators should insure the availability of legal abortions. Such a move would not in itself encourage abortions but would properly extend the right to abortion to all citizens. PMID:11661025
Background Induced abortion is one of the greatest human rights dilemmas of our time. Yet, abortion is a very common experience in every culture and society. According to the World Health Organization, Ethiopia had the fifth largest number of maternal deaths in 2005 and unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. Youth are disproportionately affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the magnitude and identify factors associated with abortion among female Wolaita Sodo University students. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University between May and June 2011. Data were collected from 493 randomly selected female students using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Results The rate of abortion among students was found to be 65 per 1000 women, making it three fold the national rate of abortion for Ethiopia (23/1000 women aged 15–44). Virtually all of the abortions (96.9%) were induced and only half (16) were reported to be safe. Students with history of alcohol use, who are first-year and those enrolled in faculties with no post-Grade 10 Natural Science background had higher risk of abortion than their counterparts. About 23.7% reported sexual experience. Less than half of the respondents (44%) ever heard of emergency contraception and only 35.9% of those who are sexually experienced ever used condom. Conclusions High rate of abortion was detected among female Wolaita Sodo University students and half of the abortions took place/initiated under unsafe circumstances. Knowledge of students on legal and safe abortion services was found to be considerably poor. It is imperative that improved sexual health education, with focus on safe and legal abortion services is rendered and wider availability of Youth Friendly family planning services are realized in Universities and other places where young men and women congregate.
Legal rights of the fetus and selective abortion are the major focus of a review of legal cases and educational literature concerning fetuses that may be handicapped or have the potential to be handicapped at birth. Related issues include parental immunity, protection of an unborn child, and quality of life. (Author/JW)
Cohen, Libby G.
We challenge the conventional definition of corruption as the abuse of public office for private gain, making a distinction between legal and illegal forms of corruption, and paying more attention to corporate patterns of corruption (which also affect public corruption). We undertake to identify general determinants of the pattern of legal and illegal corruption worldwide, and present a model where
Daniel Kaufmann; Pedro C. Vicente
Boundary work refers to the strategies deployed by professionals in the arenas of the public, the law and the workplace to define and defend jurisdictional authority. Little attention has been directed to the role of documents in negotiating professional claims. While boundary work over induced abortion has been extensively documented, few studies have examined jurisdictional disputes over the treatment of abortion complications, or post-abortion care (PAC). This study explores how medical providers deploy medical records in boundary work over the treatment of complications of spontaneous and induced abortion in Senegal, where induced abortion is prohibited under any circumstance. Findings are based on an institutional ethnography of Senegal's national PAC program over a period of 13 months between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with 36 health care professionals, observation of PAC services at three hospitals, a review of abortion records at each hospital, and a case review of illegal abortions prosecuted by the state. Findings show that health providers produce a particular account of the type of abortion treated through a series of practices such as the patient interview and the clinical exam. Providers obscure induced abortion in medical documents in three ways: the use of terminology that does not differentiate between induced and spontaneous abortion in PAC registers, the omission of data on the type of abortion altogether in PAC registers, and reporting the total number but not the type of abortions treated in hospital data transmitted to state health authorities. The obscuration of suspected induced abortion in the record permits providers to circumvent police inquiry at the hospital. PAC has been implemented in approximately 50 countries worldwide. This study demonstrates the need for additional research on how medical professionals negotiate conflicting medical and legal obligations in the daily practice of treating abortion complications. PMID:24608117
In Thailand abortion is against the law except in cases of risk to a woman's health or if the pregnancy is the result of rape or other sexual crimes. This paper presents an overview of the history of the abortion debate in Thailand based upon research conducted from 1997-2001 for an ethnographic and historical study. Information was taken from media reports from 1950 in the Thai and English language press, a review of parliamentary records and interviews with 10 key informants. The debate over legal reform started in 1973. A reform bill was passed in 1981 in the House of Representatives but defeated in the Senate, primarily due to the lobbying efforts of Chamlong Srimuang, the leader of a broad-based religious coalition, who has been central in the anti-reform movement since then. The current democratically elected government in Thailand offers the best hope yet for reform, though abortion remains a politically sensitive issue, sensationalized in the press to counter reform efforts. A new advocacy network has recently been formed, including a range of women's organisations, public health advocates, academics and journalists. Current proposals from governmental and medical profession bodies may make abortions available to some women, but most, who seek abortions due to socio-economic and family planning reasons, will continue to have to find abortions by whatever means they can. PMID:12369331
The purpose of this study is to describe the knowledge and attitudes regarding abortion of a sample of health professionals in Mexico. In particular, we aim to explore their association with the practice of abortion and the care of post-abortion complications, taking into consideration the present legal framework in Mexico. The data come from an anonymous and computerized survey applied to participants attending a national meeting of gynecology and obstetrics in Mexico in 2009 (n=418). The attitudes of health professionals in relation to abortion play a key role in promoting access to both medical and surgical abortion services. We did not find a statistical association between living in a largely restrictive federal entity and the practice of abortions, which may be explained by the lack of knowledge that these survey participants had about abortion laws in their federal entity. This lack of knowledge about abortion legislation can hinder a woman's access to these services even when the legal framework such access. PMID:23989628
García-Núñez, Nubia Naneri; Atienzo, Erika Elizabeth; Dayananda, Ila; Walker, Dilys
The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind placards for flight. PA-1 flight data is shown, as well as a comparison of PA-1 flight data to nonlinear simulation Monte Carlo data.
Hayes, Peggy Sue
This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.
Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.
This article gives an overview of what is known about second trimester abortions in India, including the reasons why women seek abortions in the second trimester, the influence of abortion law and policy, surgical and medical methods used, both safe and unsafe, availability of services, requirements for second trimester service delivery, and barriers women experience in accessing second trimester services.
Suchitra S Dalvie
Three years in the making, the draft program of action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development sets nonbinding policy guidelines to contain the world's population at 7.27 billion in 2015. Although the Vatican was pleased to see Pakistan put forward a compromise formula developed to appease Catholic and Muslim objectors of abortion, the Church was unprepared to accept the compromise immediately and requested further discussion. The Vatican's rejection drew a strong chorus of vocal disapproval from other conference delegates. Even Iran accepted the draft as a "perfect text," while Sweden grudgingly accepted it as a "rock-bottom compromise." With no Catholic countries objecting to the compromise, the Vatican stood alone in its refusal to compromise with the rest of the world's leaders and peoples. Germany, speaking for the European Union, warned that enough concessions had already been made. The rationale for Vatican opposition was unclear since the section explicitly rejects abortion as a means of family planning and urges countries to minimize both the incidence of unsafe abortion and abortion overall by improving family planning. Prevention of unwanted pregnancies must be given highest priority and women should have ready access to compassionate counselling, with abortion never promoted as a means of family planning. Moreover, there is no longer a reference to sexual health education, a plea to governments to review their laws and policies on abortion, and a call to consider women's health rather than relying upon criminal codes and punitive measures. Participants said the Vatican objected to a phrase stating that abortions, where legal, should be safe, while the Church representative argued that any suggestion that abortion is safe contradicts church doctrine on the sanctity of life. PMID:12345662
A study is performed to ascertain the validity of the use of inviscid and viscous simulation methods to predict the axial and normal forces during a launch abort scenario for manned space flight vehicles. The proximity drag character of the Apollo launch escape vehicle (LEV) was studied in detail in a wind tunnel during the Apollo program. Simulation results obtained
Shishir Pandya; Jeffrey Onufer; William Chan; Goetz Klopfer
Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and concerns mainly young women. The legal restriction and social stigma make abortions most often clandestine and risky for women who decide to terminate a pregnancy. However, the exposure to the risk of unsafe induced abortion is not the same for all the women who faced unwanted pregnancy and decide to have an abortion. Drawn from a qualitative study on the issue of abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso's capital, the contrasting cases of two young women who had abortion allow us to show how the women's personal resources (such as the school level, financial resources, the compliance to social norms, the social network, etc.) may determine the degree of vulnerability of women, the delay to have an abortion, the type of care they are likely to benefit from, and the cost they have to face. This study concludes that the poorest always pay more (cost and consequences), take longer to have an abortion, and have more exposure to the risk of unsafe abortion.
The Israeli law of abortions (1977) legally authorises hospital committees to decide upon women's requests for selective abortion. One of the law's clauses determines that abortions can be approved in cases of an embryopathy. However, the law does not provide any clear definitions of those fetal 'physical or mental defects' in terms of severity and/or likelihood, which remain open to interpretation by the committee members. This paper aimed to determine which ethical methodologies are used by committee members and advisors as they face the dilemma of abortion approval due to mild to moderate possible embryopathy. Twenty interviews demonstrated that they use mainly a combination of deontology and a contextual-relational model. Their ethical considerations are both contextual such as the family's/woman's relational network and are influenced by the ethical principles of autonomy and in cases of late abortions the value of life. The findings reveal a paradoxical picture: on the one hand, committee members hold liberal perceptions and in practice abortion requests are very seldom rejected. On the other hand, the Israeli abortion law and practice of abortion committees is still problematical from liberal and feminist rights perspectives. This paradox is discussed further by reflecting upon the relevant theory as well as the Israeli context. The paper concludes by suggesting that within the specific Israeli sociopolitical climate the requirement for committee approval of what should be a private decision might be necessary in order to placate religious or other opposition to abortion. PMID:21693566
Rimon-Zarfaty, Nitzan; Jotkowitz, Alan
Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and concerns mainly young women. The legal restriction and social stigma make abortions most often clandestine and risky for women who decide to terminate a pregnancy. However, the exposure to the risk of unsafe induced abortion is not the same for all the women who faced unwanted pregnancy and decide to have an abortion. Drawn from a qualitative study on the issue of abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso's capital, the contrasting cases of two young women who had abortion allow us to show how the women's personal resources (such as the school level, financial resources, the compliance to social norms, the social network, etc.) may determine the degree of vulnerability of women, the delay to have an abortion, the type of care they are likely to benefit from, and the cost they have to face. This study concludes that the poorest always pay more (cost and consequences), take longer to have an abortion, and have more exposure to the risk of unsafe abortion. PMID:24790605
Ouédraogo, Ramatou; Sundby, Johanne
Abortion, particularly later-term abortion, and neonaticide, selective non-treatment of newborns, are feasible management strategies for fetuses or newborns diagnosed with severe abnormalities. However, policy varies considerably among developed nations. This article examines abortion and neonatal policy in four nations: Israel, the US, the UK and Denmark. In Israel, late-term abortion is permitted while non-treatment of newborns is prohibited. In the US, on the other hand, later-term abortion is severely restricted, while treatment to newborns may be withdrawn. Policy in the UK and Denmark bridges some of these gaps with liberal abortion and neonatal policy. Disparate policy within and between nations creates practical and ethical difficulties. Practice diverges from policy as many practitioners find it difficult to adhere to official policy. Ethically, it is difficult to entirely justify perinatal policy in these nations. In each nation, there are elements of ethically sound policy, while other aspects cannot be defended. Ethical policy hinges on two underlying normative issues: the question of fetal/newborn status and the morality of killing and letting die. While each issue has been the subject of extensive debate, there are firm ethical norms that should serve as the basis for coherent and consistent perinatal policy. These include 1) a grant of full moral and legal status to the newborn but only partial moral and legal status to the late-term fetus 2) a general prohibition against feticide unless to save the life of the mother or prevent the birth of a fetus facing certain death or severe pain or suffering and 3) a general endorsement of neonaticide subject to a parent's assessment of the newborn's interest broadly defined to consider physical harm as well as social, psychological and or financial harm to related third parties. Policies in each of the nations surveyed diverging from these norms should be the subject of public discourse and, where possible, legislative reform. PMID:12211246
Gross, Michael L
The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy reports on the recent amendment of the Constitution to recognize life from the moment of conception. Researcher Soledad Varela discovered that the Catholic Church in El Salvador had been actively engaged in manipulative tactics to sway an already conservative legislature into passing the extreme laws. Although some legislators were in favor of this amendment, some believe that the reform was wrong and that therapeutic abortions and terminations of pregnancies resulting from rape should not be penalized. Restrictive abortion laws did not stop abortions from occurring; in fact, the UN estimated that 35% of all pregnancies in Chile end in illegal abortions. With the new restrictions, mothers are abandoning unwanted newborns. Illegal practitioners have become harder to trace. Nevertheless, others seem to be successful at evading the law. The wealthy have the right to choose and still avail themselves of legal, more liberal abortion laws from other countries. PMID:12349419
In Brazil, to have a legal abortion in the case of rape, the woman's statement that rape has occurred is considered sufficient to guarantee the right to abortion. The aim of this study was to understand the practice and opinions about providing abortion in the case of rape among obstetricians-gynecologists (OBGYNs) in Brazil. A mixed-method study was conducted from April to July 2012 with 1,690 OBGYNs who responded to a structured, electronic, self-completed questionnaire. In the quantitative phase, 81.6% of the physicians required police reports or judicial authorization to guarantee the care requested. In-depth telephone interviews with 50 of these physicians showed that they frequently tested women's rape claim by making them repeat their story to several health professionals; 43.5% of these claimed conscientious objection when they were uncertain whether the woman was telling the truth. The moral environment of illegal abortion alters the purpose of listening to a patient - from providing care to passing judgement on her. The data suggest that women's access to legal abortion is being blocked by these barriers in spite of the law. We recommend that FEBRASGO and the Ministry of Health work together to clarify to physicians that a woman's statement that rape occurred should allow her to access a legal abortion. PMID:24908465
Diniz, Debora; Madeiro, Alberto; Rosas, Cristião
Introduction Unsafe and illegal abortions are the third leading cause of maternal death. It affects physical, emotional and social health of women and their families. Abortion is a multi-dimensional phenomenon with several social, legal, and religious implications. The views of policy-makers affect the approach to abortion in every society. Understanding the attitudes and knowledge of high-ranking decision makers towards abortion was the purpose of this study. Materials and Methods A qualitative research was implemented by carrying out individual interviews with 29 out of a selection of 80 presidents of medical sciences universities, senior executive managers in the legal system, forensic medicine and decision-makers in the health system and a number of top Muslim clerics, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. Content analysis revealed the results. Results There were considerable unwillingness and reluctance among the interviewees to participate in the study. The majority of participants fairly knew about the prevalence of illegal abortions and their complications. There was strong agreement on abortion when health of the mother or the fetus was at risk. Abortion for reproductive health reasons was supported by a minority of the respondents. The majority of them disagreed with abortion when pregnancy was the result of a rape, temporary marriage or out of wedlock affairs. Making decision for abortion by the pregnant mother, as a matter of her right, did not gain too much approval. Conclusion It seemed that physical health of the mother or the fetus was of more importance to the respondents than their mental or social health. The mother's hardship was not any indication for induced abortion in the viewpoints of the interviewed policy-makers. Strengthening family planning programs, making appropriate laws in lines with religious orders and advocacy programs targeting decision makers are determined as strategies for improving women's health rights.
Shamshiri-Milani, Hourieh; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Akbari, Feizollah
The increase in induced abortion produces large numbers of cells, tissues and organs, which are used in several fields of Medicine, either in research or in treatment. The main uses are in Cardiology, Hematology, Metabolism, Embryology, Neurology, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Dermatology and Transplantations. Flavor enhancers and cosmetics also benefit. Utilitarianism has led to an increase in abortion-originated cell and tissue banks. Abortion is justified through the manipulation of language. Vested interests give rise to complicity in researchers and society as a whole. Abortion and tissue 'donation' cannot be split; since fresh tissues are involved there is a symbiotic relationship between them. Valid consent is not possible. A contradiction emerges, the nasciturus is not desired or valued but fetal organs are. When someone is deprived of his rights it is because another wants to enslave them. Research must have a moral base. Knowledge should not be increased at any price. Something that is legal and well intentioned is not always morally acceptable. The duty of omission is applicable. Means to achieve a goal must be ethical means. Educational efforts to restore respect for the human embryo and fetus must be promoted. Technical advances are not always in accordance with human nature and dignity. Research and treatment that do not resort to cells, tissues and organs obtained from induced abortions should be promoted. PMID:23320641
Redondo Calderón, José Luis
Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674
Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M
Reform of abortion laws in the United States stemmed from concern over the health consequences of illegal abortion. Feminists were relative latecomers to the movement, and abortion did not become a major political issue until after the Roe v. Wade decision by the Supreme Court. Most social scientists began to study public attitudes toward abortion, which have been relatively stable since that 1973 decision, only after the Supreme Court ruling, and they thus probably missed documenting the period in which the major attitudinal changes occurred. Polls showed that the American public is most likely to approve of abortion when there is a fetal defect and when the pregnancy endangers maternal health or is the result of rape. These single reasons do not seem to jibe with the complexities of real life, however: The majority of women who have abortions indicate more than one reason for doing so, and the major reasons given concern the conflicting responsibilities of school, work and family and an inability to afford another child. A view of the abortion controversy that puts it into a larger context than do most polls and most American research suggests that legal abortion in the United States is unlikely to be jeopardized in the long run. The trend in most Western industrial nations is toward a more secularized society that features more individual discretion and less control by religious and political institutions over private aspects of life. In the immediate future, a number of factors will perpetuate the need for access to abortion. Among them are early sexual activity that often results in pregnancies among very young women; dim prospects for innovative technological advances in the contraceptive field; and the AIDS epidemic, which may result in the use of contraceptives that are more effective against that deadly virus but less effective at preventing pregnancy. Nor will abortion decisions become any easier for the families and individuals involved, as technology continues to advance in its ability to identify fetal defects and to keep alive babies born at earlier and earlier stages of gestation. PMID:3068069
Rossi, A S; Sitaraman, B
A simple classification of products of conception aborted in early pregnancy is described. This classification bears a closer relation to the aetiology of the abortions and the timing of the teratological insult in those conceptuses with morphological abnormalities than have previous classifications. It is hoped it may be of value in counselling patients who abort recurrently and also in the assessment of some environmental hazards purported to cause early pregnancy wastage and congenital malformations. Images
Rushton, D I
This site, provided by Nolo Press, a publisher of self-help law books and software, is a handy compendium of brief advice on fifteen topics, including small business, patent, copyright & trademark, legal research, wills & estate planning, and real estate. Content is composed of excerpted articles from Nolo books on the topics. Also provided are annotated lists of links related to each topic. While the purpose, of course, is to sell Nolo books and software, there is much useful content here.
