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Sample records for abortion legal

  1. Legal abortion.

    PubMed

    Dawn, C S

    1972-05-01

    The provisions of India's Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1972 and some of the problems it has created are summarized. Medical, social, environmental, and eugenic grounds are considered adequate; only registered medical practitioners with experience or training in gynecology and obstetrics are authorized to do the abortions; and the pregnancy should not exceed 12 weeks. For pregnancies of 13-20 weeks opinions of 2 registered practitioners are required. The written consent of the woman is needed or, in the case of a minor or mentally incompetent person, the written consent of the parent or guardiaan. Only government-approved hospitals or clinics may be used and licenses are required. All abortions must be reported to the Director of Health Services. Although the apparent purpose of the law is to save women from the risks of criminal abortion, reduction of the birthrate also follows. Acceptance of contraception or sterilization is more frequent. The D and C method is being largely replaced by suction aspiration as an out-patient procedure. For midpregnancy abortion hysterotomy or saline amninoinfusion are used. Intraamniotic prostaglandin is being investigated. Lack of hospital facilities in India has been a handicap. As many women seeking legal abortion have been in midpregnancy, the complications have been considerable. However, present incidence of mortality from all abortions, including criminal ones, comprises 12% of maternal mortality. PMID:12256464

  2. Legalized abortion: the Singapore experience.

    PubMed

    Chen, A J; Emmanuel, S C; Ling, S L; Kwa, S B

    1985-01-01

    Abortion has been legal since 1970 in Singapore. This report traces the events leading to the liberalization of abortion laws and examines women's changing attitudes toward abortion, in Singapore. The method of abortion practiced by obstetricians, postabortal sterilization, and the effect of legalized abortion on the incidence of illegal abortion in the country are also examined. PMID:4012821

  3. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  4. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  5. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    PubMed

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other countries with decriminalization of abortion should also be assessed. Factors considered should include the true impunity of abortion, public health problems and socioeconomic problems generated by the state through criminalization of abortion, and the psychological and economic implications for women of the criminal status of abortion. Systems of decriminalization should be examined to decide which would be appropriate for Mexico. These systems include authorizing complete freedom of choice for the 1st trimester and permitting abortion only for specific indications. All penal codes in Mexico now use the system of abortion for specific indications. Few cases are accepted for legal pregnancy termination. PMID:12158044

  6. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    PubMed Central

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. Results The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. Conclusions The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. PMID:25511805

  7. Abortion: a legal and public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Kunins, H; Rosenfield, A

    1991-01-01

    Abortion is an issue of great public concern and debate. The majority of US citizens support a woman's right to choose, but it has not always been that way. Abortion was made legal in 1973 but women have been abortions for hundreds of years before that. The history of abortion is therefore a history of women breaking the law and subjecting themselves to great physical and social risk. Abortion law in the US has been changed mostly by the Supreme Court. After Roe v Wade (1973) there were many other cases brought before the Court involving federal and state funding of abortion, father's rights, parental consent for minors, and many other finer points of law and policy regarding abortion. Abortion is commonly practiced in many developing countries including the ones where it is illegal. The data collected from these countries gives researchers here a great deal of information on the clinical and sociological aspects of abortion. Medical technology has broadened the scope of abortion by introducing medication to induce abortion such as RU486. Abortion is no longer an exclusively surgical procedure. Since it can performed now with a pill it will be almost impossible to regulate it as strictly as before. PMID:2049141

  8. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  9. Opposition to legal abortion: challenges and questions.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the Roman Catholic Church's arguments against abortion rights suggests that its opposition is grounded more in outmoded views regarding women's roles than in concern for protecting fetal life. The 1st argument raised by Catholics and other anti-abortion forces is that abortion represents the unjustifiable destruction of a human life. A 2nd argument focuses on the status of the fetus as a person from the moment of conception, making abortion murder. A 3rd equates the fetus's potential for personhood with the pregnant woman's actual personhood. Despite the vehement sentiments expressed by Catholic leaders against abortion, the majority of Catholics support legal abortion. The assignment of personhood status to the fetus is contraindicated by actual practice in the Church, where aborted or miscarried products of early pregnancy are not baptized. Also, the Church does not forbid the taking of human life in war or to preserve political freedom. Finally, in countries such as Poland where abortion has been made illegal through religious pressure, there have been drastic cuts in health care and child care programs. PMID:12345323

  10. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates. PMID:26433508

  11. Legal Abortion: Are American Black Women Healthier Because of It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Willard, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews various aspects of legal abortion, including attitudes, practices, mortality and effects, as they relate to black American women. States that black women have shared in the health benefits accompanying the increased availability of legal abortion, probably to an even greater extent than white women. (Author/GC)

  12. Global perspective of legal abortion - Trends analysis and accessibility.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jenny E; Seif, Mourad W

    2010-08-01

    There are significant variations in the legalisation, restrictions and legal abortion rates worldwide. This undoubtedly influences the provision and accessibility to abortion services. Although there have been changes to the laws in several countries over the last decade, this has not yet been translated into practice in the provision of safe abortion in these countries. In countries where abortions are permitted without restriction; the majority of abortions are carried out by trained practitioners in approved facilities. In contrast, in countries where restrictions are imposed, the majority of abortions performed are considered to be unsafe and therefore associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the most recent data available regarding worldwide legal abortion rates, trends over the last ten years and issues related to specific regions which may influence the provision of safe abortion services in the future. PMID:20462800

  13. Legal Change and Stigma in Surrogacy and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Robertson, John A

    2015-01-01

    Stigma marks both surrogacy and abortion. Legal change lessens stigma but may not remove it altogether. Post-legalization regulation may reinstall stigma by surrounding a legalized practice with barriers that make exercise of that right more difficult. As a result, law may reenact stigma even as it purports to take it away. PMID:26242938

  14. Adolescent Abortion: Psychological and Legal Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Findings from empirical research differ greatly from the Supreme Court's assumptions about psychological factors in adolescent abortion. Psychologists should preserve adolescent clients' privacy in counseling about pregnancy-related decisions. Government should encourage counseling services for pregnant adolescents and research on psychological…

  15. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Frye, B S

    1993-01-01

    Induced legal abortion remains the leading worldwide fertility regulation method. More than 1.5 million abortions are performed in the United States and Canada annually. Nursing is integral to the care of women who have abortions and their families. The complexity of nursing care is dictated by gestational age, the procedure performed, and patient needs. PMID:8242049

  16. Legal and Ethical Issues in Evaluating Abortion Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Lori E.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on ethical and legal issues that arose in the evaluation of abortion services. Discusses the development of decision rules and tradeoffs in dealing with these issues to reach rational and objective decisions. Places the discussion in the context of balancing usefulness and propriety with respect to informed consent and privacy and makes…

  17. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

  18. Advocacy for legal reform for safe abortion.

    PubMed

    Ashenafi, Meaza

    2004-04-01

    In Ethiopia, violation of women's reproductive rights is both a cause and a manifestation of women's disempowerment. Obstacles to full realisation of Ethiopian women's reproductive health and rights include the persistence of harmful traditional practices such as female genital mutilation, early marriage and abduction, as well as the disturbing prevalence of rape and HIV/AIDS. Unsafe abortion represents a particularly serious threat to women's health and lives. Ethiopia's status as a signatory to the Convention to Eliminate all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and its constitutional guarantee of women's equality demand more aggressive action to eradicate such practices and inequities. After years of lobbying by women's organisations, parliamentarians are now reviewing a draft of the 1957 penal code, which includes numerous provisions addressing some of these practices and other conditions that underlie women's poor social and health status. PMID:15487618

  19. Legal Abortions, SocioeconomicStatus, and Measured Intelligence in the United States

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Joel E.

    Legal Abortions, SocioeconomicStatus, and Measured Intelligence in the United States Joel E. Cohen practice of therapeutic abortions in the United States. Unless otherwise specified, all abortions dscussed constructionof an asso- ciation between frequency of abortions and meaared intelligence. If the frequencies of

  20. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on High School Graduation through Selection and Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines whether the legalization of abortion changed high school graduation rates among the children selected into birth. Unless women in all socio-economic circumstances sought abortions to the same extent, increased use of abortion must have changed the distribution of child development inputs. I find that higher abortion ratios…

  1. Abortion.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor "Legislative Proposals and Actions" provides US legislative information on abortion. The listing contains information on pending bills: the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available the bill's status. The bills cover: 1) clinic licensing, e.g., requiring outpatient health care facilities in which abortions are performed, to have malpractice liability insurance; 2) comprehensive statues, which require parental notification before minor may obtain abortions, mandate abortion counseling to all women 24 hours before the abortion can be performed and prohibit disciplining or discharging a state employee for refusing to provide abortion counseling; 3) fetal personhood and rights, e.g. providing that life is vested in each person at fertilization; 4) fetal research and remains; 5) gender of fetus, which regulate abortions relative to sex selection in pregnancies; 6) harassment regulation; 7) informed consent and waiting periods detailing the risks and alternatives to abortion, and the 24-hour waiting period; 8) insurance coverage, e.g., eliminating language banning the coverage of abortions for state workers, and prohibiting disclosure by a health insurance carrier to the employer of a claimant that the claimant had a surgical abortion; 9) legality of abortion, urging Congress to reject he Freedom of Choice Act; 10) parental consent and notification; 11) postviability requirements; 12) public funding; 13) reporting requirements; 14) reproductive rights, and 15) spousal and paternal consent and notification. PMID:12286571

  2. [The Cairo compromise on abortion and its effect to make it safe and legal].

    PubMed

    Berer, Marge

    2006-01-01

    This paper critically assesses how the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 addressed abortion in the Programme of Action and the effect of the Cairo "compromise" on abortion on efforts to make abortion safe and legal in the decade that followed. Moral judgement constantly trumps the public health imperative to save women's health and lives in the Programme of Action. Safe abortion, it says, should be provided only if it is legal. Thus, women seeking abortion in countries where it is not legal are left with unsafe abortions. Unlike the rest of the Programme of Action, the stance on abortion is not based on evidence of what is required to protect reproductive health or reduce maternal mortality. The statement that "In no case should abortion be promoted as a method of family planning" has proven to be a potent weapon in the hands of a right-wing US government, which has used it to block work on making abortion safe and legal. However, in the longer-term, the public health problem of abortion has been put onto the global agenda as never before. PMID:19031682

  3. 'This Is Real Misery': Experiences of Women Denied Legal Abortion in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hajri, Selma; Raifman, Sarah; Gerdts, Caitlin; Baum, Sarah; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to accessing legal abortion services in Tunisia are increasing, despite a liberal abortion law, and women are often denied wanted legal abortion services. In this paper, we seek to explore the reasons for abortion denial and whether these reasons had a legal or medical basis. We also identify barriers women faced in accessing abortion and make recommendations for improved access to quality abortion care. We recruited women immediately after they had been turned away from legal abortion services at two facilities in Tunis, Tunisia. Thirteen women consented to participate in qualitative interviews two months after they were turned away from the facility. Women were denied abortion care on the day they were recruited due to three main reasons: gestational age, health conditions, and logistical barriers. Nine women ultimately terminated their pregnancies at another facility, and four women carried to term. None of the women attempted illegal abortion services or self-induction. Further research is needed in order to assess abortion denial from the perspective of providers and medical staff. PMID:26684189

  4. ‘This Is Real Misery’: Experiences of Women Denied Legal Abortion in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Hajri, Selma; Raifman, Sarah; Gerdts, Caitlin; Baum, Sarah; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to accessing legal abortion services in Tunisia are increasing, despite a liberal abortion law, and women are often denied wanted legal abortion services. In this paper, we seek to explore the reasons for abortion denial and whether these reasons had a legal or medical basis. We also identify barriers women faced in accessing abortion and make recommendations for improved access to quality abortion care. We recruited women immediately after they had been turned away from legal abortion services at two facilities in Tunis, Tunisia. Thirteen women consented to participate in qualitative interviews two months after they were turned away from the facility. Women were denied abortion care on the day they were recruited due to three main reasons: gestational age, health conditions, and logistical barriers. Nine women ultimately terminated their pregnancies at another facility, and four women carried to term. None of the women attempted illegal abortion services or self-induction. Further research is needed in order to assess abortion denial from the perspective of providers and medical staff. PMID:26684189

  5. Further Evidence that Legalized Abortion Lowered Crime: A Reply to Joyce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, John J., III; Levitt, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    Joyce's failure to uncover a negative relationship between crime and abortion was because of his decision to concentrate on a non-representative six-year period. Evidence supporting the claims that the crack-cocaine epidemic hit the high-abortion early-legalizing states earlier and more severely than other states of the U.S in 1970 is presented.

  6. Access to safe legal abortion in Malaysia: women's insights and health sector response.

    PubMed

    Low, Wah-Yun; Tong, Wen-Ting; Wong, Yut-Lin; Jegasothy, Ravindran; Choong, Sim-Poey

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia has an abortion law, which permits termination of pregnancy to save a woman's life and to preserve her physical and mental health (Penal Code Section 312, amended in 1989). However, lack of clear interpretation and understanding of the law results in women facing difficulties in accessing abortion information and services. Some health care providers were unaware of the legalities of abortion in Malaysia and influenced by their personal beliefs with regard to provision of abortion services. Accessibility to safer abortion techniques is also an issue. The development of the 2012 Guidelines on Termination of Pregnancy and Guidelines for Management of Sexual and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Health Clinics by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, is a step forward toward increasing women's accessibility to safe abortion services in Malaysia. This article provides an account of women's accessibility to abortion in Malaysia and the health sector response in addressing the barriers. PMID:25452590

  7. Teenage abortion in Germany: with reference to the legal system in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belling, D W; Eberl, C

    1996-01-01

    This document compares the legal aspects of induced abortion in the US and Germany with a focus on how each country treats minors who wish to undergo abortion. After a short introduction, the second section describes the legal approach to abortion in the US where women (including minors) have an implicitly recognized constitutional right to abortion until compelling state interest intervenes at a point where the unborn child would be viable outside of the womb. States, however, may permit parents to participate in their daughter's abortion decisions as long as a "judicial bypass procedure" exists to protect the minor's rights. Section 3 describes the situation in Germany, where no constitutional right to abortion exists and where the fetus is protected by the constitution. A minor's right to abortion is determined by the provisions governing whether or not an abortion can be performed, by age limitations, and by the custody rights of the parents. Relevant decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1975 and 1993 are reviewed to show that women have a duty to carry a pregnancy to term unless the woman requests the abortion within 12 weeks of conception and submits to counseling which seeks to protect the fetus (such an abortion would be illegal but immune from prosecution). German court rulings on the competency of minors to render consent are then noted to show that even minors have ultimate responsibility with regard to abortion. Analysis of the legal situation in Germany continues with a look at the personal custody rights of parents and the limitations on those rights imposed by the constitutional rights of the child, by the child's age, and by the child's self-reliance and capacity to assume responsibility. The conclusion contrasts the US and German legal sources of limitation of parental rights over the decisions of minors and the ways each system determines the competency of a minor to make such a decision. PMID:8666732

