Sample records for abortion legal

  1. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  2. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Donohue; Steven D. Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater

  3. Legal abortion in Finland.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, K

    1971-01-01

    The 1950 abortion law in Finland allowed the operation in cases where pregnancy threatened maternal health, where women were criminally raped, or were under 16, or where hereditary disease was present. From 1951 to 1969, the number of abortions per 1000 births increased from 32.2 to 121.2. The new abortion law of 1970 expanded the old law by permitting the operation if delivery and care of child would strain family resources, if the mother was under 17, or if she was over 40 and had 4 children. The number of abortions has doubled from 1969 to 1970. The consent for abortion has increased from 54.5 percent to 83.8 percent of the applications. PMID:12256202

  4. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  5. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Child Health Outcomes and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EA 4272 The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Child Health Outcomes and Abandonment. Evidence from,version1-7Apr2010 #12;The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Child Health Outcomes and Abandonment. Evidence and a unique census of institutionalized children to analyze the impact of abortion legalization in Romania

  6. Making legal abortion accessible in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal; Leocádio, Elcylene; Andalaft, Jorge

    2002-05-01

    Abortion is legal in Brazil if it is the only means to save the woman's life or if the pregnancy is the result of rape. Although this has been the law for over 60 years, it has almost never been applied until recent years. In the past five years, the number of hospitals providing care to women victims of sexual violence has increased from 4 to 63, of which 40 are currently providing legal abortions. This paper describes a sensitization project and advocacy work carried out from within the obstetric and gynaecology establishment which has succeeded in motivating many key individuals and hospital staff to provide services for pregnancy termination in cases of rape. The dialogue between medical leaders and women's rights advocates and the emphasis on comprehensive care of women who have suffered sexual violence are key elements in the success of this initiative. The support of medical professionals, the organization and strength of the women's health and rights movement, the political support at federal, state and city government levels, including from the Federal Ministry of Health, and ongoing advocacy within the medical establishment have all been important elements in making the provision of services a reality. PMID:12369314

  7. Constructing access to legal abortion services in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Billings, Deborah L; Moreno, Claudia; Ramos, Celia; González de León, Deyanira; Ramírez, Rubén; Villaseñor Martínez, Leticia; Rivera Díaz, Mauricio

    2002-05-01

    For the last three decades, government and health institutions have recognised that unsafe abortion is an important social and public health problem in Mexico. Although the Penal Code in every state defines at least one situation in which abortion is legal, access to legal abortion services is restricted for women throughout Mexico. In August 2000, the Mexico City Legislative Assembly reformed the Penal Code to include a wider range of grounds on which abortion is legal and added regulations to ensure access to legal abortion services in cases of rape and forced artificial insemination. The Mexican Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the reforms in January 2002. This paper describes a collaborative project between Ipas Mexico and the Mexico City Department of Health to provide legal abortions in cases of rape and to ensure that comprehensive health services for survivors of sexual violence are available and accessible. It describes a model of care being introduced into 15 public general and maternal-child health hospitals in Mexico City through a programme of multi-disciplinary consciousness-raising workshops and training courses on sexual violence and legal abortion. Few health care providers have had prior training in service provision for survivors of sexual violence or abortion service delivery. Workshop participants showed a high level of willingness to participate in legal abortion services for survivors of sexual violence when and if they are receive solid institutional support. PMID:12369335

  8. Making legal abortion available in Brazil: partnerships in practice.

    PubMed

    Villela, W V; Araújo, M J

    2000-11-01

    This article describes the participation of feminist groups who work in the area of women's reproductive health and rights in campaigns for the provision of legal abortion in public hospitals in Brazil. Brazilian criminal law permits therapeutic abortion in cases where pregnancy is the result of rape or poses a serious risk to the life of the woman. Today, as a result of the combined efforts of feminists, health professionals and policymakers, more than 20 hospitals in Brazil are officially permitted to perform therapeutic abortions within the existing law. A model programme has also been developed to train service providers to do legal abortions, where the agreement of a hospital board can be obtained. This training has also improved care for illegally obtained, incomplete abortions in those hospitals but not in hospitals where doctors have not been trained. Problems with lack of access and concerns about the lack of public acceptance of abortion remain. Women not only need the right to abortion but also more services and health professionals who are trained to perform abortions across the whole country. PMID:11424253

  9. [Abortion in Colombia. Medical, legal and socioeconomic aspects].

    PubMed

    Umaña, A O

    1973-01-01

    Abortion is a social problem and criminal sanctions are very ineffective in limiting it and are seldom applied (133 legal actions vs. 65,600 cases of induced abortion in 1965). Abortion is a social disease, as are prostitution, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse, and so far has been an insoluble problem. Colombian laws should be modified to reflect reality. Sex education must be emphasized, because ignorance is one of the main causes of abortion. Leniency should be applied toward women who cooperate with the authorities in identifying the person who performed an abortion. Legalization of abortion and enforcement of strict laws against it are considered as possible solutions, but both are rejected. The former is regarded as morally unacceptable and as imposing an excessive burden on scarce health services, the latter as even worse, imposing an equivalent burden on the court system, without s olving either health or social problems. The best and probably only solution is to improve education in family planning, to promote knowledge and motivation to enable the population to make sound and responsible decisions. PMID:4804875

  10. Legal and Ethical Issues in Evaluating Abortion Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Lori E.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on ethical and legal issues that arose in the evaluation of abortion services. Discusses the development of decision rules and tradeoffs in dealing with these issues to reach rational and objective decisions. Places the discussion in the context of balancing usefulness and propriety with respect to informed consent and privacy and makes…

  11. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on High School Graduation through Selection and Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines whether the legalization of abortion changed high school graduation rates among the children selected into birth. Unless women in all socio-economic circumstances sought abortions to the same extent, increased use of abortion must have changed the distribution of child development inputs. I find that higher abortion ratios…

  12. Legal Abortions, SocioeconomicStatus, and Measured Intelligence in the United States

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Joel E.

    Legal Abortions, SocioeconomicStatus, and Measured Intelligence in the United States Joel E. Cohen practice of therapeutic abortions in the United States. Unless otherwise specified, all abortions dscussed constructionof an asso- ciation between frequency of abortions and meaared intelligence. If the frequencies of

  13. Reproductive characteristics and post-abortion health consequences in women undergoing illegal and legal abortion in Maputo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda Machungo; Giovanni Zanconato; Staffan Bergström

    1997-01-01

    In the Maputo Central Hospital 103 women undergoing induced legal abortion (LA), 103 women with confirmed, recent illegal abortion (IA), and 100 randomly recruited antenatal clinic (AC) attenders were compared in order to find characteristic features regarding obstetric history, reproductive performance and contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practice. Women with IA were younger, had almost never undergone LA, had more often

  14. [Abortion].

    PubMed

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1971-01-01

    The historical and current (1969) abortion laws in France as well as those in other Western countries are analyzed. France has had a series of punitive abortion codes since the Napoleonic Code of 1810 prescribing solitary confinement for the woman. The reforms of 1920 and 1923 made provocation of abortion or contraceptional propaganda a "crime" (felony), later a "delit" (misdemeanor), called for trial before magistr ate instead of jury, but resulted in only about 200 convictions a year. The decree of 1939 extended the misdemeanor to women who aborted even if they were not pregnant, and provided for professional licenses such as that of surgeon or pharmacist to be suspended. The law of 1942 made abortion a social crime and increased the maximum penalty to capital punishment, which was exercised in 2 cases. About 4000 per year were convicted from 1942-1944. Now the law still applies to all who intend to abort, whether or not pregnant or successful, but punishemnt is limited to 1-5 years imprisonment, and 72,000 francs fine, or suspension of medical practice for 5 years. About 500 have been convicted per year. Since 1955 legal abortion has been available (to about 130 women over 4 years) if it is the only means to save the woman's life. Although pregnancy tests are controlled, the population desregards the law by resorting to clandestine abortion. The wealthy travel to Switzerland (where 68% of legal abortions are done on French women) or to England. Numbers are estimated by the French government at 250,000-300,000 per year, or 1 for every 2 live births, but by hospital statistics at 400,000-1,000,000 per year. The rest of the review covers abortion laws in Scandinavian, Central European, and individual US states as of 1969. PMID:12333138

  15. The effect of legalization and public funding of abortion on neonatal mortality: An intervention analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael K. Miller; C. Shannon Stokes; Rex H. Warland

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the legalization of abortion on neonatal mortality in the United States. Monthly time series data are used to estimate intervention models separately for the U.S. as a whole and for the States of New York and South Carolina. Legalization of abortion in 1973 is found to have no discernible impact on national neonatal mortality

  16. Rape as a legal indication for abortion: implications and consequences of the medical examination requirement.

    PubMed

    Teklehaimanot, K I; Smith, C Hord

    2004-01-01

    A number of countries adopt abortion laws recognizing rape as a legal ground for access to safe abortion service. As rape is a crime, these abortion laws carry with them criminal and health care elements that in turn result in the involvement of legal and medical expertise. The most common objective of the laws should be providing safe abortion services to women survivors of rape. Depending on purposes of a given abortion law, the laws usually require women to undergo a medical examination to qualify for a legal abortion. Some abortion laws are so vague as to result in uncertainties regarding the steps health personnel must follow in conducting medical examination. Another group of abortion laws do not leave room for regulation and remain too rigid to respond to changing socio-economic circumstances. Still others require medical examination as a prerequisite for abortion. As a result, a number of abortion laws remain on the books. The paper attempts to analyze legal and practical issues related to medical examination in rape cases. PMID:15163078

  17. Illegal births and legal abortions – the case of China

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Elina; Wu, Zhuochun; Cao, Guiying; Viisainen, Kirsi

    2005-01-01

    Background China has a national policy regulating the number of children that a woman is allowed to have. The central concept at the individual level application is "illegal pregnancy". The purpose of this article is to describe and problematicize the concept of illegal pregnancy and its use in practice. Methods Original texts and previous published and unpublished reports and statistics were used. Results By 1979 the Chinese population policy was clearly a policy of controlling population growth. For a pregnancy to be legal, it has to be defined as such according to the family-level eligibility rules, and in some places it has to be within the local quota. Enforcement of the policy has been pursued via the State Family Planning (FP) Commission and the Communist Party (CP), both of which have a functioning vertical structure down to the lowest administrative units. There are various incentives and disincentives for families to follow the policy. An extensive system has been created to keep the contraceptive use and pregnancy status of all married women at reproductive age under constant surveillance. In the early 1990s FP and CP officials were made personally responsible for meeting population targets. Since 1979, abortion has been available on request, and the ratio of legal abortions to birth increased in the 1980s and declined in the 1990s. Similar to what happens in other Asian countries with low fertility rates and higher esteem for boys, both national- and local-level data show that an unnaturally greater number of boys than girls are registered as having been born. Conclusion Defining a pregnancy as "illegal" and carrying out the surveillance of individual women are phenomena unique in China, but this does not apply to other features of the policy. The moral judgment concerning the policy depends on the basic question of whether reproduction should be considered as an individual or social decision. PMID:16095526

  18. Should therapeutic abortion be legal in Nicaragua: the response of Nicaraguan obstetrician-gynaecologists.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Heathe Luz; Blandón, Marta Maria; Altamirano, Ligia

    2002-05-01

    Abortion is legal in Nicaragua only to save the life of the woman. In 2002, amendments to the Penal Code to change the penalties for obtaining and providing illegal abortions and regulations on the authorization of legal abortions are due to be debated in the legislature. In a context of extensive media coverage and debate between women's health and rights groups and a powerful movement to make all abortions illegal, medical professionals have also been effective in influencing law and policy. In May 2001, the Nicaraguan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology presented the results of a study of the views of 198 obstetrician-gynaecologists on pending legislation regulating therapeutic abortion and the medical and ethical implications of providing therapeutic abortion services. All but nine of the 198 participants in the study, who comprised 76% of all registered obstetrician-gynaecologists in Nicaragua, believed that therapeutic abortion should not be criminalized and over 90% believed that there were cases in which therapeutic abortion was necessary to save women's lives. Some also supported legislative reform to allow abortion in cases of rape and fetal malformation. These results countered claims by the Nicaraguan Medical Association (AMN), taken up by the Church and anti-abortion legislators and groups, that therapeutic abortion was no longer necessary due to modern medicine. The election of anti-abortion politicians to powerful positions in early 2002 has created a formidable challenge when the proposed revisions to the Penal Code are debated. PMID:12369313

  19. Public opinion on abortion in eight Mexican states amid opposition to legalization.

    PubMed

    Valencia Rodríguez, Jorge; Wilson, Kate S; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; García, Sandra G; Sánchez Fuentes, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-01

    In opposition to Mexico City's legalization of first-trimester abortion, 17 Mexican states (53 percent) have introduced initiatives or reforms to ban abortion entirely, and other states have similar legislation pending. We conducted an opinion survey in eight states--four where constitutional amendments have already been approved and four with pending amendments. Using logistic regression analyses, we found that higher education, political party affiliation, and awareness of reforms/initiatives were significantly associated with support for the Mexico City law. Legal abortion was supported by a large proportion of respondents in cases of rape (45-70 percent), risk to a woman's life (55-71 percent), and risk to a woman's health (48-68 percent). A larger percentage of respondents favored the Mexico City law, which limits elective legal abortion to the first 12 weeks of gestation (32-54 percent), than elective abortion without regard to gestational limit (14-31 percent). PMID:21972672

  20. Further Evidence that Legalized Abortion Lowered Crime: A Reply to Joyce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, John J., III; Levitt, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    Joyce's failure to uncover a negative relationship between crime and abortion was because of his decision to concentrate on a non-representative six-year period. Evidence supporting the claims that the crack-cocaine epidemic hit the high-abortion early-legalizing states earlier and more severely than other states of the U.S in 1970 is presented.

  1. Ethical and Legal Issues Regarding Selective Abortion of Fetuses with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Noreen M.; Glover, Samuel J.

    1996-01-01

    Selective abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome is discussed in terms of abortion perspectives, genetic testing, legislation, and ethical principles. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice are offered as guidelines for the examination of legal standards imposed by legislation. (Author/PB)

  2. Access to safe legal abortion in Malaysia: women's insights and health sector response.

    PubMed

    Low, Wah-Yun; Tong, Wen-Ting; Wong, Yut-Lin; Jegasothy, Ravindran; Choong, Sim-Poey

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia has an abortion law, which permits termination of pregnancy to save a woman's life and to preserve her physical and mental health (Penal Code Section 312, amended in 1989). However, lack of clear interpretation and understanding of the law results in women facing difficulties in accessing abortion information and services. Some health care providers were unaware of the legalities of abortion in Malaysia and influenced by their personal beliefs with regard to provision of abortion services. Accessibility to safer abortion techniques is also an issue. The development of the 2012 Guidelines on Termination of Pregnancy and Guidelines for Management of Sexual and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Health Clinics by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, is a step forward toward increasing women's accessibility to safe abortion services in Malaysia. This article provides an account of women's accessibility to abortion in Malaysia and the health sector response in addressing the barriers. PMID:25452590

  3. Should doctors be the judges? Ambiguous policies on legal abortion in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Heathe Luz; Mitchell, Ellen M H; Blandon, Marta Maria

    2004-11-01

    Nicaragua's Penal Code permits "therapeutic abortion" without defining the circumstances that warrant it. In the absence of a legally clear definition, therapeutic abortion is variously considered legal only to save the woman's life or also to protect the health of the woman, and in cases of fetal malformation and rape. This paper presents a study of the theory and practice of therapeutic abortion in Nicaragua within this ambiguous legal framework. Through case studies, a review of records and a confidential enquiry into maternal deaths, it shows how ambiguity in the law leads to inconsistent access to legal abortions. Providers based decisions on whether to do an abortion on women's contraceptive behaviour, length of pregnancy, compliance with medical advice, assessment of women's credibility and other criteria tangential to protecting women's health. The Nicaraguan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology aimed to clarify the law by developing a consensus among its members on the definition and indications for therapeutic abortion. If the law designates doctors as the gatekeepers to legal abortion, safeguards are needed to ensure that their decisions are based on those indications, and are consistent and objective. In all cases, women should be the ultimate arbiters of decisions about their reproductive lives, to guarantee their human right to life and health. PMID:15938154

  4. Medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration for legal abortion protect women's health and reduce costs to the health system: findings from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2015-02-01

    The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system. PMID:25702076

  5. Legal Barriers to Second-Trimester Abortion Provision and Public Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bonnie Scott

    2009-01-01

    Many women need access to abortion care in the second trimester. Most of this care is provided by a small number of specialty clinics, which are increasingly targeted by regulations including bans on so-called partial birth abortion and requirements that the clinic qualify as an ambulatory surgical center. These regulations cause physicians to change their clinical practices or reduce the maximum gestational age at which they perform abortions to avoid legal risks. Ambulatory surgical center requirements significantly increase abortion costs and reduce the availability of abortion services despite the lack of any evidence that using those facilities positively affects health outcomes. Both types of laws threaten to further reduce access to and quality of second-trimester abortion care. PMID:19197087

  6. Legal barriers to second-trimester abortion provision and public health consequences.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bonnie Scott; Weitz, Tracy A

    2009-04-01

    Many women need access to abortion care in the second trimester. Most of this care is provided by a small number of specialty clinics, which are increasingly targeted by regulations including bans on so-called partial birth abortion and requirements that the clinic qualify as an ambulatory surgical center. These regulations cause physicians to change their clinical practices or reduce the maximum gestational age at which they perform abortions to avoid legal risks. Ambulatory surgical center requirements significantly increase abortion costs and reduce the availability of abortion services despite the lack of any evidence that using those facilities positively affects health outcomes. Both types of laws threaten to further reduce access to and quality of second-trimester abortion care. PMID:19197087

  7. Induced abortion in Thailand: current situation in public hospitals and legal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Warakamin, Suwanna; Boonthai, Nongluk; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2004-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Thailand unless the woman's health is at risk or pregnancy is due to rape. This study, carried out in 1999 in 787 government hospitals, examined the magnitude and profile of abortion in Thailand, using data collected prospectively through a review of 45,990 case records (of which 28.5% were classified as induced and 71.5% as spontaneous abortions) and face-to-face interviews with a sub-set of 1854 women patients. The estimated induced abortion ratio was 19.5 per 1000 live births. Almost half the induced abortions were in young women under 25 years of age, many of whom had little or no access to contraception. Socio-economic reasons accounted for 60.2% of abortions. Serious complications were observed in almost a third of cases, especially following abortions performed by non-health personnel. Government physicians' current provision of induced abortion went beyond the provisions of the law in almost half of cases, most commonly for intrauterine death and for congenital anomalies. The paper proposes a framework for policy discussions of the grey areas of maternal and fetal indications leading to legal reform, in order to facilitate safe abortion. A recommendation to amend the abortion law has been proposed to the Ministry of Public Health and the Thai Medical Council. PMID:15938168

  8. Family Planning Evaluation. Abortion Surveillance Report--Legal Abortions, United States, Annual Summary, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning. Information…

  9. “Sometimes they used to whisper in our ears”: health care workers’ perceptions of the effects of abortion legalization in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion has been a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. Since legalization in 2002, more than 1,200 providers have been trained and 487 sites have been certified for the provision of safe abortion services. Little is known about health care workers’ views on abortion legalization, such as their perceptions of women seeking abortion and the implications of legalization for abortion-related health care. Methods To complement a quantitative study of the health effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, we conducted 35 in-depth interviews with physicians, nurses, counsellors and hospital administrators involved in abortion care and post-abortion complication treatment services at four major government hospitals. Thematic analysis techniques were used to analyze the data. Results Overall, participants had positive views of abortion legalization – many believed the severity of abortion complications had declined, contributing to lower maternal mortality and morbidity in the country. A number of participants indicated that the proportion of women obtaining abortion services from approved health facilities was increasing; however, others noted an increase in the number of women using unregulated medicines for abortion, contributing to rising complications. Some providers held negative judgments about abortion patients, including their reasons for abortion. Unmarried women were subject to especially strong negative perceptions. A few of the health workers felt that the law change was encouraging unmarried sexual activity and carelessness around pregnancy prevention and abortion, and that repeat abortion was becoming a problem. Many providers believed that although patients were less fearful than before legalization, they remained hesitant to disclose a history of induced abortion for fear of judgment or mistreatment. Conclusions Providers were generally positive about the implications of abortion legalization for the country and for women. A focus on family planning and post-abortion counselling may be welcomed by providers concerned about multiple abortions. Some of the negative judgments of women held by providers could be tempered through values-clarification training, so that women are supported and comfortable sharing their abortion history, improving the quality of post-abortion treatment of complications. PMID:22520231

  10. On legalizing abortion: an open letter from Mexico's Christian Women's Collective.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In Mexico City the Christian Women's Collective's open letter to the Catholic Church is a response to the Catholic bishops' threats of excommunication of lawmakers in Chiapas State, Mexico, who may have approved a bill legalizing abortion. The bishops maintain that God is a just and merciful God who loves women and suffers with them. The Collective cannot ignore the 2 million women, 1.72 million of whom are Catholics, who undergo illegal abortions annually in Mexico. They tend to be poor and in a union and to have large families. The Collective does not advocate abortion, but recognized that almost all women who have had an abortion were not at all happy to do so. Instead they suffer depression, solitude, shame, and pain. In addition to the moral punishment, these women are at high risk of dying (150,000-200,000 women die annually from illegal abortions). Economic circumstances, health problems, rape, and abandonment threaten their lives, so abortion is a last resort. The Collective maintains that the Catholic Church must understand that God empathized with women's pain, and in sending Jesus, has become one with humanity. The Church must seriously consider this sorrowful and very complex situation and reflect on the circumstances leading to abortion rather than condemn it. It must realize that by choosing abortion women want to avoid harm in those cases where pregnancy could cause death, avoid injustice when rape caused the pregnancy, or avoid giving birth to an infant that society or family cannot sustain. The present adverse and unjust situation contributing to unwanted pregnancy and illegal abortion is a social sin. The Catholic Church needs to build a new pastoral program with women at its center emphasizing sexuality, maternity, and contraception. Indeed, confronting the true social, moral, and political causes of abortion, and avoiding punishment, incarceration, or excommunication will resolve the issue. PMID:12178854

  11. Abortion

    MedlinePLUS

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  12. [Legal abortion. A prospective study of outpatient legal abortion in the Municipal hospital in Arhus during a 1 year period].

    PubMed

    Moller, B R; Diederich, P; Hansen, J T; Oram, V

    1976-02-01

    Results are presented of outpatient induced abortion performed on 608 women 14-46 years of age during the year after the revision of Denmark's abortion law in October 1973. After counseling and testing, the patients were given 10 mg Stesolid iv and a paracervical block of 10 ml lidocaine, 1% adrenalin was applied on each side. After 10 minutes dilation of the cervix a.m. Hegar nr. 9 and deeper to Hegar nr. 11. The uteral cavity was emptied by vacuum aspiration, followed up with a half sharp curette. After 1 hour of observation, the patients could go home. 56% of the patients were 25-years-old or under, a marked increase from the 1969-1971 period. 50% of the patients were in the 8th or less week of pregnancy, compared with .3-36% in various studies in the period 1961-1972. 1.3% of the patients experienced complications, a sharp decrease from previous studies. 62.7% of the patients found the procedure acceptable. The procedure is considered suitable for use in out patient clinics. PMID:1251504

  13. Abortion in a progressive legal environment: the need for vigilance in protecting and promoting access to safe abortion services in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Trueman, Karen A; Magwentshu, Makgoale

    2013-03-01

    The importance of South Africa as a model for reproductive self-determination in Africa cannot be underestimated. Abortion has been legal since 1996, and the country has some of the most developed government systems for the provision of abortion care on the continent. Yet in the same way opponents of abortion in the United States have whittled away at access with increased bureaucracy, South Africa faces similar assaults that leave women without safe care and threaten to turn back achievements made during the past 16 years. I explore the history of the law, subsequent legal challenges, and new threats to women's access to abortion services, including service delivery issues that may influence the future of public health in the country. PMID:23327279

  14. Brazilians have different views on when abortion should be legal, but most do not agree with imprisoning women for abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Aníbal; Duarte, Graciana Alves; de Sousa, Maria Helena; Soares Camargo, Rodrigo Paupério; Pacagnella, Rodolfo Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Unsafe abortions remain a major public health problem in countries with very restrictive abortion laws. In Brazil, parliamentarians - who have the power to change the law - are influenced by "public opinion", often obtained through surveys and opinion polls. This paper presents the findings from two studies. One was carried out in February-December 2010 among 1,660 public servants and the other in February-July 2011 with 874 medical students from three medical schools, both in São Paulo State, Brazil. Both groups of respondents were asked two sets of questions to obtain their opinion about abortion: 1) under which circumstances abortion should be permitted by law, and 2) whether or not women in general and women they knew who had had an abortion should be punished with prison, as Brazilian law mandates. The differences in their answers were enormous: the majority of respondents were against putting women who have had abortions in prison. Almost 60% of civil servants and 25% of medical students knew at least one woman who had had an illegal abortion; 85% of medical students and 83% of civil servants thought this person(s) should not be jailed. Brazilian parliamentarians who are currently reviewing a reform in the Penal Code need to have this information urgently. PMID:24315072

  15. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Results Findings confirm that health providers’ views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, ‘social pressures’ (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers’ decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their ‘discretion’ in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop ‘coping mechanisms’ which impede implementation of abortion policy. Conclusions The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that provider values and attitudes (not just resource constraints) modify providers’ implementation of policy; moreover their power of modification is constrained by organisational hierarchies and mid-level managers. We also revealed differing responses of ‘front line workers’ regarding the pressures they face; whilst midwives are seen globally as providers of safe-abortion services, in Ghana the midwife cadre displays more negative attitudes towards them than doctors. These findings allow the identification of recommendations for evidence-based practice. PMID:23829555

  16. Clients' reports on postabortion family planning services provided in Mexico City's public sector legal abortion program

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Davida; Díaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia, Sandra G.; Harper, Cynthia C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective First trimester abortion was decriminalized in Mexico City in 2007. We studied client views of family planning services provided during abortion care at public facilities and acceptance of postabortion contraception. Methods We surveyed 402 clients seeking first trimester abortion care in Mexico City. We used logistic regression to test whether postabortion contraception varied by abortion visit characteristics or client sociodemographics. Results Most participants (81.6%) reported being offered contraception at their visit and 89.5% selected a contraceptive method postabortion, with 58.9% selecting the IUD. Surgical abortion clients were more likely to report being offered contraception than medical abortion clients (p<.001), as were clients attended by a female physician (p<.05). Clients at the general hospital were less likely to report being offered contraception (p<.001). Conclusion Public sector facilities in Mexico City are providing a generally high level of postabortion family planning care and uptake of postabortion contraception is high. PMID:23499047

  17. Medically indigent women seeking abortion prior to legalization: New York City, 1969-1970.

    PubMed

    Belsky, J E

    1992-01-01

    If the efforts now underway to limit access to abortion services in the United States are successful, their greatest impact will be on women who lack the funds to obtain abortions elsewhere. There is little published information, however, about the experience of medically indigent women who sought abortions under the old, restrictive state laws. This article details the psychiatric evaluation of 199 women requesting a therapeutic abortion at a large municipal hospital in New York City under a restrictive abortion law. Thirty-nine percent had tried to abort the pregnancy. Fifty-seven percent had concrete evidence of serious psychiatric disorder. Forty-eight percent had been traumatized by severe family disruption, gross emotional deprivation or abuse during childhood. Seventy-nine percent lacked emotional support from the man responsible for the pregnancy, and the majority were experiencing overwhelming stress from the interplay of multiple problems exacerbated by their unwanted pregnancy. PMID:1628716

  18. British gynaecologists' attitudes in 2008 to the provision of legal abortion.

    PubMed

    Savage, W; Francome, C

    2011-05-01

    In 2008, we investigated the attitudes and practice of British consultant gynaecologists towards induced abortion, and made comparisons with our similar survey in 1989. A random sample of one in six (217) was selected from the register of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). The response to the postal questionnaire was 70% (152). Satisfaction with the way the 1967 Abortion Act is operating was expressed by 59% (76% in 1989) and an upper limit of 24 weeks was supported by 50% (77% in 1989). Abortion after 20 weeks was approved to protect health by 92%; after rape by 60% and for serious fetal handicap by 87%. A change in the regulations to require the signature of only one doctor (rather than two) to certify the need for abortion was supported by 65%. Only a minority (41%) provided 2nd trimester abortion in person; 61% would separate abortion provision from general gynaecology; 57% suggested there should be separate abortion units for gestations over 13 weeks and 56% felt that fertility control should become be a sub-specialty. Satisfaction with the Abortion Act 1967 has decreased during the last 20 years. Gynaecologists' attitudes to the indications for 2nd trimester abortion remain wide, with clear implications for women seeking abortion. The service to women would be improved if abortion on request was permitted in the 1st trimester and after only one medical signature in the 2nd trimester. Our view is that the decision to end a pregnancy should be made by the woman and that abortion should be decriminalised. PMID:21534755

  19. Abortion in a restrictive legal context: the views of obstetrician-gynaecologists in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gogna, Mónica; Romero, Mariana; Ramos, Silvina; Petracci, Mónica; Szulik, Dalia

    2002-05-01

    In Argentina, unsafe abortions are the primary cause of maternal mortality, accounting for 32% of maternal deaths. During reform of the National Constitution in 1994, the women's movement effectively resisted the reactionary government/church position on abortion. Health professionals, including obstetrician-gynaecologists, played conflicting roles in this debate. This article presents results from a study carried out in 1998-1999 of the views of 467 obstetrician-gynaecologists from public hospitals in Buenos Aires and its Metropolitan Area, focus group discussions with 60 of them, and interviews with heads of department from 36 of the hospitals. The great majority believed abortion was a serious public health issue; that physicians should provide abortions which are not illegal; that abortion should not be penalized to save the woman's life, or in cases of rape or fetal malformations; and that women having illegal abortions and abortion providers should not be imprisoned. Some 40% thought abortion should not be penalized if it is a woman's autonomous decision. Those who were better disposed towards the de-penalization of abortion cited a combination of public health reasons and the need for social equity. The women's health and rights movement should do advocacy work with this professional community on women's needs and rights, given the prominent role they play in reproductive health care provision and in the public sphere. PMID:12369315

  20. Personal Beliefs and Professional Responsibilities: Ethiopian Midwives' Attitudes toward Providing Abortion Services after Legal Reform.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Sarah Jane; Berhe, Aster; Cherie, Amsale

    2015-03-01

    In 2005, Ethiopia liberalized its abortion law and subsequently authorized midwives to offer abortion services. Using a 2013 survey of 188 midwives and 12 interviews with third-year midwifery students, this cross-sectional research examines midwives' attitudes toward abortion to understand their decisions about service provision. Most midwives were willing to provide abortion services. This willingness was positively and significantly related to clinical experience with abortion, but negatively and significantly related to religiosity, belief that providers have the right to refuse to provide services, and care of patients from periurban as opposed to rural areas. No significant relationship was found with perceptions of abortion stigma, years of work as a midwife, or knowledge of the law. Interview data suggest complex dynamics underlying midwives' willingness to offer services, including conflicts between professional norms and religious beliefs. Findings can inform Ethiopia's efforts to reduce maternal mortality through task-shifting to midwives and can aid other countries that are confronting provider shortages and high levels of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly due to unsafe abortion. PMID:25753060

  1. Does state-level context matter for individuals' knowledge about abortion, legality and health? Challenging the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bessett, Danielle; Gerdts, Caitlin; Littman, Lisa L; Kavanaugh, Megan L; Norris, Alison

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the hypothesis that state-level political context influences individuals' cultural values - the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis - has been invoked to explain the hyper-polarisation of politics in the USA. To test this hypothesis, we examined individuals' knowledge about abortion in relation to the political context of their current state of residence. Drawing from an internet-survey of 586 reproductive-age individuals in the USA, we assessed two types of abortion knowledge: health-related and legality. We found that state-level conservatism does not modify the existing relationships between individual predictors and each of the two types of abortion knowledge. Hence, our findings do not support the 'red states' versus 'blue states' hypothesis. Additionally, we find that knowledge about abortion's health effects in the USA is low: 7% of our sample thought abortion before 12 weeks gestation was illegal. PMID:25622191

  2. Invoking health and human rights to ensure access to legal abortion: the case of a nine-year-old girl from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Hord, Charlotte E; Mitchell, Ellen M H; Blandon, Marta Maria

    2006-01-01

    Human rights and public health advocates working to compel states to guarantee access to legal abortion services face obstacles. We describe the challenges faced by "Rosa", a nine-year old Nicaraguan girl, whose pregnancy following rape sparked international controversy. The health and human rights arguments utilized either to support or undermine her family's petition for access to legal abortion are explored. Rosa's case highlights how laws that narrowly restrict abortion and make access contingent upon health care providers' approval undermine human rights principles. The article analyzes the strengths, limitations, and complementarity of health and human rights approaches for achieving access to safe, legal services in restrictive contexts. The importance of strategic alliances and implications for future cases are considered. PMID:17265755

  3. Abortion laws and medical developments: a medico-legal anomaly in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kerry

    2011-03-01

    In October 2010 the District Court sitting in Cairns, Queensland, found Tegan Leach not guilty of attempting to procure her own abortion and Sergie Brennan not guilty of supplying Leach with the drugs Mifepristone and Misoprostol to procure an abortion. Brennan obtained the drugs from his sister in the Ukraine through the regular postal system. R v Brennan and Leach was the first case in Queensland's history where a woman was charged with procuring her own abortion. The drugs are accepted by the medical profession worldwide for medical abortions. A prosecution witness gave evidence that Mifepristone is not harmful or injurious to the health of a woman and it is listed as an essential medicine by the World Health Organisation and approved for use by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. The jury found the defendants not guilty because they were not satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that the combination of the drugs Mifepristone and Misoprostol was a "noxious" substance under the Criminal Code (Old). This article concludes that there is no regulatory miracle which will stop the traffic of Mifepristone and Misoprostol into Australia and therefore an intelligent regulatory response is required which would make it unnecessary for women to seek Mifepristone and Misoprostol from overseas networks and the internet. Among other things, this would include the repeal of confusing, inappropriate and ineffective abortion laws. PMID:21528743

  4. Can policy analysis theories predict and inform policy change? Reflections on the battle for legal abortion in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Surjadjaja, Claudia; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2011-09-01

    The relevance and importance of research for understanding policy processes and influencing policies has been much debated, but studies on the effectiveness of policy theories for predicting and informing opportunities for policy change (i.e. prospective policy analysis) are rare. The case study presented in this paper is drawn from a policy analysis of a contemporary process of policy debate on legalization of abortion in Indonesia, which was in flux at the time of the research and provided a unique opportunity for prospective analysis. Applying a combination of policy analysis theories, this case study provides an analysis of processes, power and relationships between actors involved in the amendment of the Health Law in Indonesia. It uses a series of practical stakeholder mapping tools to identify power relations between key actors and what strategic approaches should be employed to manage these to enhance the possibility of policy change. The findings show how the moves to legalize abortion have been supported or constrained according to the balance of political and religious powers operating in a macro-political context defined increasingly by a polarized Islamic-authoritarian-Western-liberal agenda. The issue of reproductive health constituted a battlefield where these two ideologies met and the debate on the current health law amendment became a contest, which still continues, for the larger future of Indonesia. The findings confirm the utility of policy analysis theories and stakeholder mapping tools for predicting the likelihood of policy change and informing the strategic approaches for achieving such change. They also highlight opportunities and dilemmas in prospective policy analysis and raise questions about whether research on policy processes and actors can or should be used to inform, or even influence, policies in 'real-time'. PMID:21183461

  5. Public opinion on abortion.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This brief article reports on an opinion poll conducted by Gallup for the "Sunday Telegraph" in 1997, on the eve of the 30th anniversary of the 1967 Abortion Act. The poll revealed that 59% of women thought the current law should be adjusted to allow abortions only up to 10 weeks' gestation. However, this response may be misleading due to pollsters' comparison of the British and French abortion law and the misinformation about French provisions. In fact, France allows abortions up to 10 weeks on request, and under special circumstances thereafter. 79% supported the provision of abortions through the National Health Service. A poll conducted by the Institute of Economic Affairs found that 56% agreed, 28% disagreed, and 16% neither agreed nor disagreed that "abortion should be legally available on demand for all." Parliamentarians should be informed that 59% of Conservative voters, 59% of Labor voters, and 53% of Liberal Democrat voters agreed with support for legal abortion. 27% of Conservative voters, 26% of Labor voters, and 33% of Liberal Democrat voters disagreed with legal abortion. A poll commissioned for Baraclough Carey, a television production company, found that people were generally well-informed about the gestation age at which abortions were usually performed. 58% answered correctly that abortions were performed under 13 weeks' gestation. 15% believed that abortions were performed between 13 and 19 weeks' gestation; 6% believed they were performed between 20 and 26 weeks. 20% did not know at what gestational age abortions were performed. PMID:12321443

  6. Abortion Before & After Roe

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  7. Prevention of infection after induced abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon L. Achilles; Matthew F. Reeves

    2011-01-01

    One known complication of induced abortion is upper genital tract infection, which is relatively uncommon in the current era of safe, legal abortion. Currently, rates of upper genital tract infection in the setting of legal induced abortion in the United States are generally less than 1%. Randomized controlled trials support the use of prophylactic antibiotics for surgical abortion in the

  8. Midwifery tutors' capacity and willingness to teach contraception, post-abortion care, and legal pregnancy termination in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gertrude Voetagbe; Nathaniel Yellu; Joseph Mills; Ellen Mitchell; Amanda Adu-Amankwah; Koma Jehu-Appiah; Felix Nyante

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ghana has a high maternal mortality rate of 540 per 100 000. Although abortion complications usually are treatable, the risks of morbidity and death increase when treatment is delayed. Delay in care may occur when women have difficulty accessing treatment because health care providers are not trained, equipped, or willing to treat the complications of abortion. Gaps in the

  9. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePLUS

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  10. Abortion and Selection

    E-print Network

    Gruber, Jonathan

    Abortion legalization in the early 1970s led to dramatic changes in fertility. Some research has suggested that it altered cohort outcomes, but this literature has been limited and controversial. In this paper, we provide ...

  11. Women's experiences with the use of medical abortion in a legally restricted context: the case of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Silvina; Romero, Mariana; Aizenberg, Lila

    2015-02-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study exploring the experiences of women living in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, Argentina, with the use of misoprostol for inducing an abortion. We asked women about the range of decisions they had to make, their emotions, the physical experience, strategies they needed to use, including seeking health care advice and in dealing with a clandestine medical abortion, and their overall evaluation of the experience. An in-depth interview schedule was used. The women had either used misoprostol and sought counselling or care at a public hospital (n=24) or had used misoprostol based on the advice of a local hotline, information from the internet or from other women (n=21). Four stages in the women's experiences were identified: how the decision to terminate the pregnancy was taken, how the medication was obtained, how the tablets were used, and reflections on the outcome whether or not they sought medical advice. Safety and privacy were key in deciding to use medical abortion. Access to the medication was the main obstacle, requiring a prescription or a friendly drugstore. Correct information about the number of pills to use and dosage intervals was the least easy to obtain and caused concerns. The possibility of choosing a time of privacy and having the company of a close one was highlighted as a unique advantage of medical abortion. Efforts to improve abortion law, policy and service provision in Argentina in order to ensure the best possible conditions for use of medical abortion by women should be redoubled. PMID:25702064

  12. Abortion ethics.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view of ensoulment. The fetus is owed some moral obligations because of its greatly increased potentiality. After a certain point it deserves legal and moral protection. A woman would have the right to be relieved of carrying the fetus, but she would not have the right to the death of the fetus. A significant moral difference exists in these 2 concepts, and it is this issue that forms the basis of the debate concerning the conflict between maternal and fetal rights. When the rights of the fetus and those of the pregnant woman come into direct conflict the rights of the fetus are always subordinated to those of the women. The 3rd ethical foundation of the abortion debate, that of circumstances of horror and hardship surrounding the pregnancy, is really a combination of the first two. A fetus that is known to suffer from disease or deformity has as many or as few rights vis-a-vis the pregnant woman as does a perfectly healthy fetus. The assignment and hierarchy of fetal rights is not dependent upon the circumstances of conception. The next concern is whether the state can enter the private social spheres to regulate the personal activities of individuals. The Supreme court has never made a statement regarding the moral permissibility of abortion. The Court simply has prevented individual states from interfering with a woman's action based on her personal convictions. This is an important difference, and no step should be taken to abrogate this fundamental civil right. PMID:7041095

  13. Abortion - surgical

    MedlinePLUS

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion uses a vacuum to remove the fetus and related pregnancy material from the uterus. The procedure is ...