According to World Health Organization, abortion is defined as an induced termination of pregnancy by use of medications or surgical interventions after implantation of the embryo and before the fetus is able to survive outside the maternal organism (before 22nd week of pregnancy). More than 75 millions of women experience unwanted pregnancy every year. Contraception for that group was either unavailable or the information about contraceptives use possibility was not efficient. Lack of conversation about family planning with the partner, rapes and inefficiency of contraceptives (8 to 30 millions women a year) might be other reasons. More than two-third such pregnancies are terminated by abortions. The number of women in reproductive age (15-44) is 1.38 million. Most of them are sexually active but not willing to have progeny. The decision of abortion is taken every year by 35 per 100 females (26 millions of legal abortions each year, 20 millions of illegal). By 1986, 36 countries introduced liberal abortion law that gives permission for abortion only for social, medical and personal reasons. The main law regulating the permission of abortion in Poland is a resolution of Family planning, embryo protection and conditions for conducting pregnancy termination from 1993, modified in 1997. In 1999, 151 abortion procedures were performed and that number is decreasing gradually. The development of so called "abortion basement", where unsafe abortion is usually performed, is a consequence of restrictive policy about the abortion law. In the last few years the holistic and individual approach to the patient has started to play an important role. Unfortunately, in the case of sexual education and knowledge of conscious family planning, medical services, and medical doctors especially, play only the minimal role. It seems to be essential in gynecological and general medicine practice to give information about different methods of family planning and protection against sexual transmitted diseases as well as to control patient's health when using contraceptives. PMID:15884260
Skrzypulec, Violetta; Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Rozmus-Warcholi?ska, Wioletta; Walaszek, Aneta; Piela, Bogus?awa; Zdun, Dariusz
Family planning counseling and the provision of postabortion contraception should be an integrated part of abortion and postabortion care to help women avoid another unplanned pregnancy and a repeat abortion. Postabortion contraception is significantly more effective in preventing repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion when it is provided before women leave the healthcare facility where they received abortion care, and when the chosen method is a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method. This article provides evidence supporting these two critical aspects of postabortion contraception. It suggests that gynecologists and obstetricians have an ethical obligation to do everything necessary to ensure that postabortion contraception, with a focus on LARC methods, becomes an integral part of abortion and postabortion care, in line with the recommendations of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and of several other organizations. PMID:24739476
Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp Kallner, Helena; Faúndes, Anibal
Background The demand for induced abortions in Uganda is high despite legal and moral proscriptions. Abortion seekers usually go to illegal, hidden clinics where procedures are performed in unhygienic environments by under-trained practitioners. These abortions, which are usually unsafe, lead to a high rate of severe complications and use of substantial, scarce healthcare resources. This study was performed to estimate the costs associated with induced abortions in Uganda. Methods A decision tree was developed to represent the consequences of induced abortion and estimate the costs of an average case. Data were obtained from a primary chart abstraction study, an on-going prospective study, and the published literature. Societal costs, direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, indirect (productivity) costs, costs to patients, and costs to the government were estimated. Monte Carlo simulation was used to account for uncertainty. Results The average societal cost per induced abortion (95% credibility range) was $177 ($140-$223). This is equivalent to $64 million in annual national costs. Of this, the average direct medical cost was $65 ($49-86) and the average direct non-medical cost was $19 ($16-$23). The average indirect cost was $92 ($57-$139). Patients incurred $62 ($46-$83) on average while government incurred $14 ($10-$20) on average. Conclusion Induced abortions are associated with substantial costs in Uganda and patients incur the bulk of the healthcare costs. This reinforces the case made by other researchers--that efforts by the government to reduce unsafe abortions by increasing contraceptive coverage or providing safe, legal abortions are critical.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133
Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian
A measure of sex guilt was administered to clients of a university problem pregnancy counseling service who were planning to have abortions and to a group of sexually active nonpregnant university coeds. Sex guilt was found to be significantly higher for the abortion patients than for the nonpregnant group. (Author)
An estimated 60 000–70 000 women die annually from complications of unsafe abortion and hundreds of thousands more suffer long-term consequences which include chronic pelvic pain and infertility. The reasons for the continuing high incidence of unwanted pregnancy leading to unsafe abortion include lack of access to, or misuse of and misinformation about, effective contraceptive methods, coerced sex which prohibits
Paul F. A. Van Look; Jane C. Cottingham
Congressional legislation seeking to overturn US government restrictions on international family planning assistance face a possible presidential veto. Dating back to the Reagan years, the 1984 Mexico City Policy prohibits foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGO) receiving US money from performing or actively promoting abortion as a family planning method. Even if abortion is legal in that particular country, the agency involved may not even discuss abortion as one of the medical options of a pregnant woman. In line with the Mexico City Policy, the US has withdrawn funding from both the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the largest NGO in the population field, and the Family Planning International Assistance, the international division of the Planned Parenthood federation of America. One of the effects of the Mexico City Policy has been to make family planning more controversial, and to increase opposition to birth control. In addition to the Mexico City Policy, the Reagan years also saw the implementation of a policy that denies funding to the UNFPA, charged by the US of "co-managing" China's population program that engages in coercive abortion and involuntary sterilization. The UNFPA has denied such charges. So far, President George Bush -- previously a supporter of family planning programs -- has sided with opponents of abortion, and has threatened a veto threat may soon be tested, since Congress has drafted a foreign aid appropriations bill that has includes a measure saying that NGOs should be treated in the same manner as their governments, which are exempt from the Mexico City Policy so long as US funds are not used to support abortions. PMID:12178849
Clinical results showed that besides organic, psychological and psychosocial factors are implicated in spontaneous and recurrent spontaneous abortions and that psychotherapy may help women to prevent abortion. Diagnostic and therapeutic criteria were discussed in order to improve relevant preventive and curative interventions. PMID:2815907
A harm reduction and human rights approach, grounded in the principles of neutrality, humanism, and pragmatism, supports women's access to information on the safer self- use of misoprostol in diverse legal settings. Neutrality refers to a focus on the risks and harms of abortion rather than its legal or moral status. Humanism refers to the entitlement of all women to care and concern for their lives and health, to be treated with respect, worth, and dignity, and to the empowerment of women to participate in decision-making and political action. Pragmatism accepts the historical reality that women will engage in unsafe abortion, including self-induction, while addressing factors that render them vulnerable to this reality, and requires assessment of interventions to reduce abortion-related harms on evidence of their real rather than intended effect. Criminal law reform is a necessary conclusion to a harm reduction and human rights approach. PMID:22608022
Erdman, Joanna N
The usefulness of L. Guttman's partial order scalogram analysis is investigated in this study of the structure of a set of items that measure attitudes toward legal abortion. These items, drawn from the National Opinion Research Center's "General Social Survey," have been the focus of considerable applied research investigating predictors of…
Dancer, L. Suzanne
Annual Higher Education Research Institute college freshman survey (n=275,811) at 469 institutions found more eschew political extremes, preferring to call themselves "middle of the road." About half believe abortion should be legal, a decline of 14% since 1990. Freshman did not seem as interested in coursework as they did in previous years, but…
This paper reviews pertinent literature and identifies research needs relating to unsafe abortion in Nigeria. The paper is organised into three sections. In the first part of the article, a conceptual framework for developing a research agenda to prevent unsafe abortion among Nigerian women is articulated. This section argues for a systematic research agenda that would allow a fuller understanding of the determinants of all segments of the induced abortion cycle. In the second section of the article, we offer a detailed description of the available research data as well as gaps in knowledge on unsafe abortion in Nigeria. In the final part of the paper, recommendations are made on priority areas of research that are capable of stemming the high rate of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion among Nigerian women. In particular, the paper recommends high quality, multidisciplinary formative and intervention research to foster an understanding of the determinants of abortion among Nigerian women. Such research should be geared toward providing accurate information to policy makers in a logical manner so as to enable them to generate appropriate policies for preventing unsafe abortion. PMID:10214400
Objective: Because of concern over the higher rates of failed abortion, many clinicians defer surgical abortion until 7 menstrual weeks or later. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of early surgical abortions that are performed by numerous physicians in a community-based setting. Study Design: We prospectively gathered data on all eligible patients who had surgical abortions
Maureen E. Paul; Caroline M. Mitchell; Angela J. Rogers; Michelle C. Fox; Elyse G. Lackie
Induced abortion is widely practiced in Indonesia by both married and unmarried women. This paper draws on ethnographic research, conducted between 1996 and 1998, which focused on reproductive health and sexuality among young single women on the island of Lombok in Eastern Indonesia. While abortion for married women is tacitly accepted, especially for women with two or more children, premarital pregnancy and abortion remain a highly stigmatised and isolating experience for single women. Government family planning services are not legally permitted to provide contraception to single women and their access to reproductive health care is very limited. Abortion providers were highly critical of unmarried women who sought abortions, despite their willingness to carry out the procedure. The quality of abortion services offered to single women was compromised by the stigma attached to premarital sex and pregnancy. Women who experienced unplanned premarital pregnancy faced personal and familial shame, compromised marriage prospects, abandonment by their partners, single motherhood, a stigmatised child, early cessation of education, and an interrupted income or career, all of which were not desirable options. Young women were only able to legitimately continue premarital pregnancy through marriage. In the absence of an offer of marriage, single women necessarily resorted to abortion to avoid compromising their futures. PMID:11468844
Bennett, L R
Abortion represents a particularly interesting subject for a social movements analysis of healthcare issues because of the involvement of both feminist pro-choice activists and a segment of the medical profession. Although both groups have long shared the same general goal of legal abortion, the alliance has over time been an uneasy one, and in many ways a contradictory one. This paper traces points of convergence as well as points of contention between the two groups, specifically: highlighting the tensions between the feminist view of abortion as a women-centred service, with a limited, 'technical' role for the physicians, and the abortion-providing physicians' logic of further medicalization/professional upgrading of abortion services as a response to the longstanding marginality and stigmatisation of abortion providers. Only by noting the evolving relationships between these two crucial sets of actors can one fully understand the contemporary abortion rights movement. We conclude by speculating about similar patterns in medical/lay relationships in other health social movements where 'dissident doctors' and lay activists are similarly seeking recognition for medical services that are controversial. PMID:15383041
Joffe, C E; Weitz, T A; Stacey, C L
Background Despite the adoption of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act in 1972, access to safe abortion services remains limited in India. Awareness of the legality of abortion also remains low, leading many women to seek services outside the health system. Medical abortion (MA) is an option that has the potential to expand access to safe abortion services. A multi-pronged intervention covering a population of 161,000 in 253 villages in the Silli and Khunti blocks of Jharkhand was conducted between 2007 and 2009, seeking to improve medical abortion services and create awareness at the community level by providing information through community intermediaries and creating an enabling environment through a behavior change communication campaign. The study evaluates the changes in knowledge about abortion-related issues, changes in abortion care-seeking, and service utilization as a result of this intervention. Methods A baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted pre-intervention (n?=?1,253) followed by an endline survey (n?=?1,290) one year after the completion of the intervention phase. In addition, monitoring data from intervention facilities was collected monthly over the study period. Results Nearly 85% of respondents reported being exposed to safe abortion messaging as a result of the intervention. Awareness of the legality of abortion increased significantly from 19.7% to 57.6% for women, as did awareness of the specific conditions for which abortion is allowed. Results were similar for men. There was also a significant increase in the proportion of men and women who knew of a legal and safe provider and place from where abortion services could be obtained. Multivariate analysis showed positive associations between exposure to any component of the intervention and increased knowledge about legality and gestational age limits, however only interpersonal communication was associated with a significant increase in knowledge of where to obtain safe services (OR 4.8, SE 0.67). Utilization of safe abortion services, and in particular MA, increased at all intervention sites over the duration of the intervention with a shift towards women seeking care earlier in pregnancy. Conclusion The evaluation demonstrates the success of the intervention and its potential for replication in similar contexts within India.
The clinical value of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as a guide to the outcome of threatened abortion was assessed. After the thirteenth week of gestation, abortion occurred more frequently (10\\/12) in women with abnormal serum AFP levels than in those (2\\/12) whose AFP concentrations were within the normal range. Low levels were present in women with blighted ovum and high
Markku Seppälä; Erkki Ruoslahti
Abortion is an important health issue for Australian women, yet there are large variations across Australia in abortion service provision and in state laws regulating abortion practice. We conducted a survey of tertiary students in Far North Queensland to ascertain their knowledge of local abortion services and of abortion law in Queensland. Important gaps were demonstrated in their knowledge of the law and of the availability of abortion services. PMID:22413818
Phillips, Tegan; Eltherington, Jessica; de Costa, Caroline; Woods, Cindy
One of the primary design drivers for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is to ensure crew safety. Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of CEV systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage. These studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the CEV, driving requirements for abort scenarios, and an overview of current ascent abort modes. Example analysis results are then discussed. Finally, future areas for abort analysis are addressed.
Davidson, John B., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Burt, Richard; McFarland, Mike
Background Despite abortion being legally available in South Africa after a change in legislation in 1996, barriers to accessing safe abortion services continue to exist. These barriers include provider opposition to abortion often on the grounds of religious or moral beliefs including the unregulated practice of conscientious objection. Few studies have explored how providers in South Africa make sense of, or understand, conscientious objection in terms of refusing to provide abortion care services and the consequent impact on abortion access. Methods A qualitative approach was used which included 48 in-depth interviews with a purposively selected population of abortion related health service providers, managers and policy influentials in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Results The ways in which conscientious objection was interpreted and practiced, and its impact on abortion service provision was explored. In most public sector facilities there was a general lack of understanding concerning the circumstances in which health care providers were entitled to invoke their right to refuse to provide, or assist in abortion services. Providers seemed to have poor understandings of how conscientious objection was to be implemented, but were also constrained in that there were few guidelines or systems in place to guide them in the process. Conclusions Exploring the ways in which conscientious objection was interpreted and applied by differing levels of health care workers in relation to abortion provision raised multiple and contradictory issues. From providers’ accounts it was often difficult to distinguish what constituted confusion with regards to the specifics of how conscientious objection was to be implemented in terms of the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act, and what was refusal of abortion care based on opposition to abortion in general. In order to disentangle what is resistance to abortion provision in general, and what is conscientious objection on religious or moral grounds, clear guidelines need to be provided including what measures need to be undertaken in order to lodge one’s right to conscientious objection. This would facilitate long term contingency plans for overall abortion service provision.
The journal's reply to Mr. Fischer accurately pointed out that the journal had been misquoted but the addition of the word "human" to the journal's statement fails to alter the comments unless it is incorrectly maintained that the unborn child is not a biologically distinct entity or he or she is a member of another species. Consequently, Fischer's conclusions remain valid and unaddressed by the journal's response. The only exception that this writer would take to Fischer is his assertion that the pro-abortion-on-demand movement claims to have an internally consistent philosophy. In the final analysis, the crux of the matter is neither biological accuracy nor internal consistency. The basic question is whether 1 human being ever has the right to define and the inherent ability to discern the personhood of another human being. If the response is affirmative, then everyone, rather than the pregnant female only, should be permitted the right to determine whether another live human being is a "subperson" eligible for euthanasia. All individual human beings have an unalienable right to life and must be granted personhood until a scientific technique which can measure the abstract qualities of humanity is developed. PMID:637174
Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282
Medicaid would help pay for abortion in fewer circumstances under the fiscal 1979 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), appropriations bill approved May 4, 1978, by the House HEW Appropriations Subcommittee than it did in 1978. The new language would permit the funding only if the mother's life would be endangered if the pregnancy were carried to term. Current law permits abortion payments for this reason; if pregnancy results from rape or incest, or if the birth would cause the mother severe and long-lasting physical damage. Behind the scenes pressure probably will be applied to resolve the issue quickly this year since all House members are up for reelection and do not want to have such a sensitive issue intruding on their campaigns. 1 strategy being discussed is the inclusion of riders that would directly or indirectly provide federal funds for abortions in other appropriation measures such as funding for the Defense Department and federal employees health benefits. The House will have to contend with Senator Brooke (R-Massachusetts) ranking minority member on the Senate HEW Appropriations Subcommittee, who is determined to stand firm in favor of liberal abortion funding. With only minimal opposition for his Senate seat this year, Senate staffers say Brooke is not concerned with the possibility of abortion becoming a major campaign issue. It was Brooke who forced the House's hand last year and obtained a more relaxed abortion curb, much to the chagrin of the Carter Administration. The White House, with the President's popularity at a low ebb, would prefer not to be put in a position of taking sides publicly although it prefers the strict curbs. Carter is currently deciding which House members to assist during the campaign and such a no-win issue would only serve to complicate matters. He will have enough of a problem reconciling health spending increases without the added burden of abortion. PMID:12335662
Recent studies conducted by the World Health Organization's Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction reveal high rates of unwanted pregnancy and illegal abortion in selected developing countries. In a Colombian study, 30% of women undergoing illegal abortion could not explain why they became pregnant, 40% believed that a woman bears sole responsibility for contraception, and almost 50% did not know when the likelihood for conception was greatest. In a study of pharmacists and herb vendors in Mexico, only 35% of those in the former group and none of those in the latter group could describe the mechanism of action of modern contraceptives, despite the fact that they were frequently consulted about pregnancy prevention. 25% of abortion seekers in a Cuban study had used no contraceptive method and the abortion ratio was highest (2 for every live birth) among women under 20 years old. The majority of the unwanted pregnancies occurring to contraceptive users involves use of an IUD that is not appropriate for young, nulliparous women. Finally, a study conducted in Tanzania found that a third of illegal abortions involved women under 17 years of age. 90% of whom had no knowledge of a family planning method. PMID:12345694
The HIV/AIDS field is addressing how legal and policy restrictions affect access to health promotion and care, e.g., in relation to criminalization of HIV transmission, drug use and sex work. Work to address the reproductive rights of women living with HIV, particularly regarding unwanted pregnancy and abortion, has nevertheless lagged behind, despite its potential to contribute to broader advocacy for access to comprehensive reproductive health information and services for all women. It is in that context that this paper examines abortion in relation to the rights of women and girls living with HIV. The paper first presents findings from recent research on HIV-positive women's reasons for seeking abortions and experiences with abortion-related care. This is followed by a discussion of abortion in relation to human rights and how this has been both addressed and neglected in policy and guidance related to the reproductive health of women living with HIV. The concluding remarks offer recommendations for expanding efforts to provide comprehensive, human rights-based sexual and reproductive health care to women living with HIV by including abortion-related information and services. PMID:23177682
de Bruyn, Maria
Examines a film entitled "Whose Choice?" which chronicles the struggle to protect and extend existing abortion rights through the campaigns set in motion by the James White Abortion (Amendment) Bill (1975). (MH)
In 58 consecutive pregnancies in insulin-dependent diabetic women, glycosylated haemoglobin levels were abnormally high in 78% at the time of booking for antenatal care. Spontaneous abortion was the outcome in 15 pregnancies, 10 occurring before the 15th week of gestation. Glycosylated haemoglobin levels were significantly higher in those women who aborted spontaneously than in women who delivered successfully (12.8 +/- 1.8% v. 11.2 +/- 2.3%, mean +/- s.d.). These results emphasise the inadequacy of diabetic control in the first trimester and lend further support to the importance of good control at this critical time in insulin-dependent diabetes.
Wright, A. D.; Nicholson, H. O.; Pollock, A.; Taylor, K. G.; Betts, S.
This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers recent legal developments involving informed consent.1 We covered this topic in previous articles in The Journal of Clinical Ethics.2 But an updated discussion is warranted. First, informed consent remains a central and critically important issue in clinical ethics. Second, there have been numerous significant legal changes over the past year. We categorize recent legal developments into the following 13 categories: (1) Medical Malpractice Liability, (2) Medical Malpractice Liability in Wisconsin, (3) Medical Malpractice Liability in Novel Situations, (4) Enforcement by Criminal Prosecutors, (5) Enforcement by State Medical Boards, (6) Enforcement through Anti-Discrimination Laws, (7) Statutorily Mandated Disclosures Related to End-of-Life Counseling, (8) Statutorily Mandated Disclosures Related to Aid in Dying, (9) Statutorily Mandated Disclosures Related to Abortion, (10) Statutorily Mandated Disclosures Related to Telemedicine, (11) Statutorily Mandated Disclosures Related to Other Interventions, (12) Statutorily Mandated Gag and Censorship Laws, (13) Informed Consent in the Research Context. PMID:24972066
Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Hexum, Melinda
This report hypothesized that Indian university students approve of abortion, that religiosity neutralizes the influence of education in abortion attitudes, and that Indian students are more liberal in their attitudes on abortion than American Catholic students. To test these hypotheses, the author collected data from 150 students from two…
Bardis, Panos D.
When New York State's abortion laws were liberalized in 1970, there was a sharp rise in the number of clinic patients who requested abortions. Because social workers at Mount Sinai Medical Center believed that abortion still is an emotional risk for many women, a study was conducted to determine which patients needed intensive counseling. (Author)
Young, Alma T.; And Others
Spontaneous abortion is common in early pregnancy, whilst recurrent miscarriage is relatively rare. Empirical studies of psychological sequellae of spontaneous abortions are limited, but strongly suggest that a significant number of women who miscarry, experience grief and various degrees of clinically-significant depression and anxiety. Depression is more common amongst women with recurrent abortions. Contributory factors for the development of psychological
D. Bagchi; T. Friedman
A group of 120 women with gestations from 64 to 84 days received 800 ?g of vaginal misoprostol every 24 h for a maximum of three doses without performing postexpulsion systematic preventive curettage. Outcome measures included successful abortion (complete abortion without requiring a surgical procedure), side effects, and mean time of expulsion and vaginal bleeding. Complete abortion occurred in 104
J. L Carbonell Esteve; L Varela; A Velazco; E Cabezas; R Tanda; C Sánchez
The evidence from gynaecologists in Northern Ireland shows confusion in interpretation and practice of abortion law, with some women even being denied abortion after rape. Over two-thirds of gynaecologists supported a change in the law which would leave the abortion decision to the woman and her doctor, but less than half wanted the introduction of the British law. PMID:7929486
This essay, addressed to medical personnel and counselors, presents a bioethical approach to adolescent abortion. Topics include an overview of abortion in the U.S., related medical issues, data pertinent to adolescent abortions, ethical theory, adolescent moral development, and moral aspects of treatment of adolescents. (Author/DB)
One of a series of secondary level teaching units presenting case studies with pro and con analyses of particular legal problems, the document consists of a student's lesson plan, a teacher's lesson plan, and a lawyer's lesson plan for a unit on abortion. The lessons are designed to expose students to the Supreme Court's decision concerning…
Howard, Estelle; And Others
In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts. PMID:23637451
This paper reviews current abortion law and practice in Northern Ireland (NI). It explores the origins of NI's abortion law and its complexity in relation to current practice. It reviews issues relating to women seeking terminations in NI and Great Britain and reviews attempts by the Family Planning Association in NI to require the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety NI to clarify the current legal basis for termination of pregnancy and to provide guidance for health professionals engaged in this practice. The paper also discusses some of the issues surrounding abortion in NI and seeks to explain why this subject is causing controversy and debate, especially following a judicial review in February and Marie Stopes opening a termination service in Belfast. PMID:23901450
Daniels, Pauline; Campbell, Patricia; Clinton, Alison
Fifty women undergoing second trimester legal abortion were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1. given Rivanol and left with balloon catheter in the cervical canal with addition of oxytocin infusion. 2. same treatment as above but catheter removed and replaced by a Lamicel cervical dilatator, 5 mm in diameter; 3. as group 2, but with a 6 mm Laminaria tent inserted. Induction-abortion interval and need for analgesics were recorded, as well as possible side effects and complications. No statistical differences were found between the three groups for any of the parameters. We have thus not been able to show any advantages of using Laminaria or Lamicel osmotic cervix dilatators in second trimester abortions. PMID:3122517
Schubert, W; Cullberg, G
Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children - vulnerable with respect to repeat abortion.
This article opens with a review of the concept of "normatology," which was developed by Sabshin and Offer in four books published over a period of 30 years. Normatology seeks to produce an "operational definition of normality and health" over the life cycle. Such a definition can be used as a guideline in the deliver of health care. The importance of this field of study is highlighted when considering issues such as abortion or physician-assisted suicide. Fortunately, the proclivity of Americans to conduct public opinion polls helps researchers determine what is considered "normal" at any given time. Gallup Polls, which have posed the same question about the legality of abortion from 1975 to 1995, indicate that about half of all Americans continuously occupy the middle ground on this issue despite a somewhat liberalizing trend. In general, public opinion holds that it is normal to want to avoid giving birth to a damaged child, to place the mother's health and safety above that of the fetus, and to terminate a pregnancy resulting from rape. It is less normal to abort a healthy fetus on demand. Thus, abortion will likely continue to be a source of controversy and confusion in our society and among psychiatric patients. In comparison, psychiatrists express attitudes about abortion that are more liberal than normal. In the case of physician-assisted suicide, public approval has increased since 1950 as scientific advancements have facilitated the prolongation of unproductive and painful life. If legalized, physician-assisted suicide may depend upon psychiatric assessment of an absence of mental disease. Such an assessment is required in the Northern Territory of Australia, where voluntary euthanasia is legal, but not in the Netherlands, where it is government-regulated. Psychiatrists must understand public opinion in order to influence it or deal with it competently. PMID:9167540
Brodie, H K; Banner, L
Discusses school administrators' legal-affairs management responsibilities regarding legal advice, law versus ethics, and sources of law. Suggests strategies for retaining and managing legal counsel and avoiding situations involving litigation, torts, and conflict resolution. Explains general counsel services; outlines education,…
Weeks, Richard H.
Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…
Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas
As more colleges engage legal counsel, there is a growing need to clarify the relationships between the legal counselor and the college board so that each can fulfill the expectations of the other. This article presents a model job description for the collegiate legal counselor. It also presents a checklist approach to board evaluation of their…
Lahti, Robert E.
Debate exists over whether fetuses feel pain, and if so what to do about it. Because they cannot provide self-report, certitude on the question cannot be reached. The essay argues that a presumption of reasonable doubt is adequate to inform moral behavior. It looks at the most recent evidence from fetal anatomical, neurochemical, physiological and behavioral research and concludes that a reasonable doubt exists that fetuses from 20 to 23 weeks do not feel pain. It proposes that where abortion is legal, providers should be legally required both to provide full disclosure of the possibility of fetal pain starting at 20 weeks and to offer pain-relief measures to suppress fetal pain to all women seeking an abortion. PMID:23285794
Brugger, E Christian
NASA goals are set on resumption of human activity on the Moon and extending manned missions to Mars. Abort options are key elements of any system designed to safeguard human lives and stated requirements stipulate the provision of an abort capability throughout the mission. The present investigation will focus on the formulation and analysis of possible abort modes during the Earth departure phase of manned Mars interplanetary transfers. Though of short duration, the departure phase encompasses a mission timeline where failures have frequently become manifest in historical manned spacecraft necessitating the inclusion of a departure phase abort capability. Investigated abort modes included aborts to atmospheric entry, and to Earth or Moon orbit. Considered interplanetary trajectory types included conjunction, opposition, and free-return trajectory classes. All abort modes were analyzed for aborts initiated at multiple points along each of these possible departure trajectories across all launch opportunities of the fifteen-year Earth-Mars inertial period. The consistently low departure velocities of the conjunction trajectories facilitated the greatest abort capability. An analysis of Mars transportation architectures was performed to determine the amount of available delta V inherent in each candidate architecture for executing departure aborts. Results indicate that a delta V of at least 4 km/s is required to achieve a continuous departure phase entry abort capability with abort flights less than three weeks duration for all transfer opportunity years. Less demanding transfer years have a corresponding increase in capability. The Earth orbit abort mode does not become widely achievable until more than 6 km/s delta V is provided; a capacity not manifest in any considered architecture. Optimization of the Moon abort mode resulted in slight departure date shifts to achieve improved lunar alignments. The Moon abort mode is only widely achievable for conjunction transfers during the optimum transfer years and delta V values greater than 4 km/s. A lesser delta V potential of 3 km/s is sufficient to enable entry aborts during the least demanding transfer opportunity years. Extensive abort capability is achievable for high delta V capable Mars architectures. Less propulsively capable architectures achieve moderate abort capability during favorable opportunity years.
Dissel, Adam F.
Mars trajectory design options were examined that would accommodate a premature termination of a nominal manned opposition class mission for opportunities between 2010 and 2025. A successful abort must provide a safe return to Earth in the shortest possible time consistent with mission constraints. In this study, aborts that provided a minimum increase in the initial vehicle mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) were identified by locating direct transfer nominal missions and nominal missions including an outbound or inbound Venus swing-by that minimized IMLEO. The ease with which these missions could be aborted while meeting propulsion and time constraints was investigated by examining free return (unpowered) and powered aborts. Further reductions in trip time were made to some aborts by the addition or removal of an inbound Venus swing-by. The results show that, although few free return aborts met the specified constraints, 85% of each nominal mission could be aborted as a powered abort without an increase in propellant. Also, in many cases, the addition or removal of a Venus swing-by increased the number of abort opportunities or decreased the total trip time during an abort.
Tartabini, P. V.; Striepe, S. A.; Powell, R. W.