  8. Medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration for legal abortion protect women's health and reduce costs to the health system: findings from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2015-02-01

    The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system. PMID:25702076

  9. Family Planning Evaluation. Abortion Surveillance Report--Legal Abortions, United States, Annual Summary, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning. Information…

  10. Early medical abortion: legal and medical developments in Australia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kerry A

    2010-07-01

    Mifepristone is a safe, effective and relatively cheap drug that plays an important role in women's health care and is widely used for early medical abortion in many countries. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) can authorise mifepristone to be imported into and marketed in Australia. To date, no pharmaceutical company has applied to register mifepristone in Australia. The TGA can also permit medical practitioners to prescribe medicine that is not approved for marketing in Australia under the Authorised Prescribers scheme. The number of approvals for mifepristone has gradually increased, in spite of a complicated and protracted application process. Approval under the Authorised Prescribers scheme requires medical practitioners to comply with state or territory legislation. Abortion laws in Australia vary between jurisdictions, and in some states the law is unclear and confusing. The decriminalisation of abortion in all Australian jurisdictions would protect medical practitioners from criminal liability, promote the health interests of Australian women, and discourage the illegal importation of abortifacients that are being used without quality controls or medical supervision. The Victorian Abortion Law Reform Act 2008 is one legislative model for this. PMID:20618110

  11. On legalizing abortion: an open letter from Mexico's Christian Women's Collective.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In Mexico City the Christian Women's Collective's open letter to the Catholic Church is a response to the Catholic bishops' threats of excommunication of lawmakers in Chiapas State, Mexico, who may have approved a bill legalizing abortion. The bishops maintain that God is a just and merciful God who loves women and suffers with them. The Collective cannot ignore the 2 million women, 1.72 million of whom are Catholics, who undergo illegal abortions annually in Mexico. They tend to be poor and in a union and to have large families. The Collective does not advocate abortion, but recognized that almost all women who have had an abortion were not at all happy to do so. Instead they suffer depression, solitude, shame, and pain. In addition to the moral punishment, these women are at high risk of dying (150,000-200,000 women die annually from illegal abortions). Economic circumstances, health problems, rape, and abandonment threaten their lives, so abortion is a last resort. The Collective maintains that the Catholic Church must understand that God empathized with women's pain, and in sending Jesus, has become one with humanity. The Church must seriously consider this sorrowful and very complex situation and reflect on the circumstances leading to abortion rather than condemn it. It must realize that by choosing abortion women want to avoid harm in those cases where pregnancy could cause death, avoid injustice when rape caused the pregnancy, or avoid giving birth to an infant that society or family cannot sustain. The present adverse and unjust situation contributing to unwanted pregnancy and illegal abortion is a social sin. The Catholic Church needs to build a new pastoral program with women at its center emphasizing sexuality, maternity, and contraception. Indeed, confronting the true social, moral, and political causes of abortion, and avoiding punishment, incarceration, or excommunication will resolve the issue. PMID:12178854

  12. The regulatory cliff edge between contraception and abortion: the legal and moral significance of implantation

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Sally

    2015-01-01

    In regulating the voluntary interruption of pregnancy, English law has accorded particular significance to two biological events. First, ‘viability’, the moment when a fetus is said to acquire the capacity for independent life, plays an important role in grounding restrictions on access to legal abortion later in pregnancy. Second, equally significantly but far less frequently discussed, ‘implantation’ marks the point in pregnancy from which abortion laws apply. This paper focuses on this earlier biological event. It suggests that an unquestioning reliance on implantation as marking an appropriate moment of transition between two radically different legal frameworks is deeply problematic and is rendered still less sustainable in the light of the development of new technologies that potentially operate shortly after the moment of implantation. PMID:26085334

  13. Abortion in a progressive legal environment: the need for vigilance in protecting and promoting access to safe abortion services in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Trueman, Karen A; Magwentshu, Makgoale

    2013-03-01

    The importance of South Africa as a model for reproductive self-determination in Africa cannot be underestimated. Abortion has been legal since 1996, and the country has some of the most developed government systems for the provision of abortion care on the continent. Yet in the same way opponents of abortion in the United States have whittled away at access with increased bureaucracy, South Africa faces similar assaults that leave women without safe care and threaten to turn back achievements made during the past 16 years. I explore the history of the law, subsequent legal challenges, and new threats to women's access to abortion services, including service delivery issues that may influence the future of public health in the country. PMID:23327279

  14. Abortion

    MedlinePLUS

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  15. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Results Findings confirm that health providers’ views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, ‘social pressures’ (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers’ decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their ‘discretion’ in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop ‘coping mechanisms’ which impede implementation of abortion policy. Conclusions The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that provider values and attitudes (not just resource constraints) modify providers’ implementation of policy; moreover their power of modification is constrained by organisational hierarchies and mid-level managers. We also revealed differing responses of ‘front line workers’ regarding the pressures they face; whilst midwives are seen globally as providers of safe-abortion services, in Ghana the midwife cadre displays more negative attitudes towards them than doctors. These findings allow the identification of recommendations for evidence-based practice. PMID:23829555

  16. Abortion before the judge] Moves to bring a social conflict within a legal framework in FRG.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, J

    1989-01-01

    In 1976 there was a complete overhaul and significant liberalization of the criminal code statutes governing termination of pregnancy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Yet in 1989 there was still a demand for restricting the criminal law, whereas others were calling for total elimination of criminal law restrictions on termination of pregnancy (Section 218 of the Criminal Code). Following investigations by the public prosecutors in Celle, Nuremberg, and Koblenz, a major criminal case was generating a great deal of interest in Memmingen, a town in Bavaria. In that case, gynecologist Dr. Horst Theissen stood accused of carrying out 156 illegal abortions. This was revealed during a tax investigation; however, the revenue officials simply disregarded the legal principle of medical confidentiality and passed the doctor's files to the public prosecutor's office. In consequence, hundreds of women and their relatives were served summonses and the doctor himself was put in trial. The charge against him was that the mandatory consultations prior to termination of pregnancy had not been carried out in compliance with the law. However, the main reason for taking action was the assumption that no emergency had existed. The Bavarian Christian Democrats resolved to investigate the possibility of appealing to the Federal Constitutional Court to examine the degree to which Sections 218b and 219 of the Criminal Code might be in conflict with the basic principles of the Constitution. Jurists from the same political camp were demanding a new criminal provision to block the availability of RU-486. The Association of Gynecologists opposed the notion of medical findings being subjected to review by lawyers; it considered this to be a breach of the confidentiality of the doctor/patient relationship. In extensive press campaigns concerned women, men, and physicians acknowledged their involvement in abortions and demanded an end to criminalization. PMID:12315823

  17. State obligations to implement African abortion laws: employing human rights in a changing legal landscape.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles G

    2012-11-01

    Women in the African region are overburdened with unsafe abortion. Abortion regimes that fail to translate any given abortion rights into tangible access are partly to blame. Historically, African abortion laws have been highly restrictive. However, the post-independence era has witnessed a change toward liberalizing abortion law, even if incremental for many jurisdictions. Furthermore, Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa has significantly augmented the regional trend toward liberalization by recognizing abortion as a human right in given circumstances. However, states are failing to implement abortion laws. The jurisprudence that is emerging from the European Court of Human Rights and United Nations treaty bodies is a tool that can be used to render African governments accountable for failure to implement domestic abortion laws. PMID:22944215

  18. Medically indigent women seeking abortion prior to legalization: New York City, 1969-1970.

    PubMed

    Belsky, J E

    1992-01-01

    If the efforts now underway to limit access to abortion services in the United States are successful, their greatest impact will be on women who lack the funds to obtain abortions elsewhere. There is little published information, however, about the experience of medically indigent women who sought abortions under the old, restrictive state laws. This article details the psychiatric evaluation of 199 women requesting a therapeutic abortion at a large municipal hospital in New York City under a restrictive abortion law. Thirty-nine percent had tried to abort the pregnancy. Fifty-seven percent had concrete evidence of serious psychiatric disorder. Forty-eight percent had been traumatized by severe family disruption, gross emotional deprivation or abuse during childhood. Seventy-nine percent lacked emotional support from the man responsible for the pregnancy, and the majority were experiencing overwhelming stress from the interplay of multiple problems exacerbated by their unwanted pregnancy. PMID:1628716

  19. Personal Beliefs and Professional Responsibilities: Ethiopian Midwives' Attitudes toward Providing Abortion Services after Legal Reform.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Sarah Jane; Berhe, Aster; Cherie, Amsale

    2015-03-01

    In 2005, Ethiopia liberalized its abortion law and subsequently authorized midwives to offer abortion services. Using a 2013 survey of 188 midwives and 12 interviews with third-year midwifery students, this cross-sectional research examines midwives' attitudes toward abortion to understand their decisions about service provision. Most midwives were willing to provide abortion services. This willingness was positively and significantly related to clinical experience with abortion, but negatively and significantly related to religiosity, belief that providers have the right to refuse to provide services, and care of patients from periurban as opposed to rural areas. No significant relationship was found with perceptions of abortion stigma, years of work as a midwife, or knowledge of the law. Interview data suggest complex dynamics underlying midwives' willingness to offer services, including conflicts between professional norms and religious beliefs. Findings can inform Ethiopia's efforts to reduce maternal mortality through task-shifting to midwives and can aid other countries that are confronting provider shortages and high levels of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly due to unsafe abortion. PMID:25753060

  20. Can policy analysis theories predict and inform policy change? Reflections on the battle for legal abortion in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Surjadjaja, Claudia; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2011-01-01

    The relevance and importance of research for understanding policy processes and influencing policies has been much debated, but studies on the effectiveness of policy theories for predicting and informing opportunities for policy change (i.e. prospective policy analysis) are rare. The case study presented in this paper is drawn from a policy analysis of a contemporary process of policy debate on legalization of abortion in Indonesia, which was in flux at the time of the research and provided a unique opportunity for prospective analysis. Applying a combination of policy analysis theories, this case study provides an analysis of processes, power and relationships between actors involved in the amendment of the Health Law in Indonesia. It uses a series of practical stakeholder mapping tools to identify power relations between key actors and what strategic approaches should be employed to manage these to enhance the possibility of policy change. The findings show how the moves to legalize abortion have been supported or constrained according to the balance of political and religious powers operating in a macro-political context defined increasingly by a polarized Islamic-authoritarian—Western-liberal agenda. The issue of reproductive health constituted a battlefield where these two ideologies met and the debate on the current health law amendment became a contest, which still continues, for the larger future of Indonesia. The findings confirm the utility of policy analysis theories and stakeholder mapping tools for predicting the likelihood of policy change and informing the strategic approaches for achieving such change. They also highlight opportunities and dilemmas in prospective policy analysis and raise questions about whether research on policy processes and actors can or should be used to inform, or even influence, policies in ‘real-time’. PMID:21183461

  1. Abortion USA.

    PubMed

    1989-04-22

    A historical review of the legislation of abortion in America leads to the paramount 1973 amendment by the Supreme Court to legalize abortion. The 16 year old decision is currently up for reconsideration. As compared to the consensus of other countries who have similar policies, in the United States, the issue of abortion is still highly controversial. The Reagan era reflected an attitude of "anti-choice" that was further propagated by Reagan appointees. However, only 1 in 10 Americans believes abortion is murder as many are pro-choice. It is also observed that women who work outside the home are more likely to favor the right to choose an abortion than women who stay home. Compared to England and Wales, contraceptive measures are more limited and expensive in the U.S., and consequently, the overall ratio of abortions to live births is higher in the United States. As well, contraception remains elusive to the American teenager, and as a result, 80% of the 1.1 million teenage pregnancies are unwanted and 450,000 terminate their pregnancies. The final Supreme Court decision is expected at the end of June, and few expect a reversal of the 1973 decision. A possible decision may turn the authority to dictate the legal status of abortions back to the state. If this would happen, as with the situation of contraception, teenagers would be the hardest hit group and might be forced to seek illegal abortions or cross state lines. PMID:2564953

  2. Women's experiences with the use of medical abortion in a legally restricted context: the case of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Silvina; Romero, Mariana; Aizenberg, Lila

    2015-02-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study exploring the experiences of women living in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, Argentina, with the use of misoprostol for inducing an abortion. We asked women about the range of decisions they had to make, their emotions, the physical experience, strategies they needed to use, including seeking health care advice and in dealing with a clandestine medical abortion, and their overall evaluation of the experience. An in-depth interview schedule was used. The women had either used misoprostol and sought counselling or care at a public hospital (n=24) or had used misoprostol based on the advice of a local hotline, information from the internet or from other women (n=21). Four stages in the women's experiences were identified: how the decision to terminate the pregnancy was taken, how the medication was obtained, how the tablets were used, and reflections on the outcome whether or not they sought medical advice. Safety and privacy were key in deciding to use medical abortion. Access to the medication was the main obstacle, requiring a prescription or a friendly drugstore. Correct information about the number of pills to use and dosage intervals was the least easy to obtain and caused concerns. The possibility of choosing a time of privacy and having the company of a close one was highlighted as a unique advantage of medical abortion. Efforts to improve abortion law, policy and service provision in Argentina in order to ensure the best possible conditions for use of medical abortion by women should be redoubled. PMID:25702064

  3. Abortion and Selection

    E-print Network

    Gruber, Jonathan

    Abortion legalization in the early 1970s led to dramatic changes in fertility. Some research has suggested that it altered cohort outcomes, but this literature has been limited and controversial. In this paper, we provide ...

  4. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePLUS

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  5. Abortion in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Francome, C

    1992-08-22

    Substantial legal barriers to abortion persist in both the Irish Republic and Northern Ireland, despite growing popular support for abortion under certain conditions. A 1983 amendment to the republic's constitution guarantees the fetus the same right to life s the mother and bans the provision of information on abortion. Although a recent well publicized case of a pregnant, suicidal 14-year-old who travelled to England for an abortion resulted in an Irish Supreme Court ruling that abortion was acceptable in cases of "real and substantial risk" to a woman's life, uncertainty still surrounds the right to travel to England for the procedure. In Northern Ireland, the 1967 Abortion Act does not apply and abortions are denied even in cases of rape and incest. A total of 1766 women from Northern Ireland and 4158 from the republic travelled to England for abortions in 1991. Public opinion seems to have shifted toward support for less restrictive abortion laws, however. Whereas 80% of those surveyed in a 1980 Irish poll supported to ban on abortion in all cases, this statistic had dropped to 30% by 1990. Similarly, a 1991 poll taken in Northern Ireland found 80% of respondents to be a favor of abortion in cases where the procedure is necessary to maintain a woman's physical or mental health. PMID:1392954

  6. Induced Abortion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ043 SPECIAL PROCEDURES Induced Abortion • What is an induced abortion? • What is a first-trimester abortion? • How is a first-trimester surgical abortion performed? • ...