  14. Observations on abortion in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Castle, M A; Likwa, R; Whittaker, M

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the findings of a preliminary investigation of women who sought treatment for abortion from the Gynecological Emergency Ward at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. Barriers to obtaining legal abortions are identified and the harsh experiences of women seeking treatment for complications of illegally induced abortion are discussed. The data contribute to an understanding of the intensity of abortion for Zambian women and draw attention to the value of small-scale, qualitative research on women's reproductive health care needs. It is suggested that a study be planned at UTH to determine how health care delivery can be improved for women who seek abortion. PMID:2219228

  15. Unsafe abortion and abortion care in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kinaro, Joyce; Ali, Tag Elsir Mohamed; Schlangen, Rhonda; Mack, Jessica

    2009-11-01

    Unsafe abortion in Sudan results in significant morbidity and mortality. This study of treatment for complications of unsafe abortion in five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan, included a review of hospital records and a survey of 726 patients seeking abortion-related care from 27 October 2007 to 31 January 2008, an interview of a provider of post-abortion care and focus group discussions with community leaders. Findings demonstrate enormous unmet need for safe abortion services. Abortion is legally restricted in Sudan to circumstances where the woman's life is at risk or in cases of rape. Post-abortion care is not easily accessible. In a country struggling with poverty, internal displacement, rural dwelling, and a dearth of trained doctors, mid-level providers are not allowed to provide post-abortion care or prescribe contraception. The vast majority of the 726 abortion patients in the five hospitals were treated with dilatation and curettage (D&C), and only 12.3% were discharged with a contraceptive method. Some women waited long hours before treatment was provided; 14.5% of them had to wait for 5-8 hours and 7.3% for 9-12 hours. Mid-level providers should be trained in safe abortion care and post-abortion care to make these services accessible to a wider community in Sudan. Guidelines should be developed on quality of care and should mandate the use of manual vacuum aspiration or misoprostol for medical abortion instead of D&C. PMID:19962640

  16. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  17. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  18. The Abortion Law Homepage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This privately posted page offers extensive and highly credible information on legislation and jurisprudence relating to abortion in the US. The site offers thoroughly linked discussions of constitutional law, Roe v. Wade, Planned Parenthood v. Casey, state and federal abortion laws, including partial-birth abortion laws, and much more. The hypertext links are to primary documents including court decisions, texts of legislation, court briefs, and oral argument transcripts. There is also an index to primary documents for ease of access. We found the page to have no political agenda. As the author states, "this page is being constructed to help people, regardless of their political bent, understand the background and state of abortion law in America, and access related legal material--especially that which is less available and less well known."

  19. Improving abortion access in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kaposy, Chris

    2010-03-01

    Though abortion is legal in Canada, policies currently in place at various levels of the health care system, and the individual actions of medical professionals, can inhibit access to abortion. This paper examines the various extra-legal barriers to abortion access that exist in Canada, and argues that these barriers are unjust because there are no good reasons for the restrictions on autonomy that they present. The paper then outlines the various policy measures that could be taken to improve access. PMID:18821017

  20. Unsafe Abortion: Global and Regional Incidence, Trends, Consequences, and Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iqbal Shah; Elisabeth Åhman

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This review aims to provide the latest global and regional estimates of the incidence and trends in induced abortion, both safe and unsafe. A related objective is to document maternal mortality due to unsafe abortion. The legal context of abortion and the international discourse on preventing unsafe abortion are reviewed to highlight policy implications and challenges in preventing unsafe

  1. Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Obstacles to Abortion Care: Findings From a Survey of Abortion Patients in Mexico City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davida Becker; Claudia Diaz-Olavarrieta; Clara Juarez; Sandra G. Garcia; Patricio Sanhueza Smith; Cynthia C. Harper

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundFirst-trimester abortion was legalized in Mexico City in 2007, and services are now provided at public and private sites throughout the city. However, little is known about the obstacles women face when seeking abortion care.

  2. Safe abortion: WHO technical and policy guidance.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M; Horga, M

    2004-07-01

    In 2003, the World Health Organization published its well referenced handbook Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems to address the estimated almost 20 million induced abortions each year that are unsafe, imposing a burden of approximately 67 thousand deaths annually. It is a global injustice that 95% of unsafe abortions occur in developing countries. The focus of guidance is on abortion procedures that are lawful within the countries in which they occur, noting that in almost all countries, the law permits abortion to save a woman's life. The guidance treats unsafe abortion as a public health challenge, and responds to the problem through strategies concerning improved clinical care for women undergoing procedures, and the appropriate placement of necessary services. Legal and policy considerations are explored, and annexes present guidance to further reading, international consensus documents on safe abortion, and on manual vacuum aspiration and post-abortion contraception. PMID:15207687

  3. Policy implications of a national public opinion survey on abortion in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García, Sandra G; Tatum, Carrie; Becker, Davida; Swanson, Karen A; Lockwood, Karin; Ellertson, Charlotte

    2004-11-01

    In Mexico, recent political events have drawn increased public attention to the subject of abortion. In 2000, using a national probability sample, we surveyed 3000 Mexicans aged 15-65 about their knowledge and opinions on abortion. Forty-five per cent knew that abortion was sometimes legal in their state, and 79% felt that abortion should be legal in some circumstances. A majority of participants believed that abortion should be legal when a woman's life is at risk (82%), a woman's health is in danger (76%), pregnancy results from rape (64%) or there is a risk of fetal impairment (53%). Far fewer respondents supported legal abortion when a woman is a minor (21%), for economic reasons (17%), when a woman is single (11%) or because of contraceptive failure (11%). In spite of the influence of the Church, most Mexican Catholics believed the Church and legislators' personal religious beliefs should not factor into abortion legislation, and most supported provision of abortions in public health services in cases when abortion is legal. To improve safe, legal abortion access in Mexico, efforts should focus on increasing public knowledge of legal abortion, decreasing the Church's political influence on abortion legislation, reducing the social stigma associated with sexuality and abortion, and training health care providers to offer safe, legal abortions. PMID:15938159

  4. Human rights accountability for maternal death and failure to provide safe, legal abortion: the significance of two ground-breaking CEDAW decisions.

    PubMed

    Kismödi, Eszter; de Mesquita, Judith Bueno; Ibañez, Ximena Andión; Khosla, Rajat; Sepúlveda, Lilian

    2012-06-01

    In 2011, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) issued two landmark decisions. In Alyne da Silva Pimentel v. Brazil, the first maternal death case decided by an international human rights body, it confirms that States have a human rights obligation to guarantee that all women, irrespective of their income or racial background, have access to timely, non-discriminatory, and appropriate maternal health services. In L.C. v. Peru, concerning a 13-year-old rape victim who was denied a therapeutic abortion and had an operation on her spine delayed that left her seriously disabled as a result, it established that the State should guarantee access to abortion when a woman's physical or mental health is in danger, decriminalise abortion when pregnancy results from rape or sexual abuse, review its restrictive interpretation of therapeutic abortion and establish a mechanism to ensure that reproductive rights are understood and observed in all health care facilities. Both cases affirm that accessible and good quality health services are vital to women's human rights and expand States' obligations in relation to these. They also affirm that States must ensure national accountability for sexual and reproductive health rights, and provide remedies and redress in the event of violations. And they reaffirm the importance of international human rights bodies as sources of accountability for sexual and reproductive rights violations, especially where national accountability is absent or ineffective. PMID:22789080

  5. Youth often risk unsafe abortions.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B

    1993-10-01

    The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to seeking safe abortion. Some countries lack adequately trained medical personnel and supplies. Mortality and morbidity declines are considered possible with legalization, more trained health personnel, and family planning programs for youth and education for parents. PMID:12287144

  6. Enablers of and Barriers to Abortion Training

    PubMed Central

    Guiahi, Maryam; Lim, Sahnah; Westover, Corey; Gold, Marji; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the legalization of abortion services in the United States, provision of abortions has remained a controversial issue of high political interest. Routine abortion training is not offered at all obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) training programs, despite a specific training requirement by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Previous studies that described Ob-Gyn programs with routine abortion training either examined associations by using national surveys of program directors or described the experience of a single program. Objective We set out to identify enablers of and barriers to Ob-Gyn abortion training in the context of a New York City political initiative, in order to better understand how to improve abortion training at other sites. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 22 stakeholders from 7 New York City public hospitals and focus group interviews with 62 current residents at 6 sites. Results Enablers of abortion training included program location, high-capacity services, faculty commitment to abortion training, external programmatic support, and resident interest. Barriers to abortion training included lack of leadership continuity, leadership conflict, lack of second-trimester abortion services, difficulty obtaining mifepristone, optional rather than routine training, and antiabortion values of hospital personnel. Conclusions Supportive leadership, faculty commitment, and external programmatic support appear to be key elements for establishing routine abortion training at Ob-Gyn residency training programs. PMID:24404266

  7. Achieving transparency in implementing abortion laws.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Erdman, J N; Dickens, B M

    2007-11-01

    National and international courts and tribunals are increasingly ruling that although states may aim to deter unlawful abortion by criminal penalties, they bear a parallel duty to inform physicians and patients of when abortion is lawful. The fear is that women are unjustly denied safe medical procedures to which they are legally entitled, because without such information physicians are deterred from involvement. With particular attention to the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Human Rights Committee, the Constitutional Court of Colombia, the Northern Ireland Court of Appeal, and the US Supreme Court, decisions are explained that show the responsibility of states to make rights to legal abortion transparent. Litigants are persuading judges to apply rights to reproductive health and human rights to require states' explanations of when abortion is lawful, and governments are increasingly inspired to publicize regulations or guidelines on when abortion will attract neither police nor prosecutors' scrutiny. PMID:17889879

  8. Clandestine Operations: The Vancouver Womens Caucus, the Abortion Caravan, and the RCMP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christabelle Sethna; Steve Hewitt

    2009-01-01

    In 1969, the reform of the Criminal Code legalized contraception, abortion, and homosexual acts between consenting adults. Yet the conditions under which legal abortion was now permissible were so restrictive that the new abortion law provoked widespread discontent. One women’s liberation group, the fledging Vancouver Women’s Caucus (VWC), outlined a plan to travel to Ottawa between February and May 1970

  9. Abortion under Greek law: parental consent for a minor's abortion.

    PubMed

    Mavroforou, Anna; Giannoukas, Athanasios; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    As medical abortion becomes more widely used and available in Greece, several issues are emerging and require clarification. Health care providers often face a dilemma when dealing with an adolescent requesting abortion. Parents' consent is mandatory before delivering any kind of treatment to minors. However, as it appears in the case presented here, the circumstances are not always straightforward. A critical review of the Greek legal framework in relation to the current social context is attempted through an interesting case aiming to elicit potential defects of the law that should be addressed by the legislator. PMID:12889646

  10. Safe abortion: a right for refugees?

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Aimee

    2002-05-01

    Thanks to initiatives since 1994, most reproductive health programmes for refugee women now include family planning and safe delivery care. Emergency contraception and post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortion are recommended, but provision of these services has lagged behind, while services for women who wish to terminate an unwanted pregnancy are almost non-existent. Given conditions in refugee settings, including high levels of sexual violence, unwanted pregnancies are of particular concern. Yet the extent of need for abortion services among refugee women remains undocumented. UNFPA estimates that 25-50% of maternal deaths in refugee settings are due to complications of unsafe abortion. Barriers to providing abortion services may include internal and external political pressure, legal restrictions, or the religious affiliation of service providers. Women too may be pressured to continue pregnancies and are often unable to express their needs or assert their rights. Abortion advocacy efforts should highlight the specific needs of refugee women and encourage provision of services where abortion is legally indicated, especially in cases of rape or incest, and risk to a woman's physical and mental health. Implementation of existing guidelines on reducing the occurrence and consequences of sexual violence in refugee settings is also important. Including refugee women in international campaigns for expanded access to safe abortion is critical in addressing the specific needs of this population. PMID:12369319

  11. Therapeutic abortion and its psychological implications: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Greenglass, E R

    1975-10-18

    Approximately 9 months after a legal therapeutic abortion, 188 Canadian women were interviewed. One half were single and the rest were married, separated or divorced. They were matched closely for a number of demographic variables with control women who had not had abortions. Neurotic disturbance in several areas of personality functioning was assessed from questionnaire responses. Out of 27 psychological scales, differences between the abortion and control groups were found on only 3: in general, women who had had abortions were more rebellious than control women, abortion tended to be associated with somewhat greater depression in married women, and single women who had had abortions scored higher on the shallow-affect scale. However, all the personality scores were well within the normal range. Perceived social support was strongly associated with favourable psychological reactions after abortion. Use of contraceptives improved greatly after the abortion, when over 90% of women reported using contraceptives regularly. PMID:803127

  12. Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su’ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M. S. L.; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li

    2012-01-01

    Background Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students’ attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. Methods and Results A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students’ pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students’ attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. Conclusions Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights. PMID:23300600

  13. 25 years later, US abortion war still drags on.

    PubMed

    Rovner, J

    1998-01-31

    In the 25 years since the US Supreme Court's landmark Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing abortion, activists on both sides of the issue have drawn further apart as they have vied for the support of the majority of US voters who express ambivalence towards the law. These voters believe that abortion may be murder but that it must be legal. The Roe vs. Wade anniversary has sparked new legislative priorities on both sides. Abortion-rights activists will seek legislation that attempts to decrease the need for abortion by increasing funding for family planning services in the US and abroad, supporting funding for contraceptive research, and requiring health insurers to pay for contraceptives. Abortion opponents will continue to press for "partial birth" abortion bans and will support efforts to make it a federal crime for an adult to transport a minor across state lines to evade state parental notification or consent laws. PMID:9652629

  14. Abortion Law Around the World: Progress and Pushback

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is a global trend toward the liberalization of abortion laws driven by women’s rights, public health, and human rights advocates. This trend reflects the recognition of women’s access to legal abortion services as a matter of women’s rights and self-determination and an understanding of the dire public health implications of criminalizing abortion. Nonetheless, legal strategies to introduce barriers that impede access to legal abortion services, such as mandatory waiting periods, biased counseling requirements, and the unregulated practice of conscientious objection, are emerging in response to this trend. These barriers stigmatize and demean women and compromise their health. Public health evidence and human rights guarantees provide a compelling rationale for challenging abortion bans and these restrictions. PMID:23409915

  15. [Decriminalization of abortion: a common purpose in Latin America].

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    In the conviction that abortion is a fundamental right of women and that its illegal practice constitutes a serious threat to life, several Latin American women's groups have united to work for decriminalization. The groups have been attempting to increase public awareness of the consequences of illegal abortion. Official silence on the topic appears to deny the existence of a problem. Proposals in the different Latin American countries are adapted to their political and legal circumstances. In Argentina, a campaign has been underway for nearly two years to collect signatures for a petition for a law concerning contraception and abortion. The National Network for Women's Health and other groups have held regional and national workshops on the issue. In Bolivia, radio and television programs have been broadcast in Spanish and indigenous languages on the right to choose, reproductive health, and sex education. Abortion was debated in Brazil during the process of constitutional reform, but it remains illegal. Illegal abortion continues to be a reality and women's groups are lobbying for decriminalization. Abortion is considered a crime in Colombia's penal code. Attempts to legalize abortion have been rejected by the legislature without debate. The practice of abortion under the circumstances has become a lucrative business whose lack of regulation has resulted in a growing number of maternal deaths. Attempts are underway in Costa Rica to legalize abortion in cases of rape or incest. Studies show that illegal abortion is the third most important cause of maternal death. A bill to legalize abortion is under study in Chile's Parliament but has not been approved. Abortion is illegal but common in Ecuador. Efforts are underway in Mexico and Nicaragua to encourage debate on abortion. Peru's Health Commission was recently prevented from classifying abortion for any reason other than grave congenital anomaly as homicide. Abortion has been legal in Puerto Rico since 1974, but amendments and laws to limit this right are under study. A bill to legalize abortion is under study in Venezuela and is being promoted by feminist groups. PMID:12287891

  16. Right to protection from unsafe abortion and postabortion care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anibal Faúndes; Kamini Rao; Leonel Briozzo

    2009-01-01

    The International Congress on Population and Development (ICPD) Programme of Action urged governments and intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations to reduce women's recourse to abortion through improved family planning services; reliable information and counseling should be readily accessible to women who have unwanted pregnancies; where abortion is legal, it should be safe; and in all cases, quality services for management of

  17. The ethics of abortions for fetuses with congenital abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Jotkowitz; Ari Z. Zivotofsky

    2010-01-01

    Abortion remains a highly contentious moral issue, with the debate usually framed as a battle between the fetus's right to life and the woman's right to choose. Often overlooked in this debate is the impact of the concurrent legalization of abortion and the development of new prenatal screening tests on the birth prevalence of many inherited diseases. Most proponents of

  18. The ethics of abortions for fetuses with congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Jotkowitz, Alan; Zivotofsky, Ari Z

    2010-10-01

    Abortion remains a highly contentious moral issue, with the debate usually framed as a battle between the fetus's right to life and the woman's right to choose. Often overlooked in this debate is the impact of the concurrent legalization of abortion and the development of new prenatal screening tests on the birth prevalence of many inherited diseases. Most proponents of abortion support abortion for fetuses with severe congenital diseases, but there has unfortunately been, in our opinion, too little debate over the moral appropriateness of abortion for much less severe congenital conditions such as Down's syndrome, deafness, and dwarfism. Due to scientific advances, we are looking at a future in which prenatal diagnosis will be safer and more accurate, raising the specter, and the concomitant ethical concerns, of wholesale abortions. Herein, we present a reframing of the abortion debate that better encompasses these conditions and offers a more nuanced position. PMID:20561739

  19. Estimates of demand for abortion among Soviet immigrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, more than 185,000 Soviet Jews emigrated to Israel, increasing Israel's population by 4 percent; 148,000 more arrived in 1991. Given the fertility and abortion patterns prevailing among Soviet women in their native country, this article inquires about the short-range expected increase in abortion demand in Israel engendered by this large migratory inflow. Estimation techniques based on the abortion experience of an earlier wave of Soviet-born immigrants in Israel reveal that the increase in requests for abortion brought about by the 1990 immigrants may reach up to 14 percent, and as high as 24 percent for the combined immigration waves of 1990 and 1991. The expanded demand for abortions in Israel engendered by the new Soviet immigrants necessitates an expansion of both family planning services and of the medical committees entitled to grant a legal abortion. A failure in these fields would benefit illegal abortion. PMID:1412599

  20. Protest Motherhood: Pregnancy Decision-Making Behavior and Attitudes Towards Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesney-Lind, Meda

    The document describes research on womens' attitudes toward abortion and their decision-making when pregnant leading to either birth or abortion. The objective was "to explore how womens' perceptions of the option of legal abortion have affected their pregnancy decision-making behavior" and to note the impact of their particular choices on their…

  1. A Global Review of Laws on Induced Abortion, 1985-1997

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anika Rahman; Laura Katzive; Stanley K. Henshaw

    Context: The legal status of induced abortion helps determine the availability of safe, afford- able abortion services in a country, which in turn influences rates of maternal mortality and mor- bidity. It is important, therefore, for health professionals to know both the current status of abor- tion laws worldwide and the extent to which those laws are changing. Methods: Abortion-related

  2. [History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979].

    PubMed

    Manniche, E

    1982-10-01

    History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979 is reviewed. The 1st Danish law of 1200 did not touch upon the question of induced abortion. From the beginning of the 13th century to Religious Reformation in 1536, Roman Catholic law influenced every aspect of Danish life including induced abortion. In 1683 in King Christian V's constitution called Dansk Lov induced abortion was discussed. Immoral women who aborted fetuses or killed newborn babies were decapitated. In Copenhagen in the years 1624-1632 and 1638-1663 17 women were executed because of induced abortion or murder of newborn babies. Although Dansk Lov was effective till 1866, Danish kings came to treat female criminals less severely since about 1780-1800. For example, between 1855 and 1866 42 women convicted of murder of newborn babies or abortion were given pardon (12 years of imprisonment instead of life sentence). In 1866, abortion and murder of babies were treated separately in the Danish criminal law. Induced abortion meant up to 8 years of imprisonment and labor. In 1930 life sentence was abolished; induced abortion called for only up to 2 years of imprisonment, while those who assisted for money were punished more severely (up to 8 years in prison). In 1937 the Danes legalized induced abortion for medical, ethical, (e.g. rape case) and eugenic reasons. By 1973 legalized abortion was available, free of charge, to every Danish female resident within 12 weeks of pregnancy. In 1980 abortion rate was about 41% of total births. It is estimated 2/3 of Danish women experience abortion. Lastly, illegitimate births and miscarriages are on the rise due to changes in women's social status and role. PMID:6759731

  3. Roe v. Wade. On abortion.

    PubMed

    French, M

    1998-01-01

    In ancient Assyria, fathers held the right of life or death over their newborn infants, but women found to have performed an abortion on themselves or others were impaled and denied burial. This punishment was otherwise reserved for crimes against the state such as high treason or assault on the king. Likewise, in Babylon if a wife arranged her husband's death so that she could marry another man, she was convicted of treason and impaled or crucified. Thus, ancient thought paralleled the husband-wife relationship with that of the state-subject. The small group of men who generally dominate institutions such as the state, the church, or a corporation have a primary demand for obedience and deference to their supreme authority from their underlings. These groups did not condemn abortion because it involved questions of life or death. After all, many states have permitted infanticide, many still sanction execution, and all are willing to sacrifice the lives of their soldiers in war. Patriarchs condemn abortion because they consider it treasonous for a woman to assert the right to use her own judgement and to treat her body as if it were her own and not the property of her husband. This denies the supremacy of the male, which is the first principle of patriarchs. Because patriarchal institutions depend upon the subjection of women, women's bodies become important markers in the struggle for human freedom. This explains why patriarchal institutions in the US have continuously attacked women's right to abortion by fragmenting the statute allowing abortion and attempting to render the fragments illegal. While US women have won other rights that can be protected legally, women require the right to abortion in order to possess the right to physical integrity and to be able to undo what men have done to them. Otherwise, men would be able to create a set-back in women's human rights by forcing women into motherhood. PMID:12178880

  4. The abortion debate in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Faced with a situation in which an estimated 60,000 illegal abortions (a major cause of maternal mortality) were performed annually, the Dominican Republic has adopted a new Health Code which contains a chapter dedicated to maternal health. Included in the new code are cases in which abortion is allowed: 1) when 2 specialists affirm that the pregnancy or childbirth constitutes a risk to the mother's health or life; 2) if the medical history of the parents and 2 doctors confirm the likelihood of the baby being born seriously disabled or deformed; or 3) if the mother's mental health is put in jeopardy by continuing the pregnancy. Despite the disapproval of church representatives, the legalization of abortion was unanimously approved by the Congress. The debate which surrounded the process was increased by a petition signed by more than 260 women decrying the lack of input that women had in the decision-making process. Women's action groups have been trying to widen the context in which the political discussion is taking place to stress the importance of viewing abortion from a reproductive rights perspective. The women's groups wish to prevent a situation in which the discussion surrounding the issue will be limited to legislators and church leaders. The women have pointed out that women should make the decisions about their lives and their bodies. In the meantime, the president of the Congress predicts that illegal abortion will continue in the Dominican Republic regardless of the current provisions for legal abortion. PMID:12286344

  5. Unsafe abortion in adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A Olukoya; A Kaya; B. J Ferguson; C AbouZahr

    2001-01-01

    Every year, an estimated 2.0–4.4 million adolescents resort to abortion. In comparison with adults, adolescents are more likely to delay the abortion, resort to unskilled persons to perform it, use dangerous methods and present late when complications arise. Adolescents are also more likely to experience complications. Consequently, adolescents seeking abortion or presenting with complications of abortion should be considered as

  6. The story of abortion law in Poland.

    PubMed

    Chazan, B

    1996-12-01

    Poland's 1956 abortion law permitted abortion on demand without state control or reporting mechanisms. It has been estimated that this liberal law resulted in as many as 400,000 abortions in 1962 alone. After the Communist regime ended, a new law was passed in March 1993 to provide legal protection to "conceived children." This law allowed abortion only when the pregnancy constitutes a threat to the life or a serious threat to the health of the mother, the fetus is irreversibly damaged, or the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest. Opponents of this law predicted it would result in prosecution of a huge number of women and that it would have an adverse effect on maternal mortality rates. However, there have been only a few court cases to date, and maternal mortality is decreasing. The discussion surrounding this new law has resulted in growing awareness that the fetus is a human being rather than a mass of tissue. Interest in modern contraceptive methods is also increasing. Public opinion polls indicate that most Poles approve of abortions only in the cases indicated by the law and that only 42% of respondents also support availability of abortion for social reasons. However, a law passed in October 1996 will allow women to request abortions for social reasons after counseling and a waiting period. PMID:12222282

  7. Exploring abortion knowledge and opinion among lawyers, an important yet overlooked stakeholder group in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kate S; Garcia, Sandra G; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; McMurtrie, Stephanie M; Valencia, Jorge Armando; Diaz de Leon, Fernanda; Sanchez Fuentes, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Lawyers are important actors shaping the abortion debate in Mexico. Of 250 private and public sector criminal lawyers surveyed from four regions, the majority knew about abortion laws in their states. At least 80% agreed with abortion in cases of rape, risk to a woman's life or health, and fetal malformations. Overall, 61% agreed with the Mexico City law and 84% would defend a woman denied a legal abortion. In multivariate analysis, being very knowledgeable of abortion laws was a significant predictor of more "progressive" abortion opinions, support for the Mexico City law, and support for the health indication. PMID:23066966

  8. Right to abortion: the courts versus the legislatures.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, A H

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court found the right of privacy in various amendments to the Constitution so that a competent woman in the first trimester has an unrestricted right to an abortion if she can find a licensed, willing doctor to perform the procedure. The Court ruled that a state may not adopt legislation to impede the implementation of this desire. National, state, and city governments, however, have tried to block or restrict the right to abortion by imposing conditions. However, 1 in every 11 women of reproductive age had a legal abortion between 1969-77. More than a million abortions were performed in 1975. Few rural hospitals offer abortion. No Catholic institutions permit them, and less than one-third of all non-Catholic, short-term general hospitals do. Most abortions are conducted in clinics. New York and California account for 1 of every 3 abortions. The Supreme Court did not include a government obligation to pay for abortions. When Medicaid was adopted in 1965, nontherapeutic abortions were illegal, therefore, the Court found no reason to cover elective abortions. The Danforth court majority in 1976 concluded that parental consent could not be required of a minor prior to abortion. State laws must offer an alternative procedure, without parental involvement, in which the minor may show that she is mature and responsible enough to make her own decision. PMID:6985600

  9. A learning agenda for abortion stigma: recommendations from the Bellagio expert group meeting.

    PubMed

    Hessini, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Stigma discredits individuals, communities, and institutions and marks them as inferior. The stigma surrounding abortion plays a critical role in its social, medical, and legal marginalization around the world. Based on the existing field of knowledge, in June 19, 2012, researchers, practitioners, and advocates from 11 countries participated in an intensive meeting on abortion stigma to refine a conceptual framework for abortion stigma and set a future learning agenda to guide research and programmatic efforts to address abortion stigma. PMID:25062399

  10. Reproducing inequalities: abortion policy and practice in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Abortion is illegal in Thailand, except in cases when it is considered necessary for a woman's health or in the case of rape. Yet abortions remain common and an important public health issue for women in Thailand. Based upon eight months' ethnographic research carried out in Northeast Thailand, this paper presents findings from a survey of 164 women of reproductive age in rural villages and from interviews with 19 women who have had illegal abortions. A range of techniques to induce abortions are used, including the consumption of abortifacients, massage, and uterine injections by untrained practitioners, and procedures carried out by trained medical personnel. This paper examines the effects of the current laws through the experiences of women who have undergone illegal abortions. Within the restrictive legal context, risk is stratified along economic lines. Poorer women have little choice but to resort to abortions by untrained practitioners. There is evidence of wide public support for the reform of the abortion laws to widen the circumstances under which abortion is legal. An ongoing movement, led by women's groups, medical and legal professionals, seeks to reform the law. PMID:12216989

  11. International developments in abortion law from 1988 to 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M; Bliss, L E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In 2 successive decades since 1967, legal accommodation of abortion has grown in many countries. The objective of this study was to assess whether liberalizing trends have been maintained in the last decade and whether increased protection of women's human rights has influenced legal reform. METHODS: A worldwide review was conducted of legislation and judicial rulings affecting abortion, and legal reforms were measured against governmental commitments made under international human rights treaties and at United Nations conferences. RESULTS: Since 1987, 26 jurisdictions have extended grounds for lawful abortion, and 4 countries have restricted grounds. Additional limits on access to legal abortion services include restrictions on funding of services, mandatory counseling and reflection delay requirements, third-party authorizations, and blockades of abortion clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive liberalization has moved abortion laws from a focus on punishment toward concern with women's health and welfare and with their human rights. However, widespread maternal mortality and morbidity show that reform must be accompanied by accessible abortion services and improved contraceptive care and information. PMID:10191808

  12. Abortion law across Australia - A review of nine jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law. PMID:25871844

  13. Delivering Medical Abortion at Scale: A Study of the Retail Market for Medical Abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Acharya, Rajib; Filippi, Veronique; Ronsmans, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical abortion (mifepristone and misoprostol) has the potential to contribute to reduced maternal mortality but little is known about the provision or quality of advice for medical abortion through the private retail sector. We examined the availability of medical abortion and the practices of pharmacists in India, where abortion has been legal since 1972. Methods We interviewed 591 pharmacists in 60 local markets in city, town and rural areas of Madhya Pradesh. One month later, we returned to 359 pharmacists with undercover patients who presented themselves unannounced as genuine customers seeking a medical abortion. Results Medical abortion was offered to undercover patients by 256 (71.3%) pharmacists and 24 different brands were identified. Two thirds (68.5%) of pharmacists stated that abortion was illegal in India. Only 106 (38.5%) pharmacists asked clients the timing of the last menstrual period and 38 (13.8%) requested to see a doctor’s prescription – a legal requirement in India. Only 59 (21.5%) pharmacists correctly advised patients on the gestational limit for medical abortion, 97 (35.3%) provided correct information on how many and when to take the tablets in a combination pack, and 78 (28.4%) gave accurate advice on where to seek care in case of complications. Advice on post-abortion family planning was almost nonexistent. Conclusions The retail market for medical abortion is extensive, but the quality of advice given to patients is poor. Although the contribution of medical abortion to women’s health in India is poorly understood, there is an urgent need to improve the practices of pharmacists selling medical abortion. PMID:25822656

  14. Abortion among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  15. Implications of the Federal Abortion Ban for Women's Health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Tracy A; Yanow, Susan

    2008-05-01

    In 2007, the US Supreme Court upheld the Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003, also known as the Federal Abortion Ban or "the Ban." The decision undermines decades of established US abortion law that had recognised the preservation of the health of women as a paramount consideration. The Ban asserts that the state's interests in how an abortion is performed and in fetal life override women's rights. It thus further erodes access to safe and legal abortion care. The new law negatively affects evidence-based clinical practice, the training of new providers and clinical innovation. It may also lead to additional legal restrictions on abortion access in the US and has implications for abortion service delivery internationally. Advocates must develop strategies that focus on women's right to control their fertility throughout the trajectory of an unwanted pregnancy. PMID:18772090

  16. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastián; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C

    2012-01-01

    In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required. PMID:23271925

  17. Abortion in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda; Ball, Haley

    2008-09-01

    Each year in Indonesia, millions of women become pregnant unintentionally, and many choose to end their pregnancies, despite the fact that abortion is generally illegal. Like their counterparts in many developing countries where abortion is stigmatized and highly restricted, Indonesian women often seek clandestine procedures performed by untrained providers, and resort to methods that include ingesting unsafe substances and undergoing harmful abortive massage. Though reliable evidence does not exist, researchers estimate that about two million induced abortions occur each year in the country and that deaths from unsafe abortion represent 14-16% of all maternal deaths in Southeast Asia. Preventing unsafe abortion is imperative if Indonesia is to achieve the fifth Millennium Development Goal of improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality. Current Indonesian abortion law is based on a national health bill passed in 1992. Though the language on abortion was vague, it is generally accepted that the law allows abortion only if the woman provides confirmation from a doctor that her pregnancy is life-threatening, a letter of consent from her husband or a family member, a positive pregnancy test result and a statement guaranteeing that she will practice contraception afterwards. This report presents what is currently known about abortion in Indonesia. The findings are derived primarily from small-scale, urban, clinic-based studies of women's experiences with abortion. Some studies included women in rural areas and those who sought abortions outside of clinics, but none were nationally representative. Although these studies do not give a full picture of who is obtaining abortions in Indonesia or what their experiences are, the evidence suggests that abortion is a common occurrence in the country and that the conditions under which abortion takes place are often unsafe. PMID:19035004

  18. Changes in the law on abortion.

    PubMed

    Hall, M H

    1990-11-17

    In light of liberalized abortion legislation, the author considers the potential for increased 3rd-trimester abortion rates in England. The paper refers specifically to the Human Fertilization and Embryology Bill passed by the House of Lords on October 18, 1990. The Bill allows abortion during the 1st 24 weeks of pregnancy if risk is posed to the mother or existing children's physical or mental health. The 24-week limit is not, however, applicable when the mother is a risk of grave permanent injury or death, or in the case of substantial risk of serious handicap in the child. 3rd-trimester abortion rates will not change in the former cases, while the latter involve more complex ethics and decision-making on the part of the mother and obstetrician. While screening for malformation should provide relatively definite diagnoses within 24 weeks, some structural abnormalities may only be discovered incidentally much later in term. Incurable, yet not necessarily lethal conditions such as osteochondrodysplasias, central nervous system malformation, inborn errors of metabolism, and chromosomal anomalies may present intervention dilemmas, yet remain legal grounds for abortion within the 24-week period at the wish of the mother. 3rd-trimester abortion, however, demands consideration of the expected severity of physical and mental impairment,the child's life expectation, gestation at diagnosis, the mother's obstetric history, and that active steps such as intra-cardiac injection will be needed to kill the fetus. The pediatrician, geneticist, or surgeon are recommended for inclusion in counseling. Finally, comparing England's 1989 experience with 3rd- trimester abortions to Scotland's, where restrictive legislation has not been in effect, abortion law liberalization is not expected to extensively increase the number of late terminations. PMID:2252917

  19. The triviality of abortion in Greece.

    PubMed

    Naziri, D

    1991-09-01

    In Greece modern contraceptive methods are used only in a very limited manner and abortion is the primary form of birth control. There are several social and psychological issues that are considered to be responsible. A 1985 study done for the Family Planning Center of Thessaloniki found that the ratio of live births is 1.3 and the ratio of abortion is 1.8/woman. 88% of women in the study had had an abortion while practicing coitus interruptus. 90% of the women never bought condoms. In a 1989 study only 6% of women had a positive attitude about condoms. Abortion is used as the primary method of birth control regardless of a woman's socioeconomic status. Further it was found that abortion did not correlate with other modern attitudes or the emancipation of women. The decision to abort was related to difficulties and constraints inherent in bring up a child. However positive attitudes toward contraception were related to educational and occupational levels. To complicate matters the information concerning contraceptives was problematic and related to the women's own lack of initiative to find out, and a lack of correct information offered from gynecologists. A 1990 study on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices in relation to HIV infection indicated that the most favored method of contraception was condoms, but 60.8% of the men reported use versus 33.7% of the women. However these figures are not very representative because the survey was given in the context of HIV prevention and no attempt was made to distinguish between regular and irregular use patterns. Abortions is not a moral issue in Greece. It was legalized in 1986 only because it came to the attention of the government that the previous prohibition was being completely ignored. Abortion is strongly affected by social and psychological factors that are complex and result from cultural view points about fertility, maternal value, and life itself that are unique to the Greek culture. PMID:12284544

  20. Ugandan opinion-leaders' knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ann M; Kibombo, Richard; Cats-Baril, Deva

    2014-10-01

    While laws in Uganda surrounding abortion remain contradictory, a frequent interpretation of the law is that abortion is only allowed to save the woman's life. Nevertheless abortion occurs frequently under unsafe conditions at a rate of 54 abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age annually, taking a large toll on women's health. There are an estimated 148,500 women in Uganda who experience abortion complications annually. Understanding opinion leaders' knowledge and perceptions about unsafe abortion is critical to identifying ways to address this public health issue. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 41 policy-makers, cultural leaders, local politicians and leaders within the health care sector in 2009-10 at the national as well as district (Bushenyi, Kamuli and Lira) level to explore their knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion and the potential for policy to address this issue. Only half of the sample knew the current law regulating abortion in Uganda. Respondents understood that the result of the current abortion restrictions included long-term health complications, unwanted children and maternal death. Perceived consequences of increasing access to safe abortion included improved health as well as overuse of abortion, marital conflict and less reliance on preventive behaviour. Opinion leaders expressed the most support for legalization of abortion in cases of rape when the perpetrator was unknown. Understanding opinion leaders' perspectives on this politically sensitive topic provides insight into the policy context of abortion laws, drivers behind maintaining the status quo, and ways to improve provision under the law: increase education among providers and opinion leaders. PMID:24064047

  1. United Nations World Abortion Policies 1999

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    The United Nations Population Information Network (POPIN) has recently published a collection of data tables that outline the abortion policies for regions and nations around the world. The tables display the grounds on which abortion is legally permitted, as well as national and international data on abortion rates, total fertility rates (births per woman), maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births), and the rate of contraceptive use by married women. The data are divided into six regional tables (Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Northern America, and Oceania). Each regional table is organized by geographic area (e.g., Eastern Asia, Southeastern Asia, South Central Asia, and Western Asia) to facilitate comparisons.

  2. A cross-cultural history of abortion.

    PubMed

    Shain, R N

    1986-03-01

    Abortion is a universal phenomenon, occurring throughout recorded history and at all levels of societal organization. Techniques are highly varied, as are the circumstances under which it is practised. The status of and attitudes towards abortion in Western civilization are variable and have, in most cases, been changing. As of 1982, 10% and 18% of the world's population respectively, lived in countries where abortion was totally prohibited or where it was permitted only to save the mother's life. In the USA, various national surveys indicate liberalization of public attitudes towards pregnancy termination between 1965 and the years immediately following the Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision (1973) which legalized abortion. More recent polls demonstrate little attitudinal change since 1972-1973: between 80% and 90% of Americans approve of abortion in the case of poor health, a seriously defective fetus, or rape, and between 40% and 50% indicate approval for all other reasons as well. Only 10% of the American population would like to see abortion prohibited under all circumstances. Sociodemographic analyses indicate that individuals who disapprove of abortion differ from those who approve of its availability in that they are more likely to be Roman Catholic or fundamentalist Protestant; are, in general, more strongly committed to organized religion; are on the traditional/conservative end of the spectrum with regard to women's role in life, premarital sex, sex education and civil liberties; and tend to have achieved a relatively low educational level. 'Pro-life' and 'pro-choice' activists tend to be women who are completely different from one another in sociodemographic characteristics and in overall values, particularly as these relate to traditional versus modern female roles. PMID:3519038

  3. Abortion and Postabortion Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Kulczycki

    \\u000a After reading this chapter and answering the discussion questions that follow, you should be able to\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Critically analyze the history, incidence, and reasons for abortion from a global perspective.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Identify and discuss differences in implementation of abortion laws and policies across different countries, and the public\\u000a health implications with particular attention to unsafe abortion and abortion-related mortality and

  4. Partial-birth abortion: the final frontier of abortion jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Bopp, J; Cook, C R

    1998-01-01

    Partial-birth abortion bans patterned after the federal bill passed by both houses of Congress are constitutional. The clear legislative definition can be easily distinguished from other abortion procedures. Abortion precedents do not apply to such bans because the abortion right pertains to unborn human beings, not to those partially delivered. Such bans are also rationally-related to legitimate state interests. Even if abortion jurisprudence is deemed to apply in the partial-birth abortion context, a ban is still constitutional under Casey because a ban on partial-birth abortions does not impose an undue burden on the abortion right. PMID:9707939

  5. The Effect of Anti-Abortion Legislation on Nineteenth Century Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Joanna N.