In 1992 in Israel, a woman in whom a missed early abortion (blighted ovum) was diagnosed underwent a dilatation and curettage procedure during the seventh week of pregnancy. When it was determined that the pregnancy was not terminated, it was allowed to continue until week 24 when suspected severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) led to induction of labor and delivery of a female fetus with severe asymmetric IUGR, no congenital abnormalities, and a normal skeleton. Four other cases of failed pregnancy interruption between 1991 and 1994 ended in the delivery of normal infants at weeks 37, 39, and 40, and fetal death complicated by the development of a hydatidiform mole. Most cases of failed induced abortion occur in early abortions, and most women will return for another procedure. In most cases of failed abortion, damage to the placenta will result in damage to the fetus. The most likely cause of IUGR in the case described above was vascular disruption of the placenta due to the curettage. These rare occurrences of failed induced abortion are associated with a high emotional, physical, and legal cost. PMID:7660320
Arnon, J; Ornoy, A
High sex ratios at birth (108 boys to 100 girls or higher) are seen in China, Taiwan, South Korea and parts of India and Viet Nam. The imbalance is the result of son preference, accentuated by declining fertility. Prenatal sex detection with ultrasound followed by second trimester abortion is one of the ways sex selection manifests itself, but it is not the causative factor. Advocates and governments seeking to reverse this imbalance have largely prohibited sex detection tests and/or sex selective abortion, assuming these measures would reverse the trend. Such policies have been difficult to enforce and have met with only limited success. At the same time, such policies are starting to have adverse effects on the already limited access to safe and legal second trimester abortion for reasons other than sex selection. Moreover, the sex selection issue is being used as a platform for anti-abortion rhetoric by certain groups. Maintaining access to safe abortion and achieving a decline in high sex ratios are both important goals. Both are possible if the focus shifts to addressing the conditions that drive son preference. PMID:18772089
Occupational factors in spontaneous abortions are reviewed and discussed in terms of difficult working conditions (physical and psychological strains) and exposition to noxious agents in women and men. The discussion was based upon clinical, epidemiological and biological studies. The results showed elevated abortion risks in different occupational groups. Risk factors for both partners were hard physical work, psychological and socio-economic stress, some chemicals, metals and pharmacological products. Animal studies demonstrated time- and dose-dependent effects on embryonic and fetal development as well as accumulation and potentiation of teratogenic agents. Chronic and multifactorial occupational effects seem to be very important and need further occupational effects seem to be very important and need further study. PMID:2194385
Seventy-two Israeli women who were about to have abortions were interviewed. These women experienced intense emotions of sadness, ambivalence, confusion, and fear. To help them deal with this crisis, the women expressed a need for a professional counselor who provides information such as where to go, how to get money for the abortion, and how the operation is performed. The women also wished that the professional counselor would support them emotionally throughout the pregnancy experience and the abortion procedure. PMID:1885339
Objective: To find the effective dose of intravaginal misoprostol to induce second trimester abortion. Methods: Intravaginal misoprostol in 200-?g, 400-?g and 600-?g doses were applied at 12-h intervals in 150 consecutive pregnancies. Results: The 48-h successful abortion rate was 70.6%, 82% and 96%, respectively, and these rates were unaffected by parity. The mean induction to abortion interval was 45.0±41.5, 33.4±34.9
Y Herabutya; P O-Prasertsawat
The new technology that will allow genetic testing of a fetus within the first trimester of pregnancy by isolating cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in the mother's blood raises a range of ethical and legal issues. Considered noninvasive, this test is safe and reliable, and may avoid alternative genetic testing by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, which risks causing spontaneous abortion. Ethical and legal issues of cffDNA testing will become more acute if testing expands to fetal whole-genome sequencing. Critical issues include the state of the science or diagnostic art; the appropriateness of offering the test; the implications of denying the test when it is available and appropriate; disclosure and counseling following test results; and management of patients' choices on acquiring test results. A challenge will be providing patients with appropriate counseling based on up-to-date genetic knowledge, and accommodating informed patients' legal choices. PMID:24299974
Dickens, Bernard M
Objective To characterize the backgrounds of women who have repeat abortions. Study Design In a cross-sectional study of 259 women (M=35.2±5.6 years), the relation between adverse experiences in childhood and risk of having 2+ abortions versus 0 or 1 abortion was examined. Self-reported adverse events occurring between ages 0-12 were summed. Results Independent of confounding factors, women who experienced more abuse, personal safety, and total adverse events in childhood were more likely to have 2+ versus 0 abortions (OR=2.56, 95% CI=1.15-5.71; OR=2.74, 95% CI=1.29-5.82; OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.21-2.09) and versus 1 abortion (OR=5.83, 95% CI=1.71-19.89; OR=2.23, 95% CI=1.03-4.81; OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.04-1.81). Women who experienced more family disruption events in childhood were more likely to have 2+ versus 0 abortions (OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.14-2.69) but not versus 1 abortion (OR=1.16, 95% CI=0.79-1.70). Conclusions Women who have repeat abortions are more likely to have experienced childhood adversity than those having 0 or 1 abortion.
BLEIL, Maria E.; ADLER, Nancy E.; PASCH, Lauri A.; STERNFELD, Barbara; REIJO-PERA, Renee A.; CEDARS, Marcelle I.
This chapter gives an educational overview of: * An awareness of the legal issues involved in health informatics * The need for the privacy and security of the patient record * The legal consequences of a breach of the security of the patient record * The concept of privacy law and what precautions ought to be taken to minimize legal liability for a breach of privacy and/or confidentiality. PMID:20407160
Mackenzie, Geraldine; Carter, Hugh
Background Identifying unsafe abortion among the major causes of maternal deaths and respecting the rights to health of women, in 2002, the Nepali parliament liberalized abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy on request. However, enhancing women’s awareness on and access to safe and legal abortion services, particularly in rural areas, remains a challenge in Nepal despite a decade of the initiation of safe abortion services. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, an operations research study was carried out using quasi-experimental design to determine the effectiveness of engaging female community health volunteers, auxiliary nurse midwives, and nurses to provide medical abortion services from outreach health facilities to increase the accessibility and acceptability of women to medical abortion. This paper describes key components of the operations research study, key research findings, and follow-up actions that contributed to create a conducive environment and evidence in scaling up medical abortion services in rural areas of Nepal. Results It was found that careful planning and implementation, continuous advocacy, and engagement of key stakeholders, including key government officials, from the planning stage of study is not only crucial for successful completion of the project but also instrumental for translating research results into action and policy change. While challenges remained at different levels, medical abortion services delivered by nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives working at rural outreach health facilities without oversight of physicians was perceived to be accessible, effective, and of good quality by the service providers and the women who received medical abortion services from these rural health facilities. Conclusions This research provided further evidence and a road-map for expanding medical abortion services to rural areas by mid-level service providers in minimum clinical settings without the oversight of physicians, thus reducing complications and deaths due to unsafe abortion.
One of the most demanding tasks that must be performed by the Space Shuttle flight crew is the process of determining whether, when and where to abort the vehicle should engine or system failures occur during ascent or entry. Current Shuttle abort procedures involve paging through complicated paper checklists to decide on the type of abort and where to abort. Additional checklists then lead the crew through a series of actions to execute the desired abort. This process is even more difficult and time consuming in the absence of ground communications since the ground flight controllers have the analysis tools and information that is currently not available in the Shuttle cockpit. Crew workload specifically abort procedures will be greatly simplified with the implementation of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) project. The intent of CAU is to maximize crew situational awareness and reduce flight workload thru enhanced controls and displays, and onboard abort assessment and determination capability. SAFM was developed to help satisfy the CAU objectives by providing the crew with dynamic information about the capability of the vehicle to perform a variety of abort options during ascent and entry. This paper- presents an overview of the SAFM application. As shown in Figure 1, SAFM processes the vehicle navigation state and other guidance information to provide the CAU displays with evaluations of abort options, as well as landing site recommendations. This is accomplished by three main SAFM components: the Sequencer Executive, the Powered Flight Function, and the Glided Flight Function, The Sequencer Executive dispatches the Powered and Glided Flight Functions to evaluate the vehicle's capability to execute the current mission (or current abort), as well as more than IS hypothetical abort options or scenarios. Scenarios are sequenced and evaluated throughout powered and glided flight. Abort scenarios evaluated include Abort to Orbit (ATO), Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL), East Coast Abort Landing (ECAL) and Return to Launch Site (RTLS). Sequential and simultaneous engine failures are assessed and landing footprint information is provided during actual entry scenarios as well as hypothetical "loss of thrust now" scenarios during ascent.
Hu, Howard; Straube, Tim; Madsen, Jennifer; Ricard, Mike
The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.
Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.
Along with governments from around the world, African leaders agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994 to address unsafe abortion as a major public health problem. At the five-year review of the ICPD, they decided further that health systems should make safe abortion services accessible for legal indications. Based on this mandate, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed norms and standards for quality abortion services, Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems, released in 2003. While abortion-related maternal mortality and morbidity remains very high in many African countries, stakeholders are increasingly using WHO recommendations in conjunction with other global and regional policy frameworks, including the African Union Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa, to spur new action to address this persistent problem. Efforts include: reforming national laws and policies; preparing service-delivery guidelines and regulations; strengthening training programs; and expanding community outreach programs. This paper reviews progress and lessons learned while drawing attention to the fragility of the progress made thus far and the key challenges that remain in ensuring access to safe abortion care for all African women. PMID:17518128
Hessini, Leila; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Crane, Barbara B
This study in rural Tamil Nadu, India, explored the reasons why many married women in India undergo induced abortions rather than use reversible contraception to space or limit births in terms of women's sexual and reproductive rights within marriage, and in the context of gender relations between couples more generally. It is based on in-depth interviews with two generations of ever-married women, some of whom had had abortions and others who had not, from 98 rural hamlets. The respondents were 66 women and 44 of their husbands. Non-consensual sex, sexual violence and women's inability to refuse their husband's sexual demands appeared to underlie the need for abortion in both younger and older women. Many men seemed to believe that sex within marriage was their right, and that women had no say in the matter. The findings raise questions about the presumed association between legal abortion and the enjoyment of reproductive and sexual rights. A large number of women who had abortions in this study were denied their sexual rights but were permitted, even forced, to terminate their pregnancies for reasons unrelated to their right to choose abortion. The study brings home the need for activism to promote women's sexual rights and a campaign against sexual violence in marriage. PMID:15242214
Ravindran, T K Sundari; Balasubramanian, P
Article 14(2)(c) of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women enjoins States Parties to take appropriate measures "to protect the reproductive rights of women by authorising medical abortion in cases of sexual assault, rape, incest, and where continued pregnancy endangers the mental and physical health of the mother or the life of the mother or the foetus." This paper considers the implications of Article 14 for access to safe, legal abortion. It is submitted that Article 14 has the potential to impact positively on regional abortion law, policy, and practice in 3 main areas. First, it takes forward the global consensus on combating abortion as a major public health danger. Second, it provides African countries with not just an incentive, but also an imperative for reforming abortion laws in a transparent manner. Third, if implemented in the context of a treaty that centers on the equality and non-discrimination of women, Article 14 has the potential to contribute toward transforming access to abortion from a crime and punishment model to a reproductive health model. PMID:20546748
Ngwena, Charles G
The abort analysis for the cycle 3 Operational Flight Profile (OFP) for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) is defined, superseding the abort analysis previously presented. Included are the flight description, abort analysis summary, flight design groundrules and constraints, initialization information, general abort description and results, abort solid rocket booster and external tank separation and disposal results, abort monitoring displays and discussion on both ground and onboard trajectory monitoring, abort initialization load summary for the onboard computer, list of the key abort powered flight dispersion analysis.
The precise nature and scope of healthcare confidentiality has long been the subject of debate. While the obligation of confidentiality is integral to professional ethical codes and is also safeguarded under English law through the equitable remedy of breach of confidence, underpinned by the right to privacy enshrined in Article 8 of the Human Rights Act 1998, it has never been regarded as absolute. But when can and should personal information be made available for statistical and research purposes and what if the information in question is highly sensitive information, such as that relating to the termination of pregnancy after 24 weeks? This article explores the case of In the Matter of an Appeal to the Information Tribunal under section 57 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000, concerning the decision of the Department of Health to withhold some statistical data from the publication of its annual abortion statistics. The specific data being withheld concerned the termination for serious fetal handicap under section 1(1)d of the Abortion Act 1967. The paper explores the implications of this case, which relate both to the nature and scope of personal privacy. It suggests that lessons can be drawn from this case about public interest and use of statistical information and also about general policy issues concerning the legal regulation of confidentiality and privacy in the future. PMID:21708829
McHale, Jean V; Jones, June
Detailed reviews of two legal information databases--"Laborlaw I" and "Legal Resource Index"--are presented in this paper. Each database review begins with a bibliographic entry listing the title; producer; vendor; cost per hour contact time; offline print cost per citation; time period covered; frequency of updates; and size of file. A detailed…
Like most issues in higher education, the accreditation paradigm in the United States is defined in large measure by the legal and political climate in which the academy finds itself. In the case of accreditation in particular, the legal substrate is of particular importance given the central role of accreditation in a college's ability to receive…
Graca, Thomas J.
The legal and ethical aspects of human organ transplantation vary from country to country, although in broad terms the legal\\u000a and ethical requirements denote substantial similarities. This chapter provides an overview principally of the statutory requirements\\u000a relating to heart transplantation.
This legal anthology presents contemporary thoughts covering a broad range of topics in education and school safety from a national perspective. It covers four major areas: (1) an overview of schools in U.S. society from historical and legal perspectives; (2) an exploration of some aspects of school crime; (3) restitution, parental liability,…
Stephens, Ronald D., Ed.; And Others
The perspectives of Lon L. Fuller on legal education in the 1940s and 1950s is outlined, including the responsibilities and tasks of the lawyer, curricular deficiencies, pedagogical deficiencies, the need for and objectives of a course in jurisprudence, research needs, and obstacles to good legal education. (MSE)
Summers, Robert S.
Describes authors' experiences of three abortions and her unresolved grief. Presents authors' writing at different times throughout her life. Contends grief therapy must be part of abortion counseling. Claims unresolved grief affects others, relationships, pregnancies, and self-concept. (Author/ABL)
Comparisons of the efficacy of different regimens of medical abortion are difficult because of the widely varying protocols (even for testing identical regimens), divergent definitions of success and failure, and lack of a standard method of analysis. In this article we review the current efficacy literature on medical abortion, highlighting some of the most important differences in the way that
James Trussell; Charlotte Ellertson
PURPOSE: Spontaneous abortion (SAB), the most common adverse pregnancy outcome, affects ?15% of clinically recognized pregnancies. Except for advanced maternal age and smoking, there are not well-established risk factors for SAB. Animal models associate increased fetal resorption or abortion with exposure to the pesticide dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), but epidemiologic investigations of DDT and SAB are inconsistent. We undertook a pilot
Susan A Korrick; Changzhong Chen; Andrew I Damokosh; Jiatong Ni; Xue Liu; Sung-Il Cho; Larisa Altshul; Louise Ryan; Xiping Xu
Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245
Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kernéis, Solen
This publication seeks to explain the many facets of adolescent abortion: teenagers' need for access to safe abortion; the need for confidentiality in order to ensure safety; the real intent and effect of parental involvement laws; and the roles of parents and the state in safeguarding the health of pregnant teenagers. The first section looks at…
Early abortion traditionally referred to abortion within 12 weeks of gestational age, but it is necessary to divide it into 3 stages: ultra early abortion for the one within 5 weeks of gestational age; very early abortion for the one within 8 weeks; early abortion for the one between 8 and 12 weeks. Progress and development in them are of IVF-ET and GIFT necessitated redefining pregnancy and resulted in great number of terms related to early pregnancy and abortion, which are not standardized and sometimes confusing. In connection with IVF-ET research, the following 3 stages of early pregnancy are recognized by Japanese doctors. Biochemical pregnancy is when plasma level of beta HCG is above norm. Early clinical pregnancy is when the Gestational sac is detected by ultrasonography but the heat beat of fetus is not yet confirmed. Established clinical pregnancy is when the heart beat of the fetus is confirmed via ultrasonography. Early abortion is divided into 2 stages: subclinical abortion (menstrual abortion), which is menstrual like fetus wastage in biomedical pregnancy, and clinical abortion in which a blighted ovum is detected by ultrasonic examination. Classification above is simple and easy but it heavily relies on measurement methods, results of which often fluctuate and are subject to change. It seems desirable to classify early abortion according to gestational age (GS). GS may be detected as early as 4 weeks, is above 10 mm in the maximum diameter at 5 weeks, and is detected in all cases at 6 weeks. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test by 1000 IU/1 sees positive response in almost all cases at 6 weeks, while HCG by 200 IU/1 sees the same at 5 weeks. The heart beat of the fetus is believed to commence at 4 weeks but it is not detected by ultrasonography at the earliest till the end of 5 weeks and in all cases till 8 weeks. The classification of ultra early abortion, very early abortion and early abortion, is based on above findings. PMID:12158570
Takahama, K; Hoshiai, H; Yajima, A
Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied. PMID:24100828
The potential reproductive toxicity of mercury vapour was investigated by comparing the rate of spontaneous abortions among the wives of 152 workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour with the rate among the wives of 374 controls in the same plant. The results indicate an increase in the rate of spontaneous abortions with an increasing concentration of mercury in the fathers' urine before pregnancy. At concentrations above 50 micrograms/l the risk of spontaneous abortion doubles (odds ratio (OR) = 2.26; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.99-5.23). Special care was taken to avoid bias in reporting abortions and known risk factors of spontaneous abortions do not seem to explain the results. Several biological mechanisms might account for them including, in particular, direct action of mercury on the paternal reproductive system and indirect toxicity to the mother or embryo through transport of mercury from the father. These indications could be of practical importance and should therefore be further documented.
Cordier, S; Deplan, F; Mandereau, L; Hemon, D
Despite the ascent of Bill Clinton to Presidential power in the US and his early successful repeals of bans on abortion counseling at federally funded clinics, abortions in military hospitals, and fetal tissue research, the controversy and debate over a woman's right to abortion continues in the US. The Hyde Amendment, named after Representative Henry Hyde, Republican from Illinois, has been in effect since 1976 barring Medicaid from funding abortions except to save the life of the pregnant woman. Congress in 1993, however, eased the amendment to allow states to use Medicaid funds to pay for abortions for low-income women in the cases of rape or incest. Anti-abortion lawmakers were assured by the provision's sponsors that the Clinton Administration would not force states to comply. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) instead sent a letter to state Medicaid directors on December 28, 1993, ordering them to use Medicaid funds to pay for abortions for low-income women who were the victims of rape or incest. President Clinton subsequently complained that HHS had bypassed his office in issuing the directive, state Medicaid directors protested that the directive had been imposed without the usual notice and allowance of time for public comment, and states claimed that the order clashes with existing state laws which ban the public funding of abortions not required to save the life of the mother. Officials from Arkansas, Colorado, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, and Utah have stated that they may fight the directive, while the HHS will most likely not move to rescind or change its directive. The issue will probably be resolved in the courts. The authors note that this state/federal battle over Medicaid-funded abortions is only part of a larger war scheduled to take place in Congress over whether pregnancy-related services, including abortion, will be covered in the Administration's Health Security Act. PMID:10132602
Kent, C; Tokarski, C
Fatal air embolism as a complication of legal abortion in a 29-year-old woman is reported. After anesthesia had been induced and dilatation accomplished (Hegar 14), the suction tube was introduced into the uterus. The surgeon felt unusually heavy pressure when the pump was started, and heavy bleeding was observed. Aspiration was discontinued, and the abortion was completed by curettage. Irregular breathing and cardiovascular collapse occurred 4 minutes after the start of the operation, and resuscitation attempts were unsuccessful. Autopsy revealed pulmonary edema, pulmonary emphysema, and air bubbles in many areas of the vascular system, which confirmed the clinical diagnosis of air embolism. The hose of the suction cannula was found to have been attached to the exhaust outlet of the suction pump. It is suggested that the exhaust should be clearly differentiated from the intake valve in order to avoid similar accidents in the future. PMID:4456911
Du Chesne, A
Modern thinking on abortion, reflected in recent legal developments around the world, has turned from concentration upon criminality in favor of female and family well-being. New laws enacted during the last decade are coming to focus upon conditions of health and social welfare of women and their existing families as indications for lawful termination of pregnancy. Regulations governing the delivery of services may be restrictive, however, so as to limit in practice access to means of safe, legal abortion made available in theory. Requirements may be imposed that only medical personnel with unduly high qualifications perform procedures, or that they be undertaken only in institutions meeting standards higher than similar health care requires. Approval procedures may be established involving second medical opinions or committees to monitor observance of the law, which may delay abortions and therefore increase their hazards. Parental and spousal consent requirements may exist in addition with the same effects, or to veto a pregnant female's request. Regulations may be employed more positively, however, to encourage contraceptive practice. A disappointment with legislative reform is that it may fail to improve circumstances if public resources are not applied to achieve the supply of services newly rendered legitimate, and illegal practice may persist.
Cook, R J; Dickens, B M
During a highly contested process, abortion was partially decriminalised in Colombia in 2006 by the Constitutional Court: when the pregnancy threatens a woman's life or health, in cases of severe fetal malformations incompatible with life, and in cases of rape, incest or unwanted insemination. However, Colombian women still face obstacles to accessing abortion services. This is illustrated by 36 cases of women who in 2006-08 were denied the right to a lawful termination of pregnancy, or had unjustified obstacles put in their path which delayed the termination, which are analysed in this article. We argue that the obstacles resulted from fundamental disagreements about abortion and misunderstandings regarding the ethical, legal and medical requirements arising from the Court's decision. In order to avoid obstacles such as demands for a judge's authorisation, institutional claims of conscientious objection, rejection of a claim of rape, or refusal of health insurance coverage for a legal termination, which constitute discrimination against women, three main strategies are suggested: public ownership of the Court's decision by all Colombian citizens, a professional approach by those involved in the provision of services in line with the law, and monitoring of its implementation by governmental and non-governmental organisations. PMID:21111356
Amado, Eduardo Díaz; Calderón García, Maria Cristina; Cristancho, Katherine Romero; Salas, Elena Prada; Hauzeur, Eliane Barreto
This is an historical survey of the abortion practices in Australia in the early 20th century. The evidence presented in the article is gathered from reports and documents, articles in medical journals, and information obtained at interviews. The estimated figures for induced abortion are 1/8 live births in 1904, 1/5 live birth in 1937, and 1/4 live births in 1970. Drugs inducing abortion were easily available by the 1890s; they usually were euphemistically advertised to correct irregularities, that is, to bring on a late period, thus enabling vendors to escape prosecution by law. Many of the prescriptions were simple purgatives, such as oil of savin, croton oil, aloe, or they caused contractions of the blood vessels or of the uterus, as did ergot of rye. The contents of the abortion inducing drugs were rarely stated and often misrepresented. In many cases abortion was a secondary effect of the woman poisoning her body with large quantities of drugs; women were also instructed to take hot mustard baths, to jump off tables, and to conduct other physical violence against themselves. Many women tried mechnical methods when chemical methods failed; they included insertion into the uterus of knitting needles, crochet hooks, laminaria and sponge tents. Women who could find the money went to an abortionist; in the 1890s there were an estimated 100-300 abortionists in the city of Sydney. The methods employed went from the use of laminaria tents, to insertion of a catheter, or forcing of fluids into the uterus. Septic infection, peritonitis, blood poisoning, and also uterine perforation were common complications noted in women being admitted to hospitals following abortion. Retention of the placenta was another common complication. After 1904 more restrictive laws reduced the availability of abortifacient drugs and also of contraceptives such as condoms and pessaries; the cost of an illegal abortion skyrocketed to 25 pounds. The result was that more women attempted to procure an abortion by themselves, and that morbidity and mortality rates increased. As recently as 1960 women were procuring abortions by the same means as in the 1890s with the same results and complications; the only advantage being the fact that they could be properly treated once they reached the hospital after attempting the abortion. There are still many restrictions placed on the availability of abortion in Australia; some abortion services, such as those in South Wales, interpret the law very freely. A survey conducted by the Preterm Foundation in 1976 found that 7.6% of its clients had attempted abortion before presenting at the clinic. PMID:12263459
The autonomy granted to physicians is based on the claim that their decisions are grounded in scientific principles. But a case study of the evolution of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ abortion policy between 1951 and 1973 shows that decisions were only secondarily determined by science. The principal determinant was the need to preserve physician autonomy over the organization and delivery of services. As a result, the organization representing physicians who specialized in women’s reproductive health was marginal to the struggle for legalized abortion. But, the profession was central to decisions about whether physicians would perform abortions and how they would be done. This case study finding has implications for understanding the role that organized medicine might take in the ongoing debates about national health policy.