  7. Abortion - surgical

    MedlinePLUS

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  8. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:26057783

  9. Observations on abortion in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Castle, M A; Likwa, R; Whittaker, M

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the findings of a preliminary investigation of women who sought treatment for abortion from the Gynecological Emergency Ward at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. Barriers to obtaining legal abortions are identified and the harsh experiences of women seeking treatment for complications of illegally induced abortion are discussed. The data contribute to an understanding of the intensity of abortion for Zambian women and draw attention to the value of small-scale, qualitative research on women's reproductive health care needs. It is suggested that a study be planned at UTH to determine how health care delivery can be improved for women who seek abortion. PMID:2219228

  10. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  11. Abortion: Beyond Rhetoric to Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Ellen W.

    1976-01-01

    Legalized abortions are not equally available to all women in the United States. The author documents the discrimination in this area that exists against the poor and urges the social work profession to extend itself to remedy this inequality. (Author)

  12. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  13. "Conservative" views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Devine, P E

    1997-01-01

    The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position. PMID:12348327

  14. Abortion and America's ethical consciousness.

    PubMed

    Munday, R S

    1989-01-01

    America's practice of abortion is not merely a matter of medical technology but of a changing ethical consciousness. The continuing dispute over legalized abortion since the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade is a conflict between two historically different ethical views of human life. This survey shows the nature and history of this conflict and its implications for America's future. PMID:10294676

  15. Medical abortion: public health and private lives.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D A

    2000-08-01

    Induced abortion is a common event in the lives of women and their families. Statistics show that in the US nearly half of all women personally benefit from abortion; hence abortion is important from both a medical and a social standpoint. During the 1900s, anti-abortion laws were promulgated, subsequently resulting in the rise of maternal mortality due to complications from unsafe abortions. In the mid-1960s, state laws began to change to allow women access to safe abortions provided by licensed physicians. Since then, deaths from illegal abortions have decreased substantially. It is noted that legal abortion is one of the safest operations in contemporary medical practice, and its safety has improved through the years. Surgical skills have been enhanced and the technologies of suction curettage abortion and dilatation and evacuation introduced. In addition, abortion techniques using prostaglandin, mifepristone, methotrexate, and misoprostol have advanced. PMID:10944363

  16. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  17. The abortion debate in Australia.

    PubMed

    Read, Christine Margaret

    2006-09-01

    I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes. PMID:16969440

  18. Abortion mortality, United States, 1972 through 1987.

    PubMed

    Lawson, H W; Frye, A; Atrash, H K; Smith, J C; Shulman, H B; Ramick, M

    1994-11-01

    Abortion related mortality in the US between 1972 and 1987 amounted to 240 deaths from legal induced abortion and 88 deaths from illegal induced abortion in the US. The study aimed to describe risk factors for legal abortion related mortality based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention abortion surveillance data. Mortality decreased by 90% from 4.1 deaths/100,000 legal induced abortions in 1972 to 0.4/100,000 in 1987. Reporting which included demographic data on abortion mortality included 29 states between 1983 and 1987. Three time periods were compared: 1972-76, 1977-82, and 1983-87 for age groups under 19 years, 20-29 years, and over 30 years. There were 667 reported deaths during 1972-87, of which 240 were due to legally induced abortion, 88 due to illegal abortions, and 172 due to spontaneous abortions. The case fatality rate for legal abortions during 1972-87 was 1.3 deaths/100,000 legal abortions. Abortion mortality was 2.5 times higher for Black and minority women: 2.3/100,000 compared to 0.9/100,000 for White women. This risk was partially attributed to the greater proportion of later abortions for Black women, which declined over time as did abortion-related mortality. In the Poisson regression analysis, Black race remained a significant risk factor. The risk tripled for women aged over 40 years (3.1/100,000), particularly for those women with 3 or more prior births. The risk by age declined over time and was not a significant risk factor between 1983 and 1987. The highest risk was among women with abortions beyond 20 weeks of gestation (10.4/100,000). About 20% of legal abortion-related deaths were attributed to each of the following causes: infection, embolism, hemorrhage, and anesthesia complications (82% of the 240 reported deaths). Over time, the primary remaining risk between 1983 and 1987 was from general anesthesia. Future abortions should be performed with special attention to choosing and administering anesthesia and to having emergency equipment available for complications from anesthesia. PMID:7977548

  19. Induced abortion--a global health problem.

    PubMed

    Odlind, V

    1997-01-01

    Every year around 500,000 women are estimated to die from pregnancy-related causes, the majority in the developing world and many as a consequence of unsafe abortion. Around 25 per cent of maternal deaths in Asia and 30-50 per cent of maternal deaths in Africa and Latin America occur as a result of induced abortion. Data on abortion related maternal morbidity is less reliable than mortality but suggests that for every maternal death 10-15 women suffer significant pregnancy-related morbidity, i.e. infertility, genito-urinary problems and/or chronic pain. Induced abortion occurs in practically every society in the world but only 40 per cent of the women in the world live in countries where abortion is legally free. A permissive legislation is an important prerequisite for medically safe and early abortion. Oppositely, with a restrictive law, abortion is difficult to obtain, costly and possibly unsafe, in particular to the least affluent women in the society. Induced abortion in a developed country with legal and easy access to services is a safe procedure with hardly any mortality and very low morbidity. The best strategy to reduce the number of unsafe abortions is prevention of unwanted pregnancy. The consequences of unsafe abortion on women's health need to be acknowledged by everybody in the society in order to improve abortion care. It is necessary to adjust legal and other barriers to medically safe abortion in order to follow the declaration at the UN conference on population in Cairo, 1994, which stated that abortion, wherever legal, should be safe. It is also necessary to introduce preventive measures where abortions are performed, i.e. good and easily accessible family planning services. PMID:9225636

  20. Abortion: The Viewpoint of Potential Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamrick, Michael H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A college survey showed strong support by a majority for legalized abortion, governmental support of abortion and family planning services, voluntary sterilization, and sex education and birth control information and/or services in the schools. Important differences of opinion among subgroups were, however, indicated. (Author/MJB)

  1. Abortion: taking on the hard questions.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1999-01-01

    This article answers several questions relating to the moral issue of abortion, the value of life, and the rights of women. Women all over the world have been having abortions, legal or illegal, since time immemorial for reasons which are difficult to document. While legal and safe abortions do not compromise the physical and psychological health of the woman, more than ten thousand women suffer and die from complications of illegal abortions especially in countries where women are denied of their reproductive rights. Though abortion remained illegal in many countries such as Brazil and Latin America, legal restrictions do little to reduce the incidence of abortion. Meanwhile, the question on when the fetus has life is viewed differently by the scientific, medical, legal and religious communities. But even with the conviction that abortion involves taking the life of a person, it is indeed a responsibility to respect the views of other religions. Finally, although the decision to have abortion should belong to the couple, the last word should belong to the woman. PMID:12178909

  2. Induced abortion: a world review, 1990.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, S K

    1990-01-01

    The worldwide trend toward liberalization of abortion laws has continued in the last four years with changes in Canada, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Hungary, Romania, the Soviet Union and Vietnam. Forty percent of the world's population now lives in countries where induced abortion is permitted on request, and 25 percent lives where it is allowed only if the woman's life is in danger. In 1987, an estimated 26 to 31 million legal abortions and 10 to 22 million clandestine abortions were performed worldwide. Legal abortion rates ranged from a high of at least 112 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age in the Soviet Union to a low of five per 1,000 in the Netherlands. In recent years, abortion rates have been increasing in Czechoslovakia, England and Wales, New Zealand and Sweden and declining in China, France, Iceland, Italy, Japan and the Netherlands. In most Western European and English-speaking countries, about half of abortions are obtained by young, unmarried women seeking to delay a first birth, while in Eastern Europe and the developing countries, abortion is most common among married women with two or more children. Mortality from legal abortion averages 0.6 deaths per 100,000 procedures in developed countries with data. Abortion services are increasingly being provided outside of hospitals, and for those performed in hospitals, overnight stays are becoming less common. National health insurance covers abortions needed to preserve the health of a pregnant woman in all developed countries except the United States, where Medicaid and federal insurance programs do not cover abortion unless the woman's life is in danger. PMID:2347411

  3. Expectant Fathers, Abortion, and Embryos.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Dara E

    2015-01-01

    One thread of abortion criticism, arguing that gender equality requires that men be allowed to terminate legal parental status and obligations, has reinforced the stereotype of men as uninterested in fatherhood. As courts facing disputes over stored pre-embryos weigh the equities of allowing implantation of the pre-embryos, this same gender stereotype has been increasingly incorporated into a legal balancing test, leading to troubling implications for ART and family law. PMID:26242955

  4. Achieving transparency in implementing abortion laws.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Erdman, J N; Dickens, B M

    2007-11-01

    National and international courts and tribunals are increasingly ruling that although states may aim to deter unlawful abortion by criminal penalties, they bear a parallel duty to inform physicians and patients of when abortion is lawful. The fear is that women are unjustly denied safe medical procedures to which they are legally entitled, because without such information physicians are deterred from involvement. With particular attention to the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Human Rights Committee, the Constitutional Court of Colombia, the Northern Ireland Court of Appeal, and the US Supreme Court, decisions are explained that show the responsibility of states to make rights to legal abortion transparent. Litigants are persuading judges to apply rights to reproductive health and human rights to require states' explanations of when abortion is lawful, and governments are increasingly inspired to publicize regulations or guidelines on when abortion will attract neither police nor prosecutors' scrutiny. PMID:17889879

  5. Czechoslovakia 1991: abortion and contraception.

    PubMed

    Buresova, A

    1991-09-01

    In January 1958 the 1st abortion law was passed in Czechoslovakia. At that time it was a progressive law. However, as time went on and other European countries developed their own abortion policies, the law become more outdated. The main failing was that women were not in charge of the final abortion decision, it had to be made by a commission. As a result, a new law went into effect in January 1987 that was more liberal. This new law allowed abortion twice a year for free unless the woman was more than 8 weeks pregnant. Between 8 and 12 weeks there was a fee of 500 crowns. For women under 16 parental permission is required and for women 16-18 parents are notified after the procedure. After the law was passed there was an increase in reported numbers of abortions, but the figures are not very accurate because of unusual recording methods. Abortion (42-55 days) is contrasted with menstrual regulation (42 days) and the figure of 157,912 also includes extrauterine pregnancies. After the democratic reforms of November 1989, strong anti-choice groups began a campaign to end abortion. To date this has resulted in a Advisory Commission that is charged with the responsibility of looking at the abortion issue with the Federal Deputy Prime minister. The commission's recommendations were: 1) the situation is considered critical (that abortion is still allowed and government funded), 2) absolute prohibition of abortion is not recommended, 3) the majority of citizens should be able to adopt any legal measures, 4) abortion should not be government supported except to save the woman's life or in cases of sexual crimes, 5) the law should also serve an educational function, 6) artificial interruption of pregnancy should be renamed to artificial termination of pregnancy. Finally the commission recommended that longterm preventive measures should focus on education. Public opinion indicates that 61% of citizens recognize a woman's right to abortion, while only 4% favor absolute prohibition. Among women 18-39 93% support abortion rights. PMID:12284554

  6. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 613: Increasing access to abortion.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Safe, legal abortion is a necessary component of women's health care. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the availability of high-quality reproductive health services for all women and is committed to improving access to abortion. Access to abortion is threatened by state and federal government restrictions, limitations on public funding for abortion services and training, stigma, violence against abortion providers, and a dearth of abortion providers. Legislative restrictions fundamentally interfere with the patient-provider relationship and decrease access to abortion for all women, and particularly for low-income women and those living long distances from health care providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists calls for advocacy to oppose and overturn restrictions, improve access, and mainstream abortion as an integral component of women's health care. PMID:25437742

  7. [Scope of the indications for abortion].

    PubMed

    Martella, E

    1976-09-01

    Legalization of abortion in Italy generates never ending discussions. The problem should have been solved years ago with a national campaign for family planning, with the setting up of well organized family centers, and with contraception available and free to all. If it seems right and proper to perform abortion under certain circumstances, it does not seem proper to take into consideration socioeconomic conditions, and certainly not abortion on request; a new life must not be wasted because a woman does not feel like having a new child. Abortion, on the other hand, is certainly to be considered in case of danger for the mother, in case of fetal abnormalities, or when the pregnancy is result of incest or of rape. Abortion for psychological reasons is very valid if the reasons are real, evident, and have been thoroughly evaluated. PMID:1012595

  8. Physician provision of abortion before Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Joffe, C

    1991-01-01

    With the possibility of the Supreme Court overturning the landmark Roe v. Wade (1973) case legalizing abortion, a review of abortion practices pre-Roe is instructive. Abortion became criminalized in the US around 1870, yet many abortions were performed. While estimates for the yearly number of pre-Roe illegal abortions roughly resemble today's number of legal abortions, the difference between legal and illegal abortion rests in the difference between the large number of women who died or were injured then, and the very few women who now die from illegal abortions. Along with the self-induced abortion, different categories of providers performed illegal abortions: physicians, nonphysicians, nurses, midwives, and lay people; all with varying skill, experience, and motives. While there were "butchers" and sexual exploiters, there were also competent, beloved physicians. There were the financially motivated physicians providing abortions full time, and the occasional providers acting with a sense of conscience, risking successful practices and jail. Within this "conscience" group of 44 interviewees gathered through personal networks, ads, etc., abortions were: performed outside of hospitals, reducing the risk of discovery, but creating greater medical risks; begun outside of a hospital with the intrusion into the uterus of an object, provoking a "spontaneous abortion" (miscarriage) needing completion by D and C (dilation and curettage) within a hospital, but only a limited number of such patients could be referred before arousing suspicion; and in a hospital under disguised circumstances, a very tricky undertaking with severe limitations, available only a few times before risking detection. Avoidance and lack of training by today's physicians and the well organized antiabortion groups will undoubtedly make illegal abortions even more difficult to engage in than the pre-Roe days. PMID:12317573

  9. Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su’ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M. S. L.; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li

    2012-01-01

    Background Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students’ attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. Methods and Results A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students’ pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students’ attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. Conclusions Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights. PMID:23300600