    2014-01-01

    Using nineteenth century legal information combined with census information, I examine the effect of state laws that restricted American women's access to abortion on the ratio of children to women. I estimate an increase in the birthrate of 4 % to 12 % when abortion is restricted. In the absence of anti-abortion laws, fertility would have been 5 % to 12 % lower in the early twentieth century. PMID:24691632

  6. Comparison of medical abortion with surgical vacuum aspiration: women's preferences and acceptability of treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R C Henshaw; S A Naji; I T Russell; A A Templeton

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess women's preferences for, and the acceptability of, medical abortion and vacuum aspiration in the early first trimester. DESIGN--Patient centred, partially randomised trial. Medical abortion was performed with mifepristone 600 mg followed 48 hours later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginal pessary. Vacuum aspiration was performed under general anaesthesia. SETTING--Teaching hospital in Scotland. PATIENTS--363 women undergoing legal induced abortion at

  7. Commercial availability of misoprostol and induced abortion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, S H

    1998-12-01

    In Brazil, abortion is only permitted to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. The principal effect of legal restrictions is not to make induced abortion practice less prevalent but to force poor women to resort to abortions performed under unhygienic conditions or attempt self-induced abortion. Within this context, misoprostol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1, was introduced in the country in 1986. Purchased over the counter in pharmacies, misoprostol has became a popular abortifacient method among Brazilian women. By 1990, about 70% of women hospitalized with abortion-related diagnoses reported use of the drug. In 1991, the Ministry of Health restricted the sale of misoprostol, and in some states its use was totally banned. While the proportion of abortions induced with misoprostol has decreased, the drug continues to be sold on the black market at an inflated value. Research indicates that women have acquired more experience with the drug over time, resulting in lower doses and more effective administration. Several studies show that the rate and severity of complications are significantly less among women who used misoprostol compared with women who used invasive methods. Research also suggests that about half of the women have complete abortion with misoprostol, but seek medical care as soon as they have vaginal bleeding. The experience of Brazilian women with misoprostol is an example of how women when faced with unwanted pregnancy will resort to illegal abortion whatever the costs are to their health. PMID:10075223

  8. Supreme Court Rulings on Abortion: Roe v. Wade and Selected Progeny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    2006-01-01

    Abortion is one of the most controversial and contentious issues of our time. Few topics generate as much public debate or leave as little room for political compromise. This article presents a discussion of selected United States Supreme Court decisions on abortion and the legal reasoning supporting those decisions. It should be noted initially…

  9. Walking the abortion tightrope.

    PubMed

    Simms, M

    1971-03-01

    The abortion controversy in England was partially resolved on February 23, 1971, when Sir Keith Joseph, Secretary of State for Social Services, announced that an inquiry into the 1967 Abortion Act would be established, but one which would be concerned with the way the Act was working rather than the principles underlying it. Regional inequalities exist in the implementation of the Act (as with substandard services in Birmingham, Liverpool and Sheffield) due to opposition of the local gynecological establishment and a genuine shortage of facilities. These can be eliminated only through time and retirement and with public finance for more equal abortion facilities. The addition of a consultant clause into the Act would probably reduce the number of abortions in smaller private nursing homes, flood the National Health Service with abortion requests, and drive women back to criminal abortionists. PMID:12256288

  10. Abortion opinion research in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yam, Eileen A; Dries-Daffner, Ingrid; García, Sandra G

    2006-12-01

    Abortion laws in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are highly restrictive and may not reflect public opinion on the issue. This article synthesizes the survey literature on attitudes toward abortion in the region. We searched standard computer indexing services and polled colleagues at regional meetings to identify every methodologically sound quantitative study of abortion opinion in LAC published between 1985 and 2005. Of the 26 studies that met inclusion criteria, none was conducted in the Caribbean, 11 were conducted in Brazil, 11 in Mexico, 3 in Argentina, and 1 in Colombia. The majority of populations surveyed support abortion under a greater number of circumstances than are permitted in their respective countries, particularly in cases of rape and threat to life or health. Future abortion opinion surveys should ask about support for the legality of abortion rather than about abstract acceptance of abortion, and questions should be worded carefully to capture the complexities of the public's views on this issue. PMID:17209281

  11. Unsafe abortion and abortion care in Khartoum, Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce Kinaro; Tag Elsir Mohamed Ali; Rhonda Schlangen; Jessica Mack

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe abortion in Sudan results in significant morbidity and mortality. This study of treatment for complications of unsafe abortion in five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan, included a review of hospital records and a survey of 726 patients seeking abortion-related care from 27 October 2007 to 31 January 2008, an interview of a provider of post-abortion care and focus group discussions

  12. Teen Motherhood and Abortion Access

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J Kane; Douglas Staiger

    1996-01-01

    The authors investigate the effect of abortion access on teen birthrates using county-level panel data. Past research suggested that prohibiting abortion led to higher teen birthrates. Perhaps surprisingly, the authors find that more recent restrictions in abortion access, including the closing of abortion clinics and restrictions on Medicaid funding, had the opposite effect. Small declines in access were related to

  13. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post-abortion care is daunting. There is the need for policymakers to intensify public education against indiscriminate abortion and to reduce unwanted pregnancies. In effect, there is need for effective alternative family planning methods. This is likely to reduce the demand for abortion. Further, with income found as a major constraint, post abortion services should be made accessible to both the rich and poor alike so as to prevent unnecessary maternal deaths as a result of abortion related complications. PMID:25024929

  14. Contesting the cruel treatment of abortion-seeking women.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    This article draws on legal arguments made by civil society organisations to challenge the legal reasoning that apparently produced the decision in the Ms Y case in Ireland in August 2014. I show how legal standards of reasonableness and practicality ought to be interpreted in ways that are respectful of the patient's wishes and rights. The case concerned a decision by the Health Service Executive, the Irish public health authority, to refuse an abortion to a pregnant asylum seeker and rape survivor on the grounds that a caesarean section and early live delivery were practicable and reasonable alternatives justified by the need to protect fetal life. I argue that the abortion refusal may not have been a reasonable decision, as required by the terms of relevant legislation, for four different reasons. First, the alternative of a caesarean section and early live delivery was not likely to avert the risk of suicide, and in fact did not do so. Second, the consent to the caesarean section alternative may not have been a real consent in the legal sense if it was not voluntary. Third, an abortion refusal and forcible treatment fall below the norms of good medical practice as interpreted through a patient-centred perspective. Fourth, an abortion refusal that entails forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment ought not to be a reasonable action under the legislation. PMID:25555759

  15. [Sexual violence in Congo-Kinshasa: necessity of decriminalizing abortion].

    PubMed

    Kalonda, J C Omba

    2012-01-01

    The sexual violence's committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are from their scales and consequences on women, real public health, politico-legal, and socio-economical challenges. More than a million of women have been victims of sexual violence on a period of less than fifteen years. Systematic rapes of women were used as war weapon by different groups involved in the Congolese war. Sexual violence against women has impacted public health by spreading sexually transmissible diseases including HIV/AIDS, causing unwanted pregnancies, leading to the gynaecological complications of rape-related injuries, and inflicting psychological trauma on the victims. Despite high level of unwanted pregnancies observed, the Congolese law is very restrictive and interdict induced abortion. This paper presents three arguments which plead in favour of legalizing abortion in DRC: 1) a restrictive law on abortion forces women to use unsafe abortion and increase incidence of injuries and maternal mortality ; 2) DRC has ratified the universal Declaration of human rights, the African union charter, and has than to promote equality between sexes, in this is included women reproductive rights; 3) an unwanted birth is an additional financial charge for a woman, a factor increasing poverty and psychologically unacceptable in case of rape. From the politico-legal point of view, ending rape impunity and decriminalizing abortion are recommended. Decriminalizing abortion give women choice and save victims and pregnant women from risks related to the pregnancy, a childbirth, or an eventual unsafe abortion. These risks increase the maternal mortality already high in DRC (between 950 and 3000 for 100000 live births). PMID:23167138

  16. Abortion Performance and Politics

    E-print Network

    Candelario, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Performing abortion” typically refers to what health carecare. Certainly the dimming of the conse- quences of illegal abortionabortion bills and ballot initiatives. 8 Legislators capitalized on urgent debates on health care

  17. 'Partial-Birth Abortion\\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel W. Calhoun

    2010-01-01

    In explaining his constitutional objection to Wisconsin’s partial-birth abortion ban, Judge Richard Posner contrasts killing during “normal labor” with partial-birth abortion. The former can be constitutionally prohibited, but the latter cannot. Why the distinction? For Posner, the former involves “killing a live baby that is half-born,” whereas the latter does not. This article will show that Judge Posner is correct

  18. Magnitude and risk factors of abortion among regular female students in Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Induced abortion is one of the greatest human rights dilemmas of our time. Yet, abortion is a very common experience in every culture and society. According to the World Health Organization, Ethiopia had the fifth largest number of maternal deaths in 2005 and unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. Youth are disproportionately affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the magnitude and identify factors associated with abortion among female Wolaita Sodo University students. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University between May and June 2011. Data were collected from 493 randomly selected female students using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Results The rate of abortion among students was found to be 65 per 1000 women, making it three fold the national rate of abortion for Ethiopia (23/1000 women aged 15–44). Virtually all of the abortions (96.9%) were induced and only half (16) were reported to be safe. Students with history of alcohol use, who are first-year and those enrolled in faculties with no post-Grade 10 Natural Science background had higher risk of abortion than their counterparts. About 23.7% reported sexual experience. Less than half of the respondents (44%) ever heard of emergency contraception and only 35.9% of those who are sexually experienced ever used condom. Conclusions High rate of abortion was detected among female Wolaita Sodo University students and half of the abortions took place/initiated under unsafe circumstances. Knowledge of students on legal and safe abortion services was found to be considerably poor. It is imperative that improved sexual health education, with focus on safe and legal abortion services is rendered and wider availability of Youth Friendly family planning services are realized in Universities and other places where young men and women congregate. PMID:24666926

  19. [A glossary for discussion about abortion].

    PubMed

    Astete A, Carmen; Beca I, Juan Pablo; Lecaros U, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Abortion and its diverse possible legal regulations is one of the major and toughest social controversies. This debate is even more problematic due to biases, prejudgments, different ideologies, beliefs, religious doctrines and political pressures. Chile has recently begun a new national discussion with an evident confusion, both in juridical and clinical terminology, which makes very difficult to achieve the necessary plural debate for a social and political consensus. The authors structured an academic collaborative project to create a glossary as a contribution for a discussion based on clearly defined notions about the different terms used in the abortion debate. Twenty-two concepts were selected and their definitions were reviewed and discussed by more than 50 different specialists. The final version of this glossary in Spanish language is presented. PMID:25694291

  20. Catholic attitudes toward abortion.

    PubMed

    Smith, T W

    1984-01-01

    In the US attitudes toward abortion in the 1980s seem to have reached a more liberal plateau, much more favored than in the 1960s or earlier, but not longer moving in a liberal direction. Catholic attitudes basically have followed the same trend. Traditionally Catholic support has been slightly lower than Protestant, and both are less inclined to support abortion than Jews or the nonreligious. During the 1970s support among non-black Catholics averaged about 10 percentage points below non-black Protestants. Blacks tend to be anti-abortion and thereby lower support among Protestants as a whole. A comparison of Protestants and Catholics of both races shows fewer religious differences -- about 7 percentage points. There are some indications that this gap may be closing. In 1982, for the 1st time, support for abortions for social reasons, such as poverty, not wanting to marry, or not wanting more children, was as high among Catholics as among Protestants. 1 of the factors contributing to this narrowing gap has been the higher level of support for abortion among younger Catholics. Protestants show little variation on abortion attitudes, with those over age 65 being slightly less supportive. Among Catholics, support drops rapidly with age. This moderate and possibly vanishing difference between Catholics and Protestants contrasts sharply with the official positions of their respective churches. The Catholic Church takes an absolute moral position against abortion, while most Protestant churches take no doctrinaire position on abortion. Several, such as the Unitarians and Episcopalians, lean toward a pro-choice position as a matter of social policy, though fundamentalist sects take strong anti-abortion stances. Few Catholics agree with their church's absolutist anti-abortion position. The big split on abortion comes between what are sometimes termed the "hard" abortion reasons -- mother's health endangered, serious defect in fetus, rape, or incest. Support among Catholics for "hard" reasons ranges from about 80-88%. Abortion for social reasons such as poverty or not wanting additional children ranges from 35-50%. Catholic support for abortion also varies by geographical region, community type, and ethnic group. Support tends to be strongest in the Northeast, in large cities, and among descendants of immigrants from Italy, Eastern Europe, and France. Support is weakest among Catholics in the Southwest, in small towns or rural areas, and among the Irish and Hispanics, especially Mexican-Americans. Among Catholics, many factors cause opinion to deviate from the national average. A 2nd major political implication is the comparative dedication or commitment of supporters and opponents. Analysis of election returns in 1978 in particular failed to demonstrate any measurable anti-abortion vote, but this does not mean that in a particular constituency it could not be made a serious issue. PMID:12178931

  1. Brazilian adolescents’ knowledge and beliefs about abortion methods: a school-based internet inquiry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet surveys that draw from traditionally generated samples provide the unique conditions to engage adolescents in exploration of sensitive health topics. Methods We examined awareness of unwanted pregnancy, abortion behaviour, methods, and attitudes toward specific legal indications for abortion via a school-based internet survey among 378 adolescents aged 12–21 years in three Rio de Janeiro public schools. Results Forty-five percent knew peers who had undergone an abortion. Most students (66.0%) did not disclose abortion method knowledge. However, girls (aOR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.2), those who had experienced their sexual debut (aOR1.76, 95% CI 1.1-3.0), and those attending a prestigious magnet school (aOR 2.7 95% CI 1.4-6.3) were more likely to report methods. Most abortion methods (79.3%) reported were ineffective, obsolete, and/or unsafe. Herbs (e.g. marijuana tea), over-the-counter medications, surgical procedures, foreign objects and blunt trauma were reported. Most techniques (85.2%) were perceived to be dangerous, including methods recommended by the World Health Organization. A majority (61.4%) supported Brazil’s existing law permitting abortion in the case of rape. There was no association between gender, age, sexual debut, parental education or socioeconomic status and attitudes toward legal abortion. However, students at the magnet school supported twice as many legal indications (2.7, SE.27) suggesting a likely role of peers and/or educators in shaping abortion views. Conclusions Abortion knowledge and attitudes are not driven simply by age, religion or class, but rather a complex interplay that includes both social spaces and gender. Prevention of abortion morbidity and mortality among adolescents requires comprehensive sexuality and reproductive health education that includes factual distinctions between safe and unsafe abortion methods. PMID:24521075

  2. Abortion in late Imperial China: routine birth control or crisis intervention?

    PubMed

    Sommer, Matthew H

    2010-01-01

    In late imperial China, a number of purported methods of abortion were known; but who actually attempted abortion and under what circumstances? Some historians have suggested that abortion was used for routine birth control, which presupposes that known methods were safe, reliable, and readily available. This paper challenges the qualitative evidence on which those historians have relied, and presents new evidence from Qing legal sources and modern medical reports to argue that traditional methods of abortion (the most common being abortifacient drugs) were dangerous, unreliable, and often cost a great deal of money. Therefore, abortion in practice was an emergency intervention in a crisis: either a medical crisis, in which pregnancy threatened a woman's health, or a social crisis, in which pregnancy threatened to expose a woman's extramarital sexual relations. Moreover, abortion was not necessarily available even to women who wanted one. PMID:21328808

  3. The effect of abortion restrictions on the timing of abortions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne Bitler; Madeline Zavodny

    2001-01-01

    This paper uses data on the distribution of abortions by weeks of gestation to examine the relationship between abortion restrictions and the timing of abortions. State-level data from 1974 to 1997 indicate that adoption of parental involvement laws for minors or enforcement of mandatory waiting periods is positively associated with the post-first trimester percentage of abortions. However, autocorrelation-corrected specifications indicate

  4. Comparison of medical abortion with surgical vacuum aspiration: women's preferences and acceptability of treatment.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, R C; Naji, S A; Russell, I T; Templeton, A A

    1993-09-18

    In Scotland, physicians compared women's preferences for and acceptability of medical abortion and vacuum aspiration in the early 1st trimester of pregnancy among 363 patients at the Maternity Hospital in Aberdeen. They measured acceptability 2 weeks after the abortion. The 4 groups included 73 women who chose a medical abortion (600 mg RU-486 followed 48 hours later by a vaginal pessary of 1 mg gemeprost), 95 women who chose vacuum aspiration, 99 women randomly allocated to medical abortion, and 96 women randomly allocated to vacuum aspiration. 23% had had a previous legal abortion. Almost all the women who had a preference for an abortion method accepted their chosen method (95% for medical abortion and 90% for vacuum aspiration). Just 4% from either group would choose another method if the need would arise in the future. Women randomized to medical abortion were significantly more likely to choose vacuum aspiration in the future than were those randomized to vacuum aspiration who would choose medical abortion in the future (22% vs. 2%; p .001). The only predictor of acceptability before the abortion among women randomly allocated to medical abortion was gestational age. Specifically, 95% of the women who considered medical abortion to be unacceptable underwent medical abortion at 50 or more days gestation. At gestations under 50 days, acceptability between the 2 randomly allocated groups was the same. The 2 groups did not differ in pain rating scores, indicating that preferences were likely to be more significant than pain. All 4 groups rated the quality of nursing care to be positive in 11 of the 12 bipolar adjectives. Women who preferred medical abortion rated treatment considerably higher on 4 scores (p .05). These 4 bipolar adjectives were relaxed-stressed, soft-hard, sympathetic-unsympathetic, and gentle-harsh. PMID:8401094

  5. Abortion law in Muslim-majority countries: an overview of the Islamic discourse with policy implications.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Gilla K

    2014-07-01

    Religion plays a significant role in a patient’s bioethical decision to have an abortion as well as in a country’s abortion policy. Nevertheless, a holistic understanding of the Islamic position remains under-researched. This study first conducted a detailed and systematic analysis of Islam’s position towards abortion through examining the most authoritative biblical texts (i.e. the Quran and Sunnah) as well as other informative factors (i.e. contemporary fatwas, Islamic mysticism and broader Islamic principles, interest groups, and transnational Islamic organizations). Although Islamic jurisprudence does not encourage abortion, there is no direct biblical prohibition. Positions on abortion are notably variable, and many religious scholars permit abortion in particular circumstances during specific stages of gestational development. It is generally agreed that the least blameworthy abortion is when the life of the pregnant woman is threatened and when 120 days have not lapsed; however, there is remarkable heterogeneity in regards to other circumstances (e.g. preserving physical or mental health, foetal impairment, rape, or social or economic reasons), and later gestational development of the foetus. This study secondly conducted a cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries. A predominantly conservative approach was found whereby 18 of 47 countries do not allow abortion under any circumstances besides saving the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, there was substantial diversity between countries, and 10 countries allowed abortion ‘on request’. Discursive elements that may enable policy development in Muslim-majority countries as well as future research that may enhance the study of abortion rights are discussed. Particularly, more lenient abortion laws may be achieved through disabusing individuals that the most authoritative texts unambiguously oppose abortion, highlighting more lenient interpretations that exist in certain Islamic legal schools, emphasizing significant actors that support abortion, and being mindful of policy frames that will not be well-received in Muslim-majority countries. PMID:23749735

  6. Women's right to health and Ireland's abortion laws.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Maeve

    2015-07-01

    The provision of the Irish Constitution that guarantees "the unborn" a right to life equal to that of a pregnant woman has consequences for access to abortion and the care of women in pregnancy generally. Long-awaited legislation to give effect to the narrow constitutional right to abortion was enacted into law in 2013. In 2014, a guidance document for health professionals' implementation of the legislation was published. However, the legislation and guidance document fall far short of international human rights bodies' recommendations: they fail to deliver effective procedural rights to all of the women eligible for lawful abortion within the state and create new legal barriers to women's reproductive rights. At the same time, cases continue to highlight that the Irish Constitution imposes an unethical and rights-violating legal regime in non-abortion-related contexts. Recent developments suggest that both the failure to put guidelines in place and the development of guidelines that are not centered on women or based on rights further reduce women's access to rights and set unacceptable limitations on women's reproductive autonomy. Nevertheless, public and parliamentary scrutiny of cases involving Ireland's abortion laws is increasingly focusing on the need for reform. PMID:25939525

  7. Soviet immigration in Israel: consequences for family planning and abortion services.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1991-09-01

    The massive influx of Soviet immigrants to Israel is expected to significantly increase the number of application for a legal abortion (AFLA). In 1990, about 200,000 people, most of them from the USSR, immigrated to Israel. This group included almost 50,000 women of childbearing age. In the USSR, abortion is extremely frequent. Estimates of the number of legal and illegal abortions for 1988 range from 9.5-11 million. An average Soviet women has close to 5 abortions during her lifetime. Some of the reasons for such a high rate of abortion include the lack of available contraceptives, the exaggeration of the possible dangers of modern contraceptives on the part of Soviet physicians, and the social and psychological acceptance of abortion by Soviet women as a routine medical procedure. Considering the number of AFLA from earlier Soviet immigrants, requests for abortions will increase. Data from 1988 indicates that USSR-born Israeli women (who arrived during a wave of immigration in the 1970s) had a general rate of AFLA 26% higher than the total rate for Jewish Israeli women. And for women age 20-29, the AFLA rate was 50% higher for USSR-born women than for Israeli women. The article estimates that the wave of new arrivals will lead to a 10% increase in the number of AFLA. The new wave of Soviet immigrants means that the government will need to expand its family planning services. The immediate implication of the family planning services. The immediate implication of the influx, though, is that the government will need to establish additional abortion medical committees to guarantee fair access to abortion. But since many of the would be aborting Soviet women are married, many will not meet the current abortion law criteria, and this will lead to an increase in the number of illegal abortions. PMID:12284556

  8. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  9. Abortion and Islam: policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Hessini, Leila

    2007-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of legal, religious, medical and social factors that serve to support or hinder women's access to safe abortion services in the 21 predominantly Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where one in ten pregnancies ends in abortion. Reform efforts, including progressive interpretations of Islam, have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. However, medical and social factors limit access to safe abortion services in all but Turkey and Tunisia. To address this situation, efforts are increasing in a few countries to introduce post-abortion care, document the magnitude of unsafe abortion and understand women's experience of unplanned pregnancy. Religious fat?wa have been issued allowing abortions in certain circumstances. An understanding of variations in Muslim beliefs and practices, and the interplay between politics, religion, history and reproductive rights is key to understanding abortion in different Muslim societies. More needs to be done to build on efforts to increase women's rights, engage community leaders, support progressive religious leaders and government officials and promote advocacy among health professionals. PMID:17512379

  10. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  11. The struggle for abortion law reform in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Andrea

    2002-05-01

    In Thailand abortion is against the law except in cases of risk to a woman's health or if the pregnancy is the result of rape or other sexual crimes. This paper presents an overview of the history of the abortion debate in Thailand based upon research conducted from 1997-2001 for an ethnographic and historical study. Information was taken from media reports from 1950 in the Thai and English language press, a review of parliamentary records and interviews with 10 key informants. The debate over legal reform started in 1973. A reform bill was passed in 1981 in the House of Representatives but defeated in the Senate, primarily due to the lobbying efforts of Chamlong Srimuang, the leader of a broad-based religious coalition, who has been central in the anti-reform movement since then. The current democratically elected government in Thailand offers the best hope yet for reform, though abortion remains a politically sensitive issue, sensationalized in the press to counter reform efforts. A new advocacy network has recently been formed, including a range of women's organisations, public health advocates, academics and journalists. Current proposals from governmental and medical profession bodies may make abortions available to some women, but most, who seek abortions due to socio-economic and family planning reasons, will continue to have to find abortions by whatever means they can. PMID:12369331

  12. Legal Bytes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Legal Bytes, provided by the firm of George, Donaldson & Ford, L.L.P, of Austin, Texas, is a "periodic publication" of "summaries and brief discussions of emerging legal issues in the field of computer law." Recent issues have included articles on the Communications Decency Act, ownership of "real-time" sports information, legal risks of on-line advertising, and copyright law, among others. Note that Legal Bytes is not intended to "be relied upon as legal advice."

  13. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion. PMID:25815623

  14. Appeals court finds Utah late abortion restrictions unconstitutional.

    PubMed

    1995-09-15

    In an opinion issued on August 2, 1995, a three judge panel of the US Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit found invalid several portions of Utah's 1991 criminal abortion ban that applied to pregnancy terminations after the twentieth week as well as prohibiting fetal diagnosis and treatment. The unanimous decision marks the first time that a federal appellate panel has applied the US Supreme Court's 1992 decision in Planned Parenthood vs. Casey to restrictions on abortions performed late in pregnancy. In December 1992, Judge Thomas Greene of the US District Court for the District of Utah relied upon Casey to find unconstitutional the Utah legislature's 1991 attempt to ban virtually all abortions. At the same time, however, the district court rewrote the abortion ban to prohibit procedures after the twentieth week of pregnancy except to save a woman's life, to prevent grave damage to her health, in cases of rape or incest, or to prevent the birth of a child with grave defects. The district court also upheld a ban on fetal experimentation and a requirement that physicians performing later abortions use the method most likely to give the fetus the best chance of survival. Judge Greene's decision was stayed pending negotiations over possible settlement and plaintiffs' appeal in the case. Overturning the lower court's holdings, the appeals court found that Judge Greene's revision of the abortion ban was an improper use of judicial power; that the prohibition on so-called fetal experimentation is unconstitutionally vague; and that the restrictions on post-viability abortions are invalid because they constitute an undue burden. In a separate opinion, the appeals court reversed Judge Greene's unprecedented 1993 order awarding attorneys fees to the State of Utah and sanctioning plaintiffs in Jane L. vs. Bangerter for raising alternative legal claims under which the abortion ban might have been found unconstitutional. PMID:12320245

  15. Peri-viable birth: legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Sadath A

    2014-02-01

    Peri-viable birth raises an array of complex moral and legal concerns. This article discusses the problem with defining viability, touches on its relationship to abortion jurisprudence, and analyzes a few interesting normative implications of current medical practice at the time of peri-viable birth. PMID:24468570

  16. Social Determinants and Access to Induced Abortion in Burkina Faso: From Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Ramatou

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and concerns mainly young women. The legal restriction and social stigma make abortions most often clandestine and risky for women who decide to terminate a pregnancy. However, the exposure to the risk of unsafe induced abortion is not the same for all the women who faced unwanted pregnancy and decide to have an abortion. Drawn from a qualitative study on the issue of abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso's capital, the contrasting cases of two young women who had abortion allow us to show how the women's personal resources (such as the school level, financial resources, the compliance to social norms, the social network, etc.) may determine the degree of vulnerability of women, the delay to have an abortion, the type of care they are likely to benefit from, and the cost they have to face. This study concludes that the poorest always pay more (cost and consequences), take longer to have an abortion, and have more exposure to the risk of unsafe abortion. PMID:24790605

  17. Abortion and neonaticide: ethics, practice, and policy in four nations.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2002-06-01

    Abortion, particularly later-term abortion, and neonaticide, selective non-treatment of newborns, are feasible management strategies for fetuses or newborns diagnosed with severe abnormalities. However, policy varies considerably among developed nations. This article examines abortion and neonatal policy in four nations: Israel, the US, the UK and Denmark. In Israel, late-term abortion is permitted while non-treatment of newborns is prohibited. In the US, on the other hand, later-term abortion is severely restricted, while treatment to newborns may be withdrawn. Policy in the UK and Denmark bridges some of these gaps with liberal abortion and neonatal policy. Disparate policy within and between nations creates practical and ethical difficulties. Practice diverges from policy as many practitioners find it difficult to adhere to official policy. Ethically, it is difficult to entirely justify perinatal policy in these nations. In each nation, there are elements of ethically sound policy, while other aspects cannot be defended. Ethical policy hinges on two underlying normative issues: the question of fetal/newborn status and the morality of killing and letting die. While each issue has been the subject of extensive debate, there are firm ethical norms that should serve as the basis for coherent and consistent perinatal policy. These include 1) a grant of full moral and legal status to the newborn but only partial moral and legal status to the late-term fetus 2) a general prohibition against feticide unless to save the life of the mother or prevent the birth of a fetus facing certain death or severe pain or suffering and 3) a general endorsement of neonaticide subject to a parent's assessment of the newborn's interest broadly defined to consider physical harm as well as social, psychological and or financial harm to related third parties. Policies in each of the nations surveyed diverging from these norms should be the subject of public discourse and, where possible, legislative reform. PMID:12211246

  18. Abortion in Turkey: a matter of state, family or individual decision.

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, A

    1996-02-01

    This paper gives a historical, international and cultural outlook on the debate related to the 1982 legalization of abortion in the modern democratic republic of Turkey. A belief that the country is under-populated and subsequent pro-natalist concerns of the turn of the century seem to have strongly influenced the legal prohibition of abortion. The paper first discusses the widespread social practice and the permissive attitudes towards abortion in the late Ottoman Empire and in contemporary Turkey. The contrast between the above social situation and until recently the strict, non-permissive religious and secular attitudes are presented with a discussion of the effects of the westernization and secularization processes in the late Ottoman Empire. Moral concerns and judgements regarding abortion seem to have penetrated Ottoman society as part of the above processes beginning in the nineteenth century. The present day official religious interpretations seem to conform with the more conservative Islamic schools of thought rather than the more liberal Islamic interpretations. Furthermore, the 1982 laws which legalize abortion until the eight week of pregnancy consider family planning to be a family issue and bring the restriction of making married women have their husband's permission before preceding with abortion. As such, the present legal platform opens to question the rationales and population control motives behind the law and the importance of who it is that can make the decision to proceed with abortion. Thus, in the last 70 years a historical and ideological progression can be discerned in the line of assuming first the state and then the family to have decision making legitimacy as regards reproductive choices. Today, the platform of radical discussion has shifted to evaluating the importance of individual women in making this reproductive choice. In this context, in conclusion, the paper discussed the rationale and the logic behind and the implications for gender power structures of the existing legal situation in Turkey. PMID:8643979

  19. Conscientious objection, barriers, and abortion in the case of rape: a study among physicians in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Madeiro, Alberto; Rosas, Cristião

    2014-05-01

    In Brazil, to have a legal abortion in the case of rape, the woman's statement that rape has occurred is considered sufficient to guarantee the right to abortion. The aim of this study was to understand the practice and opinions about providing abortion in the case of rape among obstetricians-gynecologists (OBGYNs) in Brazil. A mixed-method study was conducted from April to July 2012 with 1,690 OBGYNs who responded to a structured, electronic, self-completed questionnaire. In the quantitative phase, 81.6% of the physicians required police reports or judicial authorization to guarantee the care requested. In-depth telephone interviews with 50 of these physicians showed that they frequently tested women's rape claim by making them repeat their story to several health professionals; 43.5% of these claimed conscientious objection when they were uncertain whether the woman was telling the truth. The moral environment of illegal abortion alters the purpose of listening to a patient - from providing care to passing judgement on her. The data suggest that women's access to legal abortion is being blocked by these barriers in spite of the law. We recommend that FEBRASGO and the Ministry of Health work together to clarify to physicians that a woman's statement that rape occurred should allow her to access a legal abortion. PMID:24908465

  20. Living Through Some Giant Change: The Establishment of Abortion Services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the establishment of abortion clinics following Roe v Wade. Abortion clinics followed one of two models: (1) a medical model in which physicians emphasized the delivery of high quality medical services, contrasting their clinics with the back-alley abortion services that had sent many women to hospital emergency rooms prior to legalization, or (2) a feminist model in which clinics emphasized education and the dissemination of information to empower women patients and change the structure of women’s health care. Male physicians and feminists came together in the newly established abortion services and argued over the priorities and characteristics of health care delivery. A broad range of clinics emerged, from feminist clinics to medical offices run by traditional male physicians to for-profit clinics. The establishment of the National Abortion Federation in the mid-1970s created a national forum of health professionals and contributed to the broadening of the discussion and the adoption of compromises as both feminists and physicians influenced each other's practices. PMID:23327251

  1. Aborting a Malformed Fetus: A Debatable Issue in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; AlFaleh, Khalid M.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

  2. Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

  3. The measurement of public opinion on abortion: the effects of survey design.

    PubMed

    Bumpass, L L

    1997-01-01

    A factorial experiment examined the effects of the wording and sequence of survey questions on the measurement of attitudes toward abortion. When a first-trimester pregnancy is specified, 55% of respondents agree that a woman should be able to obtain a legal abortion for any reason, compared with 44% when no pregnancy duration is stated. Specifying first-trimester pregnancies has little effect on the proportion of respondents who agree that abortion should be available for maternal health, fetal defects or rape, but it significantly increases the proportion who agree that a woman should be able to obtain an abortion if she is single, has financial constraints or wants no more children. When gestational lengths from one to six months are presented to respondents in ascending order, agreement that a woman should be able to obtain an abortion for any reason is lower for any given length of gestation than when pregnancy durations are presented in descending order. Forty-eight percent of respondents agree that abortion should be legal for any reason when that question is posed after a series of specific reasons; however, 60% do so when it is the first question in the sequence. The difference in agreement with abortion for any reason between Catholics and non-Baptist Protestants, and between Republicans and Democrats, is much smaller when the question is asked first than when it is presented last. PMID:9258650

  4. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation. PMID:9328746

  5. Repeat abortion: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Törnbom, M; Möller, A

    1999-03-01

    In a qualitative study of 20 women seeking a repeat abortion, interviews lasting for 1.5-2 hours were conducted after the first appointment with a gynecologist when the abortion was planned. The women were aged 20-29 years and had experienced one to five abortion(s) during the previous 5 years. The aim of the study was to attain understanding of the phenomenon of repeat abortion. The women were asked to express their thoughts related to their situation and their choices. The following categories were found: psychosocial background factors, reactions to previous abortion(s), reflections on fertility, sexuality, psychological factors, social factors, contraceptive use, the present pregnancy, motives for the planned abortion, feelings about the planned abortion and risk-taking process. Most of the women seemed to have a psychological vulnerability with many current and previous problems, as well as problems regarding sexuality. It was evident that insecurity was present in the use of contraceptives and in relation to sexual activities and to sexual partners. The main reason for an unplanned pregnancy is not a lack of information or even a lack of knowledge, but rather a failure to integrate the knowledge with situational, intrapsychic and social factors. PMID:10212884

  6. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial Administration...Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

  7. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial Administration...Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

  8. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial Administration...Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

  9. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial Administration...Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

  10. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion...counseling to aid her in making the decision whether to carry the pregnancy to full term or to have an elective abortion. If an...

  11. Adolescent pregnancy: a study of aborters and non-aborters.

    PubMed

    Kane, F J; Lachenbruch, P A

    1973-10-01

    In a June 1970 through January 1971 study of 99 single girls seeking abortion and 33 single girls choosing to complete the pregnancy, knowledge of and/or access to contraceptives were not the problem. Emotional factors such as guilt over sexual activity, acting-out disorders (rebellious attitude, hippie lifestyle, indifference toward others), or severe reactions to loss of a love relationship contributed to pregnancy in both groups. The girls who became pregnant, especially the ones who chose to complete the pregnancy, viewed pregnancy and motherhood as a source of gratification and self-esteem. Research on motivational factors in adolescent pregnancy is needed to prevent high recidivism. The majority of state abortion laws requiring phychiatric deficiencies for abortions are misguided, since the girls who chose not to abort were more psychiatrically disturbed than the ones who had abortions. PMID:4742821

  12. [Is abortion murder?].

    PubMed

    Werning, C

    1995-09-01

    Discussions about Paragraph 218 of the German federal abortion law have spawned antithetical opinions: on the one hand, the full right of the mother or parents to decide about the incipient human life; and on the other hand, under the dogma of abortion is murder, providing abortion is rejected even when the pregnancy is the result of rape and it is unwanted. Two questions are closely related to this issue: 1) what makes human beings human and 2) when does human life begin. From a medical point of view the function of the brain is fundamentally linked to being human. The brain controls almost all functions of the body and determines its psychological makeup, such as intellect and, in a theological sense, the soul. Without the brain such functioning is not possible, since brain death means the death of human life. Children born with anencephaly and microencephaly can never live a human life. At the end of life various diseases (stroke, Alzheimer disease) can severely damage the brain. In these cases normal living is also no longer possible. Yet ethically it is untenable to actively kill these human beings. But when one considers that life-threatening diseases can require life-support intervention, then often the pragmatic intervention is not far removed from active euthanasia. The other question related to the beginning of human life is even more difficult to answer. It is the fertilization of the egg cells; but a conglomeration of cells in the early phase of pregnancy can hardly be characterized as a human person. The human identity, personality, and worth is associated with the functioning of the brain, so only when the brain is fully developed can there be any talk about an unborn human being. PMID:7476658

  13. Women's experiences of the abortion law in Cameroon: "What really matters".

    PubMed

    Schuster, Sylvie

    2010-05-01

    While prosecutions of women who have had an illegal abortion are rare in Cameroon, women who have a legitimate claim to a legal abortion, e.g. following rape, can rarely take advantage of it. This is because the law in Cameroon is not applied, either when it is violated or when it is indicated. This paper examines the histories of four young women who became pregnant and had an abortion in the Anglophone region of the Cameroon Grassfields. Three of them became pregnant following rape or sexual coercion, in one case by the girl's priest, in the second case by her employer's son, and in the third case by a stranger. The fourth young woman, who sold sex for survival money and food, had two abortions while in prison for committing infanticide following a failed attempt to abort an earlier pregnancy. The four young women were interviewed as part of a qualitative, hospital-based study among 65 women who had had abortions in 1996-97. The women's affecting personal histories illuminate the reality of living under a restrictive abortion law, the troubling conditions in which they have to manage their lives, and the harsh circumstances in which they become pregnant and seek (but may not find) a safe abortion. PMID:20541092

  14. Abortion: Approaches from Virtue

    E-print Network

    Rovie, Eric M.

    uses the example of a woman pregnant with a Down's syndrome child and her decision whether or not to go through with the pregnancy. If the choice is between having a Down's child but no others (at least in part due to the stresses of raising... criticize women for repeatedly using abortion as a substitute for birth control. It is also commonly held that an ethics of virtue can have little or nothing to say about issues involving the need for action guidance. I will argue that virtue ethics...

  15. The politics of unsafe abortion in Burkina Faso: The interface of local norms and global public health practice

    PubMed Central

    Storeng, Katerini T.; Ouattara, Fatoumata

    2014-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how Burkina Faso's PAC policy emerged at the interface of political and moral negotiations between public health professionals, national bureaucrats and international agencies and NGOs. Burkinabè decision-makers and doctors, who are often hostile to induced abortion, have been convinced that PAC is ‘life-saving care’ which should be delivered for ethical medical reasons. Moreover, by supporting PAC they not only demonstrate compliance with international standards but also, importantly, do not have to contend with any change in abortion legislation, which they oppose. Rights-based international NGOs, in turn, tactically focus on PAC as a ‘first step’ towards their broader institutional objective to secure safe abortion and abortion rights. Such negotiations between national and international actors result in widespread support for PAC but stifled debate about further legalisation of abortion. PMID:25132157

  16. [Family planning--the role of general practitioner in abortion prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Skrzypulec, Violetta; Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Rozmus-Warcholi?ska, Wioletta; Walaszek, Aneta; Piela, Bogus?awa; Zdun, Dariusz

    2004-01-01

    According to World Health Organization, abortion is defined as an induced termination of pregnancy by use of medications or surgical interventions after implantation of the embryo and before the fetus is able to survive outside the maternal organism (before 22nd week of pregnancy). More than 75 millions of women experience unwanted pregnancy every year. Contraception for that group was either unavailable or the information about contraceptives use possibility was not efficient. Lack of conversation about family planning with the partner, rapes and inefficiency of contraceptives (8 to 30 millions women a year) might be other reasons. More than two-third such pregnancies are terminated by abortions. The number of women in reproductive age (15-44) is 1.38 million. Most of them are sexually active but not willing to have progeny. The decision of abortion is taken every year by 35 per 100 females (26 millions of legal abortions each year, 20 millions of illegal). By 1986, 36 countries introduced liberal abortion law that gives permission for abortion only for social, medical and personal reasons. The main law regulating the permission of abortion in Poland is a resolution of Family planning, embryo protection and conditions for conducting pregnancy termination from 1993, modified in 1997. In 1999, 151 abortion procedures were performed and that number is decreasing gradually. The development of so called "abortion basement", where unsafe abortion is usually performed, is a consequence of restrictive policy about the abortion law. In the last few years the holistic and individual approach to the patient has started to play an important role. Unfortunately, in the case of sexual education and knowledge of conscious family planning, medical services, and medical doctors especially, play only the minimal role. It seems to be essential in gynecological and general medicine practice to give information about different methods of family planning and protection against sexual transmitted diseases as well as to control patient's health when using contraceptives. PMID:15884260

  17. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  18. Access to safe abortion: building choices for women living with HIV and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In many areas of the world where HIV prevalence is high, rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion have also been shown to be high. Of all pregnancies worldwide in 2008, 41% were reported as unintended or unplanned, and approximately 50% of these ended in abortion. Of the estimated 21.6 million unsafe abortions occurring worldwide in 2008 (around one in 10 pregnancies), approximately 21.2 million occurred in developing countries, often due to restrictive abortion laws and leading to an estimated 47,000 maternal deaths and untold numbers of women who will suffer long-term health consequences. Despite this context, little research has focused on decisions about and experiences of women living with HIV with regard to terminating a pregnancy, although this should form part of comprehensive promotion of sexual and reproductive health rights. In this paper, we explore the existing evidence related to global and country-specific barriers to safe abortion for all women, with an emphasis on research gaps around the right of women living with HIV to choose safe abortion services as an option for dealing with unwanted pregnancies. The main focus is on the situation for women living with HIV in Brazil, Namibia and South Africa as examples of three countries with different conditions regarding women's access to safe legal abortions: a very restrictive setting, a setting with several indications for legal abortion but non-implementation of the law, and a rather liberal setting. Similarities and differences are discussed, and we further outline global and country-specific barriers to safe abortion for all women, ending with recommendations for policy makers and researchers. PMID:22078463

  19. Exporting abortion politics: the battle over international family planning assistance.

    PubMed

    Lasher, C

    1991-01-01

    Congressional legislation seeking to overturn US government restrictions on international family planning assistance face a possible presidential veto. Dating back to the Reagan years, the 1984 Mexico City Policy prohibits foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGO) receiving US money from performing or actively promoting abortion as a family planning method. Even if abortion is legal in that particular country, the agency involved may not even discuss abortion as one of the medical options of a pregnant woman. In line with the Mexico City Policy, the US has withdrawn funding from both the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the largest NGO in the population field, and the Family Planning International Assistance, the international division of the Planned Parenthood federation of America. One of the effects of the Mexico City Policy has been to make family planning more controversial, and to increase opposition to birth control. In addition to the Mexico City Policy, the Reagan years also saw the implementation of a policy that denies funding to the UNFPA, charged by the US of "co-managing" China's population program that engages in coercive abortion and involuntary sterilization. The UNFPA has denied such charges. So far, President George Bush -- previously a supporter of family planning programs -- has sided with opponents of abortion, and has threatened a veto threat may soon be tested, since Congress has drafted a foreign aid appropriations bill that has includes a measure saying that NGOs should be treated in the same manner as their governments, which are exempt from the Mexico City Policy so long as US funds are not used to support abortions. PMID:12178849

  20. Age, parity, history of abortion and contraceptive choices affect the risk of repeat abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oskari Heikinheimo; Mika Gissler; Satu Suhonen

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundThe rate of repeat induced abortion varies from 30% to 38% in northern Europe. Thus, repeat abortion is an important public health issue. However, risk factors as regards repeat abortion are poorly understood. We characterized risk factors related to sociodemographic characteristics, history of abortion and post-abortal contraception.