Unsafe abortion is a very important public health issue in the Central America and Caribbean region, where the use of modern contraceptive methods remains low and the restrictive legal framework reduces access to safe abortion. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences is contributing toward resolving this problem by strengthening collaboration between medical societies, representatives of each country's Ministry of Health, and local and international agencies. In the 8 countries that decided to join this initiative in 2008, progress has been achieved in improving access to modern contraceptive methods, increasing the use of manual vacuum aspiration and misoprostol, and updating guidelines on postabortion care. PMID:24745695
de Gil, Marina Padilla
Researchers are increasingly interested in creating chimeras by transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into animals early in development. One concern is that such research could confer upon an animal the moral status of a normal human adult but then impermissibly fail to accord it the protections it merits in virtue of its enhanced moral status. Understanding the public policy implications of this ethical conclusion, though, is complicated by the fact that claims about moral status cannot play an unfettered role in public policy. Arguments like those employed in the abortion debate for the conclusion that abortion should be legally permissible even if abortion is not morally permissible also support, to a more limited degree, a liberal policy on hESC research involving the creation of chimeras. PMID:20579247
Throughout the 1960s, the public abortion debate was dominated by men. While women's voices were not absent, they are harder to locate. This article highlights one forum in which women eloquently expressed their feelings about abortion. In submissions to the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada, women demonstrated their "right" to speak on the issue in many ways, including by sharing their experiences as mothers or with unplanned and unwanted pregnancies; referencing their professional lives, especially in care giving fields; and drawing moral authority from or opposing religious beliefs. This article analyzes women's efforts to convey their authority to speak to the legality of abortion, highlighting a component of the 1960s abortion law reform discussion often overlooked. PMID:22849255
Can one consistently deny the permissibility of abortion while endorsing the killing of human embryos for the sake of stem cell research? The question is not trivial; for even if one accepts that abortion is prima facie wrong in all cases, there are significant differences with many of the embryos used for stem cell research from those involved in abortion--most prominently, many have been abandoned in vitro, and appear to have no reasonably likely meaningful future. On these grounds one might think to maintain a strong position against abortion but endorse killing human embryos for the sake of stem cell research and its promising benefits. I will argue, however, that these differences are not decisive. Thus, one who accepts a strong view against abortion is committed to the moral impermissibility of killing human embryos for the sake of stem cell research. I do not argue for the moral standing of either abortion or the killing of embryos for stem cell research; I only argue for the relation between the two. Thus the conclusion is relevant to those with a strong view in favor of the permissibility of killing embryos for the sake of research as much as for those who may strongly oppose abortion; neither can consider their position in isolation from the other. PMID:18398698
Jensen, David A
The HL-20 has been designed with the capability for rescue of the crew during all phases of powered ascent from on the launch pad until orbital injection. A launch-escape system, consisting of solid rocket motors located on the adapter between the HL-20 and the launch vehicle, provides the thrust that propels the HL-20 to a safe distance from a malfunctioning launch vehicle. After these launch-escape motors have burned out, the adapter is jettisoned and the HL-20 executes one of four abort modes. In three abort modes - return-to-launch-site, transatlantic-abort-landing, and abort-to-orbit - not only is the crew rescued, but the HL-20 is recovered intact. In the ocean-landing-by-parachute abort mode, which occurs in between the return-to-launch-site and the transatlantic-abort-landing modes, the crew is rescued, but the HL-20 would likely sustain damage from the ocean landing. This paper describes the launch-escape system and the four abort modes for an ascent on a Titan III launch vehicle.
Naftel, J. C.; Talay, T. A.
The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…
Legal scholars and those with an interest in the law will definitely want to take a look at the Global Legal Information Network (GLIN) website. Here visitors can search official full text legal documents, including judicial decisions, legislation, and laws. The database is provided courtesy of the Law Library of the United States Congress, and it draws from countries from around the world who wish to provide access to their own legal documents. Some of the countries who participate in the program include Brazil, Costa Rica, Kuwait, Peru, and Romania. Visitors will find that the ways to search the database are extremely helpful. Options include searching by jurisdiction, publication date, subject terms, and language. The site is rounded out by a section that provides answers to frequently asked questions about using the database.
Part of the Cornell Law School's Legal Information Institute site (LII), the American Legal Ethics Library contains rules or codes, ethics opinions, judicial conduct codes, legal commentaries, and other materials relating to the law governing lawyers. Codes or rules are available for most of the nation's 50 states. Currently, the site also offers eleven commentaries on the "law of lawyering" for eleven different jurisdictions, written by legal scholars and major law firms in each jurisdiction's area. Another twelve narratives are in progress, including one for the European community. Accessible by topic or jurisdiction, the information is also available on CD-ROM. The hypertext format makes it easy to link from commentaries to relevant codes and rules. Roger C. Cramton, the Robert S. Stevens Professor of Law at Cornell, directs the project.
In 1795 the Marquis de Sade published his La Philosophic dans le boudoir, in which he proposed the use of induced abortion for social reasons and as a means of population control. It is from this time that medical and social acceptance of abortion can be dated, although previously the subject had not been discussed in public in modern times. It is suggested that it was largely due to de Sade's writing that induced abortion received the impetus which resulted in its subsequent spread in western society. PMID:6990001
Farr, A D
In 2008, many states sought to pass Human Life Amendments, which would extend the definition of personhood to encompass newly fertilized eggs. If such an amendment were to pass, Roe v. Wade, as currently defended by the Supreme Court, may be repealed. Consequently, it is necessary to defend the right to an abortion in a manner that succeeds even if a Human Life Amendment successfully passes. J.J. Thomson's argument in "A Defense of Abortion" successfully achieves this. Her argument is especially strong when one considers that her central thesis-that one person's right to life does not entail the right to use another's person's body for continued sustenance-is pervasive in legal policies in the U.S.A. PMID:21161841
Manninen, Bertha Alvarez
The Zambian Association of Gynecology and Obstetrics is one of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) member societies participating in the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences from the East, Central, and Southern Africa region. The activities included in this country's plan of action were to provide access to safe abortion within the full extent of the law to women receiving care at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, and to increase the proportion of women leaving the hospital with a contraceptive method. Zambian law regarding abortion is liberal, but in general it was not applied until very recently. The proportion of legal terminations of pregnancy among patients receiving abortion care at the hospital increased from 3.2% in 2009 to 7.7% in 2011, while the percentage of women leaving the hospital with a contraceptive method increased from 25.3% to 69.4% over the same period. PMID:24786142
Macha, Swebby; Muyuni, Mutinta; Nkonde, Scholastica; Faúndes, Anibal
The feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system was determined. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.
Martin, R. L.
This viewgraph presentation is an overview of the Launch Abort System (LAS) for the Constellation Program. The purpose of the paper is to review the planned tests for the LAS. The program will evaluate the performance of the crew escape functions of the Launch Abort System (LAS) specifically: the ability of the LAS to separate from the crew module, to gather flight test data for future design and implementation and to reduce system development risks.
Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Bosworth, John T.
Objective: To compare the effect of vaginal misoprostol with that of placebo when used prior to dilatation and aspiration in women with a missed abortion. Method: Eighty-four pregnant women with a missed abortion were randomized to receive either vaginal misoprostol (200 ?g) or placebo the day before the planned dilatation and aspiration under inhalation anesthesia. Result: Thirty-five women (83.33%) in
Y. Herabutya; P. O-Prasertsawat
Medical professionals need to revaluate current ethical standards which permit the killing of a normal fetus but require the use of heroic efforts to save the life of a severely deformed or mentally handicapped child once that child is born. The ethical issues involved in both abortion and infanticide are similar. Direct objections to both of these practices refer to the person killed and indirect objections refer to the side effects experienced by the family and society. Direct objections are irrelevant in abortion since the fetus is not aware that it is being killed and are also irrelevant in infanticide until the child is old enough to become aware of death. Indirect objections to abortion include: 1) guilt experienced by the mother and the abortion provider; 2) decline in maternal feeling in the society as a whole; and 3) the use of medical personnel and facilitates to provide unnecessary services. Advantages associated with abortion are that it: 1) reduces the number of unwanted children; 2) reduces the number of abnormal children; and 3) provides a safe and inexpensive form of contraception. Indirect objects to to infanticide are similar to those noted for abortion. The advantage of infanticide is that it avoids the on-going distress of parents who must live with and support a severe handicapped child. PMID:657265
Humphries, S V
It is common to think of scientific research and the knowledge it generates as neutral and value free. Indeed, the scientific method is designed to produce "objective" data. However, there are always values built into science, as historians of science and technology have shown over and over. The relevant question is not how to rid science of values but, instead, to ask which values and whose values belong? Currently, antiabortion values consistently determine US research policy. Abortion research is declared illegitimate in covert and overt ways, at the level of individual researchers and research policy broadly. Most importantly, federal policy impedes conduct of both basic and clinical research in abortion. However, it is not just research in abortion that is deemed "illegitimate;" research in infertility and in vitro fertilization is as well. Federal funding of any reproductive health research agenda that would pose more than minimal risk to a fetus or embryo is banned. This leaves unanswered scientific questions about abortion, infertility, miscarriage and contraception among other areas. Since moral ground is occupied not just by abortion opponents but also by people who support abortion rights, there is at the very least a competing moral claim to consider changing federal research funding policy. Women and families deserve access to knowledge across the spectrum of reproductive health issues, whether they seek to end or start a pregnancy. Thus, research funding is an issue of reproductive justice. PMID:23815965
Harris, Lisa H
After 12 years, the US citizens elected a pro-choice president and preserved the already pro-choice Congress even though new people constitute 25% of the House of Representatives. The Congress gained even more pro-choice members. The abortion issue played an important secondary role (preceded by the economy) in the national elections, but was more important at the state level in many states. For example, voters overwhelmingly chose to preserve access to legal abortion in Arizona (69.31%) and Maryland (62.38%). In addition, 4 new women Senators and a Senator-elect from Colorado publicly proclaimed their pro-choice stance. The states of Missouri, North Carolina, and North Dakota elected pro-choice governors resulting in 30 pro-choice US governors and 20 antiabortion governors. President-elect Clinton can unilaterally repeal 2 of Bush's executive orders: the gag rule and the ban on fetal tissue transplantation research. He will need Congress' support to renew the Title X family planning program, to grant public funding for medically necessary abortions for poor women again, and the pass of the Freedom of Choice Act. Congress and the new president face the obstacle of convincing the public of the damage to basic rights done by the Supreme Court as evidenced by abortion rulings. They also need to lead the pro-choice groups to begin concentrating on how to prevent unwanted pregnancies so as to reduce the number of abortions and the needs of all women who want and need access to safe abortion. The Republican party's great hostility toward abortion and its intolerance for a variety of beliefs and life styles alienated most US citizens. Recent political losses are motivating the Republican party to reorganize but it depends on the moderates' ability and willingness to reclaim the party. PMID:12285933
In recent years the attention of society, the media and politicians has focused on the negative phenomenon of the occurrence of an enormous amount of new psychoactive substances flooding the European market. In Poland and in Europe they are known under the name 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs'. In many countries these compounds present a serious social and health problem. The core of the problem is the fact that in the light of the law these substances are legal, while actually they imitate the eff ect of illegal narcotics. Smart drugs are sold allegedly as 'products not intended for human consumption', under the cover of 'collector's commodities', 'incense sticks' or 'bath salts'. Efforts undertaken by many countries, including Poland, are biased towards gaining control over this pathological phenomenon by placing the subsequent substances on the list of prohibited agents. However, the resilient chemical and pharmaceutical industry still remains one step ahead by introducing new derivatives of already banned products, practically identical in action. The presented article is an attempt to bring closer the problem of smart drugs in Poland, from the occurrence of this alarming phenomenon, through the spread of sales in shops all over Poland, to a series of changes in the Polish anti-narcotic law, drastic actions of closing the shops throughout the entire country, and transferring the sale of smart drugs to the internet. PMID:22216803
Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Kulpa, Piotr; Sawicki, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Ma?gorzata; Wojty?a, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin
The Harvard Law School Library has quite an impressive collection of legal art and visual materials, and as of late, they have been working to digitize these works and place them online for the web-browsing public. The collection includes images of jurists, political figures, legal thinkers, and lawyers that date from the Middle Ages all the way up to the late twentieth century. As the website notes, the collection is quite strong in its coverage of eighteenth and nineteenth century British and American lawyers, including such luminaries as Jeremy Bentham and John Marshall. Visitors can search the collection at their leisure, and they can also look at the online exhibition titled "The Legal Portrait Project Online", if they wish to do so.
Unsafe abortion accounts for approximately 13% of maternal deaths worldwide-roughly 47,000 deaths per year. Most deaths from unsafe abortion occur in low-resource countries. Second-trimester abortion carries a higher risk of morbidity and mortality compared with first-trimester abortion and, although the former comprises the minority of abortion procedures worldwide, it is responsible for the majority of serious complications and death where unsafe abortion is prevalent. Therefore, improving access to safe second-trimester abortion must be a priority in low-income regions of the world if the majority of deaths from unsafe abortion are to be prevented. In the present paper, we consider a variety of barriers to second-trimester care, including healthcare provider training and abortion stigma, which may lead to neglect of unmet need for second-trimester services. PMID:21820115
Harris, Lisa H; Grossman, Daniel
For a long time in human history, global population growth was checked by infant mortality, which ranged from 30-50% and did not start sinking until the beginning of the 1800s in the west. Child murder in the west was prohibited by law around the 1100-1200s, but it continued secretly. Among private people, induced abortion was allowed. In the holy scripts of Hinduism and Brahminism, abortion was prohibited. Hippocrates wrote that doctors should not give women abortifacient. The church father Augustinus stated that it was not within human power to discern when the soul entered the body, a circumstance that forbid abortion. A church meeting in 305 A.D. distanced itself from abortion, and this has been the stand of the Catholic Church ever since. In Sweden, exposing a child to the elements was practiced until the end of the 1200s, when it became prohibited. Protestants punished child murder by death. During 1759-78, 217 women were executed for child-killing. From the 1400s, church law punished abortion, and later, capital and punishment was meted out for it, but a distinction was made if the fetus was alive or stillborn. The law in 1734 punished abortion by the death of all concerned. The death penalty was abolished in 1864. In 1896, Anna Linholm reported to the policy in Uppsala that a midwife had been practicing clandestine abortions. Some of her patients were admitted to hospital for hemorrhaging. She was sentenced to hard labor. During 1851-1903, a total of 1408 abortions were reported to the health service. 90% of these became known because of death caused by obduction. Phosphorus was used for abortion in 1271 cases, arsenic in 62, and mechanical aids in 8 cases. About 1//2 of all female suicides at the end of the 1800s was performed by pregnant women who ate phosphorus. Almost all were unmarried, and 56% carried it out after the 5th month of pregnancy. In 1901, phosphorus was prohibited in Swedish homes. In 1875, free abortions became available. However, the ethical question about whether and when a fetus has a soul is more contemporary and relevant than ever. PMID:1618684
This paper considers whether state Medicaid abortion funding restrictions affect the likelihood of getting pregnant, having an abortion and bearing a child. We exploit a natural experiment afforded by Supreme Court decisions and employ more traditional multivariate models with alternative fixed effect specifications. An analysis of 12 years of state-level data indicate that restrictions are associated with a reduction in
Phillip B. Levine; Amy B. Trainor; David J. Zimmerman
The authors have specified the following criteria for the withdrawal of embryonal tissue at their department: 1) only tissue from dead fetus is allowed to be used in neurotransplantation; 2) embryonal tissue is to be obtained after spontaneous abortions from volunteers or from women asking for artificial abortion; 3) the women should be informed about the curative purposes of embryonal tissue voluntary donorship and they must give a written consent; 4) decision on abortion should be separated from the use of embryonal tissue; 5) women should not know recipients; no payments should be made for tissue; 6) the donor is not permitted to impregnate in order to use embryos for research or clinical purposes; 7) sampling of BWR, HBsAG, anti-HIV, cytomegalovirus, herpes I and II is to be made for serologic examinations and that from the cervix for cultivation and sensitivity, as well as ultrasound verification of a germinal age is done in potential donors; 8) consent should be signed to embryonal brain transplantation by recipient or his legitimate deputy if the recipient is certifiable. The above criteria should protect both the donor and the recipient. The use of embryonal tissue cultures seems to be promising. In addition to legal and ethic problems, immunological problems and problems concerning the aseptic withdrawal of embryonal tissue are falling off. PMID:1337406
Sramka, M; Rattaj, M
Early medical abortion was introduced in Denmark in 1998. This article describes our experiences with the first 100 patients at Herlev University Hospital. The regimen was 600 mg mifepriston (RU486) given orally on day one. All women had an ultrasound examination before RU486 was given in order to ensure an intrauterine pregnancy and a gestationel age of eight weeks or less, and all had a quantitative P-hCG. On day three the patients received 1 mg gemeprost as vagitory as well as a paracetamol/-codein suppository. They were observed in the department for four hours, and were thereafter discharged no matter whether a complete abortion had occurred ot not. On day 14 a new P-hCG was taken. All women in whom the hCG value was not reduced to one half of the initial value or less underwent a new ultrasound examination. All women were given a questionnaire. The effectivity was 96%. Four of 100 women were evacuated: one due to severe vaginal bleeding four hours after application of gemeprost, two because of womiting soon after having taken RU486 and one due to incomplete abortion. Half of the women began to bleed before application of gemeprost, and 91% had bleeding for more than six days. One half had no side effects to mifepristone, the other half had mild nausea. Nine of ten patients were sufficiently relieved of pain without opioids, whereas 10% were insufficiently pain relieved. Eight of ten patients would choose the same method again, in case of a future need for an induced abortion. The reason for not preferring a medical abortion among the remaining 20% was primarily pain. Early medical abortion should be offered to all women referred for induced abortion with a gestational age of eight weeks or less. PMID:10485206
Lidegaard, O; Larsen, J F; Blaabjerg, J; Larsen, E
Background In March 2002, Nepal's Parliament approved legislation to permit abortion on request up to 12 weeks of pregnancy. Between 2004 and 2007, 176 comprehensive abortion care (CAC) service sites were established in Nepal, leading to a rise in safe, legal abortions. Though monitoring systems have been developed, reporting of complications has not always been complete or accurate. The purpose of this study was to report the frequency and type of abortion complications arising from CAC procedures in different types of facilities in Nepal. Methods A total of 7,386 CAC clients from a sample of facilities across Nepal were enrolled over a three-month period in 2008. Data collection included an initial health questionnaire at the time of abortion care and a follow-up questionnaire assessing complications, administered two weeks after the abortion procedure. A total of 7,007 women (95%) were successfully followed up. Complication rates were assessed overall and by facility type. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between experiencing a complication and client demographic and facility characteristics. Results Among the 7,007 clients who were successfully followed, only 1.87% (n = 131) experienced signs and symptoms of complications at the two-week follow up, the most common being retained products of conception (1.37%), suspected sepsis (0.39%), offensive discharge (0.51%) and moderate bleeding (0.26%). Women receiving care at non-governmental organization (NGO) facilities were less likely to experience complications than women at government facilities, adjusting for individual and facility characteristics (AOR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08-0.40). Compared to women receiving CAC at 4-5 weeks gestation, women at 10-12 weeks gestation were more likely to experience complications, adjusting for individual and facility characteristics (AOR = 4.21; 95% CI: 1.38-12.82). Conclusions The abortion complication rate in Nepali CAC facilities is low and similar to other settings; however, significant differences in complication rates were observed by facility type and gestational age. Interventions such as supportive supervision to improve providers' uterine evacuation skills and investment in equipment for infection control may lower complication rates in government facilities. In addition, there should be increased focus on early pregnancy detection and access to CAC services early in pregnancy in order to prevent complications.
The use of mathematical models originally developed by economists and operations researchers is described for legal process research. Situations involving plea bargaining, arraignment, and civil liberties illustrate the applicability of decision theory, inventory modeling, and linear programming in operations research. (LBH)
Nagel, Stuart; Neef, Marian
Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)
For legal issues in the field of disability compliance, this is an exciting time in postsecondary education. The twentieth anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) signals a reawakening of the commitment to provide equal access to individuals with disabilities. This chapter explores three of the compliance issues that will be of…
This Digest overviews legal challenges in five areas of test use for decision-making in schools: ability tracking, placement in special education classes, test scores as college admissions criteria, test disclosure, and teacher competency testing. Cases illustrating these challenges are described and include: Hobson v. Hansen (1967), Moses v.…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation, Princeton, NJ.
This paper looks at legal reasoning from the point of view of the work of the lawyer, rather than the law itself. In the case of Common Law systems, this means a more flexible view of how tasks are divided between the humans and the computer system, with an emphasis on decision support rather than complete automation. A process-based model
John S. Edwards; Robert I. Akroyd
The dispute resolution center at the University of Massachusetts illustrates how a legal studies program can form the basis for conflict resolution in the local community as well as on campus. The center draws heavily on the skills and experience of individuals in both the academic and public sectors. (MLW)
Rifkin, Janet; And Others
Although abortions are common, few researchers have explored the experiences of women related to abortions. The aim of this qualitative study was to analyse women's experiences of induced abortion from a feminist perspective. Five women aged 19-33 years were interviewed about 1 month after their abortion. The interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis from which the following themes were identified: experiences connected with the decision-making process, experiences connected with the abortion and experiences after the abortion. Childhood experiences of divided families, financial problems, being too young, and an insecure partnership influenced the women's decision to have an abortion. Ambivalence about abortion was strongly expressed throughout the process. Despite positive attitudes towards abortion in general, the women had negative attitudes towards their own abortion. They described receiving most support from their mothers and friends, in the decision-making process, and least from their partners. After the abortion the women gained a feeling of maturity and experience although their ambivalence persisted. One conclusion drawn from our study is that nurses and midwives need to be aware of women's complex experiences with abortions in order to support and empower women who seek an abortion. PMID:15147479
Aléx, Lena; Hammarström, Anne
The conventional management of spontaneous abortion is surgical evacuation of the uterus to prevent complications which may arise from retained products of conception (POC). This procedure is not without complications and also demands operating theatre resources. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a medical approach to the management of spontaneous abortion using the prostaglandin analogue, gemeprost. From an initial 212 women presenting with spontaneous abortion, 4 groups were defined according to what they required in the way of initial management. A group of 20 women were excluded from conservative medical management at presentation because they were bleeding heavily and judged to be unsuitable. Sixty women initially required no further management other than determining that they had a complete abortion using transvaginal sonography (TVS). The 132 women were treated with the prostaglandin analogue, gemeprost. Sixty were judged to need no further management afterwards and were initially discharged. The remaining 72 women underwent evacuation of retained products of conception (ERPC) after the gemeprost treatment as medical evacuation of the uterus appeared to had been incomplete. In each of these 4 groups so defined, there was 1 case where an ERPC was required after the patients have been discharged because of complications attributable to retained POC. We therefore found that no ERPC was necessary in the management of 118 out of 212 (55.6%) women who presented with spontaneous abortion. This has important implications in patient management and economical use of hospital resources. PMID:7848234
Chung, T K; Cheung, L P; Lau, W C; Haines, C J; Chang, A M
The number of pregnancies and induced abortions among Japanese teenagers has recently increased. 2 of 5 pregnant single women whom social workers assist are teenagers. The teenagers fall into 2 groups: those under 18, who are in a sexually awakening period, or 18 and older, who are maturing. Those under 18, despite a strong tendency toward sexual activity, are predominantly insecure and run away from home to escape adversity and seek friendship among members of the opposite sex. After becoming pregnant, they go home only to embarrass their parents. Ultimately, they choose abortion or, because of their own inability, their babies are taken care of by their families or in foster homes. Those 18 or older, despite their knowledge of the relationship between sexual intercourse and pregnancy, typically did not take it seriously. Consequently, their reaction to their pregnancies tends toward shock and panic. Many try to keep their pregnancy from their parents. Though they do not want abortion, their circumstances may force them to it. Behind the increase of unexpected pregnancy and unwanted abortion in both age groups are several factors: the lack of sexual education suitable to their level of their physical maturity; a lack of responsibility by the male teenagers, who cannot relate their own actions to their partners' pregnancies; and the ignorance of pregnant teenagers, who cannot see that abortions may hurt them not only physically but mentally in the long run. PMID:3854863
...States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection...States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of...States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under...