  10. Early medical abortion in India: three studies and their implications for abortion services.

    PubMed

    Coyaji, K

    2000-01-01

    Although legal in India, abortion is frequently performed under unsafe or undesirable conditions. Moreover, the advancements required to make surgical abortion safe in India appear insurmountable in the near future. Because it requires a less extensive infrastructure than surgical abortion, medical abortion offers great potential for improving abortion access and safety now. To examine the feasibility of introducing medical abortion and to assess its potential as an alternative to surgical abortion, we conducted three separate studies on the use of 600 mg mifepristone and 400 micrograms oral misoprostol for medical abortion. Study 1 focused on the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of the standard French, three-visit protocol and was conducted in urban research centers in China, Cuba, and India. Study 2 liberalized the protocol to collect information from women using the method under more "real life" conditions in urban family planning clinics in India. Lastly, study 3 extended the trial to rural Indian villages to examine feasibility in settings typical of where the majority of the population resides. In all three settings in India mifepristone-misoprostol proved to be not only feasible, but safe and acceptable as well. With some changes to current protocols, medical abortion could now be safely phased into the existing health care infrastructure in India. Yet, medical abortion will bring its own set of service delivery challenges to address. PMID:10846337

  11. Abortion within and around the law in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Pheterson, Gail; Azize, Yamila

    2008-03-01

    Small island exigencies and a legacy of colonial jurisprudence set the stage for this three-year study in 2001-2003 of abortion practice on several islands of the northeast Caribbean: St. Martin, St. Maarten, Anguilla, Antigua and St Kitts. Based on in-depth interviews with 26 physicians, 16 of whom were performing abortions, it found that licensed physicians are routinely providing abortions in contravention of the law, and that those services, tolerated by governments and legitimised by European norms, are clearly the mainstay of abortion care on these islands. Medical abortion was being used both under medical supervision and through self-medication. Women travelled to find anonymous services, and also to access a particular method, provider or facility. Sometimes they settled for a less acceptable method if they could not afford a more comfortable one. Significantly, legality was not the main determinant of choice. Most abortion providers accepted the current situation as satisfactory. However, our findings suggest that restrictive laws were hindering access to services and compromising quality of care. Whereas doctors may have the liberty and knowledge to practise illegal abortions, women have no legal right to these services. Interviews suggest that an increasing number of women are self-inducing misoprostol abortions to avoid doctors, high fees and public stigma. The Caribbean Initiative on Abortion and Contraception is organising meetings, training providers and creating a public forum to advocate decriminalisation of abortion and enhance abortion care. PMID:18450240

  12. Abortion Law Around the World: Progress and Pushback

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is a global trend toward the liberalization of abortion laws driven by women’s rights, public health, and human rights advocates. This trend reflects the recognition of women’s access to legal abortion services as a matter of women’s rights and self-determination and an understanding of the dire public health implications of criminalizing abortion. Nonetheless, legal strategies to introduce barriers that impede access to legal abortion services, such as mandatory waiting periods, biased counseling requirements, and the unregulated practice of conscientious objection, are emerging in response to this trend. These barriers stigmatize and demean women and compromise their health. Public health evidence and human rights guarantees provide a compelling rationale for challenging abortion bans and these restrictions. PMID:23409915

  13. Medical abortion in primary care: pitfalls and benefits.

    PubMed

    Boersma, A A; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    2009-12-01

    We describe five pitfalls of medical abortion: ectopic pregnancy not terminated after misoprostol, but without negative side-effects; long-term vaginal blood loss with suspicious retained products which disappeared spontaneously; a patient with uterus myomatatosus with severe pain and retained products in the uterus; repetition of misoprostol because of retained products in the uterus after two weeks and an allergic reaction to methotrexate. Despite these pitfalls, there are enough benefits to consider medical abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol as a safe method with a high success rate of more than 91% and a good alternative for surgical abortion. An invasive procedure is not necessary, there are no long-term complications and it can be performed at an earlier stage, which makes it more acceptable in society. In Curaçao, where abortion is legally restricted, medical abortion is performed with methotrexate and misoprostol. In countries where abortion is legal, mifepristone and misoprostol are the first choice. PMID:20583695

  14. Decriminalization of abortion in Mexico City: the effects on women's reproductive rights.

    PubMed

    Becker, Davida; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    In April 2007, the Mexico City, Mexico, legislature passed landmark legislation decriminalizing elective abortion in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. In Mexico City, safe abortion services are now available to women through the Mexico City Ministry of Health's free public sector legal abortion program and in the private sector, and more than 89 000 legal abortions have been performed. By contrast, abortion has continued to be restricted across the Mexican states (each state makes its own abortion laws), and there has been an antichoice backlash against the legislation in 16 states. Mexico City's abortion legislation is an important first step in improving reproductive rights, but unsafe abortions will only be eliminated if similar abortion legislation is adopted across the entire country. PMID:23409907

  15. [Decriminalization of abortion: a common purpose in Latin America].

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    In the conviction that abortion is a fundamental right of women and that its illegal practice constitutes a serious threat to life, several Latin American women's groups have united to work for decriminalization. The groups have been attempting to increase public awareness of the consequences of illegal abortion. Official silence on the topic appears to deny the existence of a problem. Proposals in the different Latin American countries are adapted to their political and legal circumstances. In Argentina, a campaign has been underway for nearly two years to collect signatures for a petition for a law concerning contraception and abortion. The National Network for Women's Health and other groups have held regional and national workshops on the issue. In Bolivia, radio and television programs have been broadcast in Spanish and indigenous languages on the right to choose, reproductive health, and sex education. Abortion was debated in Brazil during the process of constitutional reform, but it remains illegal. Illegal abortion continues to be a reality and women's groups are lobbying for decriminalization. Abortion is considered a crime in Colombia's penal code. Attempts to legalize abortion have been rejected by the legislature without debate. The practice of abortion under the circumstances has become a lucrative business whose lack of regulation has resulted in a growing number of maternal deaths. Attempts are underway in Costa Rica to legalize abortion in cases of rape or incest. Studies show that illegal abortion is the third most important cause of maternal death. A bill to legalize abortion is under study in Chile's Parliament but has not been approved. Abortion is illegal but common in Ecuador. Efforts are underway in Mexico and Nicaragua to encourage debate on abortion. Peru's Health Commission was recently prevented from classifying abortion for any reason other than grave congenital anomaly as homicide. Abortion has been legal in Puerto Rico since 1974, but amendments and laws to limit this right are under study. A bill to legalize abortion is under study in Venezuela and is being promoted by feminist groups. PMID:12287891

  16. The Roman Catholic position on abortion.

    PubMed

    Barry, R

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the history and grounds of the official position of the Roman Catholic Church that abortion under any circumstances, including abortion to save the life of the mother, should be prohibited. After an introduction that deplores the lack of mercy shown to killers of abortionists while Catholic priests threatened by pro-abortion forces are not offered protection, the article traces the historic development of the Catholic abortion policy and rebuts arguments that abortion was permitted in the early Christian Church. The next section explains Catholic views on the personhood of a conceptus and refutes the contentions of Joseph Donceel that early abortion should be permitted because of uncertainty about the nature of the conceptus and the possibility of delayed animation. The fourth section of the paper debates the points raised by Susan Teft Nicholson who maintains that the Catholic position regarding abortion rests on the Church's animosity towards sexual pleasure. The paper goes on to criticize Nicholson's claims that the Roman Catholic position on abortion is inconsistent with the Church's own understanding of the Principle of Double Effect because the Church fails to allow abortion in many cases where it would be permissible under the Principle. Section 6 describes the underlying motive of the Roman Catholic Church's abortion position as an attempt to protect the innocent fetus from deliberate death and to justify the Church's application of protection from deliberate killing to those who are innocent of aggressive action. This discussion is followed by a justification of the Church's prohibition of abortion in cases of aggression, such as the aggression ascribed to a fetus when a pregnancy imperials the life of a mother. It is concluded that the US will likely legalize suicide and mercy killing as it has the killing of innocent fetuses who are probably ensouled with personhood and are not formal aggressors. PMID:12348326

  17. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion. PMID:26480889

  18. Understanding abortion via different scholarly methodologies: book review essay.

    PubMed

    Erde, Edmund L

    1986-01-01

    Erde review three works that in his opinion have made important contributions to the abortion debate: Abortion Policy: An Evaluation of the Consequences For Maternal and Infant Health, by Jerome S. Legge, Jr. (Albany: State University of New York Press; 1985); Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood, by Kristen Luker (Berkeley: University of California Press; 1984); and Abortion: Moral and Legal Perspective, edited by J.L. Garfield and P. Hennessey (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press; 1984). A later issue of the Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics will carry Erde's review of two additional scholarly books on abortion: Abortion: Understanding the Differences, edited by Sidney Callahan and Daniel Callahan (New York: Plenum Press; 1984), and Abortion and the Status of the Fetus, edited by William B. Bondeson, H.T. Engelhardt, Jr., S.F. Spicker, and D.H. Winship (Boston: D. Reidel; 1983). PMID:11655806

  19. Protest Motherhood: Pregnancy Decision-Making Behavior and Attitudes Towards Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesney-Lind, Meda

    The document describes research on womens' attitudes toward abortion and their decision-making when pregnant leading to either birth or abortion. The objective was "to explore how womens' perceptions of the option of legal abortion have affected their pregnancy decision-making behavior" and to note the impact of their particular choices on their…

  20. Roe v. Wade. On abortion.

    PubMed

    French, M

    1998-01-01

    In ancient Assyria, fathers held the right of life or death over their newborn infants, but women found to have performed an abortion on themselves or others were impaled and denied burial. This punishment was otherwise reserved for crimes against the state such as high treason or assault on the king. Likewise, in Babylon if a wife arranged her husband's death so that she could marry another man, she was convicted of treason and impaled or crucified. Thus, ancient thought paralleled the husband-wife relationship with that of the state-subject. The small group of men who generally dominate institutions such as the state, the church, or a corporation have a primary demand for obedience and deference to their supreme authority from their underlings. These groups did not condemn abortion because it involved questions of life or death. After all, many states have permitted infanticide, many still sanction execution, and all are willing to sacrifice the lives of their soldiers in war. Patriarchs condemn abortion because they consider it treasonous for a woman to assert the right to use her own judgement and to treat her body as if it were her own and not the property of her husband. This denies the supremacy of the male, which is the first principle of patriarchs. Because patriarchal institutions depend upon the subjection of women, women's bodies become important markers in the struggle for human freedom. This explains why patriarchal institutions in the US have continuously attacked women's right to abortion by fragmenting the statute allowing abortion and attempting to render the fragments illegal. While US women have won other rights that can be protected legally, women require the right to abortion in order to possess the right to physical integrity and to be able to undo what men have done to them. Otherwise, men would be able to create a set-back in women's human rights by forcing women into motherhood. PMID:12178880

  1. Perceptions of misoprostol among providers and women seeking post-abortion care in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Maternowska, M Catherine; Mashu, Alexio; Moyo, Precious; Withers, Mellissa; Chipato, Tsungai

    2015-02-01

    In Zimbabwe, abortions are legally restricted and complications from unsafe abortions are a major public health concern. This study in 2012 explored women's and providers' perspectives in Zimbabwe on the acceptability of the use of misoprostol as a form of treatment for complications of abortion in post-abortion care. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 participants at seven post-abortion care facilities. Participants included 73 women of reproductive age who received services for incomplete abortion and 42 providers, including physicians, nurses, midwives, general practitioners and casualty staff. Only 29 providers had previously used misoprostol with their own patients, and only 21 had received any formal training in its use. Nearly all women and providers preferred misoprostol to surgical abortion methods because it was perceived as less invasive, safer and more affordable. Women also generally preferred the non-surgical method, when given the option, as fears around surgery and risk were high. Most providers favoured removing legal restrictions on abortion, particularly medical abortion. Approving use of misoprostol for post-abortion care in Zimbabwe is important in order to reduce unsafe abortion and its related sequelae. Legal, policy and practice reforms must be accompanied by effective reproductive health curricula updates in medical, nursing and midwifery schools, as well as through updated training for current and potential providers of post-abortion care services nationwide. Our findings support the use of misoprostol in national post-abortion care programmes, as it is an acceptable and potentially life-saving treatment option. PMID:25702065

  2. Space Shuttle ascent aborts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidgall, Richard A.

    1989-09-01

    Specific guidance functions and trajectory design of return to launch site (RTLS) and transoceanic abort landing (TAL) intact abort profiles, as well as the increasing emphasis on contingency aborts, are presented. Various systems failures including Space Shuttle main engine failures and detailed technical analyses, including the design of powered flight abort trajectories, are considered. The most critical of flight abort situations is the RTLS, while TAL is the preferred abort when uphill capability is no longer available. It is concluded that one principle must remain to ensure continuing success of Space Shuttle flights: namely that intact and contingency aborts necessitate development to ensure safe return of the vehicle, payload, and crew whenever possible.

  3. Psychological Factors That Predict Reaction to Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, D. T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated demographic and psychological factors related to reactions to legal abortions in 62 females in an urban southern community. Results suggest that the social context and the degree of support from a series of significant persons rather than demographic variables were most predictive of a positive reaction. (Author)

  4. Shifts in Abortion Attitudes: 1972-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebaugh, Helen Rose Fuchs; Haney, C. Allen

    1980-01-01

    While there has been an increasing liberalization of attitudes toward legalized abortion in the past 15 years, by 1975 the trend began to change and attitudes became slightly more conservative. By 1978, the conservative trend was pronounced. These changes are a function of selected demographic variables. (Author)

  5. Women and abortion: a phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Hill, R P; Patterson, M J; Maloy, K

    1994-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of abortion law in the US and reports some findings from a study of individual abortion and birth decisions among 92 pregnant mothers. It is argued that a "wide gap exists between the language of public debate and private decision making." Private decision making involves a moral standard that is absent from the public debate. Social adjustment to a birth or abortion outcome was better among women who made their own decisions and retained their right to choose during the decision-making process. Women in the study reported that they experienced some conflict during the decision-making process. The feeling of lack of choice or that partners or health officials were making the decision for them exacerbated women's conflicting emotional responses. Women who chose abortion desired a return to their original emotional state. Women who experienced more conflict during decision making experienced greater difficulty during the abortion procedure or had a negative reaction to the abortion procedure. Poor or neglectful abortion treatment was related to both physical and emotional negative reactions during the procedure. Good treatment led to positive experiences. Long-term negative reactions tended to occur among women who had poor treatment during illegal abortions, conflict over the meaning of abortion, bonding with the fetus prior to abortion, and ambivalence about the degree to which the pregnancy was desired. Postabortion social support was less important in reducing postabortion trauma than women's sense of their right to choose. Unfortunately, the legal debate focuses only two positions, pro-life or pro-choice. PMID:12291499

  6. Adolescent knowledge and attitudes about abortion.

    PubMed

    Stone, R; Waszak, C

    1992-01-01

    A focus-group study of adolescents from cities across the United States revealed that they lacked accurate knowledge about abortion and the laws governing it. Most expressed erroneous beliefs about abortion, describing it as medically dangerous, emotionally damaging and widely illegal. The study also revealed that antiabortion views, conservative morality and religious beliefs were the primary sources of these adolescents' attitudes toward abortion. In general, the participants in the study said they were personally opposed to abortion, but supported its continued legality as a woman's choice. Although most of the teenagers expressed positive feelings toward parents, they did not feel that mandatory parental involvement would be helpful, and in some cases could cause harm. PMID:1612143