  1. Induced abortion and contraception use

    PubMed Central

    du Prey, Beatrice; Talavlikar, Rachel; Mangat, Rupinder; Freiheit, Elizabeth A.; Drummond, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine what proportion of women seeking induced abortion in the Calgary census metropolitan area were immigrants. Design For 2 months, eligible women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Women who refused were asked to provide their country of birth (COB) to assess for selection bias. Setting Two abortion clinics in Calgary, Alta. Participants Women presenting at or less than 15 weeks’ gestational age for induced abortion for maternal indications. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of women seeking induced abortion services who were immigrants. Secondary outcomes compared socioeconomic characteristics and contraception use between immigrant and Canadian-born women. Results A total of 752 women either completed a questionnaire (78.6%) or provided their COB (21.4%). Overall, 28.9% of women living in the Calgary census metropolitan area who completed the questionnaire were immigrants, less than the 31.2% background proportion of immigrant women of childbearing age. However, 46.0% of women who provided only COB were immigrants. When these data were combined, 34.2% of women presenting for induced abortion identified as immigrant, a proportion not significantly different from the background proportion (P = .127). Immigrant women presenting for induced abortion tended to be older, more educated, married with children, and have increased parity. They were similar to Canadian-born women in number of previous abortions, income status, and employment status. Conclusion This study suggests that immigrant women in Calgary are not presenting for induced abortion in disproportionately higher numbers, which differs from existing European literature. This is likely owing to differing socioeconomic characteristics among the immigrant women in our study from what have been previously described in the literature (typically lower socioeconomic status). Much still needs to be explored with regard to factors influencing the use of abortion services by immigrant women. PMID:25217694

  2. [Determinants of induced abortion among poor women admitted to hospitals in a locality of northeastern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, W; Misago, C; Correia, L L; Parente, J A; Oliveira, F C

    1996-02-01

    In Brazil, abortion is legally allowed only when it is necessary to save a woman's life or when pregnancy has occurred following rape. Despite this law, induced abortion is widely carried out. This study presents the findings as to the determinants of 2,084 abortions admitted to two major obstetric hospitals in Fortaleza, Brazil, between October 1992 and September 1993. Most of these women (2,074) have admitted an attempt to terminate pregnancy and 10 women were classified as induced abortion cases based on the findings of signs of intervention such as cervical laceration, perforation or foreign bodies in the vagina or uterus. The study findings indicate that self-administration of medicines plays an important role in terminating pregnancy. Among the 2,074 women who admitted to terminating the pregnancy 66% reported using misoprostol to induce abortion. Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue indicated for ulcer treatment, has been widely used as an abortifacient by women in Brazil. Misoprostol has some uterine effects but it is not effective in inducing abortion. Among women who were hospitalized for complications resulting from abortion about 59.7% were 20 to 29 years old and 22.6% were aged less than 20. The majority of the women (91.6%) were Catholic and only 4.3% were illiterate. About 62% of the abortion cases lived alone or did not have a stable partner. Most of the women (59.2%) reported less than 2 live births and 11.8% had experienced a previous abortion; 61.1% of the women were not using a contraceptive method at the time of conception. The main reasons for this were "fear of side effects", "did not expect to have sexual intercourse" and "did not expect to get pregnant". The authors suggest that the situation of a high rate of self-inflicted abortion may be changed by the application of an appropriate contraceptive and reproductive health programme. PMID:9008918

  3. Attitudes and practice of gynaecologists towards abortion in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Francome, C; Savage, W

    2011-01-01

    Women from Northern Ireland (NI) have to travel to Britain and pay for their terminations as the Abortion Act (1967) does not apply in that part of the UK. This paper analyses the attitudes of gynaecologists. A questionnaire was posted in 2009 to all NHS gynaecologists in NI (43). One had retired. After three mailings, 37 replied; a response rate of 88% (37.42). We found that of these, 21 (57%) favoured a liberalisation of the law in NI. If all the non-responders were against liberalisation, then still half (21/42) would be in favour. A total of 35% (13/37) wanted unrestricted access in the 1st trimester, a more liberal position than allowed by the current law in Great Britain. A total of 29 (78%) were in favour of free abortions for women from NI, as is largely the case in England and Wales. A total of 19 (51%) were in favour of the abortion charities being licensed to carry out legal abortions in Northern Ireland but 38% were opposed to this proposal. PMID:21280994

  4. Avoiding anomalous newborns: preemptive abortion, treatment thresholds and the case of baby Messenger

    PubMed Central

    Gross, M.

    2000-01-01

    In its American context the case of baby Messenger, a preterm infant disconnected from life-support by his father and allowed to die has generated debate about neonatal treatment protocols. Limited by the legal and ethical norms of the United States, this case did not consider treatment protocols that might be available in other countries such as Denmark and Israel: threshold protocols whereby certain classes of newborns are not treated, and preemptive abortion allowing one to choose late-term abortion rather than risk delivery. Each offers a viable and ethically sound avenue for dealing with the economic and social expense of anomalous newborns by aborting or not treating those most likely to burden the health care system. Objections that these protocols are antithetical to American bioethical principles are considered but rejected as each policy answers to economic justice, utility and respect for autonomy. Key Words: Abortion • selective non-treatment of newborns • comparative bioethics • neonatal care • neonaticide PMID:10951918

  5. Informed consent or institutionalized eugenics? How the medical profession encourages abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Darrin P

    2008-01-01

    Many women are unprepared to make prenatal decisions about fetuses diagnosed with Down Syndrome because of societal pressures to have "normal" children, a negative view of persons with disabilities by many in society, a fear of legal liability by those in the medical community, the lack of genuine informed consent before undergoing genetic testing and abortion, and the failure of non-directive pre-abortion counseling in the medical community. Moreover, medical professionals fail to communicate correct and unbiased information before and during the genetic screening, diagnostic testing, and abortion decision-making process. This article addresses the contributing factors and causes that ultimately lead to a lack of informed consent and a very high abortion rate for fetuses diagnosed with Down Syndrome. PMID:18771038

  6. Legal briefs.

    PubMed

    Cady, Rebecca F

    2013-01-01

    This column provides executive summaries of developments in legal and regulatory issues related to healthcare, lists a bibliography of pertinent healthcare law-related articles, and discusses interesting health law court decisions. PMID:23963111

  7. Negligence in Academic Advising and Abortion Counseling: Courts Rulings and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Carolyn

    2002-01-01

    Presents two court cases to illuminate school counselors' legal responsibilities in academic advising and abortion counseling. The cases are presented to show how appellate court decisions can guide and inform future decision making in a variety of malpractice situations, and to equip professionals to exercise even greater care for their minor…

  8. Women's opinions on the legalisation of abortion in Chile 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Tia; Infante Erazo, Mariela; Hurtado Pinochet, Victoria

    2015-08-01

    Chile is one of only four countries in the world where there is no explicit legal exception to prohibitions on abortion, and where the criminalisation of abortion endangers women's health and may be misaligned with public opinion. In this study we explored attitudes towards the legalisation of abortion and differences in levels of support across time. Among Chilean women in 2009 and 2013, we examined: (1) an additive index indicating support for legalisation of abortion in several situations and (2) support for each situation separately. We investigated the demographic characteristics associated with support for legalisation using multivariate regression. Over 70% of women supported the legalisation of abortion in cases of risk to the woman's life, rape and foetal malformation, and support was higher in 2013 compared to 2009 (? = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.44). Women with increasing education and those attending church services less frequently were more likely to support the legalisation of abortion (? = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.43), while those affiliated to a religion other than Catholicism (? =  - 0.32; 95% CI:  - 0.48,  - 0.16) were less likely to do so. Our study is the first to examine public opinions on abortion in Chile and differences in levels of support across time periods. Results indicate that current policies may not reflect trends in public opinion. PMID:25703034

  9. The abortion decision: fantasy processes.

    PubMed

    Allanson, S; Astbury, J

    1996-09-01

    This paper considers that features intrinsic to pregnancy and to an unwanted pregnancy/abortion decision heighten the likelihood of the occurrence, and the importance, of fantasy in the decision-maker's thinking. In addition, investigation of fantasy or non-rational processes in an abortion decision emphasizes the complexity of decision-making in a way which may challenge ideas of decision-making in general. The results of a pilot study using a short fantasy inventory with 20 women facing an abortion decision are presented to highlight fantasy, not as irrational or pathological, but as legitimately coexisting with logical, reasoning, non-fantasy thought in the abortion decision. The clinical value of the fantasy inventory is explored. PMID:8892162

  10. Selective reduction of pregnancy: a legal analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, A

    1996-01-01

    This article examines the technique and legality of induced abortion of one or more fetuses in a multiple pregnancy, where the aim is the destruction of some but not all of the fetuses present (selective reduction of pregnancy). It concludes that since the legal status of the procedure in English law is unclear, it may be a criminal offence to perform selective reduction even where there is an ostensible clinical need. Moreover if the procedure is carried out negligently, and any infant damaged as a result is subsequently born alive, he or she may have a civil claim against the practitioner who carried out the procedure. PMID:8910784

  11. Repeat abortions in new york city, 2010.

    PubMed

    Toprani, Amita

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to describe factors associated with the number of past abortions obtained by New York City (NYC) abortion patients in 2010. We calculated rates of first and repeat abortion by age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood-level poverty and the mean number of self-reported past abortions by age, race/ethnicity, neighborhood-level poverty, number of living children, education, payment method, marital status, and nativity. We used negative binomial regression to predict number of past abortions by patient characteristics. Of the 76,614 abortions reported for NYC residents in 2010, 57 % were repeat abortions. Repeat abortions comprised >50 % of total abortions among the majority of sociodemographic groups we examined. Overall, mean number of past abortions was 1.3. Mean number of past abortions was higher for women aged 30-34 years (1.77), women with ?5 children (2.50), and black non-Hispanic women (1.52). After multivariable regression, age, race/ethnicity, and number of children were the strongest predictors of number of past abortions. This analysis demonstrates that, although socioeconomic disparities exist, all abortion patients are at high risk for repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion. PMID:25779755

  12. Evaluation of a multi-pronged intervention to improve access to safe abortion care in two districts in Jharkhand

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the adoption of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act in 1972, access to safe abortion services remains limited in India. Awareness of the legality of abortion also remains low, leading many women to seek services outside the health system. Medical abortion (MA) is an option that has the potential to expand access to safe abortion services. A multi-pronged intervention covering a population of 161,000 in 253 villages in the Silli and Khunti blocks of Jharkhand was conducted between 2007 and 2009, seeking to improve medical abortion services and create awareness at the community level by providing information through community intermediaries and creating an enabling environment through a behavior change communication campaign. The study evaluates the changes in knowledge about abortion-related issues, changes in abortion care-seeking, and service utilization as a result of this intervention. Methods A baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted pre-intervention (n?=?1,253) followed by an endline survey (n?=?1,290) one year after the completion of the intervention phase. In addition, monitoring data from intervention facilities was collected monthly over the study period. Results Nearly 85% of respondents reported being exposed to safe abortion messaging as a result of the intervention. Awareness of the legality of abortion increased significantly from 19.7% to 57.6% for women, as did awareness of the specific conditions for which abortion is allowed. Results were similar for men. There was also a significant increase in the proportion of men and women who knew of a legal and safe provider and place from where abortion services could be obtained. Multivariate analysis showed positive associations between exposure to any component of the intervention and increased knowledge about legality and gestational age limits, however only interpersonal communication was associated with a significant increase in knowledge of where to obtain safe services (OR 4.8, SE 0.67). Utilization of safe abortion services, and in particular MA, increased at all intervention sites over the duration of the intervention with a shift towards women seeking care earlier in pregnancy. Conclusion The evaluation demonstrates the success of the intervention and its potential for replication in similar contexts within India. PMID:24886273

  13. House subcmte. tightens abortion language.

    PubMed

    1978-05-10

    Medicaid would help pay for abortion in fewer circumstances under the fiscal 1979 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), appropriations bill approved May 4, 1978, by the House HEW Appropriations Subcommittee than it did in 1978. The new language would permit the funding only if the mother's life would be endangered if the pregnancy were carried to term. Current law permits abortion payments for this reason; if pregnancy results from rape or incest, or if the birth would cause the mother severe and long-lasting physical damage. Behind the scenes pressure probably will be applied to resolve the issue quickly this year since all House members are up for reelection and do not want to have such a sensitive issue intruding on their campaigns. 1 strategy being discussed is the inclusion of riders that would directly or indirectly provide federal funds for abortions in other appropriation measures such as funding for the Defense Department and federal employees health benefits. The House will have to contend with Senator Brooke (R-Massachusetts) ranking minority member on the Senate HEW Appropriations Subcommittee, who is determined to stand firm in favor of liberal abortion funding. With only minimal opposition for his Senate seat this year, Senate staffers say Brooke is not concerned with the possibility of abortion becoming a major campaign issue. It was Brooke who forced the House's hand last year and obtained a more relaxed abortion curb, much to the chagrin of the Carter Administration. The White House, with the President's popularity at a low ebb, would prefer not to be put in a position of taking sides publicly although it prefers the strict curbs. Carter is currently deciding which House members to assist during the campaign and such a no-win issue would only serve to complicate matters. He will have enough of a problem reconciling health spending increases without the added burden of abortion. PMID:12335662

  14. An exploratory pilot study of nurse-midwives' attitudes toward active euthanasia and abortion.

    PubMed

    Musgrave, C F; Soudry, I

    2000-12-01

    Over the past three decades, active euthanasia and abortion have received increasing international attention. Since both these practices are relevant to the role of the nurse-midwife, it is important to know what influences their attitudes towards them. Therefore, the purpose of this study was: 1, to survey the attitudes of nurse-midwives' to active euthanasia and its legalization; 2, to determine the relationship between nurse-midwives' attitudes toward active euthanasia and its legalization, and attitudes toward abortion, self-reported religiosity and religious affiliation. The study setting was an international midwifery conference and the sample consisted of 139 nurse-midwives attending the conference. The majority of nurse-midwives displayed a positive attitude toward active euthanasia and its legalization. In addition, there was a positive relationship between their attitude to abortion and active euthanasia. Self-reported religiosity and religious affiliation were significantly related to attitudes toward active euthanasia and its legalization. An interesting positive relationship between country of practice and attitudes to euthanasia was also found. Nurse-midwives practicing in countries with more liberal euthanasia and assisted suicide legislation were more supportive of active euthanasia. With the increasing acceptance of active euthanasia's legalization, the results of this study pose some ethical questions that nurse-midwives internationally will have to consider. PMID:10871660

  15. [Some legal problems associated with family planning (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Srácek, J; Uzel, R; Fukalová, D

    1975-12-01

    While abortion and sterilization are demarcated under Czechoslovak l egal codes, the problem of the legal status of contraceptives has not been completely resolved. Provisions are needed for free contraceptives by prescription, for a clear ruling on cases under the age of 18, and for the designation of menstrual-regulating contraceptives as diagnostic or theraputic methods of treatment. PMID:1204025

  16. Abortion applicants in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Henker, F O

    1973-03-01

    The article reports upon the characteristics of 300 abortion applicants in Arkansas manifesting significant stress from unwanted pregnancy between May 1, 1970 and June 30, 1971. The sample is limited by the fact that all of these women had been willing to seek medical aid. Patients ranged from ages 13-47, 131 of them ages 17-21. 35% had had some college education; another 29% were high school graduates. 50.6%, 20.6%, and 27.3% were single, divorced, and married, respectively. 59.6% of the patients were primiparas. 18.3%, 9.6%, and 12.3% were classified as being neurotic, having psychophysiologic tendencies (gastrointestinal problems, obesity, chronic headaches), and having sociopathic features (passive-aggressive, frankly rebellious, delinquent, antisocial, alcoholic), respectively. 12 women had noticeable schizoid features; 4 women had mildly active schizophrenia. Fathers of the women were usually blue-collar workers (55.3%) or white-collar workers (24.6%). The most frequent ordinal sibling position among the women was oldest child (38%). Parental instability (1 or both parents lost through death, divorce, father usually away working, chronic alcoholism, etc.) was reported by 39.6% of the patients. Patients' attitudes toward the unwanted pregnancy included dislike of inexpediency of the situation (82.6%), self-depreciation (55.6%), and aversion (28.6%). Precipitated psychiatric disorders were for the greatest part mild. Manifesting symptoms included depression (66.7%), anxiety (21%), and mixed anxiety and depression (12.2%). Suicidal threats and gestures were made by 22 and 8 patients, respectively. In summary, the study reveals a group of predominantly Caucasian women from unstable, middle-class urban families who were going through an adjustment reaction to adolescence or adult life. PMID:4265812

  17. The horror of unsafe abortion: case report of a life threatening complication in a 29-year old woman

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Every year 42 million women with unintended pregnancies choose abortion, and fifty percent of these procedures, 20 million are unsafe. An unsafe abortion is defined as a procedure for terminating an unintended pregnancy carried out either by person lacking the necessary skills or in an environment that does not conform to minimal medical standards or both. Pakistan is the one of the six countries where more than 50% of the world’s all maternal deaths occur. It is estimated that 890,000 induced abortions are performed annually in Pakistan, and estimate an annual abortion rate of 29 per 1000 women aged 15-49. Case presentation Here we present a case report of a 29-year old woman who underwent an unsafe abortion for unintended pregnancy resulting in uterine perforation. The unskilled provider pulled out her bowel through vagina after perforating the uterus, as a result she lost major portion of her small intestine resulting in short bowel syndrome. Conclusion The law of Pakistan only allows abortion during early stages of pregnancy for purpose of saving the life of a mother but does not cater for cases of rape, incest and fetal abnormalities or social reasons. Only legalization of abortion is not sufficient, preventing unintended pregnancy should be the priority of all the nations and for this reason contraception should be widely accessible. Practitioners need to become better trained in safer abortion methods and be to able transfer the patient to health facility when complications occur. PMID:24131627

  18. Identification and treatment of intra-abdominal fetal skeletal remains: A consequence of illicit and unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Rohilla, Minakshi; Kalpdev, Arun; Jain, Vanita

    2015-06-01

    Objective The safety of abortions has always been a matter of concern for women's health. Unsafe abortion is one of the most neglected health-care problems in developing countries due to lack of awareness of the legal issues and limited access to authorised services often leading the women to poor quality of abortion in unsafe settings through untrained health personnel. Case report Two rare cases of second trimester unsafe abortions are reported here in which women presented after several weeks with well-preserved remains of fetal skeleton in their abdomen along with complicated multiple visceral injuries. Both these second trimester abortions were performed by untrained village abortionists for sex selection and unwanted pregnancy in an unmarried adolescent girl. The management in the unmarried girl was further complicated due to undisclosed history of abortion. Conclusion These reports of unsafe abortion highlight the need for clinicians to have a high index of suspicion for an undisclosed abortion when treating any morbid woman of reproductive age with a bizarre abdominal clinical picture. Chinese Abstract ? ? ??????? ????????? ????. PMID:25697232

  19. Estimating the probability of spontaneous abortion in the presence of induced abortion and vice versa.

    PubMed Central

    Hammerslough, C R

    1992-01-01

    An integrated approach to estimate the total number of pregnancies that begin in a population during one calendar year and the probability of spontaneous abortion is described. This includes an indirect estimate of the number of pregnancies that result in spontaneous abortions. The method simultaneously takes into account the proportion of induced abortions that are censored by spontaneous abortions and vice versa in order to estimate the true annual number of spontaneous and induced abortions for a population. It also estimates the proportion of pregnancies that women intended to allow to continue to a live birth. The proposed indirect approach derives adjustment factors to make indirect estimates by combining vital statistics information on gestational age at induced abortion (from the 12 States that report to the National Center for Health Statistics) with a life table of spontaneous abortion probabilities. The adjustment factors are applied to data on induced abortions from the Alan Guttmacher Institute Abortion Provider Survey and data on births from U.S. vital statistics. For the United States in 1980 the probability of a spontaneous abortion is 19 percent, given the presence of induced abortion. Once the effects of spontaneous abortion are discounted, women in 1980 intended to allow 73 percent of their pregnancies to proceed to a live birth. One medical benefit to a population practicing induced abortion is that induced abortions avert some spontaneous abortions, leading to a lower mean gestational duration at the time of spontaneous abortion. PMID:1594736

  20. Diagnosing Abortion Problems Abortions can represent a significant loss of (potential)

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Diagnosing Abortion Problems Abortions can represent a significant loss of (potential) income- hood of diagnosing the cause of any abortions that may occur. In some situations, the prompt diagnosis of an abortion may help reduce the severity of an impending outbreak. Well-kept records can be very useful

  1. Abortable Reader-Writer Locks are No More Complex Than Abortable Mutex Locks

    E-print Network

    Abortable Reader-Writer Locks are No More Complex Than Abortable Mutex Locks Dartmouth Computer on designing abortable mutual exclusion locks, and fairly efficient algorithms of O(log n) RMR complexity have). The abort feature is just as important for a reader-writer lock as it is for a mutual exclusion lock

  2. The search for meaning: RU 486 and the law of abortion.

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, S S; Paxman, J M

    1992-01-01

    The advent of RU 486 (mifepristone), a steroid analogue capable of inducing menses within 8 to 10 weeks of a missed menstrual period, has provoked a firestorm of concern and controversy. When used in conjunction with prostaglandin (RU 486/PG), it is at least 95% effective. Used in France principally to terminate confirmed pregnancies very early in the process of gestation, RU 486 raises many interesting legal questions. This article focuses on whether and how RU 486/PG can be accommodated within the framework of the world's current abortion laws. Four avenues are explored and conclusions drawn. First, it is clear that RU 486/PG can be used readily, if approved, within the regimens established by liberal abortion laws, as has been the experience in France, the United Kingdom, and even China. Second, although unlikely, the introduction of this new technology may inspire a reexamination of restrictive abortion statutes themselves. Third, some of the presently restrictive laws may be interpreted to permit RU 486/PG use as a legal procedure, for a very narrow range of reasons. Finally, in some settings the early use of RU 486/PG (before pregnancy can be confirmed) may fall outside the reach of abortion legislation and hence be acceptable from a legal point of view. PMID:1415870

  3. Repeat Abortions in Canada, 1975-1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne J. Millar; Surinder Wadhera; Stanley K. Henshaw

    In Canada, 20% of women who obtained an abortion between 1975 and 1993 had had at least one previous abortion. An analysis of data on 1.2 million abortions shows that the proportion of abortion patients undergoing repeat procedures increased from 9% to 29% over the 19-year period. The proportion was above average (22-28% for all years combined) among women who

  4. Gynaecologists and abortion in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Francome, C

    1994-07-01

    The evidence from gynaecologists in Northern Ireland shows confusion in interpretation and practice of abortion law, with some women even being denied abortion after rape. Over two-thirds of gynaecologists supported a change in the law which would leave the abortion decision to the woman and her doctor, but less than half wanted the introduction of the British law. PMID:7929486

  5. Combatting the "partial-birth abortion" myth.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Despite the efforts of pro-choice activists in the US to point out the critical differences between so-called "partial-birth abortions" and late-term abortions, the public remains confused about the issue. Proposed federal legislation banning "partial-birth abortions" excludes any language defining late-term abortions (time period or fetal viability). Thus, such a ban would apply to any abortion at any stage of pregnancy. Only the states of Kansas and Utah have passed legislation that limit the ban to late-term abortions. The term "partial-birth abortion" also has no independent meaning: it is not a medical term nor does it refer to a medical procedure. The correct term, "intact dilation and extraction," is never mentioned in most proposed legislation, much of which is written in broad enough language to outlaw all abortions. Most states that passed bans on "partial-birth abortions," in fact, had previously banned late-term abortions. In Georgia, a court order revised a "partial-birth abortion" law by limiting it to post-viability dilation and extraction and insisting on exceptions to protect the pregnant women's life and health. The courts have severely limited or enjoined "partial-birth abortion" legislation in 19 of the 20 states where challenges were mounted. Because an educated public overwhelmingly rejects the bans, reproductive rights activists are attempting to educate the public despite the inability or unwillingness of the media to make the crucial distinction. PMID:12294330

  6. Safe abortion: WHO technical and policy guidance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J Cook; B. M Dickens; M Horga

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the World Health Organization published its well referenced handbook Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems to address the estimated almost 20 million induced abortions each year that are unsafe, imposing a burden of approximately 67 thousand deaths annually. It is a global injustice that 95% of unsafe abortions occur in developing countries. The focus of

  7. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  8. Aborting a Message Flowing Through Social Communities

    E-print Network

    Magdon-Ismail, Malik

    Aborting a Message Flowing Through Social Communities Cindy Hui Rutgers University Piscataway, New that incorporate group structures and the distribution of trust in designing a useful abort mechanism. Index Terms is spreading and we wish to spread a counter rumor. We investigate the aborting of a message that is currently

  9. Aborting a Message Flowing Through Social Communities

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Mark

    Aborting a Message Flowing Through Social Communities Cindy Hui, Malik Magdon-Ismail, William A in designing a useful abort mechanism. Index Terms--agent-based simulation, information diffusion, information investigate the aborting of a message that is currently diffusing through a network, with the purpose

  10. Abortion, Moral Maturity and Civic Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hall, Megan Williams

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to rhetoric, moral reasonings scholarship, and journalism scholarship by examining public rhetoric on abortion and American popular media coverage (1940s to 1990s). Finds that the feminine means of moral reasoning has emerged into the foreground of discourse on abortion. Compares emergence of a common-ground rhetoric on abortion with a…

  11. Abortions in Cattle Max Irsik DVM, MAB

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Abortions in Cattle Max Irsik DVM, MAB Beef Cattle Extension Veterinarian University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine Abortion is the premature expulsion of the fetus from the dam and usually have died in-utero due to disease and was expelled. Depending upon the cause of "abortion" a cow may

  12. ABORTION COST LIST I Hartford Sites

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    ABORTION COST LIST I Hartford Sites: 1. Hartford Gyn Center 860-525-1900 Medical- $550 + $30 if Rh for Abortion info/scheduling 1-877-529-3689 www.ppct.org Procedure Sites in Norwich, New Haven, West Hartford. Both, Dr. Byrd and Dr. Flagg are willing to perform therapeutic abortions. Dr. Beverly Byrd 852

  13. Legal Encyclopedia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, provided by Nolo Press, a publisher of self-help law books and software, is a handy compendium of brief advice on fifteen topics, including small business, patent, copyright & trademark, legal research, wills & estate planning, and real estate. Content is composed of excerpted articles from Nolo books on the topics. Also provided are annotated lists of links related to each topic. While the purpose, of course, is to sell Nolo books and software, there is much useful content here.

  14. First trimester procedural abortion in family medicine.

    PubMed

    Lyus, Richard John; Gianutsos, Paul; Gold, Marji

    2009-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is common, and in the United States almost one-third [corrected] of all women will have at least one abortion during their lifetime. The majority of abortions are performed in the first trimester. Although advances have been made in the provision of medical abortion in the family medicine setting, procedural methods remain the cornerstone of abortion care. We present a step-wise review of first trimester procedural abortion using the manual vacuum aspirator to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating this service into a primary care setting. PMID:19264940

  15. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children - vulnerable with respect to repeat abortion. PMID:25005363

  16. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion. PMID:12293000

  17. Prenatal diagnosis and abortion for congenital abnormalities: is it ethical to provide one without the other?

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Angela; Newson, Ainsley; Luna, Florencia; Ashcroft, Richard

    2009-08-01

    This target article considers the ethical implications of providing prenatal diagnosis (PND) and antenatal screening services to detect fetal abnormalities in jurisdictions that prohibit abortion for these conditions. This unusual health policy context is common in the Latin American region. Congenital conditions are often untreated or under-treated in developing countries due to limited health resources, leading many women/couples to prefer termination of affected pregnancies. Three potential harms derive from the provision of PND in the absence of legal and safe abortion for these conditions: psychological distress, unjust distribution of burdens between socio-economic classes, and financial burdens for families and society. We present Iran as a comparative case study where recognition of these ethical issues has led to the liberalization of abortion laws for fetuses with thalassemia. We argue that physicians, geneticists and policymakers have an ethical and professional duty of care to advocate for change in order to ameliorate these harms. PMID:19998163

  18. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2002-06-03

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  19. RHIC Abort Kicker Prefire Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.; Perlstein, S.

    2014-07-07

    In an attempt to discover any pattern to prefire events, abort prefire kicker data from 2007 to the present day have been recorded. With the 2014 operations concluding, this comprises 8 years of prefire data. Any activities that the Pulsed Power Group did to decrease prefire occurrences were recorded as well, but some information may be missing. The following information is a compilation of the research to date.

  20. The problem of fetal pain and abortion: toward an ethical consensus for appropriate behavior.

    PubMed

    Brugger, E Christian

    2012-09-01

    Debate exists over whether fetuses feel pain, and if so what to do about it. Because they cannot provide self-report, certitude on the question cannot be reached. The essay argues that a presumption of reasonable doubt is adequate to inform moral behavior. It looks at the most recent evidence from fetal anatomical, neurochemical, physiological and behavioral research and concludes that a reasonable doubt exists that fetuses from 20 to 23 weeks do not feel pain. It proposes that where abortion is legal, providers should be legally required both to provide full disclosure of the possibility of fetal pain starting at 20 weeks and to offer pain-relief measures to suppress fetal pain to all women seeking an abortion. PMID:23285794

  1. Abortion Rights in Latin America (NYT) 539 words

    E-print Network

    Lopez-Carr, David

    Abortion Rights in Latin America (NYT) 539 words Published: January 6, 2006 For proof that criminalizing abortion doesn't reduce abortion rates and only endangers the lives of women, consider Latin America. In most of the region, abortions are a crime, but the abortion rate is far higher than in Western

  2. Differential Impact of Abortion on Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Wanda; Reardon, David

    1992-01-01

    Compared adolescent and adult reactions to abortion among 252 women. Compared to adults, adolescents were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with choice of abortion and with services received, to have abortions later in gestational period, to feel forced by circumstances to have abortion, to report being misinformed at time of abortion,…

  3. What do abortion policies accomplish? : understanding how abortion laws and court cases affect public opinion

    E-print Network

    Hernandez, Cory D

    2014-01-01

    Abortion is a loaded, controversial, and divisive sociocultural and political term, concept, and debate. Yet little empirical research has been conducted to examine what effects abortion rights legislation and court cases ...

  4. An AbortAn Abort--Aware Model ofAware Model of Transactional ProgrammingTransactional Programming

    E-print Network

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    An AbortAn Abort--Aware Model ofAware Model of Transactional ProgrammingTransactional Programming ­ An abort-aware semantics for transactions · Part 2: TSMs = Transactional State Machines ­ A finite-terminating transactions (known) ­ Ignores STM/HTM aborted transactions: for responsiveness, "abort" cannot be equal

  5. Does dedicated pre-abortion contraception counselling help to improve post-abortion contraception uptake?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed S Yassin; Diane Cordwell

    2005-01-01

    ObjectiveMany studies have shown a disappointing periabortion contraceptive uptake. This study investigated whether the provision of dedicated and targeted contraception counselling at the pre-abortion assessment visit can improve the post-abortion contraception uptake.MethodsThe study comprised a 3-month prospective reaudit of the abortion clinic.ResultsOf the 104 women seen during the re-audit period, 96% received post-abortion contraception. The majority (73%) of the women

  6. Peri-abortion contraceptive care: Can we reduce the incidence of repeat abortions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malini Garg; Madan Singh; Diana Mansour

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionIt is of great importance for repeat unwanted pregnancies to be prevented rather than aborted. We therefore sought to: determine the reasons for contraceptive failure in women seeking repeat abortions; audit the peri-abortion contraception services offered at our hospital, and make recommendations regarding peri-abortion contraception services based on the above findings.MethodA self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the contraceptive practices

  7. Post abortion contraception and its effect on repeat abortions in Auckland, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Roberts; Martha Silva; Sylvia Xu

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundMany misconceptions still prevail about the appropriateness of use of the intrauterine device (IUD), particularly for younger women. This study examines the factors associated with post abortion IUD use as compared to the combined oral contraceptive pill (COC). It then examines the effect of type of post abortion contraception with the likelihood of seeking subsequent abortions.

  8. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  9. Significant adverse events and outcomes after medical abortion.

    E-print Network

    Creinin, Mitchell David

    2013-01-01

    of health centers provided abortion care, and nearly all ofthe largest provider of abortion care in the United States,abortion from different sources including routine follow-up visits, reports from clinicians providing care

  10. Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM) - Application Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Howard; Straube, Tim; Madsen, Jennifer; Ricard, Mike

    2002-01-01

    One of the most demanding tasks that must be performed by the Space Shuttle flight crew is the process of determining whether, when and where to abort the vehicle should engine or system failures occur during ascent or entry. Current Shuttle abort procedures involve paging through complicated paper checklists to decide on the type of abort and where to abort. Additional checklists then lead the crew through a series of actions to execute the desired abort. This process is even more difficult and time consuming in the absence of ground communications since the ground flight controllers have the analysis tools and information that is currently not available in the Shuttle cockpit. Crew workload specifically abort procedures will be greatly simplified with the implementation of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) project. The intent of CAU is to maximize crew situational awareness and reduce flight workload thru enhanced controls and displays, and onboard abort assessment and determination capability. SAFM was developed to help satisfy the CAU objectives by providing the crew with dynamic information about the capability of the vehicle to perform a variety of abort options during ascent and entry. This paper- presents an overview of the SAFM application. As shown in Figure 1, SAFM processes the vehicle navigation state and other guidance information to provide the CAU displays with evaluations of abort options, as well as landing site recommendations. This is accomplished by three main SAFM components: the Sequencer Executive, the Powered Flight Function, and the Glided Flight Function, The Sequencer Executive dispatches the Powered and Glided Flight Functions to evaluate the vehicle's capability to execute the current mission (or current abort), as well as more than IS hypothetical abort options or scenarios. Scenarios are sequenced and evaluated throughout powered and glided flight. Abort scenarios evaluated include Abort to Orbit (ATO), Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL), East Coast Abort Landing (ECAL) and Return to Launch Site (RTLS). Sequential and simultaneous engine failures are assessed and landing footprint information is provided during actual entry scenarios as well as hypothetical "loss of thrust now" scenarios during ascent.

  11. Cytogenetics of recurrent spontaneous aborters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. McManus; M. A. de Arce

    1986-01-01

    Summary  Cytogenetic studies were performed on both partners of 84 couples with a history of two or more spontaneous abortions. A gross\\u000a chromosomal abnormality was identified in five of these couples. Four balanced translocation carriers were detected (46,XY,t(6:14),\\u000a 46,XX,t(10:17), 46,XX,t(2:7) and 45XX,t (14:21) plus one female with sex chromosome mosaicism 46,XX\\/47,XXX.

  12. Road map to scaling-up: translating operations research study’s results into actions for expanding medical abortion services in rural health facilities in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying unsafe abortion among the major causes of maternal deaths and respecting the rights to health of women, in 2002, the Nepali parliament liberalized abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy on request. However, enhancing women’s awareness on and access to safe and legal abortion services, particularly in rural areas, remains a challenge in Nepal despite a decade of the initiation of safe abortion services. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, an operations research study was carried out using quasi-experimental design to determine the effectiveness of engaging female community health volunteers, auxiliary nurse midwives, and nurses to provide medical abortion services from outreach health facilities to increase the accessibility and acceptability of women to medical abortion. This paper describes key components of the operations research study, key research findings, and follow-up actions that contributed to create a conducive environment and evidence in scaling up medical abortion services in rural areas of Nepal. Results It was found that careful planning and implementation, continuous advocacy, and engagement of key stakeholders, including key government officials, from the planning stage of study is not only crucial for successful completion of the project but also instrumental for translating research results into action and policy change. While challenges remained at different levels, medical abortion services delivered by nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives working at rural outreach health facilities without oversight of physicians was perceived to be accessible, effective, and of good quality by the service providers and the women who received medical abortion services from these rural health facilities. Conclusions This research provided further evidence and a road-map for expanding medical abortion services to rural areas by mid-level service providers in minimum clinical settings without the oversight of physicians, thus reducing complications and deaths due to unsafe abortion. PMID:24886393

  13. A qualitative investigation of low-income abortion clients' attitudes toward public funding for abortion.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Adrianne; Manski, Ruth; Dennis, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    We explored how low-income abortion clients in states where public funding was and was not available perceived the role of public funding for abortion. From October 2010 through February 2011, we conducted 71 semi-structured in-depth telephone interviews with low-income abortion clients in Arizona, Florida, New York, and Oregon. Women reported weighing numerous factors when determining which circumstances warranted public funding. Though most women generally supported coverage, they deviated from their initial support when asked about particular circumstances. Respondents felt most strongly that abortion should not be covered when a woman could not afford another child or was pregnant outside of a romantic relationship. Participants used disparaging language to describe the presumed behavior of women faced with unintended pregnancies. In seeking to discredit "other" women's abortions, women revealed the complex nature of abortion stigma. We propose that women's abortion experiences and subsequent opinions on coverage indicated three distinct manifestations of abortion stigma: women (1) resisted the prominent discourse that marks women who have had abortions as selfish and irresponsible; (2) internalized societal norms that stereotype women based on the circumstances surrounding the abortion; and (3) reproduced stigma by distancing themselves from the negative stereotypes associated with women who have had abortions. PMID:25068780

  14. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines, counseling 7. End-of-life measures: right to refuse 8. Comprehensive laws: right to refuse. PMID:20866024

  15. Labor induction abortion in the second trimester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Borgatta; Nathalie Kapp

    2011-01-01

    Labor induction abortion is effective throughout the second trimester. Patterns of use and gestational age limits vary by locality. Earlier gestations (typically 12 to 20 weeks) have shorter abortion times than later gestational ages, but differences in complication rates within the second trimester according to gestational age have not been demonstrated. The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol is the most

  16. Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  17. Safe Abortion: A Right for Refugees?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aimee Lehmann

    2002-01-01

    Thanks to initiatives since 1994, most reproductive health programmes for refugee women now include family planning and safe delivery care. Emergency contraception and post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortion are recommended, but provision of these services has lagged behind, while services for women who wish to terminate an unwanted pregnancy are almost non-existent. Given conditions in refugee settings, including

  18. Women's perceptions of abortion in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale Huntington; Laila Nawar; Dalia Abdel-Hady

    1997-01-01

    A rapidly implemented qualitative study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of women about abortion in Egypt using in-depth interviews with hospitalised patients and focus group discussions with family planning clients and non-contracepting women. The most salient issue confronting the patients (whether the abortion had been spontaneous or induced) was their physical survival. The necessity to return immediately to their

  19. Adolescents and Abortion: Choice in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Rebecca

    This publication seeks to explain the many facets of adolescent abortion: teenagers' need for access to safe abortion; the need for confidentiality in order to ensure safety; the real intent and effect of parental involvement laws; and the roles of parents and the state in safeguarding the health of pregnant teenagers. The first section looks at…

  20. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  1. Analysis of failure in medical abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly Winikoff; Charlotte Ellertson; Shelley Clark

    1996-01-01

    Medical abortion opens a new choice to women wishing to terminate a pregnancy. Increasingly, providers in the developing and developed world will begin to offer this option. Yet, the nomenclature and concepts used for measuring failure of surgical abortion are not directly adaptable because of important differences inherent in the method and in the way it is offered in a

  2. Myths with Facts: SEX-SELECTIVE ABORTION

    E-print Network

    Butler, Laurie J.