Created by a group of Kentucky's legal service providers, the focus of the Legal Aid Network of Kentucky's website is to provide helpful information about legal services available to specific "groups of vulnerable Kentuckians". These groups include people who meet certain income guidelines, people 60 years and older, and in some cases, those people who are victims of domestic violence. Visitors will find that the site has five primary sections, including "Find Legal Help", "Self-Help Forms", and "Law Library". Visitors can use the "Find Legal Help" area to look up local legal services from across the state or by using an interactive map provided here. The "Video Library" area offers short videos about bankruptcy, eviction, and foreclosure. It is important to remember that these videos provide legal information, and do not constitute legal advice. Finally, visitors can also use the search engine here to look for information on specific topics.
After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman's life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country's newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary's stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their 'duty' to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites' attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa's extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430
Klausen, Susanne M
After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman’s life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country’s newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary’s stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their ‘duty’ to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites’ attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa’s extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975).
Klausen, Susanne M.
... to offer abortion services to women. • The Federal Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances (FACE) Act was ... Brief, 2008. 15 Gostin LO. Abortion politics: Clinical freedom, trust in the Judiciary, and the autonomy of ...
The history of the past 16 years has borne out pro-life predictions that abortion would be the precursor of an even wider assault on helpless people. The unborn initially were the victim of choice because they were, in 1973, outside our customary line of moral vision. But as a dress rehearsal for a pattern of discretionary killing what was most significant about abortion was its explicit rejection of the Declaration of Independence's principle holding that our right to life is "inalienable." Abortion taught us that the lives of some are alienable and raised the question, why not the lives of others? Contrary to stereotype, the pro-life movement is a classic reform movement, inbued with a fierce belief in the inherent worth and equality of mankind. PMID:10294688
There is a fundamental inconsistency in Western society's treatment of non-human animals on the one hand, and of human foetuses on the other. While most Western countries allow the butchering of animals and their use in experimentation, this must occur under carefully controlled conditions that are intended to minimize their pain and suffering as much as possible. At the same time, most Western countries permit various abortion methods without similar concerns for the developing fetus. The only criteria for deciding which abortion method is used centre in the stage of the pregnancy, the size of the fetus, the health of the pregnant woman and the physician's preference. This is out of step with the underlying ethos of animal cruelty legislation, cannot be justified ethically and should be rectified by adjusting abortion methods to the capacity of the fetus to experience nociception and/or pain. PMID:23076345
Kluge, Eike-Henner W
Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. The characteristics of this current waveform are defined by the requirements of the machine operation. The standard fixed target running mode calls for 12 booster batches of beam which leaves a rotating gap in the beams of approx.1.8 ..mu..s. The current waveform is required to rise to 90% of I/sub max/ in this time to avoid beam loss from partially deflected beam. Aperture limitations in both the accelerator and the abort channel demand that the current in the magnets stays above this 90% I/sub max/ for the 21 ..mu..s needed to ensure all the beam has left the machine. The 25 mm displacement needed to cleanly enter the abort channel at 1 TeV corresponds to a maximum current in each of the 4 modules of approx.20 kA. Similar constraints are needed for the Main Ring and Tevatron antiproton abort systems. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention is given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades are given for the two operational systems. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.
In countries where data on induced abortion are underreported or nonexistent—such as the Philippines and Bangladesh—indirect estimation techniques may be used to approximate the level of abortion. The collection of data about women hospitalized for abortion complications and the use of such indirect estimation techniques indicates that the abortion rate in the Philip- pines is within the range of 20-30
Susheela Singh; Josefina V. Cabigon; Altaf Hossain; Haidary Kamal; Aurora E. Perez
This article presents findings from three opinion surveys conducted among representative samples of Mexico City residents: the first one immediately prior to the groundbreaking legalization of first-trimester abortion in April 2007, and one and two years after the reform. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess changes in opinion concerning abortion and correlates of favorable opinion following reform. In 2009 a clear majority (74 percent) of respondents were in support of the Mexico City law allowing for elective first-trimester abortion, compared with 63 percent in 2008 and 38 percent in 2007. A significant increase in support for extending the law to the rest of Mexico was found: from 51 percent in 2007 to 70 percent in 2008 and 83 percent in 2009. In 2008 the significant independent correlates of support for the Mexico City law were education, infrequent religious service attendance, sex (being male), and political party affiliation; in 2009 they were education beyond high school, infrequent religious service attendance, and ever having been married. PMID:21972670
Wilson, Kate S; García, Sandra G; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; Villalobos-Hernández, Aremis; Rodríguez, Jorge Valencia; Smith, Patricio Sanhueza; Burks, Courtney
Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without external resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit.
The Women's Legal History website is the home of a searchable database of articles and papers on pioneering women lawyers in the United States. The site contains sections that include the WLH Biography Project and the index and bibliographic notes from "Woman Lawyer: The Trial of Clara Foltz" by Barbara Babcock. In the WLH Biography Project, visitors can look over the life stories of women in the legal profession, such as Agnes Sagebiel, Marge Wagner, and Julia Jennings. There are over 1,000 profiles that visitors can browse alphabetically or search by name, year, ethnicity, or law school. Additionally, the site contains detailed information about Babcock's recent work, along with media clips related to the subject of women lawyers
Spontaneous abortion occurs in 15% to 20% of all human pregnancies. Since the late 1800s, the management of incomplete spontaneous abortion has focused on using curettage to empty the uterus as quickly as possible. This practice began to reduce blood loss and infection and has been unquestioned for 4 decades. In today’s medical climate, few spontaneous abortions are the resuslt
Susan Aucott Ballagh; Heather A. Harris; Kafui Demasio
Background and Objectives: We performed two retrospective chart surveys, the first of 200 con- secutive hospital emergency visits for spontaneous abortion and the second in 33 family physi- cians' offices examining 245 patients with spontaneous abortions. This study determined the rate of surgical management of spontaneous abortions within family practices and hospitals, as well as the rate of referrals and
Ellen Wiebe; Patricia Janssen
Objective: To determine the pregnancy outcome following a previous spontaneous abortion (miscarriage). Method: A prospective cohort study was done on 300 gravida-2 patients: 200 patients (case group) whose previous pregnancy was spontaneously aborted (early abortion), and 100 patients (control group) whose previous pregnancy went to term and a live fetus was delivered. All the patients were followed until delivery, and
M. Kashanian; A. R. Akbarian; H. Baradaran; S. H. Shabandoust
Second trimester abortion is associated with higher rates of complications compared to first trimester abortion. Dilatation and evacuation (D&E) and medical induction using misoprostol alone or a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol are the methods most commonly used for later abortion in developed countries, yet little research has directly compared them. We reviewed the literature on PubMed and identified only
Daniel Grossman; Kelly Blanchard; Paul Blumenthal
In a comparative study of the acceptability of medical abortion and surgical abortion among women in developing countries, patients at clinics in China, Cuba and India were allowed to choose between a surgical procedure and a medical regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol. The most common reasons women cited for choosing medical abortion were their desire to avoid surgery and general
Beverly Winikoff; Irving Sivin; Kurus J. Coyaji; Evelio Cabezas; Xiao Bilian; Gu Sujuan; Du Ming-kun; Usha R. Krishna; Andrea Eschen; Charlotte Ellertson
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of abortion induced by bacterial infection are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated abortion induced by Brucella abortus, a causative agent of brucellosis and facultative intracellular pathogen, in a mouse model. RESULTS: High rates of abortion were observed for bacterial infection on day 4.5 of gestation, but not for other days. Regardless of whether fetuses
Suk Kim; Dong Soo Lee; Kenta Watanabe; Hidefumi Furuoka; Hiroshi Suzuki; Masahisa Watarai
Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending. PMID:19813092
Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won
Cornell University's Law School has an international reputation for scholarly activity, and Scout Report readers will be glad to learn about the online resources afforded by its Legal Information Institute (LII). Founded in 1992 by co-directors Thomas R. Bruce and Peter W. Martin, the LII publishes electronic versions of "core materials in numerous areas of the law". Some of the key materials that users will find here include Supreme Court decisions, decisions of the U.S. Court of Appeals, decisions of the New York Court of Appeals, and the U.S. Code. For those more casual or first-time users, the site has a well-written introduction to basic legal citation and a lexicon of basic legal terms. The homepage of the site also features a selection of recent law events that have made the news, complete with hypertext links to the complete decisions. The "Law aboutÃ¢ÂÂ¦" area is helpful, as visitors can browse around to find information about various sectors of law including enterprise law, criminal law, and constitutional law.
The protozoa Neospora caninum is an important cause of bovine abortion world-wide. The objective of this survey was to determine the distribution pattern of infectious abortion in Southern Brazil with special reference to N. caninum infection. A total of 161 bovine aborted fetuses from 149 farms were analysed during a 1.5 year period. The cause of abortion was identified in 51.5% of cases. Overall, 23% (37/161) of the fetuses were considered to be infected with N. caninum. Bacterial infection accounted for 17.4% (28/161) of cases, fungal infection for 3.1% (5/161) of cases and viral aetiology for 1.8% (3/161). Six fetuses had concurrent infection with N. caninum and Leptospira spp. Data from 111 fetuses and the respective aborted cows were analysed to investigate the association between previous abortion and current N. caninum infection. The prevalence of N. caninum-infected fetuses from cows with and without a history of previous abortion was 44% (11/25) and 24.4% (21/86), respectively. Cows aborting a N. caninum-infected fetuses were 2.4 times more likely to have aborted previously than cows aborting for other reasons (95% CI of odds ratio=0.9-6.8, P=0.06). PMID:16772136
Corbellini, Luis G; Pescador, Caroline A; Frantz, Fernanda; Wunder, Elsio; Steffen, David; Smith, David R; Driemeier, David
In a pilot study about medical, psychological and psychosocial factors in spontaneous and recurrent spontaneous abortions, coping strategies of 83 women were investigated and compared with a control group (n = 69). Two further subgroups were selected (31 women with recurrent spontaneous abortions and 30 without pregnancy complications). A modified form of a stress-investigation-scale (SVF from Janke et al.) was used. The results indicated that women with spontaneous abortions had increased depressive and lowered positive and cognitive coping modes. According to the hypothesis most psychological disturbances and depressive coping strategies were found in recurrent spontaneous abortions. In pregnancy depressive withdrawal, need of social support and information seeking was further increased, but emotional self-control lowered. A connection between psychological disturbances and negative coping strategies was shown. After pregnancy loss psychological support and building up positive and efficient coping strategies are therefore indicated. PMID:2678214
For human spaceflight missions, a launch vehicle failure poses the challenge of returning the crew safely to earth through environments that are often much more stressful than the nominal mission. Manned spaceflight vehicles require continuous abort capability throughout the ascent trajectory to protect the crew in the event of a failure of the launch vehicle. To provide continuous abort coverage during the ascent trajectory, different types of Orion abort modes have been developed. If a launch vehicle failure occurs, the crew must be able to quickly and accurately determine the appropriate abort mode to execute. Early in the ascent, while the Launch Abort System (LAS) is attached, abort mode selection is trivial, and any failures will result in a LAS abort. For failures after LAS jettison, the Service Module (SM) effectors are employed to perform abort maneuvers. Several different SM abort mode options are available depending on the current vehicle location and energy state. During this region of flight the selection of the abort mode that maximizes the survivability of the crew becomes non-trivial. To provide the most accurate and timely information to the crew and the onboard abort decision logic, on-board algorithms have been developed to propagate the abort trajectories based on the current launch vehicle performance and to predict the current abort capability of the Orion vehicle. This paper will provide an overview of the algorithm architecture for determining abort achievability as well as the scalar integration scheme that makes the onboard computation possible. Extension of the algorithm to assessing abort coverage impacts from Orion design modifications and launch vehicle trajectory modifications is also presented.
Tedesco, Mark B.
The paper argues that the women's movement has failed to adequately take account of women with disabilities. By supporting women's right to abortions for handicapped fetuses, the movement denies disabled women an identity as equal human beings worthy of respect. (JDD)
Confined placental chorionic mosaicism is reported in 2% of viable pregnancies cytogenetically analyzed on chorionic villi samplings (CVS) at 9–12 weeks of gestation. In follow-up studies this mosaicism has been shown to be associated with increased frequency of second and third trimester pregnancy loss or intrauterine fetal growth retardation. We have studied 54 spontaneous abortions (SA) for the detection of
Dagmar K. Kalousek; Irene J. Barrette; Antia B. Gärtner
Data from a cytogenetic survey of spontaneous abortions were examined to determine the incidence and origin of mosaic trisomies in this population. The overall frequency of mosaicism among trisomies was approximately 5%, but the level of mosaicism varied significantly among trisomies, being much higher for the nonacrocentric than for the acrocentric trisomies. Evidence from chromosome heteromorphism analysis suggests that the
Terry Hassold; John A. Burns
Lymphoedema-distichiasis syndrome, a type of familial lymphoedema praecox, is a rare, primary lymphoedema of pubertal onset associated with distichiasis and other associations including congenital heart disease, ptosis, varicose veins, cleft palate, and spinal extradural cysts. We report a case of familial lymphoedema with associated distichiasis, atrial septal defect, varicose veins, and recurrent abortions in a 29-year-old female. PMID:23806988
Sardesai, Vidyadhar R; Mhatre, Madhulika A; Patil, Rohan M
The struggle within Roman Catholicism over contraception, and the struggle which is likely to arise over abortion, reflect a mixture of theological and social change. The challenge to papal authority inherent in the dissent from Pope Paul's encyclical on birth control is bound to have pro found ramifications in the church. At the same time, however, the fact of Catholic
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between petrochemical exposure and spontaneous abortion, a retrospective epidemiological study in a large petrochemical complex in Beijing, China was conducted. METHODS: Plant employment records identified 3105 women who were married, were 20-44 years of age, and had never smoked. Of those, 3070 women (98.8%) reported at least one pregnancy. From this group, 2853 (93%) of
X. Xu; S. I. Cho; M. Sammel; L. You; S. Cui; Y. Huang; G. Ma; C. Padungtod; L. Pothier; T. Niu; D. Christiani; T. Smith; L. Ryan; L. Wang
Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a
H. HAHN; D. DAVINO
Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses prior to the 20th week of gestation. The etiology of recurrent spontaneous abortion is often unclear and may be multifactorial, with much controversy regarding diagnosis and treatment. Reasonably accepted etiologic causes include, genetics, anatomical, endocrine, placental anomalies, hormonal problems, infection, smoking and alcohol consumption, exposure to environmental factors, psychological trauma and stressful life event, certain coagulation and immunoregulatory protein defects. Detection of an abnormality in any of these areas may result into specific therapeutic measures, with varying degrees of success. However, the majority of cases of RSA remains unexplained and is found to be associated with certain autoimmune (APA, ANA, ACA, ATA, AECA) and alloimmune (APCA, Ab2, MLR-Bf) antibodies that may play major role in the immunologic failure of pregnancy and may lead to abortion. Alteration in the expression of HLA-G molecules, T-helper-1 (Th-1) pattern of cytokines and natural killer (NK) cells activity may also induce abortion. Various forms of treatment like antithrombotic therapies such as aspirin and heparin, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy, immunotherapy with paternal lymphocytes and vitamin D3 therapy are effective mode of treatment for unexplained cause of fetal loss in women with RSA. PMID:15906053
Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Rani, Reena; Agrawal, Suraksha
To assess the relationship between hemostatic factors and spontaneous abortion, 134 pregnant women presenting to the emergency department were recruited and followed through 22 weeks' gestation. Cases were women experiencing a spontaneous abortion and controls were women who maintained their pregnancy. Fibrinogen, factor VII antigen, activated protein C-sensitivity ratio (APC-SR), protein S, and plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) were measured. Cases had lower mean levels of fibrinogen and factor VII antigen compared with controls (3.1 g/L vs. 3.7 g/L and 89% of normal vs. 109% of normal, respectively). Regression analyses found that women with fibrinogen levels below 3.0 g/L had a five-fold increased risk of spontaneous abortion (OR = 5.1, 95% CI: 1.8-14.4) and women with factor VII antigen levels below 94% of normal had a threefold increased risk of spontaneous abortion normal (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.2-8.5). Similar mean levels of APC-SR, protein S, and PAP were found in the two groups. PMID:11444363
Nelson, D B; Ness, R B; Grisso, J A; Cushman, M
Scott and Scherer recently pointed out that existing locking algorithms do not meet a need that arises in practical systems. Specifically, database systems and real time systems need mutual exclusion locks that support the abort capability, which makes it possible for a process that waits \\
Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)
Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George
Data were obtained from the 1975 National Fertility Study concerning the acceptability of abortion, based largely on reinterviews with respondents from the 1970 sample. Using these data, aggregate trends over time and patterns of change for individuals have been analyzed. (BB)
Jones, Elise F.; Westoff, Charles F.
? Helcococcus ovis as a potential novel cause of bovine abortion ? Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia in lambs ? Glässer's disease in growing pigs ? Fibroma in an alpaca ? Pullorum disease in backyard flocks These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for April 2014. PMID:25013196
A sample of 52 spontaneous blighted ovum abortions (BO) was examined cytogenetically and compared with a sample of abortions with echographic evidence of the embryo (AE). Abnormal karyotypes were 67% in the BO sample and 53% in the AE sample, a non significant difference. In the BO abortions trisomies were 74% of the abnormal karyotypes but 35% in the AE abortion, and the 45,X karyotype was absent among the BO but was found in 10 cases of AE. The prevalence of trisomies 16 and 22 in the BO abortions indicates that genes on these chromosome may be responsible for the early arrest of embryonic development. PMID:8215215
Minelli, E; Buchi, C; Granata, P; Meroni, E; Righi, R; Portentoso, P; Giudici, A; Ercoli, A; Sartor, M G; Rossi, A
The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.
Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.
This paper considers how oral contraception’s diffusion to young unmarried women affected the number and parental characteristics of children born to these women. In the short-term, pill access caused declines in fertility and increases in both the share of children born with low birthweight and the share born to poor households. In the long-term, access led to negligible changes in fertility while increasing the share of children with college-educated mothers and decreasing the share with divorced mothers. The short-term effects appear to be driven by upwardly-mobile women opting out of early childbearing while the long-term effects appear to be driven by a retiming of births to later ages. These effects differ from those of abortion legalization, although we find suggestive evidence that pill diffusion lowered abortions. Our results suggest that abortion and the pill are on average used for different purposes by different women, but on the margin some women substitute from abortion towards the pill when both are available. JELNo. I0, J13, N12.
Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Hungerman, Daniel M.
The birth rate is a major concern in contemporary society today. Socialist countries having the material wherewithal and cultural wealth to maintain their populations have a genuine interest in population growth and maternity is therefore encouraged. The decision to have children lies with each individual family and does not involve society directly, except for the significant number of women who regulate their family size by having an abortion. In connection with the severity of such an intervention, a study of social and hygienic aspects of induced abortion was conducted in Odessa. The information was gathered anonymously among women who came to the gynecological department of a city hospital. 6.1% of the women were under age 20 and this figure may increase in the future. In the U.S. that figure already constitutes 1/3 of all abortions. 47.5% said they had had 3 previous abortions. 13.4% had no children, and 48.8% had 1 child. None of the women with no children thought of that as being the ideal. As reason for the abortion 31.7% gave irregular housing and living conditions, 12.2% unsatisfactory material well-being, 17.1% health reasons, 7.3% enough children already in the family, and 7.3% sickness of children and husband. In 24.4% of cases the husband was indifferent, and in 35.4% insisted on, and in 40.1% was against the woman having an abortion. 60% were thus probably poorly informed about the harmfulness of the operation. 39% of women did not use any contraception. Only 20% had received any information regarding contraceptives. Only 1/3 of obstetricians regularly instruct their patients about the use of contraceptives. Half of the nurses do not touch upon the subject due to lack of time and since instruction in birth control methods is not considered obligatory. Nevertheless it is important for women's health that during clinical examinations risk factors of abortion and the purposefulness of contraception are pointed out. PMID:3367727
Zakharchenko, E M; Popov, V E
Objective Abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. Method 278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study. Results The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively. Conclusion Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women's health impact on family and population health.
This study examined the stigma of abortion and psychological implications of concealment among 442 women followed for 2 years from the day of their abortion. As predicted, women who felt stigmatized by abortion were more likely to feel a need to keep it a secret from family and friends. Secrecy was related positively to suppressing thoughts of the abortion and negatively to disclosing abortion-related emotions to others. Greater thought suppression was associated with experiencing more intrusive thoughts of the abortion. Both suppression and intrusive thoughts, in turn, were positively related to increases in psychological distress over time. Emotional disclosure moderated the association between intrusive thoughts and distress. Disclosure was associated with decreases in distress among women experiencing intrusive thoughts of their abortion, but was unrelated to distress among women not experiencing intrusive thoughts. PMID:10531670
Major, B; Gramzow, R H
84 women (mean age: 29 years) with a history of spontaneous abortion (unexplained in 95% of cases) were compared with a control group (n = 72). Two subgroups, each of 31 women were selected, in which cases with recurrent spontaneous abortion were compared with uncomplicated pregnancies. Psychological disturbances, ineffective coping strategies and medical risk factors were significantly increased in the abortion group, but socioeconomic (occupational, financial) problems linked with higher social class level less importantly. In women with recurrent spontaneous abortions psychological problems and depressive coping modes were predominant, in uncomplicated pregnancies the risk factors were very low. The most frequent psychological disturbances in the abortion group were mourning reactions after pregnancy loss. It appears that psychological factors are less a cause than the consequence of the abortion event. Moreover, both the multifactorial hypothesis of early pregnancy wastage, and the importance of prenatal diagnosis in order to identify possible risk factors, especially in cases of habitual abortion, are stressed. PMID:2618054
A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.
Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni
It has been demonstrated that psychological and psychosocial factors are implicated in spontaneous and recurrent spontaneous abortions. According to these results we showed in our review, that certain psychological disorders, such as anxiety and nervousness, psychosomatic and personality disorders, negative attitude towards sexuality and pregnancy, parental conflicts and others may impair pregnancy outcome. Severe psychological and psychiatric problems prior to pregnancy were rarely evidenced, in opposite, depressive reactions after pregnancy loss frequently observed. The results suggest possible interactions between etiologic and psychoreactive parameters. Relations between nervous system and reproductive organs may explain influences of stress upon pregnancy outcome, as elevated stress hormones (catecholamines, cortisol) are able to reduce fetal vascularisation and oxygen supply and possibly induce labour and abortion. These observations are of interest, because in a considerable number of cases cannot be found. Adequate counseling and therapeutics may help overcome depressive reactions after pregnancy loss and avoid further complications. PMID:3071041
Läpple, M; Lukesch, H
Between December 1978-May 1979, 1118 health workers in 63 hospitals and 732 nonhospital facilities were interviewed to identify case reports of maternal and abortion-related deaths in Bangladesh. Of 1933 pregnancy-related deaths identified, 498 (25.8%) were due to induced abortion. Findings of an earlier study of maternal mortality was used to estimate that about 21,600 pregnancy-related deaths occur each year in Bangladesh. An estimated 7.5% of all pregnancy-related deaths were identified in this survey. Health workers reported 1590 cases of complications from abortion, of which 498 (31.3%) ended in death. Village dais (traditional birth attendants) and traditional practitioners were the largest groups of operators (42.1% and 18.1% respectively). Menstrual regulation or dilatation and curettage (medically approved procedures) were used in only 9.1% of the cases. Nearly 1/2 of the complicated abortions were induced by inserting a foreign object, such as a stick or root (sometimes treated with an herb), into the uterus and leaving it until either abortion or complications occurred. The proportion of complicated abortions resulting in death was lowest for medically approved procedures (4.9%) and highest for vigorous physical activity (100%) and abdominal pressure (66.7%), although the last 2 accounted for only 2.3% of abortion procedures. Women who died after abortion had a longer duration of pregnancy than women who survived. An extrapolation from these results gives a figure of 780,000 abortions in Bangladesh in 1978 and 7800 deaths that year from abortion complications. In this study, the attitudes toward abortion on the part of 396 physicians working in rural health complexes and subdivision and district hospitals were surveyed. Most of those interviewed (98.9%), indicated their approval of induced abortion in 1 or more circumstances not approved by the abortion law of the country. PMID:12338521
Obiadullah, M; Khan, A R; Measham, A R; Rosenberg, M J; Jabeen, S; Rochat, R W; Chowdhury, A Y
Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) has various complicated causes, and more and more researches are focused on its etiology. Genetic factors are the most common risk factors of RSA; immune factors, infection factors, male factors and female factors play an important role; environmental pollution and some other unknown factors may also be conspirators. This article presents an overview on the possible risk factors of RSA. PMID:24010215
Gu, Chun-Hui; Liang, Wen-Jun; Fu, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Lian-Wen
After 5 years of use in more than 100,000 European women, RU 486, an antiprogestin medication used as a medical abortifacient, has recently come under scrutiny in the United States. This article discusses the current and potential uses of RU 486. Also addressed are the history, advantages, and disadvantages of medical abortion (including the acceptability of the method from a woman-centered perspective); new clinical trials; and ethical issues. PMID:7996306
Donaldson, K; Briggs, J; McMaster, D
Serological investigation by the indirect haemagglutination test forToxoplasma antibodies was carried out in a flock of dairy goats. Antibody titres ranging from 1:4 to 1:1,024 were found in 34% of 371 apparently healthy animals. High antibody titres of 1:256 suggestive of recent infection were noted in 18 (4.9%) animals including 13 nannies. The occurrence of a number of non-brucella abortions
M. B. Chhabra; R. M. Bhardwaj; O. P. Gautam; R. P. Gupta
New perspectives have been envisioned for the TOP instrumental technique, through the utilization of pharmacologic products, whose property is to dilatate the cervix. Misoprostol or mifepristone, when administrated to a patient a few hours before a TOP by uterine suction curettage, enables a dilatation of the cervix in such a way that it allows the surgically induced abortion to be carried out with local anesthesia, under optimal comfort conditions for the patients as well as for the operator. PMID:9532883
Lefebvre, P; Monniez, N; Norel, G; Prévost, D; Scharfman, W
Provisional estimates from the 2001 census of India, which showed unusually high sex ratios for young children, have sparked renewed concern about the growing use of sex-selective abortions to satisfy parental preferences for sons. According to the 1998-99 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2), in recent years the sex ratio at birth in India has been abnormally high (107-121 males per
Fred Arnold; Sunita Kishor; T. K. Roy
Legal issues in program discontinuance and resulting lawsuits are considered, including liability to the faculty, students, and other constituencies; freedom of speech; due process; contractual obligations; legal defense; and consideration of program alternatives. A list of related resources is appended. (MSE)
Hample, Stephen R.
Discusses proposals for a new guest worker program with Mexico, reviewing characteristics of U.S. farmworkers, the current federal H-2A program for admitting legal guest workers for farm work, major proposals being debated to turn unauthorized into legal farmworkers, and new considerations after September 11 that may affect the negotiations. (SM)
This timeline reflects some of the most significant legal and legislative milestones that have influenced higher education over the 25 years that "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education," formerly "Black Issues in Higher Education," has been in print. The legal battles have primarily involved the settlement of desegregation cases and the use of race…
Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2009
Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…
Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles
US federal, state, and municipal courts are facing a severe shortage of qualified interpreters as the non-English-speaking population in the country soars. Virginia Benmaman, a professor of Hispanic studies and legal interpretation advocate, runs a bilingual legal interpretation program at the College of Charleston that helps students tackle the…
The commonalities and divergences in critiques of legal education offered by critical legal studies and feminist theory are examined. Both schools of thought focus on the hierarchy, passivity, depersonalization, and decontextualization of present-day legal education. (Author/MSE)
Abortion is carried out daily in Nigeria despite the restrictive abortion law. This study was carried out to obtain information on societal attitude to the issues of family planning, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, adoption of children and laws relating to them. Focus group discussions were held in south-western Nigeria among 11 sub-groups. Participants felt that there was high prevalence of unwanted pregnancy and abortion particularly among youths. They had high level awareness of contraceptives and ascribed its low use to negative side effects, high cost and provider bias. Christians favoured planning of pregnancies while the Muslims did not. Majority of the respondents had negative perception of induced abortion. Some of them supported abortion if the education of the young girl would be disrupted, if paternity of pregnancy is in dispute, or if it would save the family from shame. Participants supported the enactment of laws that would make adoption of unwanted children easier. PMID:16104663
Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Adewole, Isaac F; Umoh, Augustine V; Iwere, Ngozi; Gbadegesin, Abidoye
The right to health under the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, to which Canada is a signatory, entitles women to available, accessible, and acceptable abortion care. Abortion care in Canada currently fails this standard. Medication abortion (the use of drugs to terminate a pregnancy) could improve abortion care in Canada, but its potential remains unrealized. This is in part attributable to the unavailability of mifepristone, the safest and most effective pharmaceutical for medication abortion. Given that it could improve abortion care, we investigated why mifepristone remains unapproved in Canada, whether its unavailability is attributable to government inaction, and whether Canada is therefore failing to fulfill its obligations under the right to health.
Grenon, Amy; Harrison-Wilson, Leigh
Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species.
Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio
Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species. PMID:24707460
Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio
A study was performed to assess the effect of booster configuration on the ascent abort process. A generic abort event sequence was created and booster related risk drivers were identified. Three model boosters were considered in light of the risk drivers: a solid rocket motor configuration, a side mount combination solid and liquid configuration, and a stacked liquid configuration. The primary risk drivers included explosive fireball, overpressure, and fragment effects and booster-crew module re-contact. Risk drivers that were not specifically booster dependent were not addressed. The solid rocket configuration had the most benign influence on an abort while the side mount architecture provided the most challenging abort environment.
Mathias, Donovan L.; Lawrence, Scott L.
Background and methodologySouth Africa's Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1996 provides for safe termination of pregnancy (TOP) in designated facilities in the public and private health sectors. In 2001, mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion was approved for TOP up to 56 days, but this method is not yet available in the public sector. Information on the operational requirements for integrating
Mary Kawonga; Kelly Blanchard; Diane Cooper; Lee Cullingworth; Teresa Harrison; Kim Dickson; Claire von Mollendorf; Beverly Winikoff
Bioethics is a relatively new way of thinking about relationships in medical practice. It enables reflection on ethical conflicts, and opens up management options without dictating rules. Despite this historical context, medical ethics has been sidelined in the course of the development of bioethics. Bioethical reflection does not automatically result in changes to conflict resolution in daily doctor-patient relationships. However, these reflections are important because they promote the search for a "moral consensus" that establishes new ethical rules for day-to-day medical practice. We suggest that there is no conflict between bioethics and medical ethics; rather, these areas interact to establish new standards of behaviour among physicians. The legalisation of orthothanasia in Brazil is one example of how this theory of moral consensus might operate. On the other hand, the legal battle on abortion illustrates how the law cannot change without such a moral consensus. PMID:23439203
Miziara, Ivan Dieb; Miziara, Carmen Silvia Molleis Galego
Members of law enforcement, educational, prevention, and social service communities are frequently faced with the need to address many of the positions which are advocated by those calling for the legalization of drugs. More and more, the debate on legali...
Explores legal issues involved in business student internships for employers (compensation, workers' compensation, unemployment insurance, termination, equal-opportunities legislation, general liability) and for business schools (equal opportunities-legislation, general liability). (SK)
Swift, Cathy Owens; Kent, Russell
This report reviews the major legal issues concerning female inmates. Probably the most significant of those arises under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and asks officials to explain and justify differences that commonly exist in ...
W. C. Collins A. W. Collins
Contents: Executive Summary; Introduction and Scope of Study; An Overview History of Defense Organization; The Present Legal Structure of Defense Organization; General Discussion of the Constitutional Division of Roles and Powers Between the Congress and ...
J. N. Moore R. F. Turner
Citation: Grisso, T. (2009). Legal questions about juveniles’ capacities. Module 4 in series: Toward developmentally appropriate practice: A juvenile court training curriculum. Washington, D.C.: National Juvenile Defender Center and MacArthur Foundation Models for Change Project.\\u000aOverview: Module 4 is designed to assist participants in: 1. Understanding legal questions in delinquency cases that require information about youth’s capacities; 2. Knowing about
Developed and administered Reasoning about Abortion Questionnaire (RAQ) to measure how persons view abortions. Pilot tested the RAQ on 134 college students and modified scale on basis of data. Administered revised RAQ to college students (N=230) replicating factor pattern and obtaining evidence for validity of polarity scores through structured…
Parsons, Nancy K.; And Others
Data from a sample of students showed that males' abortion attitudes are related primarily to their degree of conventionality; females' abortion attitudes are related to sex-role conventionality, the value of children in their life plans, the "right to life" issue, and sexual and general conventionality. (Author)
Finlay, Barbara Agresti
A study of 2620 pregnancies ending in spontaneous abortion revealed a CNS defect in 3.6% of embryos and fetuses, and 3% of all complete conceptuses. The type of malformation observed varied with the gestational age at expulsion, encephaloceles being predominant in earlier specimens, while more typical anencephalus and spina bifida were more common among later abortions. Chromosome abnormalities were found
M R Creasy; E D Alberman
SUMMARY The eect of spontaneous abortion on the dairy industry is substantial, costing the industry on the order of $200 million per year in California alone. We analyse data from a cohort study of nine dairy herds in Central California. A key feature of the analysis is the observation that only a relatively small proportion of cows will abort (around
Timothy Hanson; Edward J. Bedrick; Wesley O. Johnson; Mark C. Thurmond
The Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test was designed as an early demonstration of the Launch Abort System (LAS) for the Orion capsule. The LAS was designed developed and manufactured by the Lockheed Martin/Orbital Sciences team. At inception it was reali...
A. P. T. Taylor J. Johnston R. Sinclair
A Return-to-Launch-Site (RTLS) abort with three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) operational was examined. The results are trajectories and main engine cutoff conditions that are approximately the same as for a two SSME case. Requiring the three SSME solution to match the two SSME abort eliminates additional crew training and is accomplished with negligible software impact.
Carter, J. F.; Bown, R. L.
In a series of 2922 karyotyped spontaneous abortions, 62 were found to be trisomic for chromosome 13, 46 having a simple trisomy and 16 a translocation trisomy. The epidemiology of this series of trisomy 13 conceptuses is presented and compared to that of trisomy 13 ascertained from other populations. In most compared parameters the trisomy 13 spontaneous abortions are very
P A Jacobs; T J Hassold; A Henry; D Pettay; N Takaesu
Objective: To determine whether management of incomplete first-trimester abortion with vaginal misoprostol in an under-resourced setting is a viable treatment option. Methods: A total of 94 women were randomized to 600 ?g of misoprostol intravaginally or to surgical curettage. The women receiving misoprostol were administered a second dose if the abortion was incomplete; and if still not complete after a
S. Moodliar; J. S. Bagratee; J. Moodley
Prior research has focused primarily on the mental health consequences of abortion; little is known about mental health before abortion. In this study, the psychiatric history of women who have had an abortion is investigated. 325 Women who recently had an abortion were compared with 1902 women from the population-based Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2). Lifetime prevalence estimates of various mental disorders were measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Compared to the reference sample, women in the abortion sample were three times more likely to report a history of any mental disorder (OR = 3.06, 95% CI = 2.36-3.98). The highest odds were found for conduct disorder (OR = 6.97, 95% CI = 4.41-11.01) and drug dependence (OR = 4.96, 95% CI = 2.55-9.66). Similar results were found for lifetime-minus-last-year prevalence estimates and for women who had first-time abortions only. The results support the notion that psychiatric history may explain associations that have been found between abortion and mental health. Psychiatric history should therefore be taken into account when investigating the mental health consequences of abortion. PMID:23941742
van Ditzhuijzen, Jenneke; ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Nijnatten, Carolus H C J; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
This study investigated a potential Launch Abort System (LAS) Concept of Operations and abort parachute architecture. The purpose of the study was to look at the concept of jettisoning the LAS tower forward (Reverse LAS or RLAS) into the free-stream flow ...
D. K. Litton R. G. Winski S. A. O'Keefe
The article lists recommendations for dealing with methodological aspects of an abortion survey and makes suggestions for testing and validating the survey questionnaire. The recommendations are based on the experience of the Brazilian Abortion Survey (PNA), a random sample household survey that used the ballot-box technique and covered adult women in all urban areas of the country. PMID:22872333
Medeiros, Marcelo; Diniz, Debora
Different vaccines used against chlamydial abortion in sheep are described. Problems associated with insufficient immunity after vaccination are discussed. Reasons for failure of certain vaccine preparations are addressed. Finally new developments in vaccine production are introduced which might be useful in solving problems still existing in the prevention of chlamydial abortion in sheep by vaccination. PMID:1796460
Intramuscular methotrexate followed by vaginal misoprostol has been shown to be effective for abortion at ?49 days gestation. Oral dosing of the methotrexate may offer advantages over parenteral dosing. This pilot study was performed to evaluate if oral methotrexate would be effective when combined with vaginal misoprostol to effect abortion at ?49 days gestation. Twenty pregnant women were randomized to
Mitchell D. Creinin
States have a duty under international human rights law to protect people's health. Nonetheless, while some health-related policies and laws protect basic human rights, others violate fundamental rights when they criminalize, prohibit, and restrict access to necessary health services. For example, laws and regulations related to protection of life from conception, contraception, actions of pregnant women, and abortion can harm women and place women and health care providers in jeopardy of legal penalization. Given the adverse consequences of punitive and restrictive laws related to pregnancy, advocates, civil society groups, human rights groups, and government institutions must work together to promote, protect, and fulfill women's fundamental reproductive rights. PMID:25006084
Uberoi, Diya; de Bruyn, Maria
Analysis of routinely published abortion and fertility data for England and Wales between 1968 and 1980 shows that the age-specific abortion rates increased from 1968 until about 1973 when the rates peaked for all ages; rates then declined until 1977 but have subsequently returned to higher levels. Two factors are implicated: (1) the recent changes are related to parallel changes in the fertility rate; but (2) there is also a tendency for recent cohorts of women to resort to abortion more readily. These relationships are derived from analyses of fertility rates and abortion ratios, the proportion of conceptions that result in abortions. The results are discussed in terms of attitudes and practices related to birth control.
Ashton, J R; Machin, D; Osmond, C; Balajaran, R; Adam, S A; Donnan, S P
In contemporary Ethiopia, abortion decision-making is a challenging process involving moral and/or religious dilemmas, as well as considerations of health and safety. Amidst widespread condemnation of female premarital sex and clear moral sanction against induced abortion, young Ethiopian women are nevertheless sexually active and induced abortions are still sought and performed, with the potential for grave physical harm and social stigmatization. This paper examines young unmarried Ethiopian women's narratives of abortion decision-making. In particular, it identifies and explores the operations of a particular discursive shape from within in such narratives, here described as The tale of the hearts. Analysing The tale of the hearts as a decision-making resource, it is argued, allows us to explore the particular, local, historical and cultural character of Ethiopian women's abortion decision-making dilemmas and the culturally available resources contributing to their resolution. PMID:22250576
Kebede, Meselu Taye; Hilden, Per Kristian; Middelthon, Anne-Lise
Common arguments from the abortion debate have set the stage for the debate on stem cell research. Unfortunately, those arguments demonstrate flawed reasoning-jumping to unfounded conclusions, using value laden language rather than careful argument, and ignoring morally relevant aspects of the situation. The influence of flawed abortion arguments on the stem cell debate results in failures of moral reasoning and in lack of attention to important morally relevant differences between abortion and human embryonic stem cells. Among those differences are whose interests are at stake and the difference between an embryo in and out of the womb. Stem cell research differs from abortion in morally relevant ways and should be freed from the abortion debate and its flawed reasoning. PMID:22209889
The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has 1 A of electron beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has 3 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33? S (the beam transit time around the ring). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% in 370nS. This report discusses the design of the system controls, interlocks, power supplies, and modulator.
de Lamare, J.; Donaldson, A.; Lipari, J.; Kulikov, A.
The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of electron beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 uS (the beam transit time around the time). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% in 370 nS. This report discusses the design of the system controls, interlocks, power supplies, and modulator.
Lamare, J de; Donaldson, A.; Kulikov, A. Lipari, J.
Researchers involved in Web site reverse engineering are often not aware of potential legal implications of using someone else's Web site for experimentation. Even if researchers are concerned with legal problems, there is little guidance available. This paper explores the legality of Web site reverse engineering with the intent to raise awareness among researchers about this issue. The discussed legal
Holger M. Kienle; Daniel M. Germán; Hausi A. Müller
Does blogging have anything to do with legal scholarship? Could blogging transform the legal academy? This paper suggests that these are the wrong questions. Blogs have plenty to do with legal scholarship--that's obvious. But what blogs have to do with legal scholarship isn't driven by anything special about blogs qua weblogs, qua collections of web pages that share the form
Lawrence B. Solum
Nigeria has restrictive abortion laws; unsafe abortion and its complications are major public health challenges. Access to reproductive health services in Nigeria, including medical abortion, is poor. We determined the socio-demographic characteristics, patterns of abortion practices, and experiences of medical abortions among abortion seekers in southeastern Nigeria. We carried out a descriptive, cross sectional survey of 100 consecutive medical abortion seekers in southeastern Nigeria. Subjects had a mean age of 23.5 + 4.4 years. Fifty-five percent of respondents were students. Sixty-four percent had a secondary educational level, 33% had a tertiary education level and 3% had a primary educational level. Fifty-eight percent of subjects were ages 18-20 years at coitarche; 25% had one or more previous deliveries and 49% had a previous termination of pregnancy. Forty-eight percent had used drugs for pregnancy terminations. Drugs used for termination included quinine combined with other drugs in 8%; gynaecosid alone in 6%, gynaecosid combined with other drugs in 6% menstrogen combined with other drugs in 6% and an unclassified drug in 14%. Thirty-three percent of subjects purchased their abortion drugs in a pharmacy. Three percent, 2%, and 0% of subjects had a knowledge of misoprostol, mifepristone and methotrexate, respectively. One percent of respondents had used misoprostol. We detected serious information gaps regarding abortion and poor access to reproductive health services. There is a need for policies and program to bridge this gap, and a need for revision of the present Nigerian abortion law. PMID:23082598
Adinma, Echendu Dolly; Adinma, Joseph Ifeanyi Brian-D; Iwuoha, Chima; Akiode, Akinsewa; Oji, Ejike; Okoh, Matthew
This article critically appraises the current legal scope of the principal applications of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This relatively new technique, which is available to some parents undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, aims to ensure that a child is not born with a seemingly undesirable genetic condition. The question addressed here is whether there should be serious reasons to test for genetic conditions in embryos in order to be able to select between them. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority and the Human Genetics Commission have decided that there should be such reasons by broadly aligning the criteria for PGD with those for selective abortion. This stance is critically explored, as are its implications for the possible use of PGD to select either against or for marginal features or for significant traits. The government is currently reviewing the legal scope and regulation of PGD. PMID:17340769
Background The aim of this study was to assess the main factors related to maternal mortality reduction in large time series available in Chile in context of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Methods Time series of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) from official data (National Institute of Statistics, 1957–2007) along with parallel time series of education years, income per capita, fertility rate (TFR), birth order, clean water, sanitary sewer, and delivery by skilled attendants were analysed using autoregressive models (ARIMA). Historical changes on the mortality trend including the effect of different educational and maternal health policies implemented in 1965, and legislation that prohibited abortion in 1989 were assessed utilizing segmented regression techniques. Results During the 50-year study period, the MMR decreased from 293.7 to 18.2/100,000 live births, a decrease of 93.8%. Women's education level modulated the effects of TFR, birth order, delivery by skilled attendants, clean water, and sanitary sewer access. In the fully adjusted model, for every additional year of maternal education there was a corresponding decrease in the MMR of 29.3/100,000 live births. A rapid phase of decline between 1965 and 1981 (?13.29/100,000 live births each year) and a slow phase between 1981 and 2007 (?1.59/100,000 live births each year) were identified. After abortion was prohibited, the MMR decreased from 41.3 to 12.7 per 100,000 live births (?69.2%). The slope of the MMR did not appear to be altered by the change in abortion law. Conclusion Increasing education level appears to favourably impact the downward trend in the MMR, modulating other key factors such as access and utilization of maternal health facilities, changes in women's reproductive behaviour and improvements of the sanitary system. Consequently, different MDGs can act synergistically to improve maternal health. The reduction in the MMR is not related to the legal status of abortion.
Koch, Elard; Thorp, John; Bravo, Miguel; Gatica, Sebastian; Romero, Camila X.; Aguilera, Hernan; Ahlers, Ivonne
Two notable limitations exist on the use of personhood arguments in establishing moral status. Firstly, although the attribution of personhood may give us sufficient reason to grant something moral status, it is not a necessary condition. Secondly, even if a person is that which has the 'highest' moral status, this does not mean that any interests of a person are justifiable grounds to kill something that has a 'lower' moral status. Additional justification is needed to overcome a basic wrongness associated with killing something possessing moral status. There are clear arguments already available in this regard in the case of a foetus that are not available in the case of a newborn infant. Hence, there is scope to consistently hold that abortion may be permissible but that after-birth abortion may not be permissible. PMID:23637455
Background Insurance coverage for family planning services has been a highly controversial element of the U.S. health care reform debate. Whether primary care providers (PCPs) support public and private health insurance coverage for family planning services is unknown. Study Design PCPs in three states were surveyed regarding their opinions on health plan coverage and tax dollar use for contraception and abortion services. Results Almost all PCPs supported health plan coverage for contraception (96%) and use of tax dollars to cover contraception for low-income women (94%). A smaller majority supported health plan coverage for abortions (61%) and use of tax dollars to cover abortions for low-income women (63%). In adjusted models, support of health plan coverage for abortions was associated with female gender and internal medicine specialty, and support of using tax dollars for abortions for low-income women was associated with older age and internal medicine specialty. Conclusion The majority of PCPs support health insurance coverage of contraception and abortion, as well as tax dollar subsidization of contraception and abortion services for low-income women.