  7. International developments in abortion law from 1988 to 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M; Bliss, L E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In 2 successive decades since 1967, legal accommodation of abortion has grown in many countries. The objective of this study was to assess whether liberalizing trends have been maintained in the last decade and whether increased protection of women's human rights has influenced legal reform. METHODS: A worldwide review was conducted of legislation and judicial rulings affecting abortion, and legal reforms were measured against governmental commitments made under international human rights treaties and at United Nations conferences. RESULTS: Since 1987, 26 jurisdictions have extended grounds for lawful abortion, and 4 countries have restricted grounds. Additional limits on access to legal abortion services include restrictions on funding of services, mandatory counseling and reflection delay requirements, third-party authorizations, and blockades of abortion clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive liberalization has moved abortion laws from a focus on punishment toward concern with women's health and welfare and with their human rights. However, widespread maternal mortality and morbidity show that reform must be accompanied by accessible abortion services and improved contraceptive care and information. PMID:10191808

  8. Public health and social injustice are the key issues for the decriminalization of abortion in Mexico.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Although the Second National Abortion Survey Gallup found that 88% of Mexicans believe abortion should be a woman's choice and 77% think the decriminalization of abortion would substantially reduce maternal mortality, abortion in Mexico remains governed by a 1931 criminal code. The survey was initiated by the Information and Reproductive Choice Group to provide information for the 1994 national debate on abortion. Supporters of legal abortion note that poor women resort to unsafe pregnancy terminations without regard to the criminal status of abortion. According to Patricia Mercado, co-founder of the Reproductive Choice Group, "You can be against abortion, but still allow it to be decriminalized. In other words, criminalization does not prevent women from having abortions, it only makes then have then in bad conditions. The idea is that women should be able to decide freely without risking problems of health and social justice." Despite public support for abortion legalization, survey results indicate widespread fear about acknowledging the existence of clandestine abortion. An estimated 1-2 million illegal abortions occur each year in Mexico, yet only 26% of survey respondents would admit to knowing a woman who had undergone illegal abortion. PMID:12318721

  9. Recent developments in abortion law in industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Boland, R

    1990-01-01

    An effort to bring new insights into the US abortion debate, this article reviews recent legal developments concerning abortion in 7 other industrialized countries. In addition to the US, the author examines developments in Canada, England, Ireland, France, Belgium, Romania, and Bulgaria. In the US, the Supreme Court has become the battleground for an increasingly bitter abortion debate. The 1989 ruling in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services has setback the 1973 Roe v. Wade ruling which guaranteed a woman's right to an abortion. Although the Webster did not overturn Roe, it did significantly weaken the trimester approach to abortion regulation and open the door to further restrictions. In Canada, however, the court has overturned a previously burdensome abortion law. The abortion debate in England has centered around the standard that says that an abortion may not take place when the fetus is "capable of being born alive." Conforming to present scientific knowledge, English law now allows abortions on demand during the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy -- bringing England closer to the practice of other European countries. Belgium has also recently approved of unimpeded abortions during the 1st 12 weeks. In France, the governments has ordered the manufacturer of RU486 to make the abortifacient available to French women. Ireland, however, remains the only industrialized country in the world where abortion is still illegal. The cases of Bulgaria and Romania show what can happen when abortion becomes the pawn of social policy and ideology. Romania is the extreme case. Prior to his downfall in 1989, President Ceaucescu had instituted one of the most restrictive abortion laws as part of a pronatalist policy. This resulted in widespread misery for women and created a great number of unwanted children, which the author warns is the result of restrictive abortions laws. PMID:2089193

  10. Abortions: A National Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses general attitudes towards unwanted pregnancies and abortions, the methods that students have resorted to in order to abort themselves, and the mental state of college women, who become pregnant with children they don't want. (RK)

  11. Delivering Medical Abortion at Scale: A Study of the Retail Market for Medical Abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Acharya, Rajib; Filippi, Veronique; Ronsmans, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical abortion (mifepristone and misoprostol) has the potential to contribute to reduced maternal mortality but little is known about the provision or quality of advice for medical abortion through the private retail sector. We examined the availability of medical abortion and the practices of pharmacists in India, where abortion has been legal since 1972. Methods We interviewed 591 pharmacists in 60 local markets in city, town and rural areas of Madhya Pradesh. One month later, we returned to 359 pharmacists with undercover patients who presented themselves unannounced as genuine customers seeking a medical abortion. Results Medical abortion was offered to undercover patients by 256 (71.3%) pharmacists and 24 different brands were identified. Two thirds (68.5%) of pharmacists stated that abortion was illegal in India. Only 106 (38.5%) pharmacists asked clients the timing of the last menstrual period and 38 (13.8%) requested to see a doctor’s prescription – a legal requirement in India. Only 59 (21.5%) pharmacists correctly advised patients on the gestational limit for medical abortion, 97 (35.3%) provided correct information on how many and when to take the tablets in a combination pack, and 78 (28.4%) gave accurate advice on where to seek care in case of complications. Advice on post-abortion family planning was almost nonexistent. Conclusions The retail market for medical abortion is extensive, but the quality of advice given to patients is poor. Although the contribution of medical abortion to women’s health in India is poorly understood, there is an urgent need to improve the practices of pharmacists selling medical abortion. PMID:25822656

  12. Ambivalence among women applying for abortion.

    PubMed

    Husfeldt, C; Hansen, S K; Lyngberg, A; Nøddebo, M; Petersson, B

    1995-11-01

    A survey of 339 Danish abortion seekers, conducted 2 days before the procedure, indicated that ambivalence is a widespread phenomenon. 103 (30%) women revealed, in a self-administered questionnaire, that they were still in doubt as to whether abortion was the right decision for them. These women did not differ from their non-ambivalent counterparts in terms of age, parity, or marital status. Whereas non-ambivalent women were most likely to cite "enough children" as the main reason for pregnancy termination, ambivalent subjects identified personal finances, occupational/educational concerns, and social pressure. Notable was the finding that, before the index pregnancy, only 23% of the ambivalent subjects compared to 73% of non-ambivalent women thought they would choose abortion in the event of an unplanned pregnancy. Only 70% of male partners in the ambivalent group compared to 82% in the non-ambivalent group agreed to abortion; moreover, the decision to terminate the pregnancy was made by the male partner in 16% of cases in the former group compared to only 1% in the latter group. Finally, 36% of the ambivalent women felt they had not received adequate information from their physician about their legal rights should they choose to continue with the pregnancy, and 47% indicated they would have changed their decision given different personal circumstances, including partner support or improved socioeconomic conditions. Counseling of abortion seekers is essential to reduce the element of doubt in the decision making process and mitigate post-abortion depression and regret. PMID:8533566

  13. Abortion among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  14. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastián; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C

    2012-01-01

    In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required. PMID:23271925

  15. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases.

    PubMed

    Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastián; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C

    2012-01-01

    In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required. PMID:23271925

  16. Abortion and women's rights in Poland, 1994.

    PubMed

    David, H P; Titkow, A

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, a restrictive abortion law was enacted in Poland. The law allows abortion in public hospitals when 3 physicians certify that the life or health of the woman is at stake, the fetus has a serious and irreversible malformation (supported by prenatal tests in cases of known history of genetic conditions), or a public prosecutor formally proves that a criminal act (i.e., rape or incest) caused the pregnancy. Physicians who perform illegal abortions can be imprisoned up to 2 years and, in cases where the woman dies from complications, up to 10 years. The law calls for the government to offer sex education and to guarantee access to contraceptives nationwide, to which the Catholic Bishops object. Schools have yet to implement sex education. Interviews show that much political and governmental instability exists in Poland. Politicians tend to be passive to prevent political conflict and reduce tensions with the Catholic Church. Women who have enough money and have an unwanted pregnancy can still obtain an abortion within Poland or across the border. Infanticide and infant abandonment are increasing. Illegal adoption is occurring. No one has been arrested for performing clandestine abortions. Young, poor, and rural women are confused and anxious. Many physicians fear referring women for legal abortions. Some hospitals refuse to allow any abortion. Poland is still a patriarchal, conservative country. Most women who use birth control use the rhythm method and withdrawal. Counseling centers are closing. Public educational resources are scarce. Recorded miscarriages have risen from 51,802 in 1992 to 53,027 in 1993. The Ministries of Health and Justice object to the new law. In 1994, the president vetoed a law that would have allowed abortions on social grounds. The birth rate fell from 13.4 to 12.8 births/1000 between 1992 and 1993. The public now ranks the Church behind the military, the police, and the government ombudsman in public trust. PMID:7985218

  17. Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity." PMID:12178893

  18. Abortion and fertility regulation.

    PubMed

    Kulczycki, A; Potts, M; Rosenfield, A

    1996-06-15

    To achieve their desired fertility, women use a combination of contraception and abortion, and some societies also place constraints on marriage and sexual activity. The degree to which these means are adopted varies considerably, but for the foreseeable future abortion will remain an important element of fertility regulation. Globally, complications of unsafe abortion affect hundreds of thousands of women each year, and account for as many as 100,000 deaths annually (about two in ten maternal deaths), mainly in poor countries, where abortion typically remains illegal. Access to safe abortion is both essential and technically feasible and should be provided in combination with good quality family planning services. PMID:8642962

  19. Ugandan opinion-leaders' knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ann M; Kibombo, Richard; Cats-Baril, Deva

    2014-10-01

    While laws in Uganda surrounding abortion remain contradictory, a frequent interpretation of the law is that abortion is only allowed to save the woman's life. Nevertheless abortion occurs frequently under unsafe conditions at a rate of 54 abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age annually, taking a large toll on women's health. There are an estimated 148,500 women in Uganda who experience abortion complications annually. Understanding opinion leaders' knowledge and perceptions about unsafe abortion is critical to identifying ways to address this public health issue. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 41 policy-makers, cultural leaders, local politicians and leaders within the health care sector in 2009-10 at the national as well as district (Bushenyi, Kamuli and Lira) level to explore their knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion and the potential for policy to address this issue. Only half of the sample knew the current law regulating abortion in Uganda. Respondents understood that the result of the current abortion restrictions included long-term health complications, unwanted children and maternal death. Perceived consequences of increasing access to safe abortion included improved health as well as overuse of abortion, marital conflict and less reliance on preventive behaviour. Opinion leaders expressed the most support for legalization of abortion in cases of rape when the perpetrator was unknown. Understanding opinion leaders' perspectives on this politically sensitive topic provides insight into the policy context of abortion laws, drivers behind maintaining the status quo, and ways to improve provision under the law: increase education among providers and opinion leaders. PMID:24064047

  20. Interrogating medical tourism: Ireland, abortion, and mobility rights.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Mary; White, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Medical tourism in Ireland, like in many Western states, is built around assumptions about individual agency, choice, possibility, and mobility. One specific form of medical tourism—the flow of women from Ireland traveling in order to secure an abortion—disrupts and contradicts these assumptions. One legacy of the bitter, contentious political and legal battles surrounding abortion in Ireland in the 1980s and 1990s has been securing the right of mobility for all pregnant Irish citizens to cross international borders to secure an abortion. However, these mobility rights are contingent upon nationality, social class, and race, and they have enabled successive Irish governments to avoid any responsibility for providing safe, legal, and affordable abortion services in Ireland. Nearly twenty years after the X case discussed here, the pregnant female body moving over international borders—entering and leaving the state—is still interpreted as problematic and threatening to the Irish state. PMID:21114071

  1. Increase in obstacles to abortion: the American perspective in 2004.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the barriers to abortion in the United States, including the determination of viability, cost and insurance coverage, waiting periods and parental consent laws, restrictions on medical abortion, provider unavailability, harassment, targeted regulation of abortion providers laws, refusal clauses, anti choice laws, and the fetal legal rights movement. Federally subsidized abstinence-only sex education, which has not been shown to decrease the rate of unintended pregnancy (and may increase it), has expanded and access to a full range of contraceptive options has been limited. The policies of the current and past administrations have strengthened barriers to abortion both at home and abroad. Preserving women's right to choose will require improved public and professional education, legislative and legal efforts, and advocacy by physicians and other health care professionals. PMID:16845763

  2. Conscientious objection and abortion: rights and duties of public sector physicians.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2011-10-01

    The paper analyzes conscientious objection by physicians, through the concrete situation of legal abortion in Brazil. It reviews the two main ethical frameworks about conscientious objection in public health, the incompatibility thesis and the integrity thesis, to analyze the reality of legal abortion services in the referral services of the Brazilian public health care system. From these two perspectives, a third perspective is proposed - the justification thesis, to manage the right to conscientious objection among physicians in referral services. This analysis may contribute to the organization of services for legal abortion and to the education of future physicians working in emergency obstetric care. PMID:21808831

  3. Access to abortion services: abortions performed by mid-level practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, E A

    1993-01-01

    Because the number of physicians available to perform abortions in the US is dwindling, certified nurse-midwives, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants should be trained and permitted to perform abortions. Roadblocks to this change are the fact that the Supreme Court would likely allow states to prevent mid-level practitioners from performing abortions in the name of protecting the health of the mother. Also, existing statutes would probably not be interpreted by courts to allow mid-level practitioners to perform abortions. However, physician assistants have been performing abortions in Vermont since 1975, and a 1981-82 comparative study affirmed that physician assistants are well-equipped to perform abortions (of 2458 procedures, the complication rate/1000 was 27.4 for physician assistants and 30.8 for physicians). However, controversy surrounds the provision of abortion by these physician assistants in Vermont, since the relevant statute suggests that abortion is illegal unless performed by a physician. However, the statute has not been changed since Roe vs. Wade and is likely unconstitutional. Court cases in Missouri and Tennessee suggest that courts may be willing to include abortion within the scope of progressive nursing practice acts, but a recent similar case in Massachusetts resulted in a narrow interpretation of nursing practice statutes. Because the definition of professional nursing varies with each state statute, it will be a formidable task to convince every jurisdiction to include abortion as a permissible mid-level practice. Even in Vermont, the nursing practice statute defines in an exclusive list what services the professional nurse may perform (whereas the physician assistant regulations limit their scope of practice only to that delegated by a supervising physician). States could, of course, pass statutes which include abortion as a permissible practice for the mid-level practitioner. However, specific legislation would provide a clear target for anti-choice forces and legal challenges. Other practical problems include a possible uproar in the medical community where obstetrical/gynecology specialists already oppose allowing nurse practitioners to provide routine gynecologic services. Also, if mid-level practitioners were allowed to perform abortions, physicians may abandon the practice altogether. However, given the present state of affairs, this may be the only practical starting point for approaching the crisis caused by the scarcity of abortion providers. PMID:8118134