    Replacing Myths with Facts: SEX-SELECTIVE ABORTION LAWS IN THE UNITED STATES I N T E R N A T I O N, San Francisco. #12;Replacing Myths with Facts: SEX-SELECTIVE ABORTION LAWS IN THE UNITED STATES JUNE

  3. [Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied. PMID:24100828

  4. Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women: implications for access to abortion at the regional level.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles G

    2010-08-01

    Article 14(2)(c) of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women enjoins States Parties to take appropriate measures "to protect the reproductive rights of women by authorising medical abortion in cases of sexual assault, rape, incest, and where continued pregnancy endangers the mental and physical health of the mother or the life of the mother or the foetus." This paper considers the implications of Article 14 for access to safe, legal abortion. It is submitted that Article 14 has the potential to impact positively on regional abortion law, policy, and practice in 3 main areas. First, it takes forward the global consensus on combating abortion as a major public health danger. Second, it provides African countries with not just an incentive, but also an imperative for reforming abortion laws in a transparent manner. Third, if implemented in the context of a treaty that centers on the equality and non-discrimination of women, Article 14 has the potential to contribute toward transforming access to abortion from a crime and punishment model to a reproductive health model. PMID:20546748

  5. Medical abortion: the hidden revolution.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Phil

    2015-07-01

    While the medical abortion (MA) drugs, mifepristone and misoprostol, have radically altered reproductive health practices around the world, there has been little field research on the sales and use of these drugs, especially in developing countries. This leaves the family planning community with many unanswered questions. While good profiles of contraceptive use are available for many countries and we have good technical data on the MA drugs' efficacy, dosages and regimens such as home dosage of misoprostol versus clinic dosage, we have very little information about the quantities of MA drugs sold, how they are used, where they are used, and, in the case of misoprostol, for what purposes. Sales data are available from one excellent commercial survey and from social marketing sales of mifepristone and misoprostol and these are presented. Acknowledging the sensitivity of the issue, especially in countries where abortion is severely restricted, the author makes a plea for careful additional research to shed light on an important and growing part of the international reproductive health picture. PMID:26106105

  6. Awareness and views of the law on termination of pregnancy and reasons for resorting to an abortion among a group of women attending a clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Abeyasinghe, N L; Weerasundera, B J; Jayawardene, P A; Somarathna, S D

    2009-04-01

    In Sri Lanka, induced abortion is a criminal offence except to save the life of the mother. This study determined the awareness and views of the law on abortion among women seeking an abortion. Three hundred and thirteen women were interviewed. The characteristics of the study group are discussed. 65.8% of the respondents stated they knew the current law, 25.6% stated they did not and 8.3% were unsure. On detailed analysis of each respondent's knowledge regarding the situations where abortion is legalized including those who stated that they did not know the law, only 11.2% had an accurate knowledge. More than 75% stated that abortion should be legalized when the mother's life was in danger, where there was pregnancy after rape or incest, when there was psychiatric illness in the mother and when there were fetal anomalies. Reasons for resorting to an abortion are discussed. Although 11.2% were aware of the law, there was no difference in the reasons for resorting to an abortion when compared with those who were unaware of the law. This study highlights the fact that availability of abortion services to women depend not only on the law and its awareness, but on how it is interpreted and enforced. PMID:19239963

  7. Falling sex ratios and emerging evidence of sex-selective abortion in Nepal: evidence from nationally representative survey data

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Melanie Dawn; Puri, Mahesh; Hinde, Peter Richard Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To quantify trends in changing sex ratios of births before and after the legalisation of abortion in Nepal. While sex-selective abortion is common in some Asian countries, it is not clear whether the legal status of abortion is associated with the prevalence of sex-selection when sex-selection is illegal. In this context, Nepal provides an interesting case study. Abortion was legalised in 2002 and prior to that, there was no evidence of sex-selective abortion. Changes in the sex ratio at birth since legalisation would suggest an association with legalisation, even though sex-selection is expressly prohibited. Design Analysis of data from four Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011. Setting Nepal. Participants 31?842 women aged 15–49. Main outcome measure Conditional sex ratios (CSRs) were calculated, specifically the CSR for second-born children where the first-born was female. This CSR is where the evidence of sex-selective abortion will be most visible. CSRs were looked at over time to assess the impact of legalisation as well as for population sub-groups in order to identify characteristics of women using sex-selection. Results From 2007 to 2010, the CSR for second-order births where the first-born was a girl was found to be 742 girls per 1000 boys (95% CI 599 to 913). Prior to legalisation of abortion (1998–2000), the same CSR was 1021 (906–1150). After legalisation, it dropped most among educated and richer women, especially in urban areas. Just 325 girls were born for every 1000 boys among the richest urban women. Conclusions The fall in CSRs witnessed post-legalisation indicates that sex-selective abortion is becoming more common. This change is very likely driven by both supply and demand factors. Falling fertility has intensified the need to bear a son sooner, while legal abortion services have reduced the costs and risks associated with obtaining an abortion. PMID:23674444

  8. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.

  9. Atmospherics: Abortion Law and Philosophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita L. Allen

    2007-01-01

    In 1934, Karl N. Llewellyn published a lively essay trumpeting the dawn of legal realism, “On Philosophy in American Law.” The charm of his defective little piece is its style and audacity. A philosopher might be seduced into reading Llewellyn’s essay by its title; but one soon learns that by “philosophy” Llewellyn only meant “atmosphere”. His concerns were the “general

  10. A Biopsychosocial Model of Training in Abortion Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara A. Gawinski; Patricia A. Bennett; Sally J. Rousseau; Eric Schaff

    2002-01-01

    Given the national decline in availability of abortion, training additional abortion providers is essential. This article describes the critical components of a family medicine training program for abortion providers, in which the biopsychosocial model provides the philosophical foundation. The integration of all aspects of the biopsychosocial model insures that trainees consider the personal and professional impact of becoming an abortion

  11. On Avoiding Spare Aborts in Transactional Memory Idit Keidar

    E-print Network

    Keidar, Idit

    On Avoiding Spare Aborts in Transactional Memory Idit Keidar Dept. of Electrical Engineering a theory for un- derstanding aborts in transactional memory systems (TMs). Existing TMs may abort many transactions that could, in fact, commit without violating correctness. We call such unnecessary aborts spare

  12. Solo-fast Universal Constructions for Deterministic Abortable Objects

    E-print Network

    Johnen, Colette

    Solo-fast Universal Constructions for Deterministic Abortable Objects Claire Capdevielle, Colette. In this paper we study efficient implementations for deterministic abortable objects. Deterministic abortable abort to indicate that the operation failed (and did not take effect) when there is contention

  13. Emotional Sequelae of Abortion: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemkau, Jeanne Parr

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes literature on normative reactions to abortion and factors that increase risk of negative emotional sequelae. Discusses characteristics of woman, social support and cultural milieu around the abortion, the medical environment and abortion procedure itself, and events subsequent to abortion which may cause conflict. Discusses implications…

  14. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Pad Abort 1

    E-print Network

    NASAfacts National Aeronautics and Space Administration Pad Abort 1 Ensuring Astronaut Safety NASA are safe for human use. Pad Abort 1, a flight test being conducted to validate the Orion crew exploration vehicle's launch abort system, will be conducted at the Orion Abort Flight Test launch complex 32E

  15. Introduction to Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test Overview

    E-print Network

    #12;2 Agenda · Introduction to Orion · Pad Abort 1 Flight Test Overview · Pad Abort 1 Vehicle Description ­ Launch Abort System ­ Crew Module Simulator · Mission and Timeline · Test Objectives · Mission Success · WSMR Range and Test Day Plan #12;3 Launch Abort System · Safely removes the crew from launch

  16. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  17. Available Motherhood: Legal Technologies, "State of Exception" and the Dekinning of "War-Babies" in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mookherjee, Nayanika

    2007-01-01

    This article takes an ethnographical approach to explore the "state of exception" through which legal technologies of abortion and adoption of "war-babies" (children born as a result of wartime rapes) in the Bangladesh war enabled the dekinning and elimination of certain childhoods while the raped women were rekinned within legitimate heterosexual…

  18. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    E-print Network

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 ?s long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  19. [Abortions in Hajdu-Bihar County].

    PubMed

    Tatar, S

    1991-07-01

    The author examines the frequency of abortion in Hajdu-Binar County, Hungary. From 1981 to 1989, the number of abortions increased for all age groups of females, but large differences are noted among age groups. Surgical abortions increased the most among those 19 years and younger. This is attributed in part to early sexual experience but also to the lack of sex education and of information on contraception. The author strongly associates recent increases with uncertain socioeconomic conditions, weakening marital relations, and low levels of sexual and health knowledge. PMID:12343523

  20. Obstacles and challenges following the partial decriminalisation of abortion in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Amado, Eduardo Díaz; Calderón García, Maria Cristina; Cristancho, Katherine Romero; Salas, Elena Prada; Hauzeur, Eliane Barreto

    2010-11-01

    During a highly contested process, abortion was partially decriminalised in Colombia in 2006 by the Constitutional Court: when the pregnancy threatens a woman's life or health, in cases of severe fetal malformations incompatible with life, and in cases of rape, incest or unwanted insemination. However, Colombian women still face obstacles to accessing abortion services. This is illustrated by 36 cases of women who in 2006-08 were denied the right to a lawful termination of pregnancy, or had unjustified obstacles put in their path which delayed the termination, which are analysed in this article. We argue that the obstacles resulted from fundamental disagreements about abortion and misunderstandings regarding the ethical, legal and medical requirements arising from the Court's decision. In order to avoid obstacles such as demands for a judge's authorisation, institutional claims of conscientious objection, rejection of a claim of rape, or refusal of health insurance coverage for a legal termination, which constitute discrimination against women, three main strategies are suggested: public ownership of the Court's decision by all Colombian citizens, a professional approach by those involved in the provision of services in line with the law, and monitoring of its implementation by governmental and non-governmental organisations. PMID:21111356

  1. Ethics on the job: a survey. Where nurses stand on abortion.

    PubMed

    Ventura, M J

    1999-03-01

    This article examines the attitudes toward abortion among nurses working in an obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) unit in the US. Survey results conducted in 1988 and 1998 were compared. Majority of the nurses (52%) in the 1988 survey said that they would work in an OB/GYN unit where abortions are performed, while 48% would not. The 1998 survey, on the other hand, confirmed that 39% of the respondents would want to work in an OB/GYN unit while the majority (61%) would not. More nurses today refuse to perform abortion unless the procedure is necessary, such as in cases of: 1) rape; 2) incest; and 3) threat to the health or life of the mother. Violence, intimidation, or interference with those who attempt to obtain or provide abortion causes nurses' reluctance to participate. Moral, ethical and religious issues also contribute to the opposition. This legally protected health care service has been declining. Several bills have been passed regarding its prohibition, but none has been successful. PMID:10205565

  2. Preventing Abortion and Repeat Abortion with the Gynefix Intrauterine Implant System — Preliminary Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Batar; D. Wildemeersch; M. Vrijens; W. Delbarge; M. Temmerman; B. A. Gbolade

    1998-01-01

    The provision of immediate post-abortal contraception is important to reduce the number of unplanned pregnancies and the number of repeat abortions. Immediate post-abortal insertion of an IUD has many advantages and is an acceptable and safe method. However, side-effects and expulsion of conventional IUDs remain a problem. In an attempt to minimize these problems, the frameless intrauterine implant (IUI) was

  3. Induced Abortion and Relevant Factors among Women Seeking Abortion in Nanjing, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shenghui Wu; Linwei Tian; Fei Xu

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to determine the sociological characteristics of abortion seekers according to marital status and previous induced abortions in a major regional hospital in Nanjing, China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire in women seeking abortion at Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital in China in 2003. Results: The average

  4. Un an d'experience de la nouvelle loi sur l'avortement a New York. (One year of experience with a new abortion law in New York.).

    PubMed

    Neuwirth, R S

    1972-01-01

    Legal abortions performed for the first year by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Bronx-Lebanon Hospital after liberalization of the criminal code of New York, July 1, 1970, are reviewed. The hospital program was formulated to include pregnancies of 20 weeks or less and required a declaration signed before witnesses that the woman was single or divorced or permission of husband or parents if patient under 18. First trimester patients were given cervical block or light general anesthesia and vacuum aspiration; second trimester patients received intraamniotic saline or hysterotomy in case of fibroids or simultaneous tubal sterilization. All received contraceptive counseling, either by private physician or in the clinic. 1902 abortions were done without any deaths or admissions for septic abortion, contrasted with about 35 abortions, 2 deaths per year, and 3-4 women hospitalized per month for septic abortion in 1969. 19% of the patients were under 20 years of age, 30% carrying their first pregnancy, 3% married, and 35% of the abortion costs were paid by Medicaid. Among the first trimester patients there were complications in 4%, usually fever, 4 perforations, 4 readmitted for retained tissue, and 1 transfusion. The second trimester saline group had 18% complications, mostly fever, 8 septicemias, 4 transfusions, 2 hypercoagulopathies. The author emphasized that the abortion service was operated without deranging the normal function of the hospital and the Department. PMID:12256832

  5. TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been studied include, for example, spontaneous abortions, congenital defects, low birt...

  6. Clandestine abortion in Latin America: provider perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, K; Strickler, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of in-depth interviews with ten clandestine abortion providers in urban Latin America. Three related issues are addressed: how abortion providers come to this line of work; their major difficulties; and their sources of job satisfaction. A variety of paths bring health professionals to the practice of abortion; common elements are a sense of calling, a desire to help women, personal experience with abortion, and a commitment to political change. Providers describe difficulties that include a lack of medical support, the need for secrecy, and threats of violence, extortion, and prosecution. In spite of difficulties, all providers report a great deal of fulfillment in their work, based on their satisfaction in saving women's lives, maintaining supportive relationships with colleagues, and empowering women. PMID:10374808

  7. Abortion and Health Care Chaplaincy in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsay B. Carey; Christopher Newell

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results gained from quantitative and qualitative research involving 327 Australian health care chaplains\\u000a with regard to their involvement in abortion issues within the health care context. The findings indicate that approximately\\u000a 20% of surveyed chaplains had provided some form of pastoral intervention to patients and\\/or their families dealing with issues\\u000a of abortion and that approximately 10%

  8. Unsafe abortion - the current global scenario.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-08-01

    Unsafe abortion is prevalent in many developing countries, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and South and Southeast Asia, where abortion laws are more restrictive, the unmet need for contraception high and the status of women in society low. The main interventions for reducing the prevalence of unsafe abortion are known: better and more widely available family planning services, comprehensive sex education, improved access to safe abortion and high-quality post-abortion care, including contraceptive counselling and on-site services. Although these proposals have been included in statements and recommendations drawn up at several international conferences and adopted by the vast majority of nations, they have either been inadequately implemented or not implemented at all in the countries in which the need is greatest. A well-coordinated effort by both national and international organisations and agencies is required to put these recommendations into practice; however, the most important factor determining the success of such efforts is the commitment of governments towards preventing unsafe abortion and reducing its prevalence and consequences. PMID:20227350

  9. Abortion and anxiety: what's the relationship?

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Julia Renee; Russo, Nancy F

    2008-07-01

    Using data from the United States National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), we conducted secondary data analyses to examine the relationship of abortion, including multiple abortions, to anxiety after first pregnancy outcome in two studies. First, when analyzing the NSFG, we found that pre-pregnancy anxiety symptoms, rape history, age at first pregnancy outcome (abortion vs. delivery), race, marital status, income, education, subsequent abortions, and subsequent deliveries accounted for a significant association initially found between first pregnancy outcome and experiencing subsequent anxiety symptoms. We then tested the relationship of abortion to clinically diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and social anxiety disorder, using NCS data. Contrary to findings from our analyses of the NSFG, in the NCS analyses we did not find a significant relationship between first pregnancy outcome and subsequent rates of GAD, social anxiety, or PTSD. However, multiple abortions were found to be associated with much higher rates of PTSD and social anxiety; this relationship was largely explained by pre-pregnancy mental health disorders and their association with higher rates of violence. Researchers and clinicians need to learn more about the relations of violence exposure, mental health, and pregnancy outcome to avoid attributing poor mental health solely to pregnancy outcomes. PMID:18468755

  10. [Glimpses from the history of abortion].

    PubMed

    Holmdahl, B

    1992-05-01

    For a long time in human history, global population growth was checked by infant mortality, which ranged from 30-50% and did not start sinking until the beginning of the 1800s in the west. Child murder in the west was prohibited by law around the 1100-1200s, but it continued secretly. Among private people, induced abortion was allowed. In the holy scripts of Hinduism and Brahminism, abortion was prohibited. Hippocrates wrote that doctors should not give women abortifacient. The church father Augustinus stated that it was not within human power to discern when the soul entered the body, a circumstance that forbid abortion. A church meeting in 305 A.D. distanced itself from abortion, and this has been the stand of the Catholic Church ever since. In Sweden, exposing a child to the elements was practiced until the end of the 1200s, when it became prohibited. Protestants punished child murder by death. During 1759-78, 217 women were executed for child-killing. From the 1400s, church law punished abortion, and later, capital and punishment was meted out for it, but a distinction was made if the fetus was alive or stillborn. The law in 1734 punished abortion by the death of all concerned. The death penalty was abolished in 1864. In 1896, Anna Linholm reported to the policy in Uppsala that a midwife had been practicing clandestine abortions. Some of her patients were admitted to hospital for hemorrhaging. She was sentenced to hard labor. During 1851-1903, a total of 1408 abortions were reported to the health service. 90% of these became known because of death caused by obduction. Phosphorus was used for abortion in 1271 cases, arsenic in 62, and mechanical aids in 8 cases. About 1//2 of all female suicides at the end of the 1800s was performed by pregnant women who ate phosphorus. Almost all were unmarried, and 56% carried it out after the 5th month of pregnancy. In 1901, phosphorus was prohibited in Swedish homes. In 1875, free abortions became available. However, the ethical question about whether and when a fetus has a soul is more contemporary and relevant than ever. PMID:1618684

  11. Movement and counter-movement: a history of abortion law reform and the backlash in Colombia 2006-2014.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, Alba

    2014-11-01

    In 2006, the Constitutional Court of Colombia issued Decision C-355/2006, which liberalized the country's abortion law. The reform was groundbreaking in its argumentation, being one of the first judicial decisions in the world to uphold abortion rights on equality grounds, and the first by a constitutional court to rule on the constitutionality of abortion within a human rights framework. It was also the first of a series of reforms that would liberalize the abortion regulation in four other Latin American countries. The Colombian case is also notable for the process of strategic litigation carried out by feminist organizations after the Court's decision, in order to ensure its implementation and counter the opposition from conservative actors working in State institutions, as well as for the active role played by the Court in that process. Based on fieldwork carried out in Colombia in 2013, this article analyzes the process of progressive implementation and reactionary backlash after Decision C-355/2006, with an emphasis on strategic litigation by the feminist movement and subsequent decisions by the Constitutional Court, which consolidated its jurisprudence in the field of abortion rights. It highlights the role of both feminists and of conservative activists within State institutions as opposing social movements, and the dynamics of political and legal mobilization and counter-mobilization in that process. PMID:25555762

  12. Complications of Unsafe Abortion: A Case Study and the Need for Abortion Law Reform in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boniface A Oye-Adeniran; Augustine V Umoh; Steve NN Nnatu

    2002-01-01

    Complications of unsafe abortion account for 30-40% of maternal deaths in Nigeria. This paper reports a case of unsafe abortion by dilatation and curettage, carried out by a medical practitioner in a private clinic on a 20- year-old single girl in Lagos, Nigeria. The girl was 16 weeks pregnant. She suffered complications consisting of per- foration of the vaginal wall

  13. A simplified method for differential staining of aborted and non-aborted pollen grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to use chemical staining to discriminate aborted from non-aborted pollen grains has well-known practical applications in agriculture. A commonly used technique for assessing pollen vitality, Alexander’s stain, uses chloral hydrate, phenol and mercuric chloride, all of which are highly to...

  14. Reproductive rights on firmer ground with prochoice White House, Congress. Special report -- abortion and the 1992 elections.

    PubMed

    1992-11-12

    After 12 years, the US citizens elected a pro-choice president and preserved the already pro-choice Congress even though new people constitute 25% of the House of Representatives. The Congress gained even more pro-choice members. The abortion issue played an important secondary role (preceded by the economy) in the national elections, but was more important at the state level in many states. For example, voters overwhelmingly chose to preserve access to legal abortion in Arizona (69.31%) and Maryland (62.38%). In addition, 4 new women Senators and a Senator-elect from Colorado publicly proclaimed their pro-choice stance. The states of Missouri, North Carolina, and North Dakota elected pro-choice governors resulting in 30 pro-choice US governors and 20 antiabortion governors. President-elect Clinton can unilaterally repeal 2 of Bush's executive orders: the gag rule and the ban on fetal tissue transplantation research. He will need Congress' support to renew the Title X family planning program, to grant public funding for medically necessary abortions for poor women again, and the pass of the Freedom of Choice Act. Congress and the new president face the obstacle of convincing the public of the damage to basic rights done by the Supreme Court as evidenced by abortion rulings. They also need to lead the pro-choice groups to begin concentrating on how to prevent unwanted pregnancies so as to reduce the number of abortions and the needs of all women who want and need access to safe abortion. The Republican party's great hostility toward abortion and its intolerance for a variety of beliefs and life styles alienated most US citizens. Recent political losses are motivating the Republican party to reorganize but it depends on the moderates' ability and willingness to reclaim the party. PMID:12285933

  15. Abortion attitudes as determinants of perceptions regarding male involvement in abortion decisions.

    PubMed

    Coleman, P K; Nelson, E S

    1999-01-01

    Abortion decisions have a potentially meaningful effect on the lives of men. Previous research suggests that both men and women generally believe that men have the right to be involved in such decisions. However, very little research attention has been devoted to identifying individual difference correlates of discrepant levels of endorsement for male involvement in abortion decisions. The extent to which abortion attitudes (on a pro-choice to pro-life continuum), conceptualization of abortion as strictly a female issue, and interest in the issue operate as effective predictors of the appropriate level of male involvement in abortion decisions was examined in a sample of 1,387 college students. Results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that 44% of the variance in male involvement scores was explained by the predictor variables. PMID:9919847

  16. Abortion and maternal mortality in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Okonofua, Friday

    2006-11-01

    Unsafe abortion is an important public health problem, accounting for 13% of maternal mortality in developing countries. Of an estimated annual 70,000 deaths from unsafe abortion worldwide, over 99% occur in the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa, Central and Southeast Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Factors associated with increased maternal mortality from unsafe abortion in developing countries include inadequate delivery systems for contraception needed to prevent unwanted pregnancies, restrictive abortion laws, pervading negative cultural and religious attitudes towards induced abortion, and poor health infrastructures for the management of abortion complications. The application of a public health approach based on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with unsafe abortion in developing countries. Primary prevention includes the promotion of increased use of contraception by women (and by men) at risk for unwanted pregnancy; secondary prevention involves the liberalization of abortion laws and the development of programs to increase access to safe abortion care in developing countries. In contrast, tertiary prevention includes the integration and institutionalization of post-abortion care for incomplete abortion and the early and appropriate treatment of more severe complications of abortion. Efforts to address these problems will contribute both to reducing maternal mortality associated with induced abortion and to achieving the Millennium Development Goals in developing countries. PMID:17169222

  17. Conservative management of spontaneous abortions. Women's experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, E.; Janssen, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe women's experiences with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. DESIGN: Descriptive survey using questionnaires with fixed-choice and open-ended questions. The latter were analyzed for themes, using qualitative methods. SETTING: Urban and suburban private primary care family practices. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of family practice patients (59 of 80 eligible) pregnant for less than 12 weeks who had spontaneous abortions without surgery. Response rate was 84.7%; 50 questionnaires were received from the 59 women. METHOD: Women were asked about their physical experiences, including amount of pain and bleeding; emotional effects; their satisfaction with medical care; and their suggestions for improving care. MAIN FINDINGS: The mean worst pain experienced during a spontaneous abortion on an 11-point scale was 5.9. Bleeding varied, but was often very heavy. Satisfaction rate was 92.9% with family physician care and 84.6% with hospital care. Women described the emotional effect of "natural" spontaneous abortions and made recommendations for improving care. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the physical and emotional experiences of the women in this study might help physicians better prepare and support patients coping with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. PMID:10540695

  18. Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Fenster, L; Eskenazi, B; Windham, G C; Swan, S H

    1991-05-01

    We conducted a case-control study of spontaneous abortion in Santa Clara County, California between 1986 and 1987. We analyzed data on 607 cases and 1,284 controls to evaluate the potential association between caffeine consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy and spontaneous abortion. About 70% of the women consumed caffeinated coffee, tea, and/or soda; 7% of the women consumed more than an average of 300 mg of caffeine daily. The crude odds ratio (OR) for heavy caffeine consumption (greater than 300 mg/day) was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.04-2.31), which decreased to 1.22 (95% CI: 0.80-1.87) after controlling for confounding factors. For these heavy users, nausea modified the association of spontaneous abortion and caffeine; heavy caffeine consumers reporting nausea had a doubled risk for spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.20-3.70), in contrast to those who did not report nausea (adjusted OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.27-1.04). Heavy caffeine consumers who decreased their caffeine intake early in pregnancy had a risk of spontaneous abortion similar to that of nonconsumers. PMID:2054397

  19. [Pregnancy and induced abortion among teenagers].

    PubMed

    Tado, S

    1985-11-01

    The number of pregnancies and induced abortions among Japanese teenagers has recently increased. 2 of 5 pregnant single women whom social workers assist are teenagers. The teenagers fall into 2 groups: those under 18, who are in a sexually awakening period, or 18 and older, who are maturing. Those under 18, despite a strong tendency toward sexual activity, are predominantly insecure and run away from home to escape adversity and seek friendship among members of the opposite sex. After becoming pregnant, they go home only to embarrass their parents. Ultimately, they choose abortion or, because of their own inability, their babies are taken care of by their families or in foster homes. Those 18 or older, despite their knowledge of the relationship between sexual intercourse and pregnancy, typically did not take it seriously. Consequently, their reaction to their pregnancies tends toward shock and panic. Many try to keep their pregnancy from their parents. Though they do not want abortion, their circumstances may force them to it. Behind the increase of unexpected pregnancy and unwanted abortion in both age groups are several factors: the lack of sexual education suitable to their level of their physical maturity; a lack of responsibility by the male teenagers, who cannot relate their own actions to their partners' pregnancies; and the ignorance of pregnant teenagers, who cannot see that abortions may hurt them not only physically but mentally in the long run. PMID:3854863

  20. Complications of unsafe abortion: a case study and the need for abortion law reform in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Umoh, Augustine V; Nnatu, Steve N N

    2002-05-01

    Complications of unsafe abortion account for 30-40% of maternal deaths in Nigeria. This paper reports a case of unsafe abortion by dilatation and curettage, carried out by a medical practitioner in a private clinic on a 20-year-old single girl in Lagos, Nigeria. The girl was 16 weeks pregnant. She suffered complications consisting of perforation of the vaginal wall through the utero-vesical space into the abdominal cavity with gangrenous loops of small intestine herniating through it. Information was obtained from her case notes and the operating theatre register. She had a resection and anastomosis of the small intestine and had to remain in hospital, where she made a full recovery, for two weeks. Unsafe abortion is fraught with many complications, including pelvic sepsis, septicaemia, haemorrhage, renal failure, uterine perforation and other genital tract injuries, and gastro-intestinal tract injuries. Where expert, emergency treatment for these is not available, women die. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion service providers, restrictive laws and high morbidity and mortality from abortion tend to occur together. We advocate for a review of the existing restrictive laws in Nigeria in order to reduce the high morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion. PMID:12369323

  1. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...abortion is necessary to save the life of the mother. (2) Rape or incest. FFP is available in expenditures for abortion services performed to terminate a pregnancy resulting from an act of rape or incest. (c) Partial Federal funding...

  2. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...abortion is necessary to save the life of the mother. (2) Rape or incest. FFP is available in expenditures for abortion services performed to terminate a pregnancy resulting from an act of rape or incest. (c) Partial Federal funding...

  3. Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size Email Print Share Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know Article Body Only a handful of states grant minors access to abortion without their parents’ knowledge or permission. The majority ...

  4. Paradoxical Parallels in the American and German Abortion Decisions

    E-print Network

    Levy, Richard E.; Somek, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    In this Article, Professors Levy and Somek engage in a careful comparative analysis of the leading constitutional abortion decisions in the United States and Germany. This analysis is occasioned by the remarkable convergence of the abortion...

  5. Making Abortions Safe: A Matter of Good Public Health Policy and Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marge Berer

    2002-01-01

    Globally, abortion mortality constitutes at least 13% of maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Preventing abortion mortality and morbidity in countries where they remain high is a matter of good public health policy, based on good medical practice, and an important part of initiatives

  6. Spontaneous Abortion and the Pathology of Early Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yee Khong

    The medical profession classifi es abortion as induced or spontaneous. The lay public, however, tends to equate the term abortion\\u000a with one that is induced, whether therapeutically, self, or criminal, and to associate the term miscarriage with spontaneous\\u000a abortion (Beard et al. 1985).\\u000a \\u000a Spontaneous abortion is usually defi ned as the involuntary loss of a conceptus before the fetus has

  7. Abortion and Neonaticide: Ethics, Practice and Policy in Four Nations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Gross

    2002-01-01

    Abortion, particularly late-term abortion, and neonaticide, selective non-treatment of newborns, are feasible management strategies for fetuses or newborns diagnosed with severe abnormalities. However, policy varies considerably among developed nations. This article examines abortion and neonatal policy in four nations: Israel, the US, the UK and Denmark. In Israel, late-term abortion is permitted while non-treatment of newborns is prohibited. In the

  8. Post-abortion complications after interruption of pregnancy with misoprostol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Faúndes; L. C. Santos; M. Carvalho; C. Gras

    1996-01-01

    The high incidence of abortion in Brazil and the increased use of misoprostol among women having clandestine\\/unsafe abortions has led to an interest in evaluating whether there is an association between the use of misoprostol and the incidence of septic complications post-abortion. To test this association, a retrospective cohort study was conducted with 1840 women treated post-abortion at the Instituto

  9. Improving induced abortion care in Scotland: enablers and constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lale Say; Robbie Foy

    2005-01-01

    BackgroundInduced abortion is the most common gynaecological procedure in Scotland. Despite several recent initiatives to improve the quality of abortion care, inappropriate variations in care remain.ObjectiveTo identify and explore factors that enable or constrain the provision of high-quality induced abortion care in Scotland.MethodsInterviews with a range of key informants with differing perspectives and levels of involvement in abortion care. The

  10. [Reintroduction of medical abortion in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Olsen, C D; Wittendorff, H E; Jørgensen, J J

    2000-03-20

    Medical termination of early pregnancy with mifepristone (RU 486) followed by a prostaglandin analogue (Cervagem) is a fairly new abortion method in surgical and gynaecological departments in Denmark. Sixty-two patients were evaluated during the period December 1, 1997 to the June 10, 1998 at Kalundborg hospital. The success rate was 97%. Side effects were rare. The study illustrates the need for strong analgesics in half of the patients. In conclusion RU 486 followed by a prostaglandin analogue provides an efficient and attractive alternative to surgical abortion methods. PMID:10766656

  11. Sex Selective Abortions, Fertility and Birth Spacing Claus C Portner

    E-print Network

    Silver, Whendee

    Sex Selective Abortions, Fertility and Birth Spacing Claus C P¨ortner Department of Economics under the title "The Determinants of Sex Selective Abortions." #12;Abstract Previous research on sex selective abortions has ignored the interactions between fertility, birth spacing and sex selection

  12. The validity of survey responses on abortion: evidence from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, B A; Katus, K; Puur, A; Silver, B D

    1994-02-01

    This paper presents results of a validation survey of abortion conducted in Tallinn, Estonia in April and May 1992. The sample was drawn from patient records in a maternity hospital. Women who had an abortion in that hospital in 1991 were asked about recent abortions as part of a survey about women's health. More than 80% of the respondents reported having a recent abortion. Some respondents misreported their abortion as a miscarriage. Moreover, some variation in reporting was associated with respondents' characteristics. Ethnic Estonians were less likely to report their abortion than were Russians, women over age 40 were less likely to report the abortion than younger women, and women who had the abortion late in the first trimester were less likely to report that abortion. There was some evidence that unmarried women were less likely than married women to report their abortion, and that women who had borne three or more children were less likely to report their abortion than women who had borne fewer children. These differences probably stem from the extent to which pregnancy or abortion is considered stigmatizing for women in different situations. PMID:8005338

  13. Increased contraceptive use one year post-abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kero; A. Lalos

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of abortion on contraceptive use, partner rela- tionship and sexual satisfaction. METHODS: In a longitudinal study, 58 women answered a pre-abortion question- naire and participated in two interviews, one in connection with the abortion and a second 1 year later. RESULTS: Most women (40\\/58) had retained the same partner

  14. Abortion and Maternal Mortality in the Developing World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friday Okonofua

    Unsafe abortion is an important public health problem, accounting for 13% of maternal mortality in developing countries. Of an estimated annual 70 000 deaths from unsafe abortion worldwide, over 99% occur in the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa, Central and Southeast Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Factors associated with increased maternal mortality from unsafe abortion in developing countries

  15. The Psychosocial Factors of the Abortion Experience: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Lisa Roseman

    1976-01-01

    Due to faulty methodology no general statements can be made about psychosocial factors for women receiving illegal abortions. Women receiving therapeutic abortions experienced favorable psychological consequences more often than negative consequences. New abortion patients are mostly young, unmarried women who are not in a social position to care…

  16. The Effect of Religious Membership on Teen Abortion Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomal, Annette

    2001-01-01

    Studied abortion rates among teenagers in 1,024 counties in 18 states that report abortion numbers. Results show that counties with high levels of religious membership were more likely to be in a state with a parental involvement law for teenage abortions. Both religious membership level and a parental involvement law were negatively related to…

  17. ABORTED FRUITS OF OPUNTIA MICRODASYS (CACTACEAE): INSURANCE AGAINST REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE

    E-print Network

    Mandujano, María del Carmen

    ABORTED FRUITS OF OPUNTIA MICRODASYS (CACTACEAE): INSURANCE AGAINST REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE 1 N, but plantlet provenance did not. The high fruit abortion rate resulting from environmental and maternal effects provided suitable conditions for establishment of plantlets. Key words: clonal propagation; fruit abortion

  18. Solo-fast Universal Constructions for Deterministic Abortable Objects

    E-print Network

    Johnen, Colette

    Solo-fast Universal Constructions for Deterministic Abortable Objects Claire Capdevielle, Colette.lastname@labri.fr) Abstract. In this paper we study efficient implementations for deter- ministic abortable objects. Deterministic abortable objects behave like ordinary objects when accessed sequentially, but they may return

  19. Abortions in Cattle, a Review Max Irsik DVM, MAB

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Abortions in Cattle, a Review Max Irsik DVM, MAB Beef Cattle Extension Veterinarian University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine Abortion is the premature expulsion of the fetus from the dam have died in-utero due to disease and was expelled. Depending upon the cause of "abortion" a cow may

  20. Article de synthse DIAGNOSTIC DE LA CHLAMYDIOSE ABORTIVE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Article de synthèse DIAGNOSTIC DE LA CHLAMYDIOSE ABORTIVE Annie RODOLAKIS INRA, centre de ToursI abortive infections of ruminants are presented in this review. Plan 1. Diagnostic indirect 1.1. Diagnostic commencent également à être appliquées en médecine vétérinaire pour le diagnostic de la chlamydiose abortive

  1. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section 457.475 Public...457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under...is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for the...

  2. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section 457.475 Public...457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under...is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for the...

  3. Resets vs. Aborts in Linear Temporal Logic Roy Armoni1

    E-print Network

    Kupferman, Orna

    Resets vs. Aborts in Linear Temporal Logic Roy Armoni1 , Doron Bustan2 , Orna Kupferman3 of Pnueli's LTL. Both ForSpec and Sugar 2.0 directly support reset/abort signals, in which a check for a property may be terminated and declared successful by a reset/abort sig- nal, provided the check has

  4. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section 457.475 Public...457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under...is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for the...

  5. DIAGNOSTIC ALLERGIQUE DE LA CHLAMYDIOSE ABORTIVE DE LA CHEVRE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DIAGNOSTIC ALLERGIQUE DE LA CHLAMYDIOSE ABORTIVE DE LA CHEVRE Annie RODOLAKIS, J. DUFRENOY A (France) Summary ALLERGIC DIAGNOSIS OF ABORTIVE CHLAMYDIAL INFECTION IN THE GOAT. ― A delayed. Introduction. Le diagnostic immunologique de la Chla- mydiose abortive est réalisé tant chez la chèvre que chez

  6. Powered Safe Abort for Autonomous Rendezvous of Spacecraft

    E-print Network

    How, Jonathan P.

    Powered Safe Abort for Autonomous Rendezvous of Spacecraft Louis Breger and Jonathan P. How MIT-optimized rendezvous trajectories. These trajectories guarantee the existence of known powered abort trajectories the existence of known active safe abort trajectories for a large class of possible spacecraft anomalies

  7. Schedulability Analysis of CAN with Non-abortable Transmission Requests

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Schedulability Analysis of CAN with Non-abortable Transmission Requests Dawood A. Khan INRIA / INPL, in reality, CAN controllers may have some characteristics, such as non- abortable transmit buffers, which may break this assumption. This paper provides analysis for networks that contain nodes with non-abortable

  8. The Accessibility of Abortion Services In the United States, 2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley K. Henshaw; Lawrence B. Finer

    2003-01-01

    RESULTS: A minority of abortion providers offer services before five weeks from the last menstrual period (37%) or after 20 weeks (24% or fewer), but the proportions have increased since 1993. Providers estimate that one-quarter of women having abortions in nonhospital facilities travel 50 miles or more for services, and that 7% are initially unsure of their abortion decision. The

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Arsenic Exposure and Risk of Spontaneous Abortion,

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Arsenic Exposure and Risk of Spontaneous Abortion, Stillbirth, and Infant out during 2002­2004 in Matlab, Bangladesh. Spontaneous abortion was evaluated in relation to urinary of spontaneous abortion was 1.4 (95% confi- dence interval CI 0.96­2.2) among women with urine arsenic

  10. Review article Recent advances on ovine chlamydial abortion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Recent advances on ovine chlamydial abortion Annie Rodolakisa Jesus Salinasb John on ovine chlamydial abortion. Concerning chlamy- dial taxonomy, with the recent advances due, with the kinetics of placental col- onization and placental pathology leading to abortion in ruminants. Studies

  11. Review article Lelystad virus and the porcine epidemic abortion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Lelystad virus and the porcine epidemic abortion and respiratory syndrome G abortion and respiratory syndrome and porcine reproduc- tive and respiratory syndrome. The virus is a small pigs. Clinical signs of an infection with Le- lystad virus are characterized by late term abortions

  12. Women and abortion: attitudes, social networks, decision-making.

    PubMed

    Faria, G; Barrett, E; Goodman, L M

    1985-01-01

    The results of a study of 517 women seeking abortion are presented regarding attitudes about abortion in general, feelings about the specific decision to have an abortion and the social networks utilized in the decision-making process. Areas of potential conflict related to decision-making are identified along with the implications for social work practice. PMID:4081975

  13. Health-related quality of life and social support among women treated for abortion complications in western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While the impact of abortion complications on clinical outcomes and healthcare costs has been reported, we found no reports of their impact on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), nor the role of social support in moderating such outcomes. In this study, we performed an assessment of the relationship between abortion complications, HRQoL and social support among women in Uganda. Methods We interviewed women who were discharged after treatment for abortion complications and, as a comparison, women visiting a regional referral hospital for routine obstetric care. We administered the EuroQol instrument and the Social Support Questionnaire Short-Form, and collected demographic and socioeconomic data. We performed descriptive analyses using t-tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and chi-square tests, and multivariable linear regressions with interaction effects to examine the associations between abortion complications, EQ-5D utility scores and social support. Results Our study included 139 women (70 with abortion complications, and 69 receiving routine obstetric care). In four out of the 5 dimensions of the EQ-5D, a larger proportion of women with abortion complications reported “some or severe” problems than women receiving routine obstetric care (self-care: 42% v 24%, p=0.033; usual activities: 49% v 16%, p<0.001; pain/discomfort: 68% v 25%, p<0.001; and anxiety/depression: 60% v 22%, p<0.001). After adjusting for age, social support, wealth tertile, employment status, marital status, and HIV status, women with abortion complications had a 0.12 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.18, p < 0.001) lower mean EQ-5D utility score than those receiving routine obstetric care. An analysis of the modifying effect of social support showed that a one-unit higher average number of people providing social support was associated with larger mean difference in EQ-5D utility score when comparing the two groups, while a one unit higher average satisfaction score with social support was associated with smaller mean differences in EQ-5D utility score. Conclusions Our study suggests that abortion complications are associated with diminished HRQoL and the magnitude of the association depends on social support. However, the mediating role of social support in a setting of social and legal proscriptions to induced abortion is complex. PMID:23855524

  14. Brazilian public policies for reproductive health: family planning, abortion and prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Guilhem, Dirce; Azevedo, Anamaria Ferreira

    2007-08-01

    This study is an ethical reflection on the formulation and application of public policies regarding reproductive health in Brazil. The Integral Assistance Program for Women's Health (PAISM) can be considered advanced for a country in development. Universal access for family planning is foreseen in the Brazilian legislation, but the services do not offer contraceptive methods for the population in a regular and consistent manner. Abortion is restricted by law to two cases: risk to the woman's life and rape. This reality favors the practice of unsafe abortion, which is the third largest cause of maternal death in Brazil. Legal abortion is regulated by the State and the procedure is performed in public health centers. However, there is resistance on the part of professionals to attend these women. Prenatal care is a priority strategy for promoting the quality of life of these women and of future generations. Nonetheless, it is still difficult for these women to access the prenatal care services and to have the required number of consultations. Moreover, managers and health professionals need to be made aware of the importance of implementing the actions indicated by the public policies in the area of sexual and reproductive health, favoring respect for autonomy in a context of personal freedom. PMID:17614992

  15. Miscarriage, abortion or criminal feticide: understandings of early pregnancy loss in Britain, 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores the close links in medical understandings of miscarriage and abortion in the first half of the twentieth century in Britain. In the absence of a clear legal framework for abortion, and the secrecy surrounding the practice, medical literature suggests contradictory and confused views about women presenting with clinical signs of pregnancy loss. On one hand, there was a lack of clarity as to whether pregnancy loss was natural or induced, with a clear tendency to assume that symptoms of miscarriage were the result of criminal interference gone wrong. On the other hand, women who did not present for treatment when miscarriage was underway were accused of neglecting their unborn children. The paper suggests that discourses around pregnancy loss were class-based, distrustful of female patients, and shaped by the wider context of fertility decline and concerns about infant mortality. The close historical connection between miscarriage and abortion offers some insight into why both the pro-life movement and miscarriage support advocates today draw on similar imagery and rhetoric about early fetal loss. PMID:24594057

  16. Algorithm for Determination of Orion Ascent Abort Mode Achievability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    For human spaceflight missions, a launch vehicle failure poses the challenge of returning the crew safely to earth through environments that are often much more stressful than the nominal mission. Manned spaceflight vehicles require continuous abort capability throughout the ascent trajectory to protect the crew in the event of a failure of the launch vehicle. To provide continuous abort coverage during the ascent trajectory, different types of Orion abort modes have been developed. If a launch vehicle failure occurs, the crew must be able to quickly and accurately determine the appropriate abort mode to execute. Early in the ascent, while the Launch Abort System (LAS) is attached, abort mode selection is trivial, and any failures will result in a LAS abort. For failures after LAS jettison, the Service Module (SM) effectors are employed to perform abort maneuvers. Several different SM abort mode options are available depending on the current vehicle location and energy state. During this region of flight the selection of the abort mode that maximizes the survivability of the crew becomes non-trivial. To provide the most accurate and timely information to the crew and the onboard abort decision logic, on-board algorithms have been developed to propagate the abort trajectories based on the current launch vehicle performance and to predict the current abort capability of the Orion vehicle. This paper will provide an overview of the algorithm architecture for determining abort achievability as well as the scalar integration scheme that makes the onboard computation possible. Extension of the algorithm to assessing abort coverage impacts from Orion design modifications and launch vehicle trajectory modifications is also presented.