Chuang, Cynthia H.; Martenis, Melissa E.; Parisi, Sara M.; Delano, Rachel E.; Sobota, Mindy; Nothnagle, Melissa; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla
A prior birth confers a strong protective effect against preeclampsia, whereas a prior abortion confers a weaker protective effect. Parous women who change partners in a subsequent pregnancy appear to lose the protective effect of a prior birth. This study (Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention Trial, 1992-1995) examines whether nulliparous women with a prior abortion who change partners also lose the protective effect of the prior pregnancy. A cohort analysis was conducted among participants in this large clinical trial of calcium supplementation to prevent preeclampsia. Subjects were nulliparous, had one prior pregnancy or less, delivered after 20 weeks' gestation, and were interviewed at 5-21 weeks about prior pregnancies and paternity. Women without a history of abortion served as the reference group in logistic regression analyses. Women with a history of abortion who conceived again with the same partner had nearly half the risk of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio = 0.54, 95 percent confidence interval: 0.31, 0.97). In contrast, women with an abortion history who conceived with a new partner had the same risk of preeclampsia as women without a history of abortion (adjusted odds ratio = 1.03, 95 percent confidence interval: 0.72, 1.47). Thus, the protective effect of a prior abortion operated only among women who conceived again with the same partner. An immune-based etiologic mechanism is proposed, whereby prolonged exposure to fetal antigens from a previous pregnancy protects against preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy with the same father. PMID:12796047
Saftlas, Audrey F; Levine, Richard J; Klebanoff, Mark A; Martz, Karen L; Ewell, Marian G; Morris, Cynthia D; Sibai, Baha M
OBJECTIVE--The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion among the wives of male workers occupationally exposed to benzene. METHODS--The wives of 823 men working in two chemical plants at the time of the study were asked to complete a questionnaire describing their pregnancies. The analysis of the 1739 pregnancies that ended in a spontaneous abortion or a birth is presented. The firms' payroll records provided all workers' employment history, including dates. Benzene exposure, graded at two levels (< 5, > or = 5 ppm), was determined for every job, so that benzene exposure for each worker's entire professional life (at these companies) could be assessed. This information was linked to the dates of the pregnancies reported in the questionnaires to enable the exposure status of each pregnancy to be defined (1270 non-exposed and 274 exposed). The frequency of spontaneous abortion, defined as the number of spontaneous abortions divided by the total of spontaneous abortions and births was evaluated. RESULTS--When adjusted for tobacco consumption, mother's age and pregnancy order, the odds ratio of the association between paternal exposure to approximately 5 ppm of benzene and the risk of spontaneous abortion was close to and statistically not different from unity (OR = 1.1; 95% CI (0.7-1.8). CONCLUSION--In this study paternal exposure to benzene did not increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.
Strucker, I; Mandereau, L; Aubert-Berleur, M P; Deplan, F; Paris, A; Richard, A; Hemon, D
Ethical controversy over transplantation of human fetal tissue has arisen because the source of tissue is induced abortions. Opposition to such transplants has been based on various arguments, including the following: rightful informed consent cannot be obtained for use of fetal tissue from induced abortions, and fetal tissue transplantation might result in an increase in the number of abortions. These arguments were not accepted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation Research Panel. The majority opinion of the panel stated that abortion and fetal tissue use are entirely separate issues, and that tissue use is ethically acceptable because it can be morally insulated from the issue of abortion. In support of this view, panel members and others have replied to the arguments put forward by opponents of fetal tissue use. However, replies to the two arguments mentioned above have been unsatisfactory, and the shortcomings of those replies are identified herein. Examination of the arguments pro and con suggests that fetal tissue use cannot be completely insulated from the issue of abortion. Thus, in seeking an ethical justification for fetal tissue transplantation we must consider reasons other than those put forward by the NIH panel. In this paper it is argued that whatever wrong is involved in using fetal tissue from induced abortions must be balanced against the benefits for patients, and it is on this basis that fetal tissue transplantation can be ethically justified. PMID:1870085
Ethical controversy over transplantation of human fetal tissue has arisen because the source of tissue is induced abortions. Opposition to such transplants has been based on various arguments, including the following: rightful informed consent cannot be obtained for use of fetal tissue from induced abortions, and fetal tissue transplantation might result in an increase in the number of abortions. These arguments were not accepted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation Research Panel. The majority opinion of the panel stated that abortion and fetal tissue use are entirely separate issues, and that tissue use is ethically acceptable because it can be morally insulated from the issue of abortion. In support of this view, panel members and others have replied to the arguments put forward by opponents of fetal tissue use. However, replies to the two arguments mentioned above have been unsatisfactory, and the shortcomings of those replies are identified herein. Examination of the arguments pro and con suggests that fetal tissue use cannot be completely insulated from the issue of abortion. Thus, in seeking an ethical justification for fetal tissue transplantation we must consider reasons other than those put forward by the NIH panel. In this paper it is argued that whatever wrong is involved in using fetal tissue from induced abortions must be balanced against the benefits for patients, and it is on this basis that fetal tissue transplantation can be ethically justified.
Objective The relation between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion remains a topic of heated debate. Many of the contradictions are likely due to the fact that abortion is the end point of a process that starts with sexual activity, contraceptive use (or non-use), followed by unwanted pregnancy, a decision to terminate, and access to abortion. Trends in abortion rates reflect changes in each step of this process, and opposing trends may cancel each other out. This paper aims to investigate the roles played by the dissemination of contraception and the evolving norms of motherhood on changes in abortion rates. Methods Drawing data from six national probability surveys that explored contraception and pregnancy wantedness in France from 1978 through 2010, we used multivariate linear regression to explore the associations between trends in contraceptive rates and trends in (i) abortion rates, (ii) unwanted pregnancy rates, (iii) and unwanted birth rates, and to determine which of these 3 associations was strongest. Findings The association between contraceptive rates and abortion rates over time was weaker than that between contraception rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p?=?0.003). Similarly, the association between contraceptive rates and unwanted birth rates over time was weaker than that between contraceptive rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p?=?0.000).
Bajos, Nathalie; Le Guen, Mireille; Bohet, Aline; Panjo, Henri; Moreau, Caroline
The analgesic efficacy of naproxen sodium was compared with that of a placebo or of no drug in 137 women undergoing 1st-trimester elective abortion. 46 women received a single 550 mg dose of naproxen sodium 1-2 hours prior to abortion, 46 women received a placebo, and 45 women received no drug. Abortions were performed by means of suction curettage after anesthesia was produced by paracervical block with 1% lidocaine solution, and study subjects were asked to assess their pain on a scale from 0-99 at the most painful moment during abortion and at 15 and 30 minutes after abortion. Pain scores reported by naproxen sodium patients were consistently lower than those reported by placebo and no drug patients, and the difference between average pain scores of naproxen sodium patients and placebo patients was statistically significant at each evalution. Pain scores of untreated patients were comparable to those of placebo patients. Multiparous and multigravid women reported lower pain scores than women who had never been pregnant before. There were no apparent side effects of naproxen sodium treatment. These findings indicate that naproxen sodim can provide effective analgesia for pain caused by uterine contractions during and after suction abortion. Its terapeutic effectiveness may be enhanced by administration 1-2 hours prior to he abortion procedure so that peak plasma concentrations are attained. PMID:6507524
Suprapto, K; Reed, S
The management of patients with first-trimester spontaneous abortions is handicapped by two problems: difficulty in recognizing conceptions that abort because of abnormal karyotypes and an incomplete understanding of what causes abortions with normal karyotypes. Our goals in this study were to define features useful in distinguishing normal from abnormal karyotype and to identify pathological processes contributing to abortions with a
Raymond W Redline; Michael Zaragoza; Terry Hassold
Threatened abortion is a clinical entity where the process of abortion has started but has not progressed to a state from which recovery is impossible 1 . The prognosis of threatened abortion is very unpredictable whatever method of treatment is employed either in hospital or at home. 100 cases of threatened abortion were studied in RMCH. Over one year of
M Khanam; Nahid Yusuf; Fatema Ashraf
Epizootic bovine abortion (EBA) is endemic in California's coastal range and the foothill regions of the Sierra Nevada, where it has been the primary diagnosed cause of abortion in beef cattle for >50 years. Investigation of these losses has defined a specific fetal syndrome characterized by late-term abortion or birth of weak or dead calves. Although the unusual clinical presentation and unique fetal pathology associated with EBA have been recognized since the 1950s, the identity of the etiologic agent is unknown. In this study, suppression-hybridization PCR was used to identify a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of a previously undescribed bacterium in thymus tissue derived from affected fetuses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this pathogen was a deltaproteobacterium closely related to members of the order Myxococcales. A specific PCR was subsequently developed to detect the presence of this bacterium in DNA extracted from fetal thymuses. Using histopathology as the definitive diagnosis for EBA, this PCR demonstrated 100% specificity and 88% sensitivity. The bacterium was also detected in the argasid tick Ornithodoros coriaceus, which is the recognized vector of EBA. These data imply a close association between this novel agent and the etiology of EBA.
King, Donald P.; Chen, Ching-I; Blanchard, Myra T.; Aldridge, Brian M.; Anderson, Mark; Walker, Richard; Maas, John; Hanks, Don; Hall, Mark; Stott, Jeffrey L.
Recordings of palaeomagnetic excursions have revealed apparent field behaviour ranging from rather erratic directional movements and loopings1-4 to single, highly defined events5-7. Excursions of the latter variety show what seems to be a rapid change in direction such that the path of the associated virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) is well constrained in longitude. Such behaviour is not unlike that observed at the onset of some recorded polarity transitions7-9. Indeed, it has been suggested that excursions may occur during unsuccessful, or aborted, reversals2,5-7,10. We show here that available records of palaeomagnetic excursions, together with our present understanding of field behaviour associated with geomagnetic reversals, strongly support this hypothesis.
Hoffman, Kenneth A.
NASA and DOD studies of medical-planning and logistical problems are reviewed as applicable to providing emergency medical care at remote transoceanic abort landing (TAL) sites. Two options are analyzed including a modified surgical response team and a combination physician/medical technician team. The two concepts are examined in terms of cost-effectiveness, specific types of medical support such as blood procurement, and search-and-rescue requirements. It is found that the physician/technician team is more economically efficient, and the description of the concept permits the development of an effective TAL-site astronaut medical-support system. A balance is struck between the competing problems of cost and medical capability by planning for on-scene medical stabilization and air evacuation to DOD tertiary medical centers.
Mckenas, David K.; Jennings, Richard T.
The number of Colombian women hospitalized for the treatment of induced abortion complications increased from 57 679 in 1989 to 93 336 in 2008; the hospitalization rate also rose: from 7.2 to 9.1 cases per 1000 women aged 15-44 years. Factors that likely underlie the increase include improved access to postabortion care (although 1 in 5 women still do not obtain the care they need) and the growing role of misoprostol, often used incorrectly and to some extent replacing the use of surgical abortion by doctors. Efforts are evidently needed to improve access to safe abortion and effective contraception. PMID:22920628
Prada, Elena; Singh, Susheela; Villarreal, Cristina
This article will discuss the nature of the association between abortion and mental health problems. Studies arguing about both sides of the debate as to whether abortion per se is responsible will be presented. The prevalence of various psychiatric disorders will be outlined and where there is dispute between studies, these will be highlighted. The impact of abortion on other areas such as education, partner relationships and sexual function will also be considered. The absence of specific interventions will be highlighted. Suggestions for early identification of illness will be made. PMID:20303829
Casey, Patricia R
Because sex-selective abortions are generally conducted during the second term of the pregnancy, timing of abortion can be used as an indirect way of studying sex-selection by abortion. We examined the likelihood of having a first-trimester vs. second-trimester abortion among a group of 885 married women who had an abortion in an obstetric hospital in Hanoi in 2003. In the
Danièle Bélanger; Khuat Thi Hai Oanh
This book is designed to help industrial educators develop a basis for making decisions based on sound legal and ethical considerations--decisions related to students, colleagues, equipment, and money. The issues also concern administrators, advisory-committee members, risk managers, insurance representatives, and attorneys who work with…
Gathercoal, Forrest; Stern, Sam
In most cases, a student teacher's actions are subject to the same laws as are the teacher's actions. Numerous laws are enacted each year that affect teachers and their classrooms. Teachers and teacher educators must be kept informed of the legal consequences of their actions or inaction. Researchers sent a survey to area superintendents,…
Monts, Dana R.
School administrators are advised to get legal authorization now for as much maneuvering room as can be worked out with vendors of heating fuels and gasoline for school buses. Safeguards for saving gasoline and anti-freeze are outlined. (Author/MF)
Hill, Frederick W.
The legal aspects of pupil transportation are examined, including the liability of various factions for transportation decisions and the duty of school districts to provide adequate transportation. Discussed are court decisions dealing with such complex topics as transportation of special education students, transportation for purpose of…
Mawdsley, Ralph D.
This handbook contains analyses of 88 elementary and secondary legal education materials and includes many lawyers' critiques. It is intended to help teachers identify and select law instruction curricula which will most effectively meet the needs of students. The materials analyzed are listed alphabetically by title and include multimedia,…
Turner, Mary Jane, Comp.
This paper examines the variety of legal rules and processes which have been established to assess and ensure that the quality of care provided in nursing homes satisfies an acceptable level. It begins with a general overview of nursing home law. Areas discussed in this section include: (1) sources of nursing home law; (2) theories of liability;…
Kapp, Marshall B.
The most likely legal issues to arise concerning charter schools include teacher employment and qualification issues, liability concerns, special-needs student issues, due process, religious issues, and contract rules. School leaders can head off problems by clarifying who is in charge, spelling out the mission statement, and dealing up front with…
This article discusses the impact of legal issues associated with the use of paraeducators in special education, provides practice considerations for state and local agencies and universities in regard to training and preparation of paraeducators, and discusses future directions related to paraeducators in the field of special education. (Contains…
Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hodge, Janie; Lanford, Allyson
This handbook provides an overview of legal issues pertaining to the safety of public schools. Following the introduction, chapter 2 describes the governance model and philosophy on which American education is based. Court decisions and federal and state legislation that mandate the right to a safe school are discussed in chapter 3. The fourth…
Day, Reed B.
Successful organ transplantation leads to an improved duration and quality of life. Most organs are currently supplied from cadaveric donors. However, demand for such organs far exceeds supply and thus other sources are needed, such as from non-heart-beating donors and increasingly from live donors. The whole subject of organ transplantation leads to many ethical and legal dilemmas, the most controversial
Using a sample of 49 countries, we show that countries with poorer investor protec- tions, measured by both the character of legal rules and the quality of law enforce- ment, have smaller and narrower capital markets. These findings apply to both equity and debt markets. In particular, French civil law countries have both the weakest investor protections and the least
Rafael La Porta; ANDREI SHLEIFER; ROBERT W. VISHNY
Two old and antagonistic traditions of thought shape the modern field of legal ethics. One of these has its beginnings in Aristotle's political philosophy, and the other in the contractarian theories of Hobbes and Locke. Both traditions influenced the design of the American republic, whose founders combined elements from each in a new and volatile synthesis marked by tensions that
Anthony Townsend Kronman
Every year, the use and abuse of drugs kills tens of thousands of Americans and condemns countless others to a life of addiction, misery and pain. Yet, despite these horrific statistics, there is a broad scale effort underway to legalize illegal narcotics...
In many circles, U.S. drug policy is under attack. It is being criticized primarily by those who favor a legalization agenda. It is also being challenged by those who encourage certain trends in European drug policy, like decriminalization of drug use, 'h...
The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance. PMID:23487274
Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís
In a recent opinion the Supreme Court of the United States recognized that for many communities "school sports play a prominent role." Whatever purpose they serve, school sports also raise a number of legal issues that a school district must carefully handle in order to operate its athletics program with minimal risk of liability. This handbook is…
National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.
Arguing that the typical legal bibliographic course is a "curricular anomaly" which emphasizes the characteristics of law books, this article advocates a fundamental shift away from the bibliographic orientation to an emphasis on the research process, i.e., how researchers use the books. The discussion examines the drawbacks inherent in a…
Wren, Christopher G.; Wren, Jill Robinson
The thesis briefly analyzed the laws of the State of Texas and of the United States which directly affect the education of Texas Mexican Americans. The legal-political history of "Chicano" education in Texas was traced from the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 to August 1971. The educational "problems" of Mexican Americans were…
Floca, Kathryn Priscilla Haines
Legal aspects of the Internet can be examined from two points of view: the solution of technical problems concerning the security of information, nets and resources; and the solution of global problems of the Internet as a part of media in a democratic society. The second aspect is the topic of this paper. How do we secure the basic democratic
We describe research carried out as part of a text summarisation project for the legal domain for which we use a new XML corpus of judgments of the UK House of Lords. These judgments represent a particularly important part of public discourse due to the role that precedents play in English law. We present experimental results using a range of
Ben Hachey; Claire Grover
Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations.
Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M. (Winston and Strawn, Washington, DC (United States))
Concerns regarding possible transverse instabilities in RHIC and the SNS pointed to the need for measurements of the transverse coupling impedance of ring components. The impedance of the RHIC injection and abort kicker was measured using the conventional...
Since its first publication in 2003, the World Health Organization's "Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems" has had an influence on abortion policy, law, and practice worldwide. To reflect significant developments in the clinical, service delivery, and human rights aspects of abortion care, the Guidance was updated in 2012. This article reviews select recommendations of the updated Guidance, highlighting 3 key themes that run throughout its chapters: evidence-based practice and assessment, human rights standards, and a pragmatic orientation to safe and accessible abortion care. These themes not only connect the chapters into a coherent whole. They reflect the research and advocacy efforts of a growing field in women's health and human rights. PMID:23257625
Erdman, Joanna N; DePiñeres, Teresa; Kismödi, Eszter
Several studies suggest that highly skewed X chromosome inactivation (HSXI) is associated with recurrent spontaneous abortion. We hypothesized that this association reflects an increased rate of trisomic conceptions due to anomalies on the X chromosome that lead both to HSXI and to a diminished oocyte pool. We compared the distribution of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) skewing percentages (range: 50%–100%) among women with spontaneous abortions in four karyotype groups—trisomy (n = 154), chromosomally normal male (n = 43), chromosomally normal female (n = 38), nontrisomic chromosomally abnormal (n = 61)—to the distribution for age-matched controls with chromosomally normal births (n = 388). In secondary analyses, we subdivided the nontrisomic chromosomally abnormal group, divided trisomies by chromosome, and classified women by reproductive history. Our data support neither an association of HSXI with all trisomies nor an association of HSXI with chromosomally normal male spontaneous abortions. We also find no association between HSXI and recurrent abortion (n = 45).
Warburton, Dorothy; Kline, Jennie; Kinney, Ann; Yu, Chih-yu; Levin, Bruce; Brown, Stephen
NIOSH conducted a study of 2,430 female telephone operators to determine if exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by video display terminals (VDT's) were associated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion. Exposure levels were determined using co...
T. M. Schnorr B. A. Grajewski R. W. Hornung M. J. Thun G. M. Egeland
This paper describes initial flight performance analyses conducted early in the Orion Project to support concept feasibility studies for the Crew Exploration Vehicle s Launch Abort System (LAS). Key performance requirements that significantly affect abort capability are presented. These requirements have implications on sizing the Abort Motor, tailoring its thrust profile to meet escape requirements for both launch pad and high drag/high dynamic pressure ascent aborts. Additional performance considerations are provided for the Attitude Control Motor, a key element of the Orion LAS design that eliminates the need for ballast and provides performance robustness over a passive control approach. Finally, performance of the LAS jettison function is discussed, along with implications on Jettison Motor sizing and the timing of the jettison event during a nominal mission. These studies provide an initial understanding of LAS performance that will continue to evolve as the Orion design is matured.
Tartabini, Paul V.
The first flight test of the Orion Abort Flight Test project is scheduled to launch in Spring 2010. This flight test is known as Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) and it is intended to accomplish a series of flight test objectives, including demonstrating the capability of the Launch Abort System (LAS) to propel the Crew Module (CM) to a safe distance from a launch vehicle during a pad abort. The PA-1 Flight Test Article (FTA) is actively controlled by a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system for much of its flight. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, development, and analysis of the PA-1 GN&C system. A description of the technical solutions that were developed to meet the challenge of satisfying many competing requirements is presented. A historical perspective of how the Orion LAV compares to the Apollo Launch Escape Vehicle (LEV) design will also be included.
Medina, Edgar A.; Stachowiak, Susan J.
The practice of abortion and infanticide in pre and early European New Zealand is confirmed. The reasons for these practices and the methods used are discussed in relation to early Maori attitudes and mythology. PMID:273782
Hunton, R B
We report a patient who had uterine perforation with incarceration of the fallopian tube after surgical abortion. The diagnosis was made during hysteroscopy, realized after hysterosalpingography, and treated by laparoscopy. PMID:21411085
Ceccaldi, Pierre-François; Nguyen, Thuy; Mandelbrot, Laurent
An engineering analysis and computer code (AERSEP) for predicting Space Shuttle Orbiter - HO Tank longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics during abort separation has been developed. Computed results are applicable at Mach numbers above 2 for angle-of-att...
The findings of a study conducted in the rural areas around Jajaigarh, Delhi to collect information about different indigenous preparations, practices and rituals which the rural population maintain have abortion-inducing effects are presented. The resource persons interviewed include indigenous midwives, private medical practitioners, old women of the villages, teachers and barbers. Also contacted were maternity and child health workers. The 9 abortion-inducing practices reported are described. Some of the techniques have been recorded and some have some scientific basis causing abortion. For example, the administration of quinine is known to cause abortion. No scientific evidence is available to substantiate the efficacy of some of the methods, yet the resource persons providing the information were absolutely confident regarding their favorite methods. The resource persons were known to practice their favorite methods successfully. PMID:6903341
Verghese, T; Bhandari, U; Bhandari, V
Despite the availability of contraception, the rates of abortion among young women in South Africa continue to increase. We designed a study to examine young people's attitudes about abortion and contraception. One hundred and eighty-eight South African university students (97 females and 91 males) completed the survey. While we found moral objections to abortion for the sample as a whole, females showed stronger support for availability of abortion and women's autonomy compared with males. The respondents acknowledged the importance of contraception at a personal and general level, but more than 40% of them believed that women who use contraception are promiscuous. Females expressed difficulty with usage more frequently than males and indicated that they would not consider sexual intercourse if contraception were not available. For health care workers involved in counseling young people about their sexual and reproductive choices, the challenge lies in promoting a culture of equal rights and respect for women's reproductive freedom. PMID:19418325
Patel, Cynthia J; Kooverjee, Trisha
For various reasons, including the population policies of the former Socialist countries, abortion is much more frequent than contraception in Central and Eastern Europe. The contrary occurs in Western countries. In the current context, countries in Central and Eastern Europe should improve abortion services and this should be a priority target in their health policy. The study does not detect a clear-cut advantage as concerns substituting contraception to abortion in these countries in terms for instance of reducing maternal mortality. In fact a health policy favouring contraception instead of abortion is firstly inspired by political or ethical reasons. If implemented in Central and Eastern Europe, it would require several decades to bear evident results. PMID:7497025
Hassoun, D; Jourdain, A
This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.
Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne
We report the case of a patient who presented with right sciatic pain as a manifestation of piriformis muscle syndrome 1 month after a clandestine- induced abortion. MRI revealed the presence of a piriformis abscess. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from blood cultures and from the purulent material obtained by CT-guided aspiration. Piriformis pyomyositis should be recognized as a potential complication of "unsafe" abortions that if left untreated could progress to sepsis and death. PMID:17414537
Colmegna, Ines; Justiniano, Maria; Espinoza, Luis R; Gimenez, Carlos R
The author argues that, if women have the right of self-determination, it is immoral of society to withhold or limit women's access to abortion services in Nigeria. Morality must pertain to society as well as women. In Nigeria, the abortion argument tends to focus on the rights of the fetus or the third party's interest. The abortion issue must involve understanding the rationale that is used by abortion-seeking women. Denial of access to abortion services dehumanizes women and reduces growth in national development. Women carry the burden of responsibility associated with child bearing and rearing. Unwanted pregnancies impose severe psychological, physical, social, and medical dangers on women. Impaired psychological and physical illness creates pain and suffering and limits productivity. "Doing good" is not necessarily accomplished by either abortion or unwanted childbearing. Society both discourages the taking of a human life and supports the health of its citizens, many of whom are women. A child brought into this world who is not adequately taken care of will be a burden to society. When society pursues its own self-interest in preventing abortion as a choice for women, then society becomes immoral and selfish. A woman pursuing her own self-interest is not necessarily immoral. The decision becomes immoral if the woman acts against the wishes of the father. Morality is not necessarily the opposite of the promotion of one's self-interest. Women who seek to terminate a pregnancy for health reasons seek a virtuous option of enhancing the well-being of every individual in society. The right to life for the fetus is very different from the right to self-determination for the abortion-seeking woman. When the Yoruba define a wife as a servant to the husband, the Yoruba deny women personhood. Women know best what serves their self-interest and that of society. PMID:12292664
An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivirus control/eradication programs in cattle herds.
Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio
OBJECTIVE: To provide empirical data on the attitudes of Ontario family physicians and gynecologists toward the use of electively aborted fetal tissue for transplantation (FTT). DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Random samples of 300 physicians from the membership list of the College of Family Physicians of Canada and 300 from the membership list of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada; 248 family physicians and 186 gynecologists responded, for an overall response rate of 72%. OUTCOME MEASURES: Physicians' attitudes toward incentives to collect fetal tissue at abortion, patient-management issues, consent issues and potential conflicts in the supply and demand of fetal tissue. RESULTS: Of those surveyed 75% agreed that there should be no incentives to collect fetal tissue at abortion, 90% believed that decisions to abort must be separate from decisions to donate fetal tissue, 94% agreed that an option to donate fetal tissue should be discussed only after a firm decision to abort has been made, and 88% stated that the demand for fetal tissue should not hinder the availability of new abortion technology such as the abortifacient pill (RU 486). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that there is general approval for FTT. Apparent variations between responses to global statements and to practice-oriented statements suggest strategies for effective Canadian public policy regarding FTT.
Mullen, M A; Williams, J I; Lowy, F H
Only 17% of US hospitals (265 public and 926 private hospitals) perform abortions, and hospital-based abortions represent only a small fraction of the number of abortions performed each year. Despite this low level of involvement, US hospitals have become involved in difficult situations concerning law, ethics, and standards of practice. A case in point is Baltimore's Saint Agnes Hospital, where the accreditation of the hospital's residency training program in obstetrics and gynecology was withdrawn in 1986 by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. This decision was based on the hospital's refusal, for religious reasons, to perform abortions, sterilizations, and artificial insemination. The hospital further was cited for not providing family planning education to medical students. Saint Agnes Hospital maintained that the Council's decision represented discrimination against Catholic hospitals; as evidence, it cited the fact that, while Catholic- affiliated residency programs comprised only 10% of such programs, they accounted for 83% of programs in which deficiencies or concerns were identified by the Accreditation Council. Some Catholic hospitals deal with this situation by allowing residents to rotate to other facilities if they want to be trained in abortion services--an option Saint Agnes rejected. The number of hospitals that offer residents training in abortion has declined by 22% since 1977; at present, 13% of all gynecology-obstetrics residents have no access to such training. PMID:2753484
The National Legal Assistance Support Project includes (1) National Training Project which provides advocates with skills training in elderlaw, trains trainers to expand quality training within states, develops linkages between aging and legal services, n...
Environmental stress dramatically reduces plant reproduction. Previous results showed that placing roots in 200 mM NaCl for\\u000a 12 h caused 90% of the developing Arabidopsis ovules to abort (Sun et al. in Plant Physiol 135:2358–2367, 2004). To discover the molecular responses that occur during ovule abortion, gene expression was monitored using Affymetrix 24k\\u000a genome arrays. Transcript levels were measured in pistils that
Kelian Sun; Yuehua Cui; Bernard A. Hauser
In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…
Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.
This document provides a layperson's introductory guide to researching primary legal materials, as well as using secondary research tools, in the Sarita Kenedy East Law Library at St. Mary's University (Texas). The guide includes the following sections: (1) Guide to Legal Abbreviations; (2) How To Find a Law Journal Article; (3) Legal Dictionaries…
Garrison, Judy; Hickey, LadyJane; Stillman, Garry; Wise, Steven
‘Legal highs’ are compounds, plant or fungal material which can be readily bought from the internet without legal restriction and the single chemicals may be structurally related to illegal drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines. Several recent deaths in the UK have been attributed to these legal highs and unfortunately there is little chemical or biological literature on these
Simon Gibbons; Mire Zloh
Unsafe abortion is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal mortality; however, abortion law and policy liberalization could lead to drops in unsafe abortion and related deaths. This review provides an analysis of changes in abortion mortality in three countries where significant policy reform and related service delivery occurred. Drawing on peer-reviewed literature, population data and grey literature on programs and policies, this paper demonstrates the policy and program changes that led to declines in abortion-related mortality in Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh. In all three countries, abortion policy liberalization was followed by implementation of safe abortion services and other reproductive health interventions. South Africa and Bangladesh trained mid-level providers to offer safe abortion and menstrual regulation services, respectively, Romania improved contraceptive policies and services, and Bangladesh made advances in emergency obstetric care and family planning. The findings point to the importance of multi-faceted and complementary reproductive health reforms in successful implementation of abortion policy reform.
The application of satellite communications for teleconferencing purposes is discussed. The legal framework within which such a system or series of systems could be developed is considered. The analysis is based on: (1) satellite teleconferencing regulation, (2) the options available for such a system, (3) regulatory alternatives, and (4) ownership and management aspects. The system is designed to provide a capability for professional education, remote medical diagnosis, business conferences, and computer techniques.
Smith, D. D.
Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432
Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia
In this reviews uterine article stress shall be outlined as a possible psychobiological model for interpretation of spontaneous and recurrent spontaneous abortions by emphasis on physiological explanation theories. Results refer to the fact that stress can cause via neuro-endocrinologic processes in the uteroplacental area a rejection of the fetus. The role of neurotransmitters adrenaline, noradrenaline and acetylcholine on uterine vascularization and contractility and fetal oxygenation and the influence of progesterone, glucocorticoids and other hormones have been discussed. Stress induces in loading situations a changing action of elevated stress hormones adrenaline, noradrenalin++ and cortisol on the metabolism of other hormones, e.g. a decrease of serum progesterone and an increase of estrogen and thyroxine-level. Therefore the physiological balance of the organism is disturbed. Because informations of the nervous system are transmitted to the utero-placental unit in this way there are disturbances e.g. reduction of fetal oxygenation, advancement of uterine contractility and possible stimulation of labor. Troubles of the immunologic protection of pregnancy by stress have been considered. Nevertheless the question for the reason of elevated abortion tendency caused by stress is still open. Constitutional factors as motility and other uterine and feto-placental factors may be explanations for interindividual differences in this area. Additionally stress modulation factors like efficient stress coping and social support are able to reduce stress effects. PMID:3291490
The primary aim of this study was to compare the experience of an early abortion (1st trimester) to a late abortion (2nd and 3rd trimester) relative to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms after controlling for socio-demographic and personal history variables. Online surveys were completed by 374 women who experienced either a 1st trimester abortion (up to 12 weeks gestation) or a 2nd or 3rd trimester abortion (13 weeks gestation or beyond). Most respondents (81%) were U.S. citizens. Later abortions were associated with higher Intrusion subscale scores and with a greater likelihood of reporting disturbing dreams, reliving of the abortion, and trouble falling asleep. Reporting the pregnancy was desired by one's partner, experiencing pressure to abort, having left the partner prior to the abortion, not disclosing the abortion to the partner, and physical health concerns were more common among women who received later abortions. Social reasons for the abortion were linked with significantly higher PTSD total and subscale scores for the full sample. Women who postpone their abortions may need more active professional intervention before securing an abortion based on the increased risks identified herein. More research with diverse samples employing additional measures of mental illness is needed.
Coleman, Priscilla K.; Coyle, Catherine T.; Rue, Vincent M.
We study the collision avoidance between two aircraft flying in the same vertical plane: a host aircraft on a glide path and an intruder aircraft on a horizontal trajectory below that of the host aircraft and heading in the opposite direction. Assuming that the intruder aircraft is uncooperative, the host aircraft executes an optimal abort landing maneuver: it applies maximum thrust setting and maximum angle of attack lifting the flight path over the original path, thereby increasing the timewise minimum distance between the two aircraft and, in this way, avoiding the potential collision. In the presence of weak constraints on the aircraft and/or the environment, the angle of attack must be brought to the maximum value and kept there until the maximin point is reached. On the other hand, in the presence of strong constraints on the aircraft and the environment, desaturation of the angle of attack might have to take place before the maximin point is reached. This thesis includes four parts. In the first part, after an introduction and review of the available literature, we reformulate and solve the one-subarc Chebyshev maximin problem as a two-subarc Bolza-Pontryagin problem in which the avoidance and the recovery maneuvers are treated simultaneously. In the second part, we develop a guidance scheme (gamma guidance) capable of approximating the optimal trajectory in real time. In the third part, we present the algorithms employed to solve the one-subarc and two-subarc problems. In the fourth part, we decompose the two-subarc Bolza-Pontryagin problem into two one-subarc problems: the avoidance problem and the recovery problem, to be solved in sequence; remarkably, for problems where the ratio of total maneuver time to avoidance time is sufficiently large (?5), this simplified procedure predicts accurately the location of the maximin point as well as the maximin distance.
The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws. PMID:24714897
When laws or legal principles mention mental states such as intentions to form a contract, knowledge of risk, or purposely causing a death, what parts of the brain are they speaking about? We argue here that these principles are tacitly directed at our prefrontal executive processes. Our current best theories of consciousness portray it as a workspace in which executive processes operate, but what is important to the law is what is done with the workspace content rather than the content itself. This makes executive processes more important to the law than consciousness, since they are responsible for channelling conscious decision-making into intentions and actions, or inhibiting action. We provide a summary of the current state of our knowledge about executive processes, which consists primarily of information about which portions of the prefrontal lobes perform which executive processes. Then we describe several examples in which legal principles can be understood as tacitly singling out executive processes, including principles regarding defendants' intentions or plans to commit crimes and their awareness that certain facts are the case (for instance, that a gun is loaded), as well as excusatory principles which result in lesser responsibility for those who are juveniles, mentally ill, sleepwalking, hypnotized, or who suffer from psychopathy. PMID:21055971
Hirstein, William; Sifferd, Katrina
Estrogen plays a crucial role in fetal and placental development through estrogen receptors. Association of estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) polymorphisms with spontaneous abortion has been shown in some studies. Our main goal was to study the potential association of spontaneous abortion with the ESR1 gene variations (PvuII and XbaI) in fetal tissue. Totally, 161 samples were recruited including 80 samples of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded fetal tissue from spontaneous abortion and 81 samples of normal term placental tissue. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method was performed for genotyping the rs2234693 (A/G XbaI) and rs9340799 (T/C PvuII) single nucleotide polymorphisms located in intron 1 of ESR1. The results have been confirmed by DNA sequencing analysis. The different genotypes distribution was detected in two study groups. Haplotype analysis indicated that ppxx is protective genotype against spontaneous abortion (P = 0.01). In conclusion, the potential role of ESR1 genetic variation in spontaneous abortion might be valuable in high-risk subjects, and that needs to be confirmed with future studies.
Anousha, Negin; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Biramijamal, Firouzeh; Rahmani, Ali; Maghbooli, Zhila; Aghababaei, Elahe; Nemati, Shahram
This paper analyses discussion on a proposed reform to the abortion law in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2002, as a struggle between different actors - politicians, religious leaders, doctors and feminists - over the meaning of abortion, motherhood and sexuality, and ultimately the value of women's lives. It shows how the interplay of gender discourses and political practices shaped the process of discussion: on one hand by making a broad alliance against abortion possible, on the other by highlighting the contradictory role of the women's movement in this discussion, between a dominant leadership and a low mobilizing capacity. The paper argues for the need of an inwards oriented process within the women's movement, that departs from the recognition of the personal issues at stake for women in order to break the silence surrounding abortion, such as prevailing feelings of fear and guilt. This entails recognition of the limits of the liberal feminist claim to 'abortion as a free choice', as a discourse of rights that is disconnected from the everyday life conditions and constraints under which women make choices and develop their notions of rights. PMID:17457727
Heumann, Silke G
The capability of the HL-20 lifting-body spacecraft to perform an abort maneuver from the launch pad to a horizontal landing was studied. This study involved both piloted and batch simulation models of the vehicle. A point-mass model of the vehicle was used for trajectory optimization studies. The piloted simulation was performed in a fixed-base simulator. A candidate maneuver was developed and refined for the worst-case launch-pad-to-landing-site geometry using an iterative procedure of off-line maneuver analysis followed by piloted evaluations and heuristic improvements to the candidate maneuver. The resulting maneuver demonstrates the launch site abort capability of the HL-20 and dictates requirements for nominal abort motor performance. The sensitivity of the maneuver to variations in several design parameters was documented.
Jackson, E. Bruce; Rivers, Robert A.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.; Ragsdale, W. A.; Geyer, David W.
Based on cross-cultural studies of euthanasia and abortion, we hypothesized that attitudes toward euthanasia and abortion were socioculturally determined. Using a 2 x 2 factorial design, we examined the effects of culture (America and China) and type of death (infanticide and geronticide). We found that students from the American culture were less likely to favor infanticide than those from the Chinese culture, and that students from the People's Republic of China believed infanticide to be more common and more prevalent than geronticide in Chinese society. Finally, we found that education, judgment of population density, and traditional family values were related to attitudes toward euthanasia, abortion, and female infanticide in the Chinese, but not in the American, culture. PMID:15156867
Lee, Y T; Kleinbach, R; H, P C; Peng, Z Z; Chen, X Y
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration created the Constellation program to develop the next generation of manned space vehicles and launch vehicles. The Orion abort system is initiated in the event of an unsafe condition during launch. The system has a controller gains schedule that can be tuned to reduce the attitude errors between the simulated Orion abort trajectories and the guidance trajectory. A program was created that uses the method of steepest descent to tune the pitch gains schedule by an automated procedure. The gains schedule optimization was applied to three potential abort scenarios; each scenario tested using the optimized gains schedule resulted in reduced attitude errors when compared to the Orion production gains schedule.
Stillwater, Ryan Allanque
This paper covers the simulation and evaluation of a controller design for the Crew Module (CM) Launch Abort System (LAS), to measure its ability to meet the abort performance requirements. The controller used in this study is a hybrid design, including features developed by the Government and the Contractor. Testing is done using two separate 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computer simulation implementations of the LAS/CM throughout the ascent trajectory: 1) executing a series of abort simulations along a nominal trajectory for the nominal LAS/CM system; and 2) using a series of Monte Carlo runs with perturbed initial flight conditions and perturbed system parameters. The performance of the controller is evaluated against a set of criteria, which is based upon the current functional requirements of the LAS. Preliminary analysis indicates that the performance of the present controller meets (with the exception of a few cases) the evaluation criteria mentioned above.
Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Raney, David L.
This study investigated a potential Launch Abort System (LAS) Concept of Operations and abort parachute architecture. The purpose of the study was to look at the concept of jettisoning the LAS tower forward (Reverse LAS or RLAS) into the free-stream flow rather than after reorienting to a heatshield forward orientation. A hypothesized benefit was that due to the compressed timeline the dynamic pressure at main line stretch would be substantially less. This would enable the entry parachutes to be designed and sized based on entry loading conditions rather than the current stressing case of a Pad Abort. Ultimately, concerns about the highly dynamic reorientation of the CM via parachutes, and the additional requirement of a triple bridle attachment for the RLAS parachute system, overshadowed the potential benefits and ended this effort.
Litton, Daniel K.; O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Winski, Richard G.
A Muslim woman in her sixteenth week of pregnancy was informed that her ultrasound scan showed spina bifida, and laboratory results confirmed the diagnosis. The child would have various complications and, most probably, would need medical care for life. With the consent of her husband she decided to terminate the pregnancy. Her decision sparked controversy among Muslim clerics in her community, sparking debate between those who would allow abortion for medical reasons and those who oppose abortion for any reason. This paper will review the philosophical and theological arguments of the pro-life and pro-choice groups as well as the Islamic perspective concerning a woman's autonomy over her reproductive system, the sanctity of the fetus and the embryo, therapeutic abortion, and ensoulment. PMID:23573379
Khitamy, Badawy A B
Background Differential diagnosis of hydatidiform moles from non-molar specimens as well as their sub-classification such as complete and partial hydatidiform moles are important for clinical management and accurate risk assessment for persistent gestational trophoblastic disease, but diagnosis based solely on histomorphology suffers from poor interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility. Objectives This study was undertaken to determine whether the expression of Ki-67 protein could differentiate these entities. Materials and Methods We performed Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining in 19 molar (8 partial and 11 complete moles) and 10 non-molar (hydropic abortions) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Ploidy analysis using flow cytometry had confirmed diploidy in hydropic abortions and complete moles and triploidy in partial moles. Results Ki-67 immunoreactivity was assessed in villous cytotrophoblasts, syncytiotrophoblasts and stromal cells. Positive cells were found to be restricted mostly to the villous cytotrophoblasts, while syncytiotrophoblasts showed an absence of immunostaining for Ki-67, and occasional weak nuclear staining was seen in the stromal cells. There was a significant difference in Ki-67 immunoreactivity of cytotrophoblastic cells between hydropic abortions and complete moles (P < 0.001), hydropic abortions and partial moles (P = 0.002) and also between complete and partial moles (P < 0.001). On the other hand, there is significant overlap in the Ki-67 immunoreactivity between complete and partial moles (++ staining category) and between partial moles and hydropic abortions (+ staining category). Conclusions Despite the significant differences , Ki-67 immunostaining could not be helpful in distinguishing molar placentas from hydropic abortions as well as partial from complete hydatidiform moles, because there are considerable overlaps between results in different categories.
Khooei, Alireza; Atabaki Pasdar, Fatemeh; Fazel, Alireza; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Nikravesh, Mohammad Reza; Khaje Delui, Mohammad; Pourheydar, Bagher
A suborbital abort guidance scheme is presented for returning the orbiter vehicle to the launch site in the event of a booster malfunction. The guidance scheme described, referred to as FBGUID, represents a simple closed-form technique to the flyback abort problem. In addition to returning to the launch site, objectives of the formulation are to preclude excessive structural and heating loads. A demonstration of the feasibility of this abort guidance concept is included for a 150-second abort time.
Lacy, W. R.
Background: Septic abortion caused by transplacental salmonella infection is extremely rare; there are no reported cases of serotype oranienburg as an etiology. Case: We describe a patient with non-typhoidal Salmonella enteritidis serotype oranienburg as a cause of first-trimester pregnancy loss. The rapid progression of this patient's septicemia and adverse outcome is described. The epidemiology and natural history of salmonella infections are also discussed. Conclusion: Non-typhoidal salmonella is still a cause of morbidity in Western countries. This infection can result in rapid-onset fetal demise and septic abortion.
Jelsema, Russel D.; Isada, Nelson B.
In a prospective survey neural tube defects and other congenital abnormalities were studied in the babies born to 510 mothers ascertained during pregnancy. The women were divided into two groups according to the outcome of their immediately preceding pregnancy. Those whose preceding pregnancy had resulted in a spontaneous abortion (256 women) formed the index cases; those in whom the outcome had been a normal baby (254 women) served as controls. There was a highly significant increased number of congenital abnormalities in the index cases. This may possibly be explained by the trophoblastic "rest" hypothesis and suggests that spontaneous abortions are more relevent to congenital abnormalities than has been thought.
Gardiner, A; Clarke, C; Cowen, J; Finn, R; McKendrick, O
Background. This is a case of 18-year-old adolescent girl admitted with profuse vaginal bleeding following induced second trimester curettage abortion at 13 weeks of gestation. Case. Her transvaginal sonogram detected retained products of conceptus, and her blood reports revealed a full blown picture of DIC. Dilatation and evacuation was done after initial resuscitation with packed RBCs and platelet concentrates. She had an uneventful recovery period. Conclusion. DIC is an extremely life-threatening condition which can occur as a very infrequent complication of second trimester abortion. PMID:21647233
The main objective of this text is to offer a solution to the present debate about abortion. Two experts could represent the most important opinions about this topic. On the one hand, Julián Marías, the Spanish philosopher, who thinks that abortion is always a crime against human life and dignity. On the other hand, we will find a different view in the works of Peter Singer in an article of M. A. Warren. The reasons from one and another will be shown to find a solution to this intricate controversy. PMID:21090845
Monfort Prades, Juan Manuel
The Guide to Foreign and International Legal Databases is a compendium of useful online legal resources worldwide. Written and maintained by Mirela Roznovschi--Reference Librarian for Foreign and International Law at the New York University School of Law--the guide offers users an organized approach to the overwhelming amount of legal information available on the Internet. The searchable guide is divided conveniently into twenty topic areas related to foreign and international law. Within each topic section, a compilation of briefly annotated legal links direct users to relevant resources. In addition to the guide, the site provides a section entitled How to Evaluate a Legal Database on the Internet, which contains a detailed evaluation form for rating the usefulness of online legal resources.
Extending work of Cook et al. (1999, 1996), this paper examines abortion funding cutoffs for poor women in North Carolina, a unique setting allowing for a strong quasi- experimental design. Using vital registration data and additional administrative data from North Carolina, we decompose program effects on the abortion\\/birth ratio into two compon- ents: coverage (i.e., the proportion of all abortions
S. PHILIP MORGAN; ALLAN M. PARNELL
The efficacy of sulfadimidine (4 doses of 33 mg/kg body weight, IM, q48h) against Toxoplasma abortion was assessed in 3 dairy goat herds suffering from Toxoplasma abortions during the 4th month of gestation. This protocol was very effective for the control of Toxoplasma abortions (P < 0.01).
Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Lafi, Shawkat Q.; Ioannidou, Evi; Papadopoulos, Elias; Terpsidis, Konstantinos; Karanikolas, George; Petridou, Evanthia J.; Brozos, Christos; Karatzias, Harilaos
summary Objectives: To examine associations between abortion and relationship functioning. Study design: Independent variables included abortion in a previous relationship and abortion in a current relationship. Perceptions of quality-of-life changes associated with terminating the relation- ship, conflict, aggressiveness and sexual dysfunction were the outcome measures. Methods: Data were derived from interviews with an ethnically diverse urban sample of men (n
P. K. Coleman; V. M. Rue; C. T. Coyle
Background Despite changes to the South African abortion legislation in 1996, barriers to women accessing abortions still exist. Second trimester abortions, an inherently more risky procedure, continue to be 20% of all abortions. Understanding the reasons why women delay seeking an abortion until the second trimester is important for informing interventions to reduce the proportion of second trimester abortions in South Africa. Methods Qualitative research methods were used to collect data. Twenty-seven in-depth interviews were conducted in 2006 with women seeking a second trimester abortion at one public sector tertiary hospital and two NGO health care facilities in the greater Cape Town area, South Africa. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results Almost all women described multiple and interrelated factors that influenced the timing of seeking an abortion. Reasons why women delayed seeking an abortion were complex and were linked to changes in personal circumstances often leading to indecision, delays in detecting a pregnancy and health service related barriers that hindered access to abortion services. Conclusion Understanding the complex reasons why women delay seeking an abortion until the second trimester can inform health care interventions aimed at reducing the proportion of second trimester abortions in South Africa.
Harries, Jane; Orner, Phyllis; Gabriel, Mosotho; Mitchell, Ellen
Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle while limited information is presently available on association between equine Neospora infections and abortions. The aim of the present study was to document prevalence of antibodies against Neospora sp. in aborted mares as a clue to the role of N. caninum in mare reproductive
Pierre-Hugues Pitel; Stéphane Romand; Stéphane Pronost; Nathalie Foucher; Gilles Gargala; Karine Maillard; Philippe Thulliez; Claire Collobert-Laugier; Daniel Tainturier; Guillaume Fortier; Jean Jacques Ballet
ABSTRACTThis article analyzes the relationship between abortion and female education. It provides new empirical evidence from sub-Saharan Africa to show that more liberal abortion policies are associated with a higher female secondary school enrollment. It is assumed in the model that easier access to abortion decreases probability of dropping out of school for a female child in the case of
Leonid V. Azarnert
A hopeful note in the contemporary abortion environment in the United States is the expanding role of advanced practice clinicians – nurse practitioners, physician assistants and nurse-midwives – in first trimester abortion provision. A large percentage of primary health care in the US is currently provided by these non-physicians but their involvement in abortion care is promising, especially in light
Carole Joffe; Susan Yanow