  4. The abortion debate: can this chronic public illness be cured?

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1992-12-01

    Abortion has provided one of the most noxious, disturbing, and unending of all American moral and legal struggles. The issue forces us to think about the most difficult kind of ethical issues, e.g., the moral status of the fetus and the meaning of human "life" and "personhood." The win-at-all-costs attitude among the leading advocacy groups has created gross stereotypes. While most arguments heard today were also heard prior to the Roe vs. Wade decision, the tone has radically changed. Better organization has meant hotter rhetoric and a nastier public style. We need to move the abortion debate along; it is now as stagnate as it is nasty. We need creative discussion and realistic compromise. The pre-Roe arguments in favor of choice have changed. Then, the movement to legalize abortion rested on the following: 1) illegal abortions were killing and maiming women; 2) women should have a backup to ineffective contraception; 3) the number of unwanted pregnancies should be reduced; only wanted children should be born, as a matter of child welfare; 4) women should have the right to make the abortion decision; 5) everything possible should be done to change the economic and domestic circumstances forcing women into unwanted pregnancies. The argument benefited women, children, and society. The many abortion myths that have since taken prominence cloud an already difficult issue. The ongoing tension rests with the conflict between the moral and legal issues. Is it possible to combine legal freedom and seriousness about the moral questions? Only if we recognize the equality of both positions' moral traditions, accept public discussion, the need for compromise, the need to do everything possible to change the economic and social circumstance leading to the abortion choice, and the need for meaningful counseling of women considering abortion. PMID:1451361

  5. Supporting the significant other in women undergoing abortion.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Allyson

    Abortion remains an ethical, legal and professional challenge to nurses. In the last decade there have been many innovations in abortion care and nurses have developed woman-centred, responsive services. Despite this progress, the needs of significant others - particularly partners attending with women - have yet to be fully met. A significant other is encouraged to stay with the woman during certain parts of the procedure if it is a surgical abortion, or may remain with the woman continuously during a medical abortion. There are benefits in encouraging significant others to stay with the woman, including the provision of additional support during the procedure as well as health promotion opportunities. The nurse has a vital function in assisting them in their role, as it is essential that significant others are adequately prepared and supported throughout. Providing they are managed proactively, involving significant others in supporting the woman undergoing abortion is commended. PMID:18974693

  6. Abortion practice in the northeast Caribbean: "Just write down stomach pain".

    PubMed

    Pheterson, Gail; Azize, Yamila

    2005-11-01

    Small island exigencies and a legacy of colonial jurisprudence set the stage for this three-year study in 2001-2003 of abortion practice on several islands of the northeast Caribbean: Anguilla, Antigua, St Kitts, St Martin and Sint Maarten. Based on in-depth interviews with 26 physicians, 16 of whom were performing abortions, it found that licensed physicians are routinely providing abortions in contravention of the law, and that those services, tolerated by governments and legitimised by European norms, are clearly the mainstay of abortion care on these islands. Medical abortion was being used both under medical supervision and through self-medication. Women travelled to find anonymous services, and also to access a particular method, provider or facility. Sometimes they settled for a less acceptable method if they could not afford a more comfortable one. Significantly, legality was not the main determinant of choice. Most abortion providers accepted the current situation as satisfactory. However, our findings suggest that restrictive laws were hindering access to services and compromising quality of care. Whereas doctors may have the liberty and knowledge to practise illegal abortions, women have no legal right to these services. Interviews suggest that an increasing number of women are self-inducing abortions with misoprostol to avoid doctors, high fees and public stigma. The Caribbean Initiative on Abortion and Contraception is organising meetings, training providers and creating a public forum to advocate decriminalisation of abortion and enhance abortion care. PMID:16291485

  7. Fertility Effects of Abortion and Birth Control Pill Access for Minors

    PubMed Central

    GULDI, MELANIE

    2008-01-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors’ fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors’ access to abortion and minors’ birthrates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment—including abortion—in some states but not in others, and to construct abortion access variables reflecting this. In this article, age-specific policy variables measure either a minor’s legal ability to obtain an abortion or to obtain the birth control pill without parental involvement. I find fairly strong evidence that young women’s birthrates dropped as a result of abortion access as well as evidence that birth control pill access led to a drop in birthrates among whites. PMID:19110899

  8. The Effect of Anti-Abortion Legislation on Nineteenth Century Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Joanna N.

    2014-01-01

    Using nineteenth century legal information combined with census information, I examine the effect of state laws that restricted American women's access to abortion on the ratio of children to women. I estimate an increase in the birthrate of 4 % to 12 % when abortion is restricted. In the absence of anti-abortion laws, fertility would have been 5 % to 12 % lower in the early twentieth century. PMID:24691632

  9. Supreme Court Rulings on Abortion: Roe v. Wade and Selected Progeny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    2006-01-01

    Abortion is one of the most controversial and contentious issues of our time. Few topics generate as much public debate or leave as little room for political compromise. This article presents a discussion of selected United States Supreme Court decisions on abortion and the legal reasoning supporting those decisions. It should be noted initially…

  10. Abortion in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  11. Post-abortion mania.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Verinder; Sommerdyk, Christina; Sharma, Sapna

    2013-04-01

    We describe case histories of three women with post-abortion mania, including two women who underwent a change in diagnosis from bipolar II to bipolar I disorder and another woman who had no prior history of psychiatric disturbance. It is argued that the study of post-abortion mania should provide an opportunity to better understand the aetiology of puerperal mania. PMID:23381493

  12. Misoprostol and illegal abortion in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coêlho, H L; Teixeira, A C; Santos, A P; Forte, E B; Morais, S M; La Vecchia, C; Tognoni, G; Herxheimer, A

    1993-05-15

    Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue indicated for ulcer treatment, has been widely used as an abortifacient by women in Brazil, where abortion is legal only in cases of rape or incest, or to save the woman's life. Because misoprostol is an inefficient abortifacient, many women who use it have incomplete abortions and need uterine evacuation. We reviewed the records of women admitted to the main obstetric hospital of Fortaleza, capital of Ceará state, Brazil, between January, 1990, and July, 1992, for uterine evacuation after induced abortion. The number of incomplete abortions induced by misoprostol increased substantially during the first half of 1990, and declined thereafter. Of the 593 cases in 1991, 75% were related to misoprostol, 10% to the use of other specified drugs, and 6% to unspecified drugs. For the remaining 9% the procedure used was not recorded; these included 3% in whom abortion had been induced by a clandestine abortionist. The number of uterine evacuations per month fell from 89 in August, 1990, to 62 in July, 1991, when sales of misoprostol in Ceará state were suspended. The fall continued after the sale of misoprostol ceased, to about 20 cases in December, 1991; numbers remained around this level until June, 1992, sustained by clandestine sales. The lack of access to contraception is the main reason for the large numbers of unplanned pregnancies and is a major public health issue for Brazilian women. The prohibition of abortion creates a void in which misuse of medicines is one extra complication, mainly because of the poor control of drug marketing. PMID:8098403

  13. Abortion policy and women's health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Mueller, R

    1990-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost half a million women in developing countries die in pregnancy and childbirth every year. Unsafe induced abortion is responsible for perhaps one-quarter of these deaths. In this article, the author reviews the legal, medical, and social contexts in which women in developing countries resort to clandestine abortion. Despite intensified international concern with reducing high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity, national policy makers and participants at international conferences on maternal health--with a few important exceptions--have not recommended that safe, legal services for terminating unwanted pregnancies be offered as an essential element of basic reproductive health care. United States international policy on funding abortion-related activities in maternal health and family planning programs is especially restrictive. A new policy approach is clearly needed if unacceptably high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality in many countries are to be reduced. PMID:2332264

  14. Contesting the cruel treatment of abortion-seeking women.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    This article draws on legal arguments made by civil society organisations to challenge the legal reasoning that apparently produced the decision in the Ms Y case in Ireland in August 2014. I show how legal standards of reasonableness and practicality ought to be interpreted in ways that are respectful of the patient's wishes and rights. The case concerned a decision by the Health Service Executive, the Irish public health authority, to refuse an abortion to a pregnant asylum seeker and rape survivor on the grounds that a caesarean section and early live delivery were practicable and reasonable alternatives justified by the need to protect fetal life. I argue that the abortion refusal may not have been a reasonable decision, as required by the terms of relevant legislation, for four different reasons. First, the alternative of a caesarean section and early live delivery was not likely to avert the risk of suicide, and in fact did not do so. Second, the consent to the caesarean section alternative may not have been a real consent in the legal sense if it was not voluntary. Third, an abortion refusal and forcible treatment fall below the norms of good medical practice as interpreted through a patient-centred perspective. Fourth, an abortion refusal that entails forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment ought not to be a reasonable action under the legislation. PMID:25555759

  15. [Sexual violence in Congo-Kinshasa: necessity of decriminalizing abortion].

    PubMed

    Kalonda, J C Omba

    2012-01-01

    The sexual violence's committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are from their scales and consequences on women, real public health, politico-legal, and socio-economical challenges. More than a million of women have been victims of sexual violence on a period of less than fifteen years. Systematic rapes of women were used as war weapon by different groups involved in the Congolese war. Sexual violence against women has impacted public health by spreading sexually transmissible diseases including HIV/AIDS, causing unwanted pregnancies, leading to the gynaecological complications of rape-related injuries, and inflicting psychological trauma on the victims. Despite high level of unwanted pregnancies observed, the Congolese law is very restrictive and interdict induced abortion. This paper presents three arguments which plead in favour of legalizing abortion in DRC: 1) a restrictive law on abortion forces women to use unsafe abortion and increase incidence of injuries and maternal mortality ; 2) DRC has ratified the universal Declaration of human rights, the African union charter, and has than to promote equality between sexes, in this is included women reproductive rights; 3) an unwanted birth is an additional financial charge for a woman, a factor increasing poverty and psychologically unacceptable in case of rape. From the politico-legal point of view, ending rape impunity and decriminalizing abortion are recommended. Decriminalizing abortion give women choice and save victims and pregnant women from risks related to the pregnancy, a childbirth, or an eventual unsafe abortion. These risks increase the maternal mortality already high in DRC (between 950 and 3000 for 100000 live births). PMID:23167138

  16. The difficult issue of second-trimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A

    1994-08-01

    In the US, 10.2% of legal abortions are performed at 13-20 weeks and an additional 1% occur at 21 weeks gestation or beyond. These second-trimester abortions account for about 140,000 procedures per year. Dilatation and evacuation; instillation of saline, urea, or medication into the amniotic cavity; and intravenous prostaglandin administration are the approaches available for these procedures. At present, intravaginal prostaglandin E is the most commonly used mid-trimester abortion method; new research suggests that intravaginal misoprostol may confer advantages. Since teenagers are the population group most likely to delay abortion until the second trimester, priority should be given to making abortion services more accessible and removing requirements such as parental consent. Most beneficial would be a preventive approach that decreases the number of unintended pregnancies among adolescents through school-based sex education programs and access to free, effective contraceptive methods. Problematic is the reluctance on the part of many obstetricians and gynecologists to perform abortions due to a lack of technical training or moral objections. These practitioners should be mandated to fulfill their obligation to meet the needs of their patients, regardless of their personal views on the abortion issues. PMID:8022446

  17. 78,000 women die each year from unsafe abortions worldwide. It is estimated that there are 20 million unsafe abortions per year on a global basis.

    PubMed

    Becker, B

    1999-03-01

    At February's Cairo+5 proceedings at the Hague, the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP) called a press conference to discuss changes in abortion laws around the world since the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. According to the director of CRLP's International Program, 9 countries have modified their abortion laws since Cairo. Of those, 7 liberalized their laws, while Poland and El Salvador further restricted legislation. The CRLP supports the liberalization of abortion laws for all women in all countries. Abortion law has been liberalized in South Africa since Cairo, with the enactment in 1997 of the Termination of Pregnancy Act. In contrast, however, anti-choice groups in Poland successfully challenged the legality of abortion in 1996 by declaring it against the Polish Constitution. Abortion is prohibited in Chile in all circumstances, even to save the life of the woman. However, despite the illegality of abortion in that country, half of all pregnancies in Chile end in abortion. Unsafe abortion contributes to the 50% maternal mortality rate in Nepal. Abortion in the country is punishable by a 20-year prison sentence, regardless of the age of the woman. PMID:12294838

  18. Magnitude and risk factors of abortion among regular female students in Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Induced abortion is one of the greatest human rights dilemmas of our time. Yet, abortion is a very common experience in every culture and society. According to the World Health Organization, Ethiopia had the fifth largest number of maternal deaths in 2005 and unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. Youth are disproportionately affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the magnitude and identify factors associated with abortion among female Wolaita Sodo University students. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University between May and June 2011. Data were collected from 493 randomly selected female students using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Results The rate of abortion among students was found to be 65 per 1000 women, making it three fold the national rate of abortion for Ethiopia (23/1000 women aged 15–44). Virtually all of the abortions (96.9%) were induced and only half (16) were reported to be safe. Students with history of alcohol use, who are first-year and those enrolled in faculties with no post-Grade 10 Natural Science background had higher risk of abortion than their counterparts. About 23.7% reported sexual experience. Less than half of the respondents (44%) ever heard of emergency contraception and only 35.9% of those who are sexually experienced ever used condom. Conclusions High rate of abortion was detected among female Wolaita Sodo University students and half of the abortions took place/initiated under unsafe circumstances. Knowledge of students on legal and safe abortion services was found to be considerably poor. It is imperative that improved sexual health education, with focus on safe and legal abortion services is rendered and wider availability of Youth Friendly family planning services are realized in Universities and other places where young men and women congregate. PMID:24666926

  19. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making. PMID:25688455

  20. Catholic attitudes toward abortion.

    PubMed

    Smith, T W

    1984-01-01

    In the US attitudes toward abortion in the 1980s seem to have reached a more liberal plateau, much more favored than in the 1960s or earlier, but not longer moving in a liberal direction. Catholic attitudes basically have followed the same trend. Traditionally Catholic support has been slightly lower than Protestant, and both are less inclined to support abortion than Jews or the nonreligious. During the 1970s support among non-black Catholics averaged about 10 percentage points below non-black Protestants. Blacks tend to be anti-abortion and thereby lower support among Protestants as a whole. A comparison of Protestants and Catholics of both races shows fewer religious differences -- about 7 percentage points. There are some indications that this gap may be closing. In 1982, for the 1st time, support for abortions for social reasons, such as poverty, not wanting to marry, or not wanting more children, was as high among Catholics as among Protestants. 1 of the factors contributing to this narrowing gap has been the higher level of support for abortion among younger Catholics. Protestants show little variation on abortion attitudes, with those over age 65 being slightly less supportive. Among Catholics, support drops rapidly with age. This moderate and possibly vanishing difference between Catholics and Protestants contrasts sharply with the official positions of their respective churches. The Catholic Church takes an absolute moral position against abortion, while most Protestant churches take no doctrinaire position on abortion. Several, such as the Unitarians and Episcopalians, lean toward a pro-choice position as a matter of social policy, though fundamentalist sects take strong anti-abortion stances. Few Catholics agree with their church's absolutist anti-abortion position. The big split on abortion comes between what are sometimes termed the "hard" abortion reasons -- mother's health endangered, serious defect in fetus, rape, or incest. Support among Catholics for "hard" reasons ranges from about 80-88%. Abortion for social reasons such as poverty or not wanting additional children ranges from 35-50%. Catholic support for abortion also varies by geographical region, community type, and ethnic group. Support tends to be strongest in the Northeast, in large cities, and among descendants of immigrants from Italy, Eastern Europe, and France. Support is weakest among Catholics in the Southwest, in small towns or rural areas, and among the Irish and Hispanics, especially Mexican-Americans. Among Catholics, many factors cause opinion to deviate from the national average. A 2nd major political implication is the comparative dedication or commitment of supporters and opponents. Analysis of election returns in 1978 in particular failed to demonstrate any measurable anti-abortion vote, but this does not mean that in a particular constituency it could not be made a serious issue. PMID:12178931