  17. Accreditation's Legal Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graca, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Like most issues in higher education, the accreditation paradigm in the United States is defined in large measure by the legal and political climate in which the academy finds itself. In the case of accreditation in particular, the legal substrate is of particular importance given the central role of accreditation in a college's ability to receive…

  18. Construction Management: Legal Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, George J.

    1972-01-01

    Provides legal principles of which prospective owners should be aware. The author points out the particular legal problems of projects involving third party construction managers. Topics covered are (1) substantial performance, (2) interpretations of time, (3) impossibility of performance, (4) third party impairments, (5) reliance on promises, (6)…

  19. Complications of Unsafe Abortion: A Case Study and the Need for Abortion Law Reform in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boniface A Oye-Adeniran; Augustine V Umoh; Steve NN Nnatu

    2002-01-01

    Complications of unsafe abortion account for 30–40% of maternal deaths in Nigeria. This paper reports a case of unsafe abortion by dilatation and curettage, carried out by a medical practitioner in a private clinic on a 20-year-old single girl in Lagos, Nigeria. The girl was 16 weeks pregnant. She suffered complications consisting of perforation of the vaginal wall through the

  20. Spontaneous abortion and unexpected death: a critical discussion of Marquis on abortion.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Mary Clayton

    2013-02-01

    In his classic paper, 'Why abortion is immoral', Don Marquis argues that what makes killing an adult seriously immoral is that it deprives the victim of the valuable future he/she would have otherwise had. Moreover, Marquis contends, because abortion deprives a fetus of the very same thing, aborting a fetus is just as seriously wrong as killing an adult. Marquis' argument has received a great deal of critical attention in the two decades since its publication. Nonetheless, there is a potential challenge to it that seems to have gone unnoticed. A significant percentage of fetuses are lost to spontaneous abortion. Once we bring this fact to our attention, it becomes less clear whether Marquis can use his account of the wrongness of killing to show that abortion is the moral equivalent of murder. In this paper, I explore the relevance of the rate of spontaneous abortion to Marquis' classic anti-abortion argument. I introduce a case I call Unexpected Death in which someone is about to commit murder, but, just as the would-be murderer is about to strike, his would-be victim dies unexpectedly. I then ask: what does Marquis' account of killing imply about the moral status of what the would-be murderer was about to do? I consider four responses Marquis could give to this question, and I examine what implications these responses have for Marquis' strategy of using his account of the wrongness of killing an adult to show that abortion is in the same moral category. PMID:23038800

  1. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  2. Commentary: imagine a world without abortion stigma.

    PubMed

    Cockrill, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This commentary explores what a world without abortion stigma might look like at the individual, community and institutional level. The article further articulates the need for interdisciplinary collaboration for developing a vision, research agenda, and intervention strategy for change. PMID:25061760

  3. Cytogenetic and histologic analyses of spontaneous abortions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Geisler; J. Kleinebrecht

    1978-01-01

    In a study of spontaneous abortions the correlations between karyotype (166 cases), anamnestic data, and macroscopic and histologic findings in placentas (107 cases) and embryos (73 cases) were analyzed. The main results were: 1. The rate of chromosomal aberrations was 39%. Trisomies predominated (60%), followed by monosomy X (20%), triploidies (14%), and structural aberrations (6%). 2. In trisomies a clear

  4. Association of petrochemical exposure with spontaneous abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Xu; S. I. Cho; M. Sammel; L. You; S. Cui; Y. Huang; G. Ma; C. Padungtod; L. Pothier; T. Niu; D. Christiani; T. Smith; L. Ryan; L. Wang

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between petrochemical exposure and spontaneous abortion, a retrospective epidemiological study in a large petrochemical complex in Beijing, China was conducted. METHODS: Plant employment records identified 3105 women who were married, were 20-44 years of age, and had never smoked. Of those, 3070 women (98.8%) reported at least one pregnancy. From this group, 2853 (93%) of

  5. Measuring stigma among abortion providers: assessing the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey instrument.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lisa A; Debbink, Michelle; Hassinger, Jane; Youatt, Emily; Eagen-Torkko, Meghan; Harris, Lisa H

    2014-01-01

    We explored the psychometric properties of 15 survey questions that assessed abortion providers' perceptions of stigma and its impact on providers' professional and personal lives referred to as the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey (APSS). We administered the survey to a sample of abortion providers recruited for the Providers' Share Workshop (N = 55). We then completed analyses using Stata SE/12.0. Exploratory factor analysis, which resulted in 13 retained items and identified three subscales: disclosure management, resistance and resilience, and discrimination. Stigma was salient in abortion provider's lives: they identified difficulties surrounding disclosure (66%) and felt unappreciated by society (89%). Simultaneously, workers felt they made a positive contribution to society (92%) and took pride in their work (98%). Paired t-test analyses of the pre- and post-Workshop APSS scores showed no changes in the total score. However, the Disclosure Management subscale scores were significantly lower (indicating decreased stigma) for two subgroups of participants: those over the age of 30 and those with children. This analysis is a promising first step in the development of a quantitative tool for capturing abortion providers' experiences of and responses to pervasive abortion stigma. PMID:25061823

  6. FULL LEGAL NAME REQUEST FORM

    E-print Network

    Stowell, Michael

    FULL LEGAL NAME REQUEST FORM REV 08/13 Legal Name Request Form [ADM Status Change>ADM Student. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Current Name (Last Name, First Name Middle Name) _______________________________________________ Birthdate Please indicate your full legal name below

  7. I want my information back: evidentiary privilege following the partial birth abortion cases.

    PubMed

    Silfen, Molly

    2005-01-01

    In February 2004, privacy concerns captured the public's attention when the United States government, the defendant in a lawsuit challenging the constitutionality of the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003, sought to subpoena the medical records of patients receiving intact dilation and extraction (also known as "partial birth") abortions in six different hospitals and six Planned Parenthood centers across the country. Three different federal court cases explored the enforceability of the subpoenas. This Note explores the rationales used by the three courts in examining the privacy interests involved. It then suggests some possible solutions for systematically protecting medical information: a legal solution; a technological solution; and a combination of both. The legal solution involves creating a federal physician-patient privilege, similar to that enforced in many states and parallel to the federal psychotherapist-patient privilege. The technological solution requires the complicity of multiple jurisdictions to verify the necessity of revealing medical information. Taken together, these solutions can assist the government in protecting its citizens by imposing more checks on itself. PMID:15968942

  8. Improving technologies to reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Rogo, K

    2004-06-01

    This article reviews the technologies used to diagnose pregnancy and manage abortion in developing countries. The author discusses methods of diagnosing pregnancy--including physical examination, laboratory and home testing, and ultrasound--as well as methods for performing safe abortions. Due to manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) advances, vacuum aspiration has become safer and more feasible in low-resource settings. The discussion of medical abortion includes the advantages and limitations of mifepristone, misoprostol-only regimens, methotrexate, and other methods. The author stresses the importance of post-abortion care and post-abortion contraception and, in the conclusion, identifies six areas in which technology can reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality: pregnancy prevention, early diagnosis of pregnancy, accurate assessment of gestation, standardization and supply of MVA technology, and simple and affordable regimens for medical abortion. PMID:15147856

  9. Counting abortions so that abortion counts: Indicators for monitoring the availability and use of abortion care services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Healy; K. Otsea; J. Benson

    2006-01-01

    SummaryMaternal mortality reduction has been a focus of major international initiatives for the past two decades. Widespread provision of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) has been shown to be an important strategy for addressing many of the complications that might otherwise lead to maternal death. However, unsafe abortion is one of the major causes of pregnancy-related deaths, and will be only

  10. Legal Protections for Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, David W.

    1977-01-01

    Individual interest in privacy is a multiple legal issue, roughly divided into four parts according to different types of law: constitutional, statutory, administrative, and common law. Policy implications of this issue for institutions are discussed. (Editor/LBH)

  11. Legal Writing Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those not familiar with its nuances and requirements, legal writing can be a taxing affair at first. Fortunately, the Legal Writing Institute's homepage is a good place to start learning more about the basics of legal writing. First-time visitors can begin by looking over the "About" section, which offers up a host of materials about the Institute, including a most useful FAQ guide and information about their listservs. After that, visitors will want to move to the "Resources" section. Here they will find a collection of syllabi, resources on plagiarism, and an "Idea Bank" which will be quite a boon to legal writing instructors. The site is rounded out by an "Employment Listings" area and information about the Institute's conferences.

  12. Introduction Legal Framework

    E-print Network

    Hoepman, Jaap-Henk

    · Facebook, Google, Twitter, Whatsapp, etc... #12;Introduction Legal Framework Privacy Enhancing Technologies Social Networks 3 / 54 · Facebook, Google, Twitter, Whatsapp, etc... · "... is a theoretical concept May 2014 Social Networks 3 / 54 · Facebook, Google, Twitter, Whatsapp, etc... · "... is a theoretical

  13. Estimating abortion incidence in Burkina Faso using two methodologies.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda; Rossier, Clémentine; Kaboré, Idrissa; Bankole, Akinrinola; Mikulich, Meridith

    2011-09-01

    Abortion is illegal in Burkina Faso except in cases of incest, rape, fetal defect, or when the woman's life or physical health is endangered. As a result, abortion procedures are often conducted illegally and unsafely and measuring incidence proves difficult. We estimate incidence of abortion and associated morbidity using two methodologies. The first is the Abortion Incidence Complications Method (AICM), which uses information on women hospitalized for abortion-related complications as well as health professionals' assessments of the proportion of women who seek treatment for complications from unsafe abortions. The second is the Anonymous Third Party Reporting (ATPR) method, which entails surveying women about their confidantes' abortions. We conclude that the AICM yields a more accurate result. We estimate that 87,200 abortion procedures were carried out in 2008, representing 25 for every 1,000 women aged 15-49. More than one in four procedures resulted in complications treated at a health facility. The abortion rate estimated using the ATPR approach was 72 percent of that estimated with the AICM. The ATPR method yields information on the characteristics of the women who have abortions as well as the providers and methods they use. PMID:21972666

  14. A pilot survey on abortions among young Armenian women.

    PubMed

    Dolian, G

    1997-12-01

    This article summarizes findings from a pilot survey study among women from Armenia. The survey aimed to determine the reasons for use of abortion as a method of fertility regulation and to develop a comprehensive policy for preventing abortion, unwanted pregnancy, abortion complications, and secondary infertility due to abortion. Findings indicate that 75% of women aged 15-25 years had used abortion for fertility regulation. 91.1% were married, and 8.9% were single. 93.8% of the pregnancies were unplanned, and 94.6% were unwanted. 86.6% had not used contraception during the month of conception. The average number of abortions was 2.3 among women aged 15-20 years and 2.4 among women aged 21-25 years. 37% of abortions occurred due to lack of financial means of support for a child. 38% of women did not want a child due to difficult or complicated social and economic circumstances. 46.7% used abortion as a means of fertility regulation due to lack of information on contraceptives, 30.7% used abortion because others did, and 13.3% used abortion because of lack of knowledge of another contraceptive method. 24% reported that contraceptive methods were not available or were expensive. Only 9% were fearful of side effects. 96.0% of married women did not receive contraceptive counseling before their marriage, 97.3% did not receive post-delivery contraceptive counseling, and 93.3% did not have post-abortion contraceptive counseling. 72.0% reported a fear of pregnancy at each time of sexual intercourse. 44.0% reported an intention after an abortion to never have an abortion again. PMID:12222286

  15. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  16. Launch, Entry and Abort, Intravehicular Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    Senior spacesuit expert, will present information about Launch, Entry and Abort (LEA) spacesuits - part of an overall vehicle crew escape and survival system. These LEA spacesuits are worn during the launch and reentry to enhance crew survival. The U.S. has traditionally called these spacesuits Intravehicular Activity (IVA) spacesuits. The Russians refer to this type of spacesuit as "Rescue Suits." Thomas will discuss the success of the LEA suits and the consequences of eliminating their use or providing inadequate systems.

  17. A reflective study on abortions in theatre.

    PubMed

    Murray, H

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses the concept of conscientious objection in relation to surgical terminations of pregnancy. It explores a scrub nurse's duty of care not only to the patient but to themselves. It highlights the importance of being self-aware of one's moral and emotional attitude towards abortions in theatre. Doing so enables the nurse/ODP to practice professionally and autonomously, and to deliver the highest level of perioperative care whilst respecting their personal rights. PMID:25007477

  18. CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.FLILLER,R.III.FU,W.MICHNOFF,R.

    2004-07-05

    Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  19. It Is Time to Integrate Abortion Into Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Roe v Wade decision made safe abortion available but did not change the reality that more than 1 million women face an unwanted pregnancy every year. Forty years after Roe v Wade, the procedure is not accessible to many US women. The politics of abortion have led to a plethora of laws that create enormous barriers to abortion access, particularly for young, rural, and low-income women. Family medicine physicians and advanced practice clinicians are qualified to provide abortion care. To realize the promise of Roe v Wade, first-trimester abortion must be integrated into primary care and public health professionals and advocates must work to remove barriers to the provision of abortion within primary care settings. PMID:23153160

  20. Knowledge and attitudes about the differences between emergency contraception and medical abortion among middle-class women and men of reproductive age in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Gould, Heather; Ellertson, Charlotte; Corona, Georgina

    2002-12-01

    Two reproductive technologies--emergency contraception and medical abortion--have the potential to reduce unintended pregnancy significantly in Latin America. Lack of knowledge and negative attitudes about the methods may limit their impact, however. Results from focus group discussions with middle-class men and women of reproductive age residing in Mexico City indicate that knowledge about emergency contraception and medical abortion is low. After being informed about both methods, participants supported emergency contraception but tied their support for medical abortion to its legal status. Participants remained concerned about the methods' efficacy, mechanism of action, and potential to encourage sexual risk-taking. While almost all desired greater dissemination of information about and access to both methods in Mexico, participants cited religious and cultural concerns, as well as barriers in communication with providers and within families, as significant challenges. Participants hoped, however, that both emergency contraception and medical abortion might play important roles in preventing unwanted pregnancy and abortion-related morbidity and mortality in Mexico in the future. PMID:12499034

  1. Induced Abortions Among Adolescent Women in Rural Maharashtra, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bela Ganatra; Siddhi Hirve

    2002-01-01

    In a study in rural Maharashtra, India, adolescents constituted 13.1% of the 1717 married women who had an induced abortion during an 18-month period in 1996–1998. The 197 adolescents who were subsequently interviewed had a lesser role in the decision-making process on abortion than women older than them. Most abortions were obtained in the private sector. Though spacing was the

  2. Improving technologies to reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rogo

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the technologies used to diagnose pregnancy and manage abortion in developing countries. The author discusses methods of diagnosing pregnancy—including physical examination, laboratory and home testing, and ultrasound—as well as methods for performing safe abortions. Due to manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) advances, vacuum aspiration has become safer and more feasible in low-resource settings. The discussion of medical abortion

  3. Peri-abortion contraception: a qualitative study of users' experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Usha Kumar; Paula Baraitser; Sheila Morton; Helen Massil

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundContraceptive counselling is an essential element of induced abortion services but concerns remain about its effectiveness.ObjectiveThe issues that influence peri-abortion contraception were explored as part of a study on the experiences of women undergoing induced abortion.MethodIn-depth interviews with 21 women of varying ages, gestations and ethnicity, 3-9 weeks after termination of their pregnancy, with qualitative analysis of data.ResultsContraceptive risk-taking was

  4. Sensationalized Philosophy: A Reply to Marquis's "Why Abortion is Immoral"

    E-print Network

    Cudd, Ann E.

    1990-01-01

    Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Sensationalized Philosophy: A Reply to Marquis's "Why Abortion is Immoral" Author(s): Ann E. Cudd Source: The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 87, No. 5 (May, 1990), pp. 262-264 Published by: Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Stable... access to The Journal of Philosophy. http://www.jstor.org 262 THE JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY COMMENTS AND CRITICISM SENSATIONALIZED PHILOSOPHY: A REPLY TO MARQUIS'S "WHY ABORTION IS IMMORAL"* I N a recent article, Don Marquis' claims to show "Why Abortion...

  5. Review on abort trajectory for manned lunar landing mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    XiaoNing Xi; WenDe Huang; Wei Wang

    2010-01-01

    Abort trajectory is a passage that ensures the astronauts to return safely to the earth when an emergency occurs. Firstly,\\u000a the essential elements of mission abort are analyzed entirely based on summarizing the existing studies. Then, abort trajectory\\u000a requirement and rational selection for different flight phases of typical manned lunar mission are discussed specifically.\\u000a Considering a trade-off between the two

  6. Legal issues related to adolescent pregnancy: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, A M

    1986-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials. PMID:3602637

  7. Abortion politics, scientific research and access to services.

    PubMed

    1994-12-01

    In the US, the Republican-dominated 104th Congress will likely revisit some of the issues of the abortion debates of the 1980s. The Hyde Amendment, which restricts federal funding of abortions, will likely be tightened, and other recently repealed abortion funding restrictions may be reinstated, such as the ban on abortion coverage for employees and dependents in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Plan. Abortion politics may be used to reinstitute a ban on fetal tissue transplantation research and to interfere with US Food and Drug Administration approval of RU-486. The recently-passed Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances (FACE) Act may be weakened by reducing the penalties for action against abortion clinics. Anti-abortion activists will also be able to influence abortion policy through appropriations bills. It is unclear how far the social conservatives will be allowed to go in this direction by the Republican party leadership and the President. It is doubtful, however, that the public will allow changes in FACE, and family planning still enjoys widespread public support. Any serious debate about helping women avoid out-of-wedlock and unwanted births while receiving welfare must grapple with the issue of access to family planning and abortion services. PMID:12288096

  8. [Spontaneous and induced abortion: feelings experienced by men].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Márcia Melo Laet; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura

    2006-01-01

    The insertion of male perspective in reproductive health is an international recommendation. The aim of this research was to know the men's feelings related to the abortion shared with their partners. The narrative analysis was the research method. The narratives of seventeen men were analysed. The spontaneous abortion related feelings were the loss related anguish and, the provoked abortion, the culpability related feelings and its consequences. Men who share the abortion experience with their partners require sensibility and professionals involvement. Their main care demands were related to the desire of favorable reception, to get emotional support as well as a whole and correct information about the process. PMID:16915722

  9. Legal highs - legal aspects and legislative solutions.

    PubMed

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Kulpa, Piotr; Sawicki, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Ma?gorzata; Wojty?a, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2011-12-01

    In recent years the attention of society, the media and politicians has focused on the negative phenomenon of the occurrence of an enormous amount of new psychoactive substances flooding the European market. In Poland and in Europe they are known under the name 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs'. In many countries these compounds present a serious social and health problem. The core of the problem is the fact that in the light of the law these substances are legal, while actually they imitate the eff ect of illegal narcotics. Smart drugs are sold allegedly as 'products not intended for human consumption', under the cover of 'collector's commodities', 'incense sticks' or 'bath salts'. Efforts undertaken by many countries, including Poland, are biased towards gaining control over this pathological phenomenon by placing the subsequent substances on the list of prohibited agents. However, the resilient chemical and pharmaceutical industry still remains one step ahead by introducing new derivatives of already banned products, practically identical in action. The presented article is an attempt to bring closer the problem of smart drugs in Poland, from the occurrence of this alarming phenomenon, through the spread of sales in shops all over Poland, to a series of changes in the Polish anti-narcotic law, drastic actions of closing the shops throughout the entire country, and transferring the sale of smart drugs to the internet. PMID:22216803

  10. 45 CFR 156.280 - Segregation of funds for abortion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Segregation of funds for abortion services. 156.280 Section 156.280... § 156.280 Segregation of funds for abortion services. (a) State opt-out of abortion coverage. A QHP issuer must comply...

  11. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature...concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the...

  12. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature...concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the...

  13. 45 CFR 156.280 - Segregation of funds for abortion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Segregation of funds for abortion services. 156.280 Section 156.280... § 156.280 Segregation of funds for abortion services. (a) State opt-out of abortion coverage. A QHP issuer must comply...

  14. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature...concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the...

  15. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature...concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the...

  16. 45 CFR 156.280 - Segregation of funds for abortion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Segregation of funds for abortion services. 156.280 Section 156.280... § 156.280 Segregation of funds for abortion services. (a) State opt-out of abortion coverage. A QHP issuer must comply...

  17. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature...concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the...

  18. Are all abortions equal? Should there be exceptions to the criminalization of abortion for rape and incest?

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Politics, public discourse, and legislation restricting abortion has settled on a moderate orthodoxy: restrict abortion, but leave exceptions for pregnancies that result from rape and incest. I challenge that consensus and suggest it may be much harder to defend than those who support the compromise think. From both Pro-Life and Pro-Choice perspectives, there are good reasons to treat all abortions as equal. PMID:25846041

  19. Cosmetic dermatology: legal issues.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David J

    2009-10-01

    Laser and light-based procedures, fillers, toxins and various peels have revolutionized the field of cosmetic dermatology. With an increasing number of physicians and nonphysicians performing these procedures, and with the availability of a seemingly unlimited array of cosmetic dermatology procedures, the potential for problems and their legal consequences continue to increase. This article will discuss the concept of negligence and the potential for medical malpractice, including the associated problems that may arise when these procedures are performed by physician extenders. The impact of the physician and physician extender relationship, and the legal issues that arise, are also discussed. The article concludes with the legal and ethical issues associated with the promotion of cosmeceutical agents in the field of cosmetic dermatology. PMID:19850199

  20. Basic Legal Citation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Martin, Peter W., 1939-

    For law students, learning about the world of legal citations is key. For many years, the standard reference work on legal citation was a manual known as "The Bluebook". This work has been revised numerous times over the years, and this online version appeared in May 2007. It is offered here as a public service, by the Legal Information Institute (LII) at Cornell University's Law School, and it will be helpful for those looking for a quick online reference work. It is worth noting that this particular introduction is focused on the forms of citation used in processional practice rather that those used in journal publication. Visitors can search through the contents at their leisure, and they can also jump around to sections that cover the use of underlining, italics, and citation principles.

  1. LEGAL DUTIES OF PHYSICIANS

    PubMed Central

    Sandor, Andrew A.

    1951-01-01

    The history of the physician's legal duties has been traced from the first recorded writings of the Babylonian era to the present day. There has been a transition from the days of absolute liability to the modern idea of liability based on culpability. The doctrine of stare decisis developed in early English law forms the very backbone of our own jurisprudence. Broadly, if a physician renders reasonable care and skill, he is absolved from liability. Some of the more important legal duties and proscriptions applying to physicians are discussed in particular in this presentation. PMID:14848696

  2. Legal duties of physicians.

    PubMed

    SANDOR, A A

    1951-05-01

    The history of the physician's legal duties has been traced from the first recorded writings of the Babylonian era to the present day. There has been a transition from the days of absolute liability to the modern idea of liability based on culpability. The doctrine of stare decisis developed in early English law forms the very backbone of our own jurisprudence.Broadly, if a physician renders reasonable care and skill, he is absolved from liability. Some of the more important legal duties and proscriptions applying to physicians are discussed in particular in this presentation. PMID:14848696

  3. After-birth abortion: the intuition argument.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Zohar

    2013-05-01

    The argument advanced by Giubilini and Minerva is an important one, but it suffers from some shortcomings. I briefly criticise their reasoning and method and argue that after birth abortion should be limited largely to infants with disabilities. My argument is based not on solid scientific evidence or cold rational reasoning but on intuition, something that has long been discounted as irrelevant in biomedical discourse. I end with a recommendation to all of us: in order to make a change, one should not only choose one's battles, but also one's weapon and mode of attack. PMID:23637457

  4. Legal Liabilities of Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  5. Preventing Legal Headaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzko, Vicki Nord

    2001-01-01

    Teachers continue to be underinformed about legal issues affecting schools. Litigation and case law since 1998 suggest that principals should provide teachers with additional training in the areas of school violence, school prayer, sexual harassment, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, data privacy, and student suicide. (MLH)

  6. A Legal Constant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  7. Legal Issues in Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation, Princeton, NJ.

    This Digest overviews legal challenges in five areas of test use for decision-making in schools: ability tracking, placement in special education classes, test scores as college admissions criteria, test disclosure, and teacher competency testing. Cases illustrating these challenges are described and include: Hobson v. Hansen (1967), Moses v.…

  8. Medicine and abortion law: complicating the reforming profession.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Sheelagh; Thomson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The complicated intra-professional rivalries that have contributed to the current contours of abortion law and service provision have been subject to limited academic engagement. In this article, we address this gap. We examine how the competing interests of different specialisms played out in abortion law reform from the early twentieth-century, through to the enactment of the Abortion Act 1967, and the formation of the structures of abortion provision in the early 1970s. We demonstrate how professional interests significantly shaped the landscape of abortion law in England, Scotland, and Wales. Our analysis addresses two distinct and yet related fields where professional interests were negotiated or asserted in the journey to law reform. Both debates align with earlier analysis that has linked abortion law reform with the market development of the medical profession. We argue that these two axes of debate, both dominated by professional interests, interacted to help shape law's treatment of abortion, and continue to influence the provision of abortion services today. PMID:25995361

  9. Recommendations for abortion surveys using the ballot-box technique.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Marcelo; Diniz, Debora

    2012-07-01

    The article lists recommendations for dealing with methodological aspects of an abortion survey and makes suggestions for testing and validating the survey questionnaire. The recommendations are based on the experience of the Brazilian Abortion Survey (PNA), a random sample household survey that used the ballot-box technique and covered adult women in all urban areas of the country. PMID:22872333

  10. Day of Launch Profile Selection for Pad Abort Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    A day of launch selection approach that involves choosing from an array of pitch profiles of varying loft was analyzed with the purpose of reducing the risk of a land landing failure during a pad abort. It was determined that selecting from three pitch profiles can reduce the number of waterline abort performance requirement failures approximately in half without compromising other performance metrics.

  11. Trisomy 13 ascertained in a survey of spontaneous abortions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P A Jacobs; T J Hassold; A Henry; D Pettay; N Takaesu

    1987-01-01

    In a series of 2922 karyotyped spontaneous abortions, 62 were found to be trisomic for chromosome 13, 46 having a simple trisomy and 16 a translocation trisomy. The epidemiology of this series of trisomy 13 conceptuses is presented and compared to that of trisomy 13 ascertained from other populations. In most compared parameters the trisomy 13 spontaneous abortions are very

  12. Contraceptive coverage, abortion dominate 1999 state, court activity.

    PubMed

    1999-06-01

    By mid-May 1999, more than one third of US state legislatures had adjourned for the year, and a considerable amount of legislative and court activity on issues relating to family planning, teen pregnancy prevention, and abortion had occurred across the country. On April 19, Georgia joined Maryland as the only states in the US which guarantee coverage of contraceptives in most private insurance plans. More than 60 bills related to contraceptive insurance coverage had been introduced in 32 states by mid year. In Missouri, court-imposed restrictions have temporarily forced one of the state's 2 Planned Parenthood abortion providers to suspend its abortion-related services. Measures to change state sexuality education or adolescent pregnancy prevention programs have been slow to emerge out of this legislative session, while partial-birth abortions remain the most controversial abortion-related topic among state legislatures. Other proceedings and developments on parental involvement in minors' abortion decisions, abortion clinic regulations, the public funding of abortion, and fetal rights are discussed. PMID:12295187

  13. Evaluating Abortion-care Programs: Old Challenges, New Directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janie Benson

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of abortion-care programs and policies has been largely neglected by both national governments and international organizations. This article provides a conceptual framework for evaluating the intermediate outcomes of a safe abortion program, including laws and policies, women's care-seeking behavior, and the quality of, access to, and use of services. The methodological challenges in evaluating these outcomes are described.

  14. Abortion in Young Women and Subsequent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Ridder, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The extent to which abortion has harmful consequences for mental health remains controversial. We aimed to examine the linkages between having an abortion and mental health outcomes over the interval from age 15-25 years. Methods: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 25-year longitudinal study…

  15. Regulating Abortion: Impact on Patients and Providers in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Silvie; Joyce, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The State of Texas began enforcement of the Woman's Right to Know (WRTK) Act on January 1, 2004. The law requires that all abortions at or after 16 weeks' gestation be performed in an ambulatory surgical center (ASC). In the month the law went into effect, not one of Texas's 54 nonhospital abortion providers met the requirements of a surgical…

  16. Conscientious objection and waiting time for voluntary abortion in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bo, Marco; Zotti, Carla Maria; Charrier, Lorena

    2015-08-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine whether a correlation exists in Italy between conscience-based refusal by physicians to perform an abortion and waiting times for elective abortion. Methods Data on the number of objectors and of elective abortions performed within different time intervals were retrieved from annual Italian ministerial reports. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated between an indicator of the increase in workload for non-objectors when conscientious objection is exercised by physicians refusing to provide an abortion and the proportion of women whose request for an abortion was met within 14 days, or later, in 13 regions in Italy. Results An inverse correlation emerged between the workload for non-objectors and the proportion of abortions performed within 14 days of the request in seven regions (statistically significant in Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany). There was a direct correlation between increased workload and the proportion of abortions performed later than 21 days in nine regions. The same trends were highlighted at national level. Conclusions Our results suggest that when data spanning at least more than a decade are available, a trend toward an inverse correlation can be noted between the workloads for non-objectors and timely access to elective abortion. This holds organisational and ethical implications. PMID:25592398

  17. HARP: Adaptive Abort Recurrence Prediction for Hardware Transactional Memory

    E-print Network

    Harris, Timothy

    HARP: Adaptive Abort Recurrence Prediction for Hardware Transactional Memory Adri`a Armejach Anurag exist. This paper presents HARP (Hardware Abort Recurrence Predictor), a hardware-only mechanism on contention management and scheduling in HTM, HARP uses past behavior of transactions and locality

  18. The tale of the hearts: deciding on abortion in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Meselu Taye; Hilden, Per Kristian; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    In contemporary Ethiopia, abortion decision-making is a challenging process involving moral and/or religious dilemmas, as well as considerations of health and safety. Amidst widespread condemnation of female premarital sex and clear moral sanction against induced abortion, young Ethiopian women are nevertheless sexually active and induced abortions are still sought and performed, with the potential for grave physical harm and social stigmatization. This paper examines young unmarried Ethiopian women's narratives of abortion decision-making. In particular, it identifies and explores the operations of a particular discursive shape from within in such narratives, here described as The tale of the hearts. Analysing The tale of the hearts as a decision-making resource, it is argued, allows us to explore the particular, local, historical and cultural character of Ethiopian women's abortion decision-making dilemmas and the culturally available resources contributing to their resolution. PMID:22250576

  19. Autonomous Intact Abort System for the X-34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tragesser, Steven G.; Barton, Gregg H.

    1999-01-01

    Autonomous algorithms are developed which provide trajectory guidance for horizontally landing vehicles such as the X-34 under a variety of abort conditions. The nominal guidance system of the X-34 is incapable of directing the vehicle to a safe landing for many possible situations in which trajectory is far away from nominal conditions (as in the case of an engine failure). To minimize the risk of losing the vehicle, the autonomous intact abort system considers multiple landing sites and redesigns certain guidance inputs in order to adapt to the new conditions presented by the abort. The abort system design is demonstrated in a high-fidelity simulation to prove the feasibility of the concept for various engine-out These abort algorithms are being incorporated into the X-34 vehicle to flight test this new technology as a part of the Future X Pathfinder Flight Demonstration Program.

  20. The PEP-II abort kicker system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, J de; Donaldson, A.; Kulikov, A. Lipari, J.

    1997-07-01

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of electron beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 uS (the beam transit time around the time). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% in 370 nS. This report discusses the design of the system controls, interlocks, power supplies, and modulator.

  1. Childhood adversities and subsequent risk of one or multiple abortions.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Julia R; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2013-03-01

    Although many studies have found an association between childhood adversities and mental health disorders, few have examined whether childhood adversities are linked to having abortions. This research investigates the association between a range of childhood adversities and risk of abortion in part to identify which adversities should be considered when examining the association between abortion and subsequent mental health. Using the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R), we tested the association between 10 childhood adversities and risk of 0, 1, or multiple abortions among 1511 women ages 18-41. We employed multinomial logistic regression to examine the independent association between each childhood adversity and number of subsequent abortions, controlling for sociodemographic factors, total number of pregnancies, and each adversity. Women who had experienced two or more personal safety threats, one parental mental illness, or two or more parental mental illnesses while growing up were more likely subsequently to have multiple versus no abortions [Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 9.87, 95% CI: 2.45-39.72; OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.27-6.21; RRR = 5.28, 95% CI: 1.60-17.38, respectively], and multiple versus one abortion [RRR = 13.33, 95% CI: 2.48-71.68; RRR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.03-4.56; RRR = 3.67, 95% CI: 1.15-11.76, respectively]. Women who had experienced childhood physical abuse were more likely to have one compared to no abortions [RRR = 2.00; 1.19-3.34]. These results suggest that some childhood adversities may partially explain the association between abortion and mental health. Accordingly, they should be considered in future research examining the link between abortion and mental health. PMID:23312795

  2. Changes in abortion provider practices in response to the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Haddad; Susan Yanow; Laurent Delli-Bovi; Kate Cosby; Tracy A. Weitz

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundThe April 2007 Supreme Court Gonzalez v. Gonzalez v. Carhart decision upheld the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003. We conducted a pilot study that measured the impact of the ban in one state with a diverse pool of second-trimester abortion providers.

  3. Increased risk of abortion following neospora caninum abortion outbreaks: a retrospective and prospective cohort study in four dairy herds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Moen; W. Wouda; M. F. Mul; E. A. M. Graat; T. van Werven

    1998-01-01

    Explosive abortion outbreaks in 4 Dutch dairy herds during 1992 to 1994 are reported. In 50 of 51 fetuses submitted during the first 3 wk of the outbreaks characteristic histological lesions compatible for infection with Neospora caninum were seen. Diagnosis of infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in 40 fetuses (78%). No evidence for other abortifacients was found.The abortion risk of

  4. Legal risks for phishing researchers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Soghoian

    2008-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly turning to live, dasiain the wildpsila phishing studies of users, who unknowingly participate without giving informed consent. Such studies can expose researchers to a number of unique, and fairly significant legal risks. This paper will present four case studies highlighting the steps that researchers have taken to avoid legal problems, and to highlight the legal risks that

  5. Effectiveness of Family Planning Policies: The Abortion Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Bajos, Nathalie; Le Guen, Mireille; Bohet, Aline; Panjo, Henri; Moreau, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relation between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion remains a topic of heated debate. Many of the contradictions are likely due to the fact that abortion is the end point of a process that starts with sexual activity, contraceptive use (or non-use), followed by unwanted pregnancy, a decision to terminate, and access to abortion. Trends in abortion rates reflect changes in each step of this process, and opposing trends may cancel each other out. This paper aims to investigate the roles played by the dissemination of contraception and the evolving norms of motherhood on changes in abortion rates. Methods Drawing data from six national probability surveys that explored contraception and pregnancy wantedness in France from 1978 through 2010, we used multivariate linear regression to explore the associations between trends in contraceptive rates and trends in (i) abortion rates, (ii) unwanted pregnancy rates, (iii) and unwanted birth rates, and to determine which of these 3 associations was strongest. Findings The association between contraceptive rates and abortion rates over time was weaker than that between contraception rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p?=?0.003). Similarly, the association between contraceptive rates and unwanted birth rates over time was weaker than that between contraceptive rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p?=?0.000). PMID:24670784

  6. Thomson, the right to life, and partial birth abortion or two MULES* for Sister Sarah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Alward

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that Thomson's famous attempt to reconcile the fetus's putative right to life with robust abortion rights is not tenable. Given her view, whether or not an abortion violates the fetus's right to life depends on the abortion procedure utilised. And I argue that Thomson's view implies that any late term abortion that involves feticide is

  7. Implications of the Federal Abortion Ban for Women's Health in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy A Weitz; Susan Yanow

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the US Supreme Court upheld the Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003, also known as the Federal Abortion Ban or “the Ban.” The decision undermines decades of established US abortion law that had recognised the preservation of the health of women as a paramount consideration. The Ban asserts that the state's interests in how an abortion is

  8. Implications of the Federal Abortion Ban for Women's Health in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy A Weitz; Susan Yanowb

    In 2007, the US Supreme Court upheld the Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003, also known as the Federal Abortion Ban or ''the Ban.'' The decision undermines decades of established US abortion law that had recognised the preservation of the health of women as a paramount consideration. The Ban asserts that the state's interests in how an abortion is

  9. Integration of Post-Abortion Care: The Role of Township Medical Officers and Midwives in Myanmar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thein Thein Htay; Josephine Sauvarin; Saba Khan

    2003-01-01

    Complications of unsafe abortion are a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Myanmar, and are recognised by the Ministry of Health as a priority. The Department of Health developed a strategy to address the problem of abortion complications by integrating post-abortion care and contraceptive services into the existing township health system. The quality of post-abortion care was assessed

  10. An Assessment of Abortion Services in Public Health Facilities in Mozambique: Women's and Providers' Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria F Gallo; Hailemichael Gebreselassie; Maria Teresa A Victorino; Martinho Dgedge; Lilia Jamisse; Cassimo Bique

    2004-01-01

    Complications of unsafe abortion contribute to high maternal mortality and morbidity in Mozambique. In 2002, the Ministry of Health conducted an assessment of abortion services in the public health sector to inform efforts to make abortion safer. This paper reports on interviews with 461 women receiving treatment for abortion-related complications in 37 public hospitals and four health centres in the

  11. The FIGO Working Group on the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion: Mandate and process for achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. I. Leke; Marina Padilla de Gil; Luis Távara; Anibal Faúndes

    2010-01-01

    The Working Group of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) on the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences received a mandate to contribute to reduce the number of women who have to resort to induced abortion and the maternal mortality and morbidity associated with unsafe abortion by minimizing unintended pregnancies, improving access to safe abortion services, and

  12. Patients' attitudes and experiences related to receiving contraception during abortion care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan L. Kavanaugh; Elizabeth E. Carlin; Rachel K. Jones

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundHigh risk for additional unintended pregnancies among abortion patients makes the abortion care setting an ideal one for facilitating access to contraception. This study documents attitudes of abortion patients about contraceptive services during their receipt of abortion services and identifies patient characteristics associated with desire for contraception and interest in using a long-acting reversible contraceptive method (LARC).