  1. Women's awareness of liberalization of abortion law and knowledge of place for obtaining services in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Shyam; Sharma, Sharad K

    2015-03-01

    In Nepal, following the liberalization of the abortion law, expansion and scaling up of services proceeded in parallel with efforts to create awareness of the legalization status of abortion and provide women with information about where services are available. This article assesses the effectiveness of these programmatic interventions in the early years of the country's abortion program. Data from a 2006 national survey are analyzed with 2 outcome measures-awareness of the legal status of abortion and knowledge of places to obtain abortion services among women ages 15 to 44 years. The variations in the outcomes are analyzed by ecological-development subregion, residence, education, household wealth quintile, age, and number of living children. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques are used. Overall 32.3% (95% confidence interval = 31.4% to 33.2%) of the respondents were aware of the legal status of abortion and 56.5% (95% confidence interval = 55.5% to 57.4%) knew of a place where they could obtain an abortion. Both outcome measures showed considerable variations by the covariates. Women with secondary or higher level of education had the highest odds ratio of being aware of the law and having knowledge of a source for abortion services. Ecological-development subregions showed the second highest levels of odds ratios. Significant disparities among the population subgroups existed in the diffusion of awareness of the legal status of abortion and having knowledge of a place for abortion services in Nepal. The results point to which population subgroups to focus on and also serve as a baseline for assessing future progress in the diffusion process. PMID:23000795

  2. Brazilian adolescents’ knowledge and beliefs about abortion methods: a school-based internet inquiry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet surveys that draw from traditionally generated samples provide the unique conditions to engage adolescents in exploration of sensitive health topics. Methods We examined awareness of unwanted pregnancy, abortion behaviour, methods, and attitudes toward specific legal indications for abortion via a school-based internet survey among 378 adolescents aged 12–21 years in three Rio de Janeiro public schools. Results Forty-five percent knew peers who had undergone an abortion. Most students (66.0%) did not disclose abortion method knowledge. However, girls (aOR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.2), those who had experienced their sexual debut (aOR1.76, 95% CI 1.1-3.0), and those attending a prestigious magnet school (aOR 2.7 95% CI 1.4-6.3) were more likely to report methods. Most abortion methods (79.3%) reported were ineffective, obsolete, and/or unsafe. Herbs (e.g. marijuana tea), over-the-counter medications, surgical procedures, foreign objects and blunt trauma were reported. Most techniques (85.2%) were perceived to be dangerous, including methods recommended by the World Health Organization. A majority (61.4%) supported Brazil’s existing law permitting abortion in the case of rape. There was no association between gender, age, sexual debut, parental education or socioeconomic status and attitudes toward legal abortion. However, students at the magnet school supported twice as many legal indications (2.7, SE.27) suggesting a likely role of peers and/or educators in shaping abortion views. Conclusions Abortion knowledge and attitudes are not driven simply by age, religion or class, but rather a complex interplay that includes both social spaces and gender. Prevention of abortion morbidity and mortality among adolescents requires comprehensive sexuality and reproductive health education that includes factual distinctions between safe and unsafe abortion methods. PMID:24521075

  3. Selective Abortion and the Diagnosis of Fetal Damage: Issues and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby G.

    1986-01-01

    Legal rights of the fetus and selective abortion are the major focus of a review of legal cases and educational literature concerning fetuses that may be handicapped or have the potential to be handicapped at birth. Related issues include parental immunity, protection of an unborn child, and quality of life. (Author/JW)

  4. The Doctor's Dilemma: Paternalisms in the Medicolegal History of Assisted Reproduction and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kara W

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the comparative history of the law and practice of abortion and assisted reproduction in the United States to consider the interplay between medical paternalism and legal paternalism. It supplements existing critiques of paternalism as harmful to women's equality with the medical perspective, as revealed through the writings of Alan F. Guttmacher, to consider when legal regulation might be warranted. PMID:26242953

  5. The abortion czar.

    PubMed

    Healey, J M

    1990-09-01

    Two recent Supreme Court decisions highlight the difficulty in establishing a coherent policy towards regulating access to abortion. With the court's nearly even split on the issue of abortion, the deciding vote has been relegated to Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, which has led some commentators to label her as the "Abortion Czar." O'Connor has developed her own test for determining the constitutionality of statues regulating abortion, which asks whether the measures "unduly burden" a woman's right to an abortion. But the "unduly burden" test lacks consistency, evident in two cases dealing with a minor's access to abortion. Minnesota declared it illegal to perform an abortion on a minor without first notifying her parents at least 48 hours before the operation, unless: 1) the minor's life was at stake and there was not enough time to notify her parents; 2) the parents had previously consented in writing; or 3) the minor claimed that she was the victim of sexual abuse, in which case the appropriate state agency should be notified. Minnesota's Federal District Court held the statute unconstitutional, while the appeals court reversed the decision, but struck down the 49-hour provision as unconstitutional. In reviewing the case, the Supreme Court concluded that the 3rd provision allowing for a judicial bypass made the statute constitutional, but held the requiring both parents to be notified was unconstitutional. In a companion case, the court upheld an Ohio State that required the notification of only one parent and also allowed for a judicial bypass. The majority of justices concluded that this was not an unreasonable burden. PMID:2225825

  6. Women's right to health and Ireland's abortion laws.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Maeve

    2015-07-01

    The provision of the Irish Constitution that guarantees "the unborn" a right to life equal to that of a pregnant woman has consequences for access to abortion and the care of women in pregnancy generally. Long-awaited legislation to give effect to the narrow constitutional right to abortion was enacted into law in 2013. In 2014, a guidance document for health professionals' implementation of the legislation was published. However, the legislation and guidance document fall far short of international human rights bodies' recommendations: they fail to deliver effective procedural rights to all of the women eligible for lawful abortion within the state and create new legal barriers to women's reproductive rights. At the same time, cases continue to highlight that the Irish Constitution imposes an unethical and rights-violating legal regime in non-abortion-related contexts. Recent developments suggest that both the failure to put guidelines in place and the development of guidelines that are not centered on women or based on rights further reduce women's access to rights and set unacceptable limitations on women's reproductive autonomy. Nevertheless, public and parliamentary scrutiny of cases involving Ireland's abortion laws is increasingly focusing on the need for reform. PMID:25939525

  7. Rewriting abortion: deploying medical records in jurisdictional negotiation over a forbidden practice in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Siri

    2014-01-01

    Boundary work refers to the strategies deployed by professionals in the arenas of the public, the law and the workplace to define and defend jurisdictional authority. Little attention has been directed to the role of documents in negotiating professional claims. While boundary work over induced abortion has been extensively documented, few studies have examined jurisdictional disputes over the treatment of abortion complications, or post-abortion care (PAC). This study explores how medical providers deploy medical records in boundary work over the treatment of complications of spontaneous and induced abortion in Senegal, where induced abortion is prohibited under any circumstance. Findings are based on an institutional ethnography of Senegal’s national PAC program over a period of 13 months between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with 36 health care professionals, observation of PAC services at three hospitals, a review of abortion records at each hospital, and a case review of illegal abortions prosecuted by the state. Findings show that health providers produce a particular account of the type of abortion treated through a series of practices such as the patient interview and the clinical exam. Providers obscure induced abortion in medical documents in three ways: the use of terminology that does not differentiate between induced and spontaneous abortion in PAC registers, the omission of data on the type of abortion altogether in PAC registers, and reporting the total number but not the type of abortions treated in hospital data transmitted to state health authorities. The obscuration of suspected induced abortion in the record permits providers to circumvent police inquiry at the hospital. PAC has been implemented in nearly 50 countries worldwide. This study demonstrates the need for additional research on how medical professionals negotiate conflicting medical and legal obligations in the daily practice of treating abortion complications. PMID:24608117

  8. Rewriting abortion: deploying medical records in jurisdictional negotiation over a forbidden practice in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Suh, Siri

    2014-05-01

    Boundary work refers to the strategies deployed by professionals in the arenas of the public, the law and the workplace to define and defend jurisdictional authority. Little attention has been directed to the role of documents in negotiating professional claims. While boundary work over induced abortion has been extensively documented, few studies have examined jurisdictional disputes over the treatment of abortion complications, or post-abortion care (PAC). This study explores how medical providers deploy medical records in boundary work over the treatment of complications of spontaneous and induced abortion in Senegal, where induced abortion is prohibited under any circumstance. Findings are based on an institutional ethnography of Senegal's national PAC program over a period of 13 months between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with 36 health care professionals, observation of PAC services at three hospitals, a review of abortion records at each hospital, and a case review of illegal abortions prosecuted by the state. Findings show that health providers produce a particular account of the type of abortion treated through a series of practices such as the patient interview and the clinical exam. Providers obscure induced abortion in medical documents in three ways: the use of terminology that does not differentiate between induced and spontaneous abortion in PAC registers, the omission of data on the type of abortion altogether in PAC registers, and reporting the total number but not the type of abortions treated in hospital data transmitted to state health authorities. The obscuration of suspected induced abortion in the record permits providers to circumvent police inquiry at the hospital. PAC has been implemented in approximately 50 countries worldwide. This study demonstrates the need for additional research on how medical professionals negotiate conflicting medical and legal obligations in the daily practice of treating abortion complications. PMID:24608117

  9. Abortion law in Muslim-majority countries: an overview of the Islamic discourse with policy implications.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Gilla K

    2014-07-01

    Religion plays a significant role in a patient’s bioethical decision to have an abortion as well as in a country’s abortion policy. Nevertheless, a holistic understanding of the Islamic position remains under-researched. This study first conducted a detailed and systematic analysis of Islam’s position towards abortion through examining the most authoritative biblical texts (i.e. the Quran and Sunnah) as well as other informative factors (i.e. contemporary fatwas, Islamic mysticism and broader Islamic principles, interest groups, and transnational Islamic organizations). Although Islamic jurisprudence does not encourage abortion, there is no direct biblical prohibition. Positions on abortion are notably variable, and many religious scholars permit abortion in particular circumstances during specific stages of gestational development. It is generally agreed that the least blameworthy abortion is when the life of the pregnant woman is threatened and when 120 days have not lapsed; however, there is remarkable heterogeneity in regards to other circumstances (e.g. preserving physical or mental health, foetal impairment, rape, or social or economic reasons), and later gestational development of the foetus. This study secondly conducted a cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries. A predominantly conservative approach was found whereby 18 of 47 countries do not allow abortion under any circumstances besides saving the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, there was substantial diversity between countries, and 10 countries allowed abortion ‘on request’. Discursive elements that may enable policy development in Muslim-majority countries as well as future research that may enhance the study of abortion rights are discussed. Particularly, more lenient abortion laws may be achieved through disabusing individuals that the most authoritative texts unambiguously oppose abortion, highlighting more lenient interpretations that exist in certain Islamic legal schools, emphasizing significant actors that support abortion, and being mindful of policy frames that will not be well-received in Muslim-majority countries. PMID:23749735

  10. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  11. Second-Trimester Abortion Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Jackson RA, Lee SJ, Cardenas LH, Darney PD. Risk factors associated with presenting for abortion in the second trimester. Obstet Gynecol 2006; 107; 128-135. ix Finer L, 2008. x Audit of abortion requests above 22 weeks’ gestation in ...

  12. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  13. Abortion: Approaches from Virtue

    E-print Network

    Rovie, Eric M.

    stream_size 32037 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Auslegung.v25.n02.137-150.pdf.txt stream_source_info Auslegung.v25.n02.137-150.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Abortion...: Approaches from Virtue Eric M. Rovie Washington University in St. Louis It is a platitude that the issue of abortion polarizes people into extreme positions. In this paper, I explore the oft-neglected gray area between the pro-life stance and pro...

  14. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. PMID:25555764

  15. ABORTION COST LIST Hartford Sites

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Ellen

    ABORTION COST LIST Hartford Sites: Hartford Gyn Center 860-525-1900 Medical- $590 + $35 if Rh Neg require ultrasound, pre-op exam and lab. * Medical abortion- 1 pill in office and other at home the next of service. Planned Parenthood of CT- New Haven 203-503-0450 Direct number for Abortion info/scheduling 1

  16. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

  17. ACOG Practice Bulletin. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists. Medical management of abortion.

    PubMed

    2001-04-01

    According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1.18 million legal abortions were performed in the United States in 1997. Of these, 55.5% were performed at or before 56 days of gestation (calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period [LMP]) (I). Almost 98% of abortion procedures were performed by uterine curettage; all but 1% of these used suction curettage. There were 305 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, and the abortion rate was 20 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years. For the first time in 1997, medical abortions were counted and comprised 0.25% of all abortions; 0.45% of those procedures were performed up to 56 days of gestation. Because of the lack of availability of mifepristone, these procedures mostly represent the use of a combination of methotrexate and misoprostol. Over the past two decades, medical methods of abortion have developed throughout the world and are now used clinically in the United States. This document will present evidence of effectiveness, benefits, and risks of medical methods of abortion and provide a framework for the evaluation and counseling of women who are considering such medical methods. PMID:11501565

  18. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion. PMID:25815623

  19. Legal Framing

    E-print Network

    Leachman, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    childbirth. Law & Society Review, 39(1), 125–170. Benford,Benford, 1988), both of which Legal Framing are helpful in understanding the law’Benford, 1992). Socio-legal research, on the other hand, is more concerned with determining how the law

  20. [Abortion in Korea since 1945].