  13. Review Article Abstract: Many plant species abort a large fraction of their em-

    E-print Network

    Klinkhamer, Peter

    Review Article Abstract: Many plant species abort a large fraction of their em- bryos. It has often abort- ed. Such selective embryo abortion would lead to investment of resources only in the offspring with the highest potential fit- ness. Many studies have shown that otherwise viable embryos are aborted. However

  14. Area of Expertise First Name Last Name Contact Information Abortion Jesse Choper 510-642-0339

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Area of Expertise First Name Last Name Contact Information A Abortion Jesse Choper 510-642-0339 jchoper@law.berkeley.edu Abortion Kristin Luker 510-642-8332 kluker@law.berkeley.edu Abortion Marjorie Shultz 510-642-1921 mshultz@law.berkeley.edu Abortion Franklin Zimring 510-642-0854 fzimring

  15. Effects of Discontinuities in the DNA Template on Abortive Initiation and Promoter Escape by Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Tullius, Thomas D.

    Effects of Discontinuities in the DNA Template on Abortive Initiation and Promoter Escape of transcript abortion at RNA lengths of 6 and 7 nucleotides and a lower ratio of abortive to productive initiation events was observed for some discontinuous templates, consistent with models attributing abortive

  16. EFFICACY OF A LONG-ACTING OXYTETRACYCLINE* AGAINST CHLAMYDIAL OVINE ABORTION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EFFICACY OF A LONG-ACTING OXYTETRACYCLINE* AGAINST CHLAMYDIAL OVINE ABORTION Annie RODOLAKIS1 A ABORTIVE OVINE. ― Le traitement de la chlamydiose abortive ovine par la Terramycine/L A 200 a été-bas. La transposition d'un tel traitement à la pratique et son intérêt sont discutés. Chlamydial abortion

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Fruit abortion in the Chihuahuan-Desert endemic cactus

    E-print Network

    Mandujano, María del Carmen

    ORIGINAL PAPER Fruit abortion in the Chihuahuan-Desert endemic cactus Opuntia microdasys Hugo H to explain fruit abortion. To assess whether abortion in Opuntia microdasys was due to resource and/or pollen treatments. On the other hand, to test whether fruit abortion was irreversible, due to pollen

  18. Space shuttle (ATP configuration) abort staging investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampy, J. M.; Blackwell, K. L.; Allen, E. C., Jr.; Fossler, I.

    1973-01-01

    A wind tunnel test conducted in a 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel to determine the force and moment characteristics of the ATP Orbiter and modified ATP External Tank/SRB combination during abort staging conditions is discussed. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded for the orbiter and ET/SRB combination. Pitch polars were obtained for an angle of attack range from minus 10 to plus 10 degrees and orbiter incidence angles (orbiter relative to the ET/SRB combination) of 0 and 2 degrees. A limited amount of yaw data were obtained at 0 degree angle of attack and beta range from minus 10 to plus 10 degrees. In addition, orbiter pitch control effectiveness was determined at several grid points. These force and moment data were obtained for Mach numbers of 0.9, 1.2 and 2.0.

  19. Two appeals panels affirm decisions striking down abortion funding bans.

    PubMed

    1995-07-28

    On July 25, 1995, federal appellate courts in Arkansas and Nebraska affirmed lower court decisions invalidating measures that would ban federal funding for abortions for Medicaid recipients except in cases of life endangerment. The proposed measures were even more restrictive than the Hyde Amendment, which permits Medicaid abortions in cases of rape and incest. On the same day, a federal appellate court in Pennsylvania ruled that current reporting requirements for abortion coverage in cases of rape and incest and the two-physician certification mandate in cases of life endangerment violate both the Hyde Amendment and federal Medicaid law. PMID:12289908

  20. DNA analysis of abortion material assisted by histology screening.

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Rand, S P; Duchesne, A

    2001-12-01

    In cases of rape leading to fertilization, paternity testing can retrospectively identify the assailant. Abortion material commonly represents a mixture of maternal and fetal tissue and blood, which cannot be differentiated with the naked eye. Consequently, DNA typing of abortion material may be complicated, including band overlap if maternal tissue predominates. Therefore, histology screening of the abortion content for typical fetal tissue components, such as chorionic villi, followed by selected DNA typing of this sample is suggested. This combined approach is illustrated by a selected case demonstrating the reliability and concurrence of the histology and genetic results. PMID:11764909

  1. Stigma, abortion and disclosure - findings from a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edna M Astbury-Ward; Odette Parry; R Carnwell

    2012-01-01

    Introduction\\u000aThis study qualitatively explores perceptions of women who have experienced abortion care. It explores women’s journey through abortion from confirmation of pregnancy to post abortion.\\u000aAim\\u000aThe study seeks to understand the implications of these perceptions for policy and practice.\\u000aMain Outcome Measures\\u000aA qualitative study involving in-depth semi-structured interviews with seventeen women, aged between 22 and 57 years,

  2. Analysis of beam loss induced abort kicker instability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Ahrens, L.; Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mi, J.; Pai, C.; Tan, Y.

    2012-05-20

    Through more than a decade of operation, we have noticed the phenomena of beam loss induced kicker instability in the RHIC beam abort systems. In this study, we analyze the short term beam loss before abort kicker pre-fire events and operation conditions before capacitor failures. Beam loss has caused capacitor failures and elevated radiation level concentrated at failed end of capacitor has been observed. We are interested in beam loss induced radiation and heat dissipation in large oil filled capacitors and beam triggered thyratron conduction. We hope the analysis result would lead to better protection of the abort systems and improved stability of the RHIC operation.

  3. Women's Education Level, Maternal Health Facilities, Abortion Legislation and Maternal Deaths: A Natural Experiment in Chile from 1957 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Elard; Thorp, John; Bravo, Miguel; Gatica, Sebastián; Romero, Camila X.; Aguilera, Hernán; Ahlers, Ivonne

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the main factors related to maternal mortality reduction in large time series available in Chile in context of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Methods Time series of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) from official data (National Institute of Statistics, 1957–2007) along with parallel time series of education years, income per capita, fertility rate (TFR), birth order, clean water, sanitary sewer, and delivery by skilled attendants were analysed using autoregressive models (ARIMA). Historical changes on the mortality trend including the effect of different educational and maternal health policies implemented in 1965, and legislation that prohibited abortion in 1989 were assessed utilizing segmented regression techniques. Results During the 50-year study period, the MMR decreased from 293.7 to 18.2/100,000 live births, a decrease of 93.8%. Women's education level modulated the effects of TFR, birth order, delivery by skilled attendants, clean water, and sanitary sewer access. In the fully adjusted model, for every additional year of maternal education there was a corresponding decrease in the MMR of 29.3/100,000 live births. A rapid phase of decline between 1965 and 1981 (?13.29/100,000 live births each year) and a slow phase between 1981 and 2007 (?1.59/100,000 live births each year) were identified. After abortion was prohibited, the MMR decreased from 41.3 to 12.7 per 100,000 live births (?69.2%). The slope of the MMR did not appear to be altered by the change in abortion law. Conclusion Increasing education level appears to favourably impact the downward trend in the MMR, modulating other key factors such as access and utilization of maternal health facilities, changes in women's reproductive behaviour and improvements of the sanitary system. Consequently, different MDGs can act synergistically to improve maternal health. The reduction in the MMR is not related to the legal status of abortion. PMID:22574194

  4. [Abortion in Brazil: a household survey using the ballot box technique].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda. PMID:20640252

  5. [Research on abortion in Brazil: gaps and challenges for the public health field].

    PubMed

    Menezes, Greice; Aquino, Estela M L

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of abortion studies produced in the field of public health in Brazil, highlighting current research gaps and challenges. Most studies focus on women admitted to public hospitals for treatment of incomplete abortion, so their scope is limited to abortions presenting complications. Women's profiles, abortion methods, motives, and immediate consequences for women's physical health are also included. However, there remains a need for studies on the following aspects: measuring abortion incidence; investigating cases of post-abortion complications and death; analyzing the relationship between abortion and contraception; investigating the impact of abortion on women's mental health; and incorporating men's perspectives. There is an urgent need for evaluative research on abortion care in public services. Research results should be disseminated widely, so as to help overcome any ideological bias in the current debate on abortion rights in the country. PMID:19684927

  6. The Power of the Pill for the Next Generation: Oral Contraception’s Effects on Fertility, Abortion, and Maternal & Child Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Hungerman, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how oral contraception’s diffusion to young unmarried women affected the number and parental characteristics of children born to these women. In the short-term, pill access caused declines in fertility and increases in both the share of children born with low birthweight and the share born to poor households. In the long-term, access led to negligible changes in fertility while increasing the share of children with college-educated mothers and decreasing the share with divorced mothers. The short-term effects appear to be driven by upwardly-mobile women opting out of early childbearing while the long-term effects appear to be driven by a retiming of births to later ages. These effects differ from those of abortion legalization, although we find suggestive evidence that pill diffusion lowered abortions. Our results suggest that abortion and the pill are on average used for different purposes by different women, but on the margin some women substitute from abortion towards the pill when both are available. JELNo. I0, J13, N12. PMID:22389533

  7. Legal forms and reproductive norms.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ruth

    2003-06-01

    This article draws on Pashukanis's concept of legal form and on O'Brien's concept of synthetic value to argue that legal form plays a role in reproductive relations by constructing legal subjects as the bearers of reproductive responsibilities. Pashukanis conceived of legal form as playing a particular role in capitalist exchange relations by interpellating subjects as the bearers of property rights. O'Brien argued that reproduction's specific value is synthetic value, which represents the value of integrating nature and reason in species continuity. Synthetic value is distinct from exchange value or emotional value which may also attach to reproductive process. By working through Pashukanis's method of extracting legal form from specific social relations and by adapting it to reproductive relations, an example is provided of how legal form analysis can be extended beyond the particular context of capitalist exchange relations. Just as legal form constitutes owners and non-owners as legal subjects, so it constitutes reproducers and non-reproducers. By tracing the way in which law attributes reproductive responsibility, legal form analysis shows us how law draws a line between wanting to attribute responsibility and not to attribute it, and this contradiction is a hook which social forces such as sexuality, gender, race, class and disability can latch on to in pushing legal form to shape reproductive responsibilities in a particular way. Each legal form is also externally contradicted by other legal forms. When law negotiates a balance between the reproductive norms of responsibilities and rights, it demonstrates how particular legal forms manage the interaction of different sets of social relations, such as reproduction and exchange. PMID:15871155

  8. Thomson, the right to life, and partial birth abortion or two MULES for Sister Sarah.

    PubMed

    Alward, P

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, I argue that Thomson's famous attempt to reconcile the fetus's putative right to life with robust abortion rights is not tenable. Given her view, whether or not an abortion violates the fetus's right to life depends on the abortion procedure utilised. And I argue that Thomson's view implies that any late term abortion that involves feticide is impermissible. In particular, this would rule out the partial birth abortion technique which has been so controversial of late. PMID:11934938

  9. Guiding change: provider voices in youth pre-abortion counselling in urban Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Kim Hong Nguyen; Philip Martin; Nguyen Quoc Chinh; Duong Dinh Cong

    2010-01-01

    Pre-abortion counselling has a role in promoting safe sex practices and in preventing repeated unplanned pregnancies and repeated abortions among abortion-seeking women. Such counselling is essential in Vietnam, especially given the common use of abortion. Arguably, in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, the delivery of pre-abortion counselling is more urgent for young women, who have historically been ignored by State

  10. Foetus or child? Abortion discourse and attributions of humanness.

    PubMed

    Miko?ajczak, Ma?gorzata; Bilewicz, Micha?

    2014-11-24

    Due to moral, religious, and cultural sensibilities, the topic of abortion still gives rise to controversy. The ongoing public debate has become visibly polarized with the usage of the pro-life versus pro-choice rhetoric. The aim of the current research was to investigate whether the language used in abortion discourse can affect people's attitudes by changing their attributions of humanity to unborn. Across three experimental studies we showed that participants who read about a 'foetus', compared to a 'child' declared higher support for elective abortion (Study 1; N = 108), this effect can be explained by greater humanness, as reflected in human nature traits, attributed to the child (vs. the foetus; Study 2; N = 121). The effect is mediated uniquely by attribution of human nature, but not by human uniqueness traits (Study 3; N = 120). These findings serve as a starting point for discussion of the role of language in shaping attitudes on abortion and other morally ambiguous issues. PMID:25418861

  11. Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival - Duration: 108 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

  12. Physicians' approaches to post-abortion care in Manila, Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Cansino; Junice Lirza Melgar; Anne Burke

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveTo assess the knowledge and practice of health professionals in Manila, Philippines, regarding methods used for uterine evacuation in post-abortion care (PAC), including the use of misoprostol.

  13. Parental occupational exposure and spontaneous abortions in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Lindbohm, M.L.; Hemminki, K.; Kyyroenen, P.

    1984-09-01

    Spontaneous abortions were analyzed by the occupational exposure of women and their husbands, with data from the Finnish hospital discharge register and the national census. The occupations were grouped according to presumed exposure into seven categories: exposure to solvent; automobile exhaust fumes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; other chemicals; metals; textile dust; and animal microorganisms. The relative risks of spontaneous abortion were estimated with logistic regression analysis to adjust for potentially confounding factors. The broad exposure categories appeared, at most, to be weak risk factors of spontaneous abortion, because the relative risks of abortion were not significantly increased in any of the parental exposure groups. The analysis of detailed occupational categories showed some female and male occupations with an increased risk. The observations of increased risk related to laboratory work supported earlier findings. The high number of textile occupations with increased risk is also worth noting, and further investigations are necessary to confirm whether this is due to occupational hazards or other factors.

  14. Expertise and Scottish abortion practice: understanding healthcare professionals’ accounts 

    E-print Network

    Beynon-Jones, Siân M.

    2010-01-01

    Current UK abortion law has been subjected to extensive feminist critique because of the relationships that it constructs between healthcare professionals (HCPs) and women with unwanted pregnancies. The law allows HCPs ...

  15. Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 7 Jones RK et al. Patterns in the socioeconomic characteristics of women obtaining abortions in ... H. Mifepristone in the United States: Status and future. The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, ...

  16. Influence of past reproductive performance on risk of spontaneous abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Regan; P. R. Braude; P. L. Trembath

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the incidence of spontaneous abortion in a population of women in order to establish their risk of spontaneous abortion and the obstetric factors predisposing to it. DESIGN--Prospective study of women recruited by radio and poster appeal and from hospital outpatient clinics. SETTING--English provincial community. PATIENTS--630 Women from the general population intending to become pregnant. INTERVENTIONS--The viability of the

  17. "After birth" abortion: a biomedical and conceptual nonsense.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Landeweerd, Laurens; Brosens, Ivo

    2013-07-01

    Recently, two authors suggested that killing a healthy newborn might be morally permissible, subsuming it under the heading of 'after birth abortion'. Their proposed new definition implies that infanticide should be permitted whenever II trimester abortion for social reasons is. The suggestion stirred public outcry; nonetheless it needs to be analyzed since some 20% of countries allow II trimester abortion for social reasons and 5% do this on demand. A proper delimitation of the definition of "abortion" is thus very important to ensure careful application; for this reason we have attempted a critical analysis of their arguments. In the area of pregnancy termination different moral standards are apparently applied in different countries, but many reasons exist why the equation between II trimester abortion for social reasons and the killing of healthy neonates is to be morally rejected in all cases. The "inversed reification" of the concept of infanticide as a more abstract, euphemistic 'after birth abortion' blurs the fundamental difference between a non-viable fetus and a viable neonate. The best-known and most widely utilized (although illegal) "social reason" for "late abortion" and "infanticide" is a pregnancy with a female fetus or neonate. If infanticide for neonates were to be considered morally permissible, specifically it is this practice that would be applied. And this should be rejected on two levels: conceptual, through a critique of the exclusive use of one specific notion of personhood, and pragmatic through refusal of gender-discriminatory forms of infanticide (the killing of female neonates). In conclusion, having investigated the new concept we have concluded that the term "after birth abortion" is biologically and conceptually nonsensical. PMID:23495749

  18. [Vasospastic angina pectoris following abortion induced by prostaglandin analogue].

    PubMed

    Lindhardt, T B; Walker, L R; Colov, N S; Hansen, P S

    2000-11-27

    A case of vasospastic angina pectoris with loss of consciousness, bradycardia and seizures induced by medical abortion following administration of mifepristone and gemeprost is reported. The patient had a history of smoking and migraine, and former treatment with ergot alkaloids or serotonin agonists had also resulted in chest pain and lipothymia. The case underlines the importance of obtaining a detailed history of vasospastic disorders in women referred for medical abortion. PMID:11187221

  19. Does Legal Semiotics Cannibalize Jurisprudence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José de Sousa e Brito

    2009-01-01

    Does Duncan Kennedy successfully cannibalize jurisprudence? He attempts to do it by demonstrating the inexistence of rightness\\u000a in legal argumentation. If there is no right legal argument, then there is no right answer in adjudication, adjudication is\\u000a not a rational enterprise and legal doctrine cannot be said to be a science. It can be shown that skepticism is self-defeating.\\u000a Duncan

  20. Pathways to legal immigration

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; MALONE, NOLAN

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use the New Immigrant Survey Pilot Study (NISP) to describe the amount and kind of experience that immigrants accumulate in the United States before they become permanent resident aliens. The NISP surveyed a representative sample of legal immigrants who acquired residence papers during July and August of 1996, yielding a completed sample of 1,135 adults. Our analysis revealed that roughly two-thirds of these newly arrived immigrants had prior experience in the United States within one of six basic categories: illegal border-crossers, visa abusers, non-resident visitors, non-resident workers, students or exchange visitors, and refugees/asylees. Each of these pathways to legal immigration was associated with a different profile with respect to nationality, social background, and economic status. Using simple earnings regressions we demonstrate how these differences can yield misleading conclusions about the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation, even if measured effects are reasonably accurate. We suggest that social scientists should change the way they think and ask about immigrants’ arrival in the United States. PMID:20830313

  1. World Legal Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors pick your language! This University of Ottawa website can be read in six different languages, including Arabic, Russian, Chinese and English. The "About JuriGlobe" link, on the left hand side menu of any page, explains the three main goals of the site. Visitors will learn that the law professors who formed this site feel there should be more recognition and consideration of "the diversity of the various legal systems, their languages and their economic and demographic importance in the world." Once visitors choose their language, they will be redirected to a map that shows the different types of law that govern the countries of the world. Across the top of the map are links to explanations of the different types of law, as well as which countries have a combination of laws or a unified system of laws. The types of law represented on the map are "Civil Law", "Common Law", "Muslim Law", "Customary Law", and "Mixed Systems". The "Demographic Distribution" link on the left hand side menu illustrates with graphs and tables the percentage in which the world population is represented by the various legal systems.

  2. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids.

    PubMed

    Snider, Douglas B; Gardner, Dale R; Janke, Bruce H; Ensley, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle consumption and detection of isocupressic acid in a sample from the dam. Stable metabolites of isocupressic acid include agathic acid, dihydroagathic acid, and tetrahydroagathic acid, which have been shown to be present in the serum of mature animals for a few days following consumption of pine needles. As maternal serum is infrequently submitted for diagnosis of cattle abortions, a diagnostic assay capable of confirming isocupressic acid exposure in other matrices would be desirable. To the authors' knowledge, no previous investigations have indicated whether these stable metabolites of isocupressic acid cross the placenta or are detectable in fetal tissues. Therefore, the presence of agathic acid, dihydroagathic acid, and tetrahydroagathic acid was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy on fetal thoracic fluid and stomach contents collected from 2 aborted bovine fetuses with a recent herd history of pine needle consumption by the dams and a subsequent abortion outbreak in the herd. Only tetrahydroagathic acid was detected in the fetal thoracic fluid and fetal stomach contents. The current study encourages diagnosticians to collect fetal thoracic fluids to permit the detection of tetrahydroagathic acid in cases of suspected pine needle abortion. PMID:25428187

  3. Roe v. Wade and "partial birth abortion" bans.

    PubMed

    1998-01-22

    The US Supreme Court crafted its Roe vs. Wade ruling based on privacy protections embedded in the US Constitution and the competing interests of the states to protect maternal health and potential life. In its later Casey decision, the Court allowed states to promote their interest in potential life by surrounding abortion with obstacles as long as these did not pose an "undue burden" on the woman's privacy rights. Recent "partial-birth" abortion bans enacted by 17 states seek to weaken Roe by 1) including such broad definitions that they in effect ban all abortions, 2) seeking to create constitutional rights for fetuses, and 3) forwarding states' interests not recognized by Roe. In addition, "partial-birth" abortion bans that outlaw medically-accepted abortion methods do not further any state interest recognized by Roe because 1) they are not designed to dissuade the woman, 2) fetal survival is impossible, and 3) they undermine protection of maternal health. Such bans ignore the distinction between pre- and postviability abortions called for in Roe and flout Roe's protection of the life and health of women. In effect, such bans attack every important aspect of the Roe vs. Wade ruling. PMID:12293726

  4. A strategic assessment of abortion and contraception in Romania.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brooke R; Horga, Mihai; Fajans, Peter

    2004-11-01

    The history of fertility regulation in Romania illustrates the complex interactions between politics, women's reproductive health and rights and access to high quality care. This paper describes the current situation of abortion and contraception in Romania, based on national statistics, recent reproductive health surveys and the findings of a strategic assessment led by the Ministry of Health in late 2001. This rapid assessment employed a participatory, qualitative methodology. Over 500 people were interviewed from 145 institutions in 25 cities, towns and villages in Romania, about the range of actions needed to prevent unwanted pregnancies, reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality and improve the quality, accessibility and availability of abortion and contraceptive services. Although much progress has been made in contraceptive services over the past ten years, improvements in abortion care have lagged considerably The assessment played an important role in raising team members' awareness and motivation to take action. Some of the issues identified are already being addressed by the institutions that took part. National standards and guidelines for comprehensive abortion care have been developed, contraceptive services have been expanded at primary health care level, sexual and reproductive health education provided by classroom teachers has been introduced in schools, and a study to test a model of comprehensive abortion care services for Romania is planned. PMID:15938172

  5. Social scripts and stark realities: Kenyan adolescents' abortion discourse.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ellen M H; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Kamathi, Eva Muthuuri; Owino, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    This study explores students' narratives and discourses about adolescent pregnancy and abortion elicited via internet-based open-ended questions posed in response to a cartoon vignette. We report on content analysis of recommendations and strategies for how to manage the unplanned pregnancy of a fictional young couple and in their own personal lives. The responses of 614 young people were analysed. Strategies vary widely. They include giving birth, adoption, running away, abortion, denial, and postponement until discovery. Young people were also queried about unplanned pregnancy resolution among their peers. Discourse analysis reveals competing social scripts on abortion. Florid condemnation of abortion acts in the hypothetical cases contrasts with more frank and sober description of peers' real life abortion behaviour. Students' language is compared with that found in official curricula. The rhetorical devices, moralizing social scripts and dubious health claims about abortion in students' online narratives mirror the tenor and content of their academic curricula as well as Kenyan media presentation of the issue. The need for factual information, dispassionate dialogue and improved contraceptive access is considerable. PMID:17035171

  6. Safety, efficacy, and acceptability of medical abortion in China, Cuba, and India: A comparative trial of mifepristone-misoprostol versus surgical abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly Winikoff; Irving Sivin; Kurus J. Coyaji; Evelio Cabezas; Xiao Bilian; Gu Sujuan; Du Ming-kun; Usha R. Krishna; Andrea Eschen; Charlotte Ellertson

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated safety, efficacy, and acceptability of an oral regimen of medical abortion compared with surgical abortion in three developing countries.STUDY DESIGN: Women (n = 1373) with amenorrhea ?56 days chose either surgical abortion (as provided routinely) or 600 mg of mifepristone followed after 48 hours by 400 ?g of misoprostol. This is the appropriate design for studying safety,

  7. Women's reproductive health needs in Russia: what can we learn from an intervention to improve post-abortion care?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P H David; L Reichenbach; I Savelieva; N Vartapetova; R Potemkina

    2007-01-01

    It has been well documented that abortion is a common means of controlling fertility in Russia. Women undergo repeat abortions throughout their reproductive lives, but recent studies of abortion trends in the Russian Federation suggest that abortion rates are on the decline, use of modern contraceptives is increasing, and women dislike abortion as a method of fertility control. Using data

  8. Meeting the need for safe abortion care in Ethiopia: results of a national assessment in 2008.

    PubMed

    Abdella, Ahmed; Fetters, Tamara; Benson, Janie; Pearson, Erin; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Andersen, Kathryn; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Tesfaye, Solomon

    2013-01-01

    Complications of an unsafe abortion are a major contributor to maternal deaths and morbidity in Africa. When abortions are performed in safe environments, such complications are almost all preventable. This paper reports results from a nationally representative health facility study conducted in Ethiopia in 2008. The safe abortion care (SAC) model, a monitoring approach to assess the amount, distribution, use and quality of abortion services, provided a framework. Data collection included key informant interviews with 335 health care providers, prospective data on 8911 women seeking treatment for abortion complications or induced abortion and review of facility logbooks. Although the existing hospitals perform most basic abortion care functions, the number of facilities providing basic and comprehensive abortion care for the population size fell far short of the recommended levels. Almost one-half (48%) of women treated for obstetric complications in the facilities had abortion complications. The use of appropriate abortion technologies in the first trimester and the provision of post-abortion contraception overall were reasonably strong, especially in private sector facilities. Following abortion law reform in 2005 and subsequent service expansion and improvements, Ethiopia remains committed to reducing complications from an unsafe abortion. This study provides the first national snapshot to measure changes in a dynamic abortion care environment. PMID:23590804

  9. [Toxicology in legal medicine].

    PubMed

    Kojima, T

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of toxicology in legal medicine is to determine the presence of chemicals effecting the human body in biological samples and to interpret the concentrations of chemicals. Analytical methods and medico-legal interpretations of the results of poisoning cases were discussed. 1. "Yusho," PCB poisoning "Yusho" was determined to be PCB poisoning by the detection of PCB in Rice-oil used by a "Yusho" family. My toxicological works were based on the study of "Yusho," which taught me the importance of the collaboration between faculties, the moral of the co-worker, and the PCB contamination in the laboratory. 2. Drugs In order to interpret the concentration of bromvalerylurea in blood, a very sensitive method was developed using a Florisil mini-column for cleaning up, and ECD-GC for analysis. GC/MS is used to determine the concentrations of other drugs in biological samples as well. 3. Pesticides In the first case of fatal ethyl parathion poisoning, only ethyl parathion in the stomach contents was analyzed by ECD-GC, and the cause of death was determined to be ethyl parathion poisoning. In the second case, parathion in the blood, brain, and stomach contents was analyzed. Both cases, however, were not reported in detail in the journal. Joint study on pesticides with the Division of Emergency Medicine is carrying on now. 4. Thinner Male rats were exposed to toluene vapor in pure oxygen, air, and 10%-O2 air. Anesthetic death from thinner vapor was confirmed. It seems that inhalation of toluene in a hypoxic atmosphere, such as from a plastic bag, is very dangerous.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1303426

  10. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  11. States, Congress confront abortion services under Medicaid, health care plan.

    PubMed

    1994-01-13

    Abortion coverage under various health care reform proposals has dominated the political reproductive rights debate, while poor women's access to abortion under Medicaid presents a current practical concern. Under the Clinton administration's proposed Health Security Act, abortion would be covered under "services for pregnant women," and Medicaid would eventually be incorporated into the national health plan. A final version is a long way off. For now, the Hyde amendment, limiting Medicaid coverage of abortion, controls the issue. Congress has made only negligible progress in freeing federal funds for Medicaid abortions: only in situations of life endangerment, rape, or incest. States are required to cover abortions that are medically necessary under the new guidelines, which now include pregnancy arising from rape and incest. The federal policy defers to state law on the definition of rape and incest, allowing for reasonable reporting or documentation requirements, while disallowing unduly burdensome regulations by allowing the treating physician reimbursement when the physician certifies that the patient was unable for physical or psychological reasons to comply with the requirement. States disagreeing with the new abortion policy immediately registered their opposition. Utah's health department, which has a "life only" law, has pledged not to implement the new federal policy until there is further clarification. The Health Care Financing Administrator responded by writing that "the decision to implement this policy nationwide was not discretionary." Congress chose not to add statutory language deferring to the states, and under U.S. Constitutional law, where state law or policy conflicts with federal law, federal law takes precedence. The next battle will certainly center on attempts to amend the Hyde amendment itself as well as health care legislation along the "states' option" lines. PMID:12345518

  12. Partial-birth abortion, Congress, and the Constitution.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1998-07-23

    In the US, a new antiabortion strategy of using legislative and judicial forums to change the rhetoric of abortion rather than using abortion rhetoric to change the law arose out of disappointment when the 1992 Casey decision failed to overturn Roe. This new approach is crystallized by the 1995 introduction of federal legislation (vetoed by the President) to ban so-called "partial-birth" abortions. Opponents to this late-term procedure undertaken to preserve a women's life or health distinguish intact dilatation and extraction from induced labor to terminate a nonviable pregnancy (failing to recognize the lack of ethical difference) and make inaccurate political statements linking the abortion procedure to infanticide. When the ban was reintroduced to Congress in 1997, the previously silent American Medical Association agreed to support the bill if two "physician-friendly" amendments were added, but the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists made it clear that it is "inappropriate, ill advised, and dangerous" for legislative bodies to intervene into medical decision-making. The new version of the bill shifted the focus to all abortions after viability unless they are necessary to protect the mother from grievous harm to her physical (not mental) health, thus limiting the reach of the Roe decision. Clinton vetoed this bill also. Such legislation would be unlikely to prevent even one abortion, and its importance rests in its view of the proper role of government in regulating health care. This follows previous efforts to reframe the abortion debate by creating a dichotomy that marginalizes either women or fetuses and shifts the focus to another issue. PMID:9673308

  13. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section...COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each envelope of incoming legal mail (mail from courts or...

  14. Guiding change: provider voices in youth pre-abortion counselling in urban Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Helen Kim Hong; Martin, Philip; Chinh, Nguyen Quoc; Cong, Duong Dinh

    2010-08-01

    Pre-abortion counselling has a role in promoting safe sex practices and in preventing repeated unplanned pregnancies and repeated abortions among abortion-seeking women. Such counselling is essential in Vietnam, especially given the common use of abortion. Arguably, in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, the delivery of pre-abortion counselling is more urgent for young women, who have historically been ignored by State reproductive health initiatives and are increasingly exposed to transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unplanned pregnancies and abortion. This paper charts urban Vietnamese service providers' discourses in pre-abortion counselling specific for reducing risks of additional unwanted pregnancies, repeat abortion and STI/HIV transmission among young Vietnamese women. Thirteen providers working in counselling delivery, management and programme-planning at the Reproductive Health Care Centre of Ho Chi Minh City participated in this study. Through qualitative interviews, this paper elicits a range of provider attitudes, considerations and approaches in pre-abortion counselling and presents these discourses using participant anecdotes. Demonstrated among participant responses were five key pre-abortion counselling phases for promoting effective family planning among young women. Topics covered in these counselling phases included abortion complications, post-abortion fertility return, contraception, behaviour change and STI/HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health basics (SRH). The service provider discourses gleaned from this study are foundational for further research and development of best practice guidelines in pre-abortion counselling. PMID:19593699

  15. Effects of paternal occupational exposure on spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed Central

    Lindbohm, M L; Hemminki, K; Bonhomme, M G; Anttila, A; Rantala, K; Heikkilä, P; Rosenberg, M J

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paternal exposure to mutagenic agents has been suggested to affect pregnancy outcome adversely. METHODS: A nationwide data base of medically diagnosed spontaneous abortions and other pregnancies and national census data was used to evaluate the effects of men's occupational exposures on risk of spontaneous abortion in 99,186 pregnancies in Finland. Census data from the years 1975 and 1980 provided information about the occupation, industry, and socioeconomic status. A job-exposure classification was developed to classify women and their husbands according to possible occupational exposures on the basis of their occupational title and industry. RESULTS: In 10% of the pregnancies, the husband was exposed to one or more of the mutagens, and the rate of spontaneous abortion was unaffected (OR = 1.0). Of the 25 specific mutagenic exposures evaluated, paternal exposure to four (ethylene oxide, rubber chemicals, solvents used in refineries, and solvents used in the manufacturing of rubber products) was associated with an increased relative risk of spontaneous abortion. In addition, the risk of spontaneous abortion was higher among wives of rubber products workers than among unexposed men. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is some biological rationale for the findings of this study, these findings need to be confirmed by studies in which individual exposures can be measured directly. PMID:1853994

  16. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress among women requesting induced abortion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence and pattern of traumatic experiences, to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), to identify risk factors for PTSD and PTSS, and to analyse the association of PTSD and PTSS with concomitant anxiety and depressive symptoms in women requesting induced abortion. Methods A Swedish multi-centre study of women requesting an induced abortion. The Screen Questionnaire – Posttraumatic Stress Disorder was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results Of the 1514 respondents, almost half reported traumatic experiences. Lifetime- and point prevalence of PTSD were 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8–8.5) and 4% (95% CI: 3.1–5.2), respectively. The prevalence of PTSS was 23% (95% CI: 21.1–25.4). Women who reported symptoms of anxiety or depression when requesting abortion were more likely to have ongoing PTSD or PTSS. Also single-living women and smokers displayed higher rates of ongoing PTSD. Conclusions Although PTSD is rare among women who request an induced abortion, a relatively high proportion suffers from PTSS. Abortion seeking women with trauma experiences and existing or preexisting mental disorders need more consideration and alertness when counselled for termination. PMID:23978220

  17. Psychological Aspects of Contraception, Unintended Pregnancy, and Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Julia R.; Rubin, Lisa R.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of important biopsychosocial factors linking women's reproductive health and mental health is increasing. This review focuses on psychological aspects of contraception, unintended pregnancy, and abortion because these are common reproductive health experiences in U.S. women's lives. This review addresses the mental-health antecedents and consequences of these experiences, mostly focusing on depression and depressive symptoms before and after unintended pregnancy and contraception. As mental-health antecedents, depressive symptoms predict contraceptive behaviors that lead to unintended pregnancy, and mental-health disorders have been associated with having subsequent abortions. In examining the mental-health consequences, most sound research does not find abortion or contraceptive use to cause mental-health problems. Consequently, evidence does not support policies based on the notion that abortion harms women's mental health. Nevertheless, the abortion-care setting may be a place to integrate mental-health services. In contrast, women who have births resulting from unintended pregnancies may be at higher risk of postpartum depression. Social policies (e.g., paid maternity leave, subsidized child care) may protect women from mental-health problems and stress of unplanned children interrupting employment, education, and pre-existing family care responsibilities. PMID:25938133

  18. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws. PMID:24714897

  19. Development of an abort gap monitor for the large hadroncollider

    SciTech Connect

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, requires monitoring the parasitic charge in the 3.3ms long gap in the machine fill structure. This gap, referred to as the abort gap, corresponds to the raise time of the abort kickers magnets. Any circulating particle present in the abort gap at the time of the kickers firing is lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, and can potentially damage a number of the LHC components. CERN specifications indicate a linear density of 6 x 106 protons over a 100 ns interval as the maximum charge safely allowed to accumulate in the abort gap at 7 TeV. We present a study of an abort gap monitor, based on a photomultiplier tube with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting such low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted in the dedicated diagnostics port. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) using a Hamamatsu 5961U MCP-PMT, which indicate that such an instrument has the required sensitivity to meet LHC specifications.

  20. [Vaccines, biotechnology and their connection with induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Redondo Calderón, José Luís

    2008-01-01

    Diploid cells (WI-38, MRC-5) vaccines have their origin in induced abortions. Among these vaccines we fi nd the following: rubella, measles, mumps, rabies, polio, smallpox, hepatitis A, chickenpox, and herpes zoster. Nowadays, other abortion tainted vaccines cultivated on transformed cells (293, PER.C6) are in the pipeline: flu, Respiratory Syncytial and parainfluenza viruses, HIV, West Nile virus, Ebola, Marburg and Lassa, hepatitis B and C, foot and mouth disease, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, tuberculosis, anthrax, plague, tetanus and malaria. The same method is used for the production of monoclonal antibodies and other proteins, gene therapy and genomics. Technology enables us to develop the aforementioned products without resorting to induced abortion. Full disclosure of the cell origin in the labelling of vaccines and other products must be supported. There are vaccines from non-objectionable sources which should be made available to the public. When no alternative vaccines exist, ethical research must be promoted. Non-objectionable sources in the production of monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy and genomics must be encouraged. It is not be consistent to abstain from products originated in embryonic stem cells and at the same time approve of products obtained from induced abortions. It is of paramount importance to avoid that induced abortion technology seeps into every field of Medicine. PMID:18611078

  1. Legal highs on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances. PMID:20141450

  2. Measuring the impact of health policies using Internet search patterns: the case of abortion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Internet search patterns have emerged as a novel data source for monitoring infectious disease trends. We propose that these data can also be used more broadly to study the impact of health policies across different regions in a more efficient and timely manner. Methods As a test use case, we studied the relationships between abortion-related search volume, local abortion rates, and local abortion policies available for study. Results Our initial integrative analysis found that, both in the US and internationally, the volume of Internet searches for abortion is inversely proportional to local abortion rates and directly proportional to local restrictions on abortion. Conclusion These findings are consistent with published evidence that local restrictions on abortion lead individuals to seek abortion services outside of their area. Further validation of these methods has the potential to produce a timely, complementary data source for studying the effects of health policies. PMID:20738850

  3. The Road to Pad Abort 1 - Duration: 6 minutes, 55 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, N.M., engineers and technicians are preparing for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The Launch Abort System is a sophisticated new rocket tower designed t...

  4. Finding Secure Curves with the Satoh-FGH Algorithm and an Early-Abort Strategy

    E-print Network

    Fouquet, Mireille

    Finding Secure Curves with the Satoh-FGH Algorithm and an Early-Abort Strategy Mireille Fouquet 1 and an early-abort strategy based on SEA, we are able to #12;nd secure random curves in characteristic two

  5. Abortive HIV Infection Mediates CD4 T-Cell Depletion and Inflammation in Human Lymphoid Tissue

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Abortive HIV Infection Mediates CD4 T-Cell Depletion and Inflammation in Human Lymphoid Tissue correspond to bystander cells. We now show that the death of these "bystander" cells involves abortive HIV

  6. Campylobacter jejuni abortions in two beef cattle herds in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Janzen, Eugene D.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Berry, Catherine; Clark, Edward G.; Haines, Deborah M.

    1990-01-01

    Abortions, accompanied by placental retention and weight loss, occurred during February and March in 19% of 120 and 10% of 108 beef cows and heifers on two neighboring ranches in southern Saskatchewan. A diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni abortion was made based on lesions of necrotizing and suppurative placentitis and fetal bronchopneumonia in association with the culture of large numbers of C. jejuni from placentas and fetal tissues. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated with variable frequency from fecal samples of aborting and healthy cows, and scouring and healthy calves. Campylobacter jejuni serotype 2 (Lior) was isolated from fetal tissues and feces of a scouring calf, whereas C. jejuni serotypes 1, 4, 5 and 99 were isolated from feces of in-contact cattle. We hypothesized that the source and mode of transmission of C. jejuni was fecal contamination of water supplies and feeding grounds by carrier cows or wildlife. PMID:17423586

  7. Late Presentation of Unsafe Abortion after 5 Years of Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Prasanta Kumar; Mitra, Subarna; Padma, Alaganandam; Agrawal, Sarita

    2014-01-01

    A majority of the unsafe abortions are performed by untrained birth attendants or quacks leading to complications in a large proportion of these cases. Complications like bowel injury, bladder injury, uterine perforation, and septic abortion are mostly caused by unskilled hands and are detected immediately or within few days of the procedure, owing to the need for tertiary level care. Here we present a very interesting case of unsafe abortion induced by a Ryle's tube in a 32-year-old lady, which was diagnosed five years after the procedure. Considering its atypical presentation, it is the first case of its kind in the literature. The details of the case and its management are described along with appropriate pictures. PMID:24649386

  8. Pitch Guidance Optimization for the Orion Abort Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillwater, Ryan Allanque

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration created the Constellation program to develop the next generation of manned space vehicles and launch vehicles. The Orion abort system is initiated in the event of an unsafe condition during launch. The system has a controller gains schedule that can be tuned to reduce the attitude errors between the simulated Orion abort trajectories and the guidance trajectory. A program was created that uses the method of steepest descent to tune the pitch gains schedule by an automated procedure. The gains schedule optimization was applied to three potential abort scenarios; each scenario tested using the optimized gains schedule resulted in reduced attitude errors when compared to the Orion production gains schedule.