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyo Suk; Seo, Hong Gwan

    2003-12-01

    Since prehistorical era, the human has desired to control reproduction artificially. However, abortion, one of the productive methods has been prohibited to a certain degree by law in some countries, but the operation of abortion has been done in practice. Also, controversial arguments on legitimacy of abortion have been raised. In Korea, physicians operates abortions more than 2 million times each year. In spite of serious social problems, arguments on abortion have not been common yet. The efforts to find a good solution for abortion have not been very sufficient. Therefore, this study is to investigate the concerns for the conditions of abortion since 1945 (this year is the independent one from Japan's government) through a historical perspective and to suggest the efficient direction in policy. Since 1945, many women have had no choice but abortion for their basic life. The Korean government of legislated the Crimes of Abortion in Criminal Law in 1953. However, the number of women who underwent abortion increased since 1962 due to the governmental Family Planning Policy. In addition, the Mother and Fatherless Child Health Act was enacted in 1973 that tolerated abortion to some extent. The disparate treatment of abortion between Criminal Lam and the governmental policy fueled the confusion to potentially pregnant women. The first reason why Korean women choose abortion is wrongful pregnancy. Compared to other counties, in Korea, abortion were operated for sex selection. To conclude, it is important to be implement positive sex education, proper contraception education by government and social publicization of arguments on abortion. PMID:15005096

  1. Abortion in a new light.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1990-01-01

    The recent repeal of a ban on abortion in Romania and the action in the US to allow states to regulate abortion show trends in the global abortion debate. Factors that are illuminated by these trends include the undermining of recently codified reproductive rights, and the political deadlock in a struggle over the ideology and criminology of abortion procedures. This prevents energies from being directed to the complex social phenomenon of abortion, and delays actions that will improve the health and wellbeing of women and children worldwide. The 30 years trend in liberalization of abortion laws has increased access to birth control methods and made abortions safer. Illegal abortion is a worldwide public health problem since over 55 million undesired pregnancies end in abortion each year, and 1/2 of these are illegal. Laws have has little effect, as indicated in Romania where the rates of abortion and maternal mortality are higher than anywhere in Europe. The best way to reduce the number of abortions is to promote family planning and health programs by education couples on birth control and making the methods available to them. The pressures of pro-life groups have caused the US to limit funding of family planning efforts worldwide. Most countries in the world have passed abortion laws within their criminal codes; about 75% of the world's population live in countries that allow abortion. The longterm solution to the abortion issue would include removal of abortion from the criminal code, mobilizing support for family planning programs, and providing funds for research on contraceptives. PMID:12342693

  2. Who will do the abortions?

    PubMed

    Darney, P D

    1993-01-01

    Despite the lessening of federal restraints to abortion providers and the fact that the US Supreme Court has not overthrown Roe vs. Wade, access to abortion still remains a problem for women because there are not enough providers, especially in rural areas where the number dropped 51% from 1977 to 1988. A 1985 survey showed that only 34% of gynecologists perform abortions, with two-thirds doing no more than 4/month. Yet, 84% said abortion was necessary in some cases, and only 13% said it should never be done. These percentages have not changed since a survey 14 years earlier, but the number of disincentives to performing abortions, including harassment by anti-abortion forces, has grown. Also, financial renumeration has increased little in 2 decades, and younger physicians are not inspired by memories of the damage caused by illegal abortionists. Physicians who begin to perform abortions immediately after their residencies are not benefitting from as much training as was given in the past, despite the fact that studies show that residents have higher complication rates than experienced physicians and that proper training reduces complications. One explanation for the failure of residency programs to include abortion training is the fact that 90% of abortions occur in free-standing clinics rather than in hospitals. If abortion training is offered at all, it is usually offered as an elective, not part of a required rotation. There are some residency programs, however, which offer exemplary training in abortion, many at their own clinics. In these cases, residents rotate through the abortion training in their second or third year, with exemptions for those with moral objections. Abortion issues should also be covered in the public health, reproductive medicine, or ethics courses of medical schools; in fact, long before the students see abortions performed. The training programs which are failing to train gynecologic specialists are also ignoring medical generalists. In addition, abortion is rarely included in postgraduate refresher or continuing education courses. The shortage of physicians willing to provide abortions has raised the possibility of nurse-practitioners, physician's assistants, or even lay persons being trained to provide abortions. However, in some areas, paramedical personnel are in greater demand than physicians. In addition, they may not be able to obtain the necessary insurance and state laws would have to be changed to allow them to perform this procedure. Of course, the same disincentives that exist for physicians would exist for them. The solution to this problem lies in providing abortion education to all health care professionals and in making abortion training readily available to all interested physicians. Laws governing harassment and violence should be enforced, and compensation should be comparable to that of other medical procedures. PMID:8274871

  3. Social Determinants and Access to Induced Abortion in Burkina Faso: From Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Ramatou

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and concerns mainly young women. The legal restriction and social stigma make abortions most often clandestine and risky for women who decide to terminate a pregnancy. However, the exposure to the risk of unsafe induced abortion is not the same for all the women who faced unwanted pregnancy and decide to have an abortion. Drawn from a qualitative study on the issue of abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso's capital, the contrasting cases of two young women who had abortion allow us to show how the women's personal resources (such as the school level, financial resources, the compliance to social norms, the social network, etc.) may determine the degree of vulnerability of women, the delay to have an abortion, the type of care they are likely to benefit from, and the cost they have to face. This study concludes that the poorest always pay more (cost and consequences), take longer to have an abortion, and have more exposure to the risk of unsafe abortion. PMID:24790605

  4. Abortion in Turkey: a matter of state, family or individual decision.

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, A

    1996-02-01

    This paper gives a historical, international and cultural outlook on the debate related to the 1982 legalization of abortion in the modern democratic republic of Turkey. A belief that the country is under-populated and subsequent pro-natalist concerns of the turn of the century seem to have strongly influenced the legal prohibition of abortion. The paper first discusses the widespread social practice and the permissive attitudes towards abortion in the late Ottoman Empire and in contemporary Turkey. The contrast between the above social situation and until recently the strict, non-permissive religious and secular attitudes are presented with a discussion of the effects of the westernization and secularization processes in the late Ottoman Empire. Moral concerns and judgements regarding abortion seem to have penetrated Ottoman society as part of the above processes beginning in the nineteenth century. The present day official religious interpretations seem to conform with the more conservative Islamic schools of thought rather than the more liberal Islamic interpretations. Furthermore, the 1982 laws which legalize abortion until the eight week of pregnancy consider family planning to be a family issue and bring the restriction of making married women have their husband's permission before preceding with abortion. As such, the present legal platform opens to question the rationales and population control motives behind the law and the importance of who it is that can make the decision to proceed with abortion. Thus, in the last 70 years a historical and ideological progression can be discerned in the line of assuming first the state and then the family to have decision making legitimacy as regards reproductive choices. Today, the platform of radical discussion has shifted to evaluating the importance of individual women in making this reproductive choice. In this context, in conclusion, the paper discussed the rationale and the logic behind and the implications for gender power structures of the existing legal situation in Turkey. PMID:8643979

  5. [Abortion in Latin America. Induced abortion and its causes].

    PubMed

    Frejka, T; Atkin, L C

    1990-01-01

    Although abortion legislation is restrictive in Latin America, the limited available data confirm the region¿s high volume of abortion. The average number of abortions per woman in Latin America is around 1.5, according to estimates of various authors. Abortion contributes an estimated one-fourth of deliberate fertility control in the region. Abortion rates depend on the degree of motivation for limiting births and the availability and use of contraception. The motivation for smaller families preceded widespread introduction of modern contraception into Latin America. Fertility began to decline before 1960 in a few countries and declined more rapidly thereafter, due principally to induced abortion. The decline continued as contraceptive usage increased rapidly and substantially in the 1970s and 1980s. Abortion rates remained high, basically because the desire for smaller families was widely diffused, while barriers of different kinds hampered access to modern contraception. Inadequate contraceptive supplies, restricted choice of methods, lack of access for women who are poor or single or adolescent, misguided fears about health effects, and poor understanding of the operation of health services may all constitute obstacles to contraceptive use. Contraceptive failure is not infrequent and is another factor in the persistence of abortion. Even within the framework of restrictive legislation, steps could be taken to reduce the problem of abortion: improving the supply and availability of contraceptives, improving the quality of services, promoting sex education, and improving the status of women. PMID:12158092

  6. Medical opinion on abortion in Jamaica: a national Delphi survey of physician, nurses, and midwives.

    PubMed

    Smith, K A; Johnson, R L

    1976-12-01

    A national sample of 120 Jamaican physicians, public health nurses, and licensed midwives participated in a two-stage Delphi survey to identify medical opinion on proposed liberlization of Jamaica's abortion law, and to predict the likely impact of such legislative action on existing health and family planning services. More than 80 percent of the respondents favored legalization of abortion, and most supported changes in the health service delivery system to accommodate the expected demand. They believed that clandestine abortion, involving pharmacists and physicians, is already widely practiced. PMID:996897

  7. Consensus on abortion unlikely at U.N. conference, Gore says.

    PubMed

    1994-08-26

    US Vice President Al Gore is pessimistic about the likelihood of consensus on abortion and contraception at the 1994 World Population Conference given opposition on the part of the Vatican, governments of nations with large Roman Catholic populations, and Muslim fundamentalists. Although the Clinton Administration is advocating safe, legal abortion and accessible contraception, it does not intent to push for abortion rights in countries where the procedure is illegal. On the other hand, Gore has expressed confidence that the Cairo conference will forge a new approach to population and development based on improvements in women's status. PMID:12319073

  8. Living Through Some Giant Change: The Establishment of Abortion Services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the establishment of abortion clinics following Roe v Wade. Abortion clinics followed one of two models: (1) a medical model in which physicians emphasized the delivery of high quality medical services, contrasting their clinics with the back-alley abortion services that had sent many women to hospital emergency rooms prior to legalization, or (2) a feminist model in which clinics emphasized education and the dissemination of information to empower women patients and change the structure of women’s health care. Male physicians and feminists came together in the newly established abortion services and argued over the priorities and characteristics of health care delivery. A broad range of clinics emerged, from feminist clinics to medical offices run by traditional male physicians to for-profit clinics. The establishment of the National Abortion Federation in the mid-1970s created a national forum of health professionals and contributed to the broadening of the discussion and the adoption of compromises as both feminists and physicians influenced each other's practices. PMID:23327251

  9. Living through some giant change: the establishment of abortion services.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    This article traces the establishment of abortion clinics following Roe v Wade. Abortion clinics followed one of two models: (1) a medical model in which physicians emphasized the delivery of high quality medical services, contrasting their clinics with the back-alley abortion services that had sent many women to hospital emergency rooms prior to legalization, or (2) a feminist model in which clinics emphasized education and the dissemination of information to empower women patients and change the structure of women's health care. Male physicians and feminists came together in the newly established abortion services and argued over the priorities and characteristics of health care delivery. A broad range of clinics emerged, from feminist clinics to medical offices run by traditional male physicians to for-profit clinics. The establishment of the National Abortion Federation in the mid-1970s created a national forum of health professionals and contributed to the broadening of the discussion and the adoption of compromises as both feminists and physicians influenced each other's practices. PMID:23327251

  10. [Current situation with abortion in Colombia: between illegality and reality].

    PubMed

    González Vélez, Ana Cristina

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the illegality of abortion in Colombia, situating this country within the 0.4% of the world population where abortion is completely banned. Absolute criminalization of abortion turns it into a public health matter and produces social inequality. The Colombian legislation has always disregarded women as individuals and as persons in full possession of their legal rights. In contrast to a comprehensive conceptualization of sexual and reproductive rights, the various abortion bills merely refer either to "morally unacceptable" situations such as pregnancy resulting from rape or to therapeutic motives. Contradictions between illegality and reality give rise to a public discourse that features rejection of abortion practices, in keeping with the prevailing stance of the ecclesiastic hierarchy, while in practice, and at the private level, people resort to voluntary interruption of pregnancy under conditions of safety and confidentiality, at least for women from the higher socioeconomic strata. This situation not only causes social inequality but also reflects how laws lose meaning and create the collective impression of being useless or unnecessary, thus undermining the state's governing role. PMID:15905926

  11. Buying safety: the economics of reproductive risk and abortion in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Lane, S D; Jok, J M; El-Mouelhy, M T

    1998-10-01

    This article examines the economics of abortion safety in Egypt. Under Egyptian law induced abortion is restricted to cases in which two physicians certify that the pregnancy presents a danger to the health or life of the mother. Despite this legal restriction, the available data indicate that abortion is quite widely practiced. Multifaceted strands of legal, religious, economic, and health care policy influence both discourse about and access to abortion in Egypt. Interviews with 18 Egyptian women who sought to terminate their pregnancies revealed a wide range of abortion methods that varied in both safety and cost. Three levels of safety were identified: (1) indigenous (wasfa baladi) methods were potentially the least safe; (2) biomedical abortions at clandestine clinics appeared safer than indigenous methods, but were not without risk: and (3) biomedical abortions administered by private gynecologists, were the most safe. Safety is expensive. Wealthy women can literally buy safety, while poor women's lack of financial resources put their lives at great risk. PMID:9723854

  12. The road to moderation: the significance of Webster for legislation restricting abortion.

    PubMed

    Wardle, L D

    1989-01-01

    They only certain outcomes of the Webster decision is that state legislatures will be stimulated to enact more legislation regulating abortion. However it is unlikely that the worst prochoice fears will be realized. A return to the 19th century abortion prohibition era is very unlikely because of trends in Western societal attitudes and laws. Since 1973 and the Roe decision there have been more than 300 bills or acts enacted by state legislatures that regulate abortion. Whether it is criminal prohibitions, licensing requirements, zoning restrictions, parental participation, spousal participation, informed consent, health and sanitation regulations, post viability regulations, laws protecting the right of health care workers not to participate in abortion, public funding restrictions, or regulations of fetal experimentation, abortion regulations have definitely been wide spread. The democratic process is going to produce a moderate position on abortion as a result of the Webster decision for 7 reasons: (1) the period before Roe was a time when abortion legislation was in a trend towards moderation. In 1962 abortion prohibitions were in place in all states. In 1967 4 states adopted an abortion reform position that allowed for abortion in the hard cases: (1) maternal health, (2) fetal defect, (3) rape/incest. Over the next 5 years 9 more states followed and 3 others went even farther by allowing unrestricted abortion during early pregnancy. (2) public opinion is consistent and strong in favoring abortion restrictions except for the hard cases. (3) the trend towards moderation in abortion regulations is closely related to other legal trends toward moderation. No fault divorce was a move towards moderation. The abortion experience in Western Europe was towards moderation. (5) Medical technological developments are putting the power of abortion in the hands of women. Abortificant drugs that can be used without medical assistance give women greater freedom. (6) The history of abortion law enforcement is very moderate. (7) Judicial power continues as all member of the Supreme Court have stated publicly that the Constitution does allow some room for abortion. PMID:2628653

  13. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation. PMID:9328746

  14. Everything is not abortion stigma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    The topic of abortion stigma has caught the attention of researchers and activists working on reproductive health and rights around the world. But as research on abortion stigma grows, I fear that the concept is in danger of becoming