  9. The genesis of the ACNM 1971 Statement on Abortion.

    PubMed

    Summers, L

    1992-01-01

    In 1971, the Board of Directors of the American College of Nurse-Midwives approved a statement that prohibited certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) from performing abortions. In 1990, the statement was superseded by a second "Statement on Abortion," which essentially reworded the 1971 statement with no substantive change. In 1991, 20 years after the first statement was adopted, a resolution was approved at the Annual Meeting recommending that the Board of Directors rescind the statement, thereby allowing individual CNMs to utilize the guidelines for the incorporation of new procedures into nurse-midwifery practice if she/he decides to provide abortions. This article describes the historical basis for the initial 1971 statement in the hope that an understanding of that history will assist nurse-midwives as they reconsider the statement. PMID:1602328

  10. Naphyrone: a "legal high" not legal any more.

    PubMed

    Vardakou, Ioanna; Pistos, Constantinos; Dona, Artemis; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotiris

    2012-10-01

    Naphyrone, also known as naphthylpyrovalerone and O-2482, is a cathinone derivative that has been recently advertized for purchase on a number of websites. Naphyrone belongs to a new class of "designer drugs" that has emerged on the drugs abuse market and has gained popularity as the new "legal high." Legal highs have been circulating for a number of years in Europe and are becoming popular in the United States. They are affordable, widely available, legal to use and possess, and legal to supply. This review presents any available information about safety profile, clinical data, analytical profile, and legislation of this legal high, which is not legal any more. Any available information has been collected by various literature search engines and the World Wide Web. The structure of naphyrone is similar to that of pyrovalerone, a monoamine uptake inhibitor. This new designer drug does not have a long history of use, so there is little evidence of its long-term effects or on the risks from its use. Because of its similarity to other cathinone derivatives, naphyrone is likely to share the same risks, such as anxiety, paranoia, and overstimulation of the heart and circulatory system. Naphyrone was classified as a controlled drug under the UK Misuse of Drugs Act of 1971 (Amendment No. 2) Regulation 2010. PMID:22168347

  11. House again passes ban on abortions at military facilities.

    PubMed

    1996-05-31

    Voting 192-225 on May 14, the House defeated an effort to reverse the current prohibition on privately funded abortions at military facilities except in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest. Introduced by pro-choice Representatives Rosa DeLauro (D-CT), Jane Harman (D-CA), and Mike Ward (D-KY) and mixed record Representative Peter Torkildsen (R-MA), the amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act (HR 3230) would have repealed restrictive language in the statute that governs the Department of Defense (DOD). Floor action on the provision of non-government-funded abortions mirrored Representative DeLauro's failed attempts to strike the onerous provision during the mark-up process for HR 3230, which received final House approval in a 272-153 vote on May 15. The House National Security Committee voted 26-20 against removing the abortion restriction on May 1, six days after a similar 11-5 vote by the Subcommittee on Military Personnel. The near ban on abortion services has been in effect since December of last year, when the DOD spending bill was implemented; President Clinton signed the legislation permanently encoding the restriction into law in February (see RFN IV/22, V/3-4). Upon taking office in January 1993, President Clinton had issued an executive memorandum directing the Secretary of Defense to reverse the ban on the performance of non-lifesaving, privately funded abortions at military facilities, which had been instituted through agency action in mid-1988 (see RFN II/3, IV/13). The DOD authorization statute has prohibited the use of federal funds for abortions except in cases of life endangerment for more than a decade. PMID:12320215

  12. Moral reasoning and political conflict: the abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    Kelley, J; Evans, M D; Headey, B

    1993-12-01

    We argue that the abortion controversy has one major source--religion--and two less important ones--attitudes towards sexual permissiveness and women's employment. Traditional Christianity promotes opposition to abortion using three distinct modes of moral reasoning: through deductive moral reasoning, by the Christian world view's implication that abortion violates the sanctity of life and is a rebellion against God's design; through authoritative moral reasoning by appeal to Catholic dogma; and through consequentialist moral reasoning, as a means of control over sexuality and as a means of confining women's activities to the home. Even aside from Christian belief, adherence to traditional morality promotes opposition to abortion on these consequentialist grounds. We posit a model in which religious belief, anti-feminism, sexual permissiveness, and attitudes towards abortion are distinct concepts (a four-factor model) rather than all simply aspects of a single conservatism factor. We develop reliable, multiple item attitude scales; show that our four-factor model fits the data much better than the one-factor alternative; and test our hypotheses on new data from a large, representative national sample of Australia (N = 4540). Using maximum likelihood structural equation methods, we find that deductive reasoning from Christian belief is the most important source of opposition to abortion, with strong effects both direct and indirect. Exposure to the authority of the Catholic hierarchy is a real but weaker source of opposition. Consequentialist reasoning from traditional moral views on sex--partly buttressed by religion, partly independent of it--is also influential. But views on women's employment matter only a little, contrary to received wisdom. PMID:8306141

  13. Maternal regulation of fecundity: non-random ovule abortion in Cassia fasciculata Michx

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Lee; F. A. Bazzaz

    1986-01-01

    Summary We examined the extent of ovule abortion and the within-fruit pattern of abortion inCassia fasciculata, an annual legume, and tested the hypothesis that abortion can result from competition for limited maternal resources among developing fruits and seeds. In a natural population at Mayview, IL, 53.4% of ovules in mature fruits matured as seeds; 43.4% showed some development but aborted,

  14. A suborbital abort guidance scheme for orbital returns to the launch site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    A suborbital abort guidance scheme is presented for returning the orbiter vehicle to the launch site in the event of a booster malfunction. The guidance scheme described, referred to as FBGUID, represents a simple closed-form technique to the flyback abort problem. In addition to returning to the launch site, objectives of the formulation are to preclude excessive structural and heating loads. A demonstration of the feasibility of this abort guidance concept is included for a 150-second abort time.

  15. Reducing the costs to health systems of unsafe abortion: a comparison of four strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi B Johnston; Maria F Gallo; Janie Benson

    2007-01-01

    Background and methodologyStrategies to reduce health systems costs of providing abortion and post-abortion care while simultaneously improving quality of care are well documented but infrequently applied. We created ‘Savings’, a spreadsheet-based tool that allows policymakers and other stakeholders to estimate and compare the feasibility and sustainability of different strategies of providing abortion and post-abortion care. By applying cost data primarily

  16. State abortion rates the impact of policies, providers, politics, demographics, and economic environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca M. Blank; Christine C. George; Rebecca A. London

    1996-01-01

    This paper uses data on abortion rates by state from 1974–1988 to estimate two-stage least squares models with fixed state and year effects. Restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion are correlated with lower abortion rates in-state and higher rates among nearby states. A maximal estimate suggests that 19–25% of the abortions among low-income women that are publicly funded do not

  17. Getting Help with Legal Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Law Attorneys. Your local Area Agency on Aging (AAA) can refer you to an attorney. Some AAAs provide legal services for seniors. Find your local AAA on the Eldercare Locator. The More Resources section ...

  18. Performance Contracting: Making It Legal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Reed

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the possible limits on the legal authority of a school to contract with private enterprise for instructional services. The proper procedure for entering into such a contract is discussed. (JF)

  19. Clinical guidelines. Labor induction abortion in the second trimester.

    PubMed

    Borgatta, Lynn; Kapp, Nathalie

    2011-07-01

    Labor induction abortion is effective throughout the second trimester. Patterns of use and gestational age limits vary by locality. Earlier gestations (typically 12 to 20 weeks) have shorter abortion times than later gestational ages, but differences in complication rates within the second trimester according to gestational age have not been demonstrated. The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol is the most effective and fastest regimen. Typically, mifepristone 200 mg is followed by use of misoprostol 24-48 h later. Ninety-five percent of abortions are complete within 24 h of misoprostol administration. Compared with misoprostol alone, the combined regimen results in a clinically significant reduction of 40% to 50% in time to abortion and can be used at all gestational ages. However, mifepristone is not widely available. Accordingly, prostaglandin analogues without mifepristone (most commonly misoprostol or gemeprost) or high-dose oxytocin are used. Misoprostol is more widely used because it is inexpensive and stable at room temperature. Misoprostol alone is best used vaginally or sublingually, and doses of 400 mcg are generally superior to 200 mcg or less. Dosing every 3 h is superior to less frequent dosing, although intervals of up to 12 h are effective when using higher doses (600 or 800 mcg) of misoprostol. Abortion rates at 24 h are approximately 80%-85%. Although gemeprost has similar outcomes as compared to misoprostol, it has higher cost, requires refrigeration, and can only be used vaginally. High-dose oxytocin can be used in circumstances when prostaglandins are not available or are contraindicated. Osmotic dilators do not shorten induction times when inserted at the same time as misoprostol; however, their use prior to induction using misoprostol has not been studied. Preprocedure-induced fetal demise has not been studied systematically for possible effects on time to abortion. While isolated case reports and retrospective reviews document uterine rupture during second-trimester induction with misoprostol, the magnitude of the risk is not known. The relationship of individual uterotonic agents to uterine rupture is not clear. Based on existing evidence, the Society of Family Planning recommends that, when labor induction abortion is performed in the second trimester, combined use of mifepristone and misoprostol is the ideal regimen to effect abortion quickly and completely. The Society of Family Planning further recommends that alternative regimens, primarily misoprostol alone, should only be used when mifepristone is not available. PMID:21664506

  20. Systemic infection with Mortierella wolfii following abortion in a cow

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jennifer L.; Ngeleka, Musangu; Wobeser, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Severe meningoencephalitis and endometritis associated with necrotizing vasculitis, thrombosis, and infarction were found at necropsy of a 4-year-old Aberdeen Angus cow with a history of abortion and neurological signs. Focal pyogranulomatous pneumonia and nephritis were also present. Fungal hyphae typical of zygomycetes were abundant within lesions, and Mortierella wolfii was cultured from multiple tissues. This is believed to be the first report of systemic mortierellosis following abortion in North America, and the second reported instance of encephalitis caused by M. wolfii in a cow. PMID:21358934

  1. Systemic infection with Mortierella wolfii following abortion in a cow.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jennifer L; Ngeleka, Musangu; Wobeser, Gary A

    2010-12-01

    Severe meningoencephalitis and endometritis associated with necrotizing vasculitis, thrombosis, and infarction were found at necropsy of a 4-year-old Aberdeen Angus cow with a history of abortion and neurological signs. Focal pyogranulomatous pneumonia and nephritis were also present. Fungal hyphae typical of zygomycetes were abundant within lesions, and Mortierella wolfii was cultured from multiple tissues. This is believed to be the first report of systemic mortierellosis following abortion in North America, and the second reported instance of encephalitis caused by M. wolfii in a cow. PMID:21358934

  2. Ascent/abort training in the Shuttle Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, John T.; Sterling, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    The Shuttle Mission Simulator is the primary tool employed in the training of orbiter flight crews in ascent and abort flight techniques at the Johnson Space Center. The simulator uses a motion system, visual systems, and a high-fidelity cockpit to enhance accuracy of training. A team concept is utilized to train flight crews and controllers for each mission to ensure a complete understanding in both orbiter systems and mission specific flight profiles. Thus, each flight crew and flight control team is prepared for the actual flight by practicing repeatedly both the nominal ascent and each type of possible abort situation for that Shuttle mission.

  3. Management of incomplete abortion as an outpatient procedure.

    PubMed

    Allen, A; Philpott, R H

    1971-05-01

    To alleviate crowding in the gynecological wards, 350 of 410 cases of incomplete abortion seen between February and July, 1969, were treated as outpatients with analgesia instead of anesthesia. Patients with sepsis, severe anemia, septicemia or hypovolaemic shock, or who aborted as a result of serious illness were treated as inpatients. 74.4% of the patients were discharged within 12 hours. Paracervical block in combination with pethidine and valium administered intravenously or premedication with pethidine was more effective than paracervical block alone. PMID:5112599

  4. Abortion Training in Obstetrics and Gynecology Residency Programs in the United States, 1991-1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Trent MacKay; Andrea Phillips MacKay

    112 programs to formally train residents in abortion procedures and in the manage- ment of complications from spontaneous and elective abortions. Nevertheless, shortly after the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade, a survey of residency programs found that most university departments of obstetrics and gynecology were not providing rou- tine abortion training in their programs. 3 A subsequent

  5. Reduction of the abortion rate due to Toxoplasma in 3 goat herds following administration of sulfadimidine.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Ioannidou, Evi; Papadopoulos, Elias; Terpsidis, Konstantinos; Karanikolas, George; Petridou, Evanthia J; Brozos, Christos; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2013-11-01

    The efficacy of sulfadimidine (4 doses of 33 mg/kg body weight, IM, q48h) against Toxoplasma abortion was assessed in 3 dairy goat herds suffering from Toxoplasma abortions during the 4th month of gestation. This protocol was very effective for the control of Toxoplasma abortions (P < 0.01). PMID:24179245

  6. Reduction of the abortion rate due to Toxoplasma in 3 goat herds following administration of sulfadimidine

    PubMed Central

    Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Lafi, Shawkat Q.; Ioannidou, Evi; Papadopoulos, Elias; Terpsidis, Konstantinos; Karanikolas, George; Petridou, Evanthia J.; Brozos, Christos; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of sulfadimidine (4 doses of 33 mg/kg body weight, IM, q48h) against Toxoplasma abortion was assessed in 3 dairy goat herds suffering from Toxoplasma abortions during the 4th month of gestation. This protocol was very effective for the control of Toxoplasma abortions (P < 0.01). PMID:24179245

  7. Still Waiting for Mister Right? Asymmetric Information, Abortion Laws and the Timing of Marriage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon W. Bowmaker; Patrick M. Emerson

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that more liberal abortion laws should lead to a decrease in marriage rates among young women as 'shotgun weddings' are no longer necessary. Empirical evidence from the United States lends support to that hypothesis. This paper presents an alternative theory of abortion access and marriage based on asymmetric information, which suggests that more liberal abortion laws

  8. Medication Abortion within a Student Health Care Clinic: A Review of the First 46 Consecutive Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Emily M.; Bordoloi, Anita; Moorthie, Mydhili; Pela, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol has been available in the United States since 2000. The authors reviewed the first 46 medication abortion cases conducted at a university-based student health care clinic to determine the safety and feasibility of medication abortion in this type of clinical setting. Participants:…

  9. Choices on contraceptive methods in post-abortion family planning clinic in the northeast Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Laura CG Ferreira; Ariani I Souza; Raitza A Lima; Cynthia Braga

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Brazil, a Ministry of Health report revealed women who underwent an abortion were predominantly in the use of contraceptive methods, but mentioned inconsistent or erroneously contraceptive use. Promoting the use of contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies is one of the most effective strategies to reduce abortion rates and maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, providing post-abortion family planning

  10. Profile of women presenting for abortions in Singapore at the National University Hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuldip Singh; Y. F. Fong; S. Y. Loh

    2002-01-01

    The study was conducted to profile women seeking abortions at the National University Hospital, with particular interest in the trend of teenage pregnancies with the aim of identifying risk factors for late presentation for abortions. All patients who underwent an abortion at our center from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2000 were recruited. Data were entered into a prepared

  11. Caprine herpesvirus-1 abortion storm in a goat herd in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Numerous abortions were reported on a Quebec goat farm, and caprine herpesvirus-1 (CapHV-1) was confirmed by PCR in several tissues from 3 aborted fetuses. This is the first report of CapHV-1 in Canada. Practitioners and diagnosticians must consider this disease when making a differential diagnosis for caprine abortion. PMID:15072197

  12. Urban female patients' perceptions of the family medicine clinic as a site for abortion care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan E. Rubin; Emily M. Godfrey; Miriam Shapiro; Marji Gold

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundInduced abortion is common in the US, yet there is a lack of providers. We surveyed female patients asking why they would or would not (a) accept early abortion offered by their family physician (FP) in their family medicine clinic (FMC) and (b) prefer to access abortion services in the FMC.

  13. Assessments of the Importance of Provider Characteristics for Abortion Care: Data From Women in Rajasthan, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Batya Elul

    2010-01-01

    While client satisfaction is a widely recognized component of effective reproductive health care services, little is known about women's perspectives toward abortion care and providers. We use data from a large, community-based abortion knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey in Rajasthan, India, to describe women's assessments of the importance of eight attributes of potential abortion providers and to investigate the sociodemographic

  14. Scaling Up Post-Abortion Care in Guatemala: Initial Successes at National Level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edgar Kestler; Linda Valencia; Vinicio Del Valle; Alejandro Silva

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a programme to scale up post-abortion care services in 22 of the 33 public sector district hospitals in Guatemala from July 2003 to December 2004. The main interventions included strengthening the knowledge and technical capacity of staff, expanding post-abortion care, enhancing related infrastructure, distributing informational materials andinstituting an abortion surveillance system. A facilitator supported the work through

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Private Medical Practitioners in Calabar towards Post-Abortion Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SJ Etuk; FE Okonofua

    This study examined the knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners in Calabar on abortion, post- abortion care and post-abortion family planning. Forty eight private practitioners who were proprietors of private clinics in the city were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results showed that 22.9% of the doctors routinely terminate unwanted pregnancies when requested to do so by

  16. Induced and spontaneous abortion and breast cancer risk: results from the E3N cohort study

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Induced and spontaneous abortion and breast cancer risk: results from the E3N cohort study Xavier or induced abortion. E3N is a large-scale cohort study collecting detailed information on environmental/or spontaneous abortion, using the data from the 100,000 women aged 40­65 at entrance in 1990. Among them, over 2

  17. Does polyovulation counterbalance a high abortion rate in humans? V. LUMMAA, E. HAUKIOJA & R. LEMMETYINEN

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    Does polyovulation counterbalance a high abortion rate in humans? V. LUMMAA, E. HAUKIOJA & R) suggested that the purpose of polyovu- lations might be to produce `insurance ova'. Spontaneous abortions°15¢N 26°E and RymaÈttylaÈ 60°15¢N Keywords: abortion; fertility; insurance ova; polyovulation; twinning

  18. On Avoiding Spare Aborts in Transactional Memory Idit Keidar Dmitri Perelman

    E-print Network

    Keidar, Idit

    On Avoiding Spare Aborts in Transactional Memory Idit Keidar Dmitri Perelman Dept. of Electrical This paper takes a step toward developing a theory for understanding aborts in transactional memory systems (TMs). Existing TMs may abort many transactions that could, in fact, commit without violating

  19. VACCINATION WITH A LISTERIA STRAIN OF REDUCED VIRULENCE AGAINST EXPERIMENTAL LISTERIA ABORTION IN GOATS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VACCINATION WITH A LISTERIA STRAIN OF REDUCED VIRULENCE AGAINST EXPERIMENTAL LISTERIA ABORTION. Listeriosis mainly affects small ruminants in out- breaks of neurologic disorders and death or of abortions of infection and the rate of abortions. On mice also, the protec- tive immunity was shown to be early

  20. American Journal of Botany 88(6): 10331040. 2001. SELECTIVE SEED ABORTION INCREASES OFFSPRING

    E-print Network

    Cruzan, Mitchell B.

    1033 American Journal of Botany 88(6): 1033­1040. 2001. SELECTIVE SEED ABORTION INCREASES OFFSPRING of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, P.O. Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands Selective embryo abortion. To manipulate the level of embryo abortion, we removed ovules and applied nutrients to plants of Cynoglossum

  1. During the second half of the twentieth century the number of countries with liberal induced abortion

    E-print Network

    Bock, John

    abortion legislation was increasing steadily. By the end of the twentieth century over 60 percent induced abortions were generally prohibited. Almost all of the latter are developing countries, where induced abortions are performed frequently by unqualified personnel under unsanitary conditions and thus

  2. Induced abortion ratio in modern Sweden falls with age, but rises again before menopause

    E-print Network

    Tullberg, Birgitta

    Induced abortion ratio in modern Sweden falls with age, but rises again before menopause Birgitta S, as is often found in abortion statistics, could depend on older women on average having larger families rather than on age per se. We used data on abortions and births in Sweden during 1994 to investigate how

  3. Adolescent conduct problems and later risk of induced abortion: A population-based longitudinal study

    E-print Network

    Løw, Erik

    MEMORANDUM No 6:2007 Adolescent conduct problems and later risk of induced abortion: A population://www.iss.uio.no/forskning/memoranda.html #12;ii Adolescent conduct problems and later risk of induced abortion: A population- based) at age 15 and the risk of abortion during the teenage years and throughout the women's twenties Design

  4. MobiCom Poster: Eliminating Aborted Data Delivery Over Cellular Links

    E-print Network

    MobiCom Poster: Eliminating Aborted Data Delivery Over Cellular Links Andrei Gurtov gurtov@cs.helsinki.fi University of Helsinki, Finland and ICSI, Berkeley, USA Internet users often abort their transfers from aborted transport connections are of- ten sent unnecessarily to the user over a slow last-hop link

  5. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF A COMMERCIAL VACCINE AGAINST CHLAMYDIAL ABORTION OF EWES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CLINICAL EVALUATION OF A COMMERCIAL VACCINE AGAINST CHLAMYDIAL ABORTION OF EWES Annie RODOLAKIS A Tours-Nouzilly - 37380 Nouzilly Résumé MESURE DE L'EFFICACITE D'UN VACCIN CONTRE LA CHLAMYDIOSE ABORTIVE isolées dans les écouvillons vaginaux de 7 de ces 9 brebis vacci- nées. Chlamydial abortion is the main

  6. Methotrexate and misoprostol for early abortion: A multicenter trial. I. Safety and efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitchell D. Creinin; Eric Vittinghoff; Lisa Keder; Philip D. Darney; George Tiller

    1996-01-01

    A prospective trial was conducted including 300 pregant women seeking elective abortion to evaluate the safety and efficacy of methotrexate and misoprostol for abortion at ?56 days gestation. Subjects received methotrexate 50 mg\\/m2 intramuscularly followed 7 days later by misoprostol 800 ?g vaginally. The misoprostol dose was repeated the next day if the abortion did not occur. Outcome measures included

  7. Abortion and breast cancer: a case-control record linkage study

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Matthew

    Abortion and breast cancer: a case-control record linkage study M J Goldacre, L M Kurina, V, when only those studies least susceptible to bias are considered, induced abortion does not seem an induced abortion when questioned about their repro- ductive history.3­5 If there are systematic reporting

  8. An effective regimen for early medical abortion: a report of 2000 consecutive cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Ashok; G. C. Penney; G. M. M. Flett; A. Templeton

    A combination of the anti-progesterone mifepristone and gemeprost provides an effective non-surgical method for the induction of abortion at gestations up to 63 days, achieving complete abortion rates of over 95%. We report our experience with an alternate regimen, comprising a reduced dose of mifepristone in combination with vaginal misoprostol. A consecutive series of 2000 women requesting early medical abortion

  9. Understanding the Effects of Personal and School Religiosity on the Decision to Abort a Premarital Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamczyk, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Although much research has examined the relationship between religion and abortion attitudes, few studies have examined whether religion influences abortion behavior. This study looks at whether individual and school religiosity influence reported abortion behavior among women who become pregnant while unmarried. Hierarchical Logistic Models are…

  10. Edinburgh Research Explorer Abortive Lytic Reactivation of KSHV in CBF1/CSL Deficient

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Abortive Lytic Reactivation of KSHV in CBF1/CSL Deficient Human B Cell, Schulz, TF & Kempkes, B 2013, 'Abortive Lytic Reactivation of KSHV in CBF1/CSL Deficient Human B Cell date: 15. Sep. 2014 #12;Abortive Lytic Reactivation of KSHV in CBF1/CSL Deficient Human B Cell Lines

  11. Reducing Sub-Transaction Aborts and Blocking Time within Atomic Commit

    E-print Network

    Gruenwald, Le

    Reducing Sub-Transaction Aborts and Blocking Time within Atomic Commit Protocols Stefan B¨ottcher1 involves the risk of infinite blocking and can lead to a high number of aborts. In this paper, we introduce-transaction aborts that arise due to message loss or due to conflicting concurrent transactions by distinguishing re

  12. Growth Factor and Bcl-2 Mediated Survival During Abortive Proliferation of

    E-print Network

    Sinskey, Anthony J.

    Growth Factor and Bcl-2 Mediated Survival During Abortive Proliferation of Hybridoma Cell Line John- pressed human bcl-2 (hbcl-2) to mitigate cell death. Abortive proliferation, or continuous proliferation for proliferation was found to be solely determined by the presence of cell culture nutrients. Abortive

  13. Religion and abortion: Roman Catholicism lost in the pelvic zone.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    The Roman Catholic Church has held the most absolute and extreme position against abortion taken by any religious group. Opposition to abortion by US Catholic bishops has been unflagging since Roe vs. Wade was decided. The current strategy embraced by the bishops is to restrict access to abortion as a prelude to attaining a complete ban on the procedure. The bishops, of course, have a political and constitutional right to champion public policy issues. This ability is limited only by the laws regarding tax-exempt status which make it impossible for the bishops to endorse political candidates. Opponents of the positions of the bishops, in turn, have a right to challenge their positions. The bishops, acting jointly as the United States Catholic Conference (USCC), express their own opinions, not the opinions of the 53 million US Catholics and have been criticized by both conservative and progressive groups in the church. Since women can not become Catholic bishops, or even priests, they are excluded from meetings of the USCC. Catholic lay groups have expressed the view that there is more than one legitimate Catholic position regarding abortion and have even filed briefs in favor of retaining the decision reached in Roe vs. Wade. The bishops, however, are able to draw on a multitude of institutions to further their view and have enhanced the operations of their 28 statewide lobbying offices as the abortion battle has shifted to the states. The Webster decision signaled a return of the bishops to a prominent position in the anti-abortion campaign. Prior to Webster, they kept their distance from the Protestant religious right. With Webster, the bishops felt the time was right to press hard to further restrictions to access to abortion. As they began to apply pressure, a pro-choice backlash developed, with leading Catholic politicians adopting strong pro-choice positions. The bishops reacted by taking such aggressive actions as denouncing certain politicians by name. This behavior caused even more alienation of middle-of-the-road Catholics from the bishops' position. The bishops tried to recover by hiring a professional public relations firm and the pollster used by the Reagan administration. The public relations firm was dismissed within a year. Religious observers wonder why the church is so adamantly against abortion in every circumstance, despite the beliefs of its members. In fact, in 1974, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith noted the church's opposition to abortion but fell short of calling it murder and was honest about the church's ambiguity over the personhood of a fetus or at what stage in development the creator endows a fetus with a soul. This question has been debated by theologians since the early centuries of the church. Even the current Pope favors the term "that which is in the process of becoming" when discussing a fetus. In addition, church history and positions regarding the possibility of a "just war" make the church's adherence to the impossibility of a "just abortion" hard to justify. This hard-line position has removed the church from a position in which it could help women and society understand the values which must underly every decision to have an abortion. PMID:8274867

  14. 38 CFR 13.58 - Legal custodian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal custodian. 13.58 Section 13.58...ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.58 Legal custodian. (a) Authority. The...make determinations as to the person or legal entity to be appointed legal...

  15. 38 CFR 13.58 - Legal custodian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal custodian. 13.58 Section 13.58...ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.58 Legal custodian. (a) Authority. The...make determinations as to the person or legal entity to be appointed legal...

  16. [Assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity].

    PubMed

    Dreßing, H; Foerster, K; Leygraf, J; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity require thorough knowledge of the legal framework and the relevant case law. This paper explains the concept of the legal capacity to contract and the concept of testamentary capacity with respect to German civil law. The relevance of major mental disorders for the assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity is discussed. PMID:25256794

  17. Legal Concerns of Web Site Reverse Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger M. Kienle; Daniel M. Germán; Hausi A. Müller

    2004-01-01

    Researchers involved in Web site reverse engineering are often not aware of potential legal implications of using someone else's Web site for experimentation. Even if researchers are concerned with legal problems, there is little guidance available. This paper explores the legality of Web site reverse engineering with the intent to raise awareness among researchers about this issue. The discussed legal

  18. Economic development, legality, and the transplant effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Berkowitz; Katharina Pistor; Jean-Francois Richard

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of effective legal institutions (legality) using data from 49 countries. We show that the way the law was initially transplanted and received is a more important determinant than the supply of law from a particular legal family. Countries that have developed legal orders internally, adapted the transplanted law, and\\/or had a population that was already familiar

  19. Testing Strategies and Methodologies for the Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaible, Dawn M.; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked to develop an alternate, tower-less launch abort system (LAS) as risk mitigation for the Orion Project. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test in July 2009 of the "Max" launch abort system (MLAS) provided data critical to the design of future LASs, while demonstrating the Agency s ability to rapidly design, build and fly full-scale hardware at minimal cost in a "virtual" work environment. Limited funding and an aggressive schedule presented a challenge for testing of the complex MLAS system. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test was attributed to the project s systems engineering and integration process, which included: a concise definition of, and an adherence to, flight test objectives; a solid operational concept; well defined performance requirements, and a test program tailored to reducing the highest flight test risks. The testing ranged from wind tunnel validation of computational fluid dynamic simulations to component ground tests of the highest risk subsystems. This paper provides an overview of the testing/risk management approach and methodologies used to understand and reduce the areas of highest risk - resulting in a successful flight demonstration test.

  20. Obsessive-compulsive disorder apparently related to abortion.

    PubMed

    McCraw, R K

    1989-04-01

    This case study presents a young woman who developed a severe obsessive-compulsive disorder after a routine medical procedure. It is suggested that this procedure brought back repressed guilt from three abortions and thus led to the onset of symptoms. The case is discussed in relationship to available research and theory. PMID:2751012

  1. Safe Abortion and the Global Political Economy of Reproductive Rights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara B Crane

    2005-01-01

    Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) advocates are joining the call for global economic justice, while drawing attention to the neglect of SRHR in the Millennium Development Goals. At the same time, abortion and other core SRHR issues are coming to the fore in specialized and influential arenas concerned with HIV\\/AIDS, maternal and child health, humanitarian response, and human

  2. Social scripts and stark realities: Kenyan adolescents' abortion discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen M. H. Mitchell; Carolyn Tucker Halpern; Eva Muthuuri Kamathi; Shirley Owino

    2006-01-01

    This study explores students' narratives and discourses about adolescent pregnancy and abortion elicited via internet?based open?ended questions posed in response to a cartoon vignette. We report on content analysis of recommendations and strategies for how to manage the unplanned pregnancy of a fictional young couple and in their own personal lives. The responses of 614 young people were analysed. Strategies

  3. Unusual cause of abortions in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    Abortion due to Rhizopus microsporus in a dairy herd Outbreaks of nutritional myopathy and hypovitaminosis A in calves Marked rise in diagnoses of acute fasciolosis in sheep Arcanobacterium haemolyticum arthritis diagnosed in fattening boars Infectious laryngotracheitis causes mortality in backyard poultry These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for November 2012 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:23378310

  4. Grief and Mourning Reactions Following Abortion and Miscarriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widener, Anmarie J.

    1996-01-01

    Explores current research on psychological reactions following induced and spontaneous abortions. Provides examples of studies wherein researchers have used a loss model to understand this experience. Explores possible reasons for the apparent inattention to grief reactions following this type of loss and offers an alternative approach to the loss…

  5. 1 MPI Reference Card int MPI_Abort( comm, errorcode )

    E-print Network

    Hanson, Floyd B.

    1 MPI Reference Card int MPI_Abort( comm, errorcode ) MPI_Comm comm int errorcode Terminates MPI execution environment int MPI_Address( location, address) void *location MPI_Aint *address Gets the address of a location in memory int MPI_Allgatherv ( sendbuf, sendcount, sendtype, recvbuf, recvcounts, displs, recvtype

  6. A reflective account of a consultation in abortion care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edna Astbury-Ward

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a reflective account of a consultation in a pre-assessment clinic for women requesting abortion. The reflectionis based on Johns’ model. Reflection enabled the author to address important issues that the consultation raised. These included the realisation that nurses do not always have to understand why patients make the choices they do, and the importance of allocating sufficient

  7. A Strategic Assessment of Abortion and Contraception in Romania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brooke R Johnson; Mihai Horga; Peter Fajans

    2004-01-01

    The history of fertility regulation in Romania illustrates the complex interactions between politics, women's reproductive health and rights and access to high quality care. This paper describes the current situation of abortion and contraception in Romania, based on national statistics, recent reproductive health surveys and the findings of a strategic assessment led by the Ministry of Health in late 2001.

  8. A live vaccine against Neospora caninum abortions in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in dairy and beef cattle and it is estimated to be responsible for losses in excess of a billion dollars annually, in cattle industries worldwide. Yet, after more than 25 years of research on this parasite, the control options for this disease appe...

  9. Western juniper-induced abortions in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective—To determine if the bark from western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) will induce late term abortions in cattle. Animals—6 two-year-old Angus heifers. Procedures—Bark from western juniper trees was collected, dried, and finely ground. Pregnant cows were dosed starting on day 250 of gesta...

  10. A Cross-Disciplinary Examination of Print Resources on Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2011-01-01

    Abortion is a highly-charged, emotional topic which often appears in the news, particularly during the confirmation process for a Supreme Court nominee. Community College students continue to ask reference librarians for print resources dealing with this controversial issue. Often we turn to the reliable series "Current Controversies," "At Issue,"…

  11. The Effect of Poisonous Range Plants on Abortions in Livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural toxins from plants and fungi, in addition to man-made toxicants, have been implicated with abortion, embryonic death, or neonatal loss in livestock. Plants causing reproductive problems for livestock can be found on most, if not all rangelands worldwide, thus exposing livestock at various t...

  12. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; ?o?ek, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  13. Evidence mounts for sex-selective abortion in Asia.

    PubMed

    Westley, S B

    1995-01-01

    In Korea, China, and Taiwan--countries where son preference persists--the availability of prenatal screening techniques and induced abortion has produced an imbalance in the naturally occurring sex ratios of 104-107 male births for every 100 female births. Policy responses to sex-selective abortion were the focus of a 1994 International Symposium on Sex Preference for Children in the Rapidly Changing Demographic Dynamics in Asia sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund and the Government of the Republic of Korea. Modern technology (i.e., amniocentesis, ultrasound, and chorionic villi sampling) enables couples to control both family size and sex selection. According to data from the 1990 Korean Census, 80,000 female fetuses were aborted from 1986-90 as a result of son preference. In the late 1980s, the Governments of Korea, China, and India imposed bans on the use of medical technology for prenatal sex determination, but many observers maintain that regulations have served only to make the procedures clandestine and more expensive. To remedy the problems underlying sex-selective abortion, the Symposium recommended the following government actions: 1) implement policies and programs to diminish gender discrimination; 2) establish guidelines for the monitoring and regulation of prenatal testing; 3) utilize mass and folk media, interpersonal channels, and school curricula to promote gender equality; 4) strengthen the ethics curriculum of medical schools to address son preference; and 5) increase the capability of statistical and research organizations to collect gender-disaggregated data. PMID:12319402

  14. Abortions by chronic gamma irradiation on the prenatal mouse

    E-print Network

    Kowalczyk, Wallace Matthew

    1968-01-01

    of Gestation VILi LIST. OF FIGURi. "S ~Fi ure Pa~e Fmbryonic Mortality Rate of t?e Control and Irradi. ated Grollps 25 Average dumber of Liv Embryos per Litter at 18. 5 Days Gestation for the Control and the Two Irradiated Groups 26 Rate of Abortions...

  15. Vulvar myiasis following suction and evacuation for incomplete abortion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anju; Goel, Bharti; Rani, Shikha

    2015-07-01

    Myiasis is caused by fly larva capable of penetrating healthy or necrotic tissue, usually in tropical and subtropical countries. The involvement of an exposed area is common; however it may very rarely involve the genital region. We present a rare case of vulvar myiasis which occurred after suction and evacuation performed for incomplete abortion. PMID:25740831

  16. Fruit abortion, developmental selection and developmental stability in Quercus ilex.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Mario; Møller, Anders P; Pulido, Fernando J

    2003-05-01

    Fruit abortion has been hypothesized to be a parental means of selective removal of propagules with low viability. In particular, aborted zygotes have been suggested to have developmentally deviant phenotypes, and surviving offspring may therefore give rise to adults with a developmentally stable phenotype. We tested predictions from this hypothesis using acorns of holm oaks Quercus ilex as a model system. Fecundity of oak trees was negatively related to mean fluctuating asymmetry of leaves, and abortion rates were positively related to leaf fluctuating asymmetry in at least one population. Aborted acorns were asymmetric in 83-99% of cases in three samples, while mature acorns were only asymmetric in 57-78% of cases. Acorn asymmetry was unrelated to germination probability and germination date, and had no significant effect on number of leaves, leaf mass, stem mass, seedling height or leaf area of seedlings. However, acorn asymmetry affected the trade-off between number and size of leaves in seedlings. Seedlings from asymmetric acorns showed a positive relationship between acorn size and number of leaves, but no relationships between acorn size and leaf area, while symmetric acorns showed the opposite. A positive relationship between acorn size and number of leaves in spring was found for naturally emerged seedlings that died during their first summer, whereas the number of leaves produced by surviving seedlings did not depend on acorn size. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that stressed trees selectively abort propagules of low viability, and that developmental selection acts on a measure of developmental instability of fruits. PMID:12721827

  17. Evaluation of the implantation site morphology in spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Manolea, Maria Magdalena; Dijm?rescu, Anda Lorena; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Novac, Marius Bogdan; Di?escu, Damian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the characterization of the implantation site through histological and immunohistochemical exams and the evaluation of the changes that appear in the pregnancies ended by spontaneous abortion compared to normal pregnancies ended by requested abortion. One hundred eight patients were divided in two groups: the study group that included 58 patients with spontaneous abortion and the control group that included 50 patients with requested abortion. There has been made uterine curettage in all the cases after a complete preoperative evaluation and the obtained product was sent for histopathological evaluation and immunohistochemical study using a VEGF antibody. Studying the histological sections, we noticed the vasculogenesis stages chronology and then according to the histological aspects of normal pregnancy we noticed the histological changes that occurred at the site of implantation in the cases with pathological pregnancies ended by miscarriage. Our results from this study seem to indicate a correlation between decidual vascular changes and the appearance of miscarriage. In pregnancies ended by miscarriage, we found delays in the trophoblast development according to the gestational age at which the event abortifacient happened. The study emphases the temporal differentiation of utero-placental angiogenesis comparing to villous vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in the first trimester miscarriage and normal pregnancy. At the control group, VEGF expression was positive in 88% of cases, while in the study group, pregnancies ended by spontaneous abortion, positive expression of VEGF was present in only 31% of cases. Our data suggest vascular disorders and are in concordance with other histological and ultrasound studies postulating the idea of a link between miscarriage and placental vascular bed pattern changes. PMID:25826496

  18. The Effects of Parental Involvement Laws and the AIDS Epidemic on the Pregnancy and Abortion Rates of Minors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman-Palm, Nancy; Tremblay, Carol Horton

    1998-01-01

    Explores the effects of legislation requiring parental consent for a minor's abortion and the risk of acquiring AIDS on adolescent pregnancy and abortion rates. Finds lower pregnancy and abortion rates for women 15-17 in states with parental involvement legislation, while abortion doubles and pregnancy rates decline with the incidence of AIDS.…

  19. Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System Guidance and Control Analysis Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Kim, Sungwan; Raney, David L.; Aubuchon, Vanessa V.; Sparks, Dean W.; Busan, Ronald C.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.

    2008-01-01

    Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. Aborts from the launch pad to early in the flight of the CLV second stage are performed using the Launch Abort System (LAS). During this type of abort, the LAS Abort Motor is used to pull the Crew Module (CM) safely away from the CLV and Service Module (SM). LAS abort guidance and control studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the Orion CEV, an overview of the LAS ascent abort mode, and a summary of key LAS abort analysis methods and results.

  20. Contraceptive use among women seeking repeat abortion in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ndola; Holston, Martine; Fraser, Ashley; Melkamu, Yilma

    2013-12-01

    Limited access to modern contraceptives in populations that desire smaller families can lead to repeat unintended pregnancy and repeat abortions. We conducted an analysis of the medical records of 1,200 women seeking abortion-related services in public and private facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from October 2008 to February 2009. We examined the characteristics of initial and repeat abortion clients including prior contraceptive use and subsequent method selection. The incidence of repeat abortion was 30%. Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives and they were nearly twice as likely to leave the facility with a method. However, repeat abortion clients were significantly more likely to have ever used short-term reversible methods and to choose short-term methods post-abortion. Contraceptive counseling services for repeat abortion clients' should address reasons for previous contraceptive failure, discontinuation, or non-use. Post-abortion family planning services should be strengthened to help decrease repeat abortion. PMID:24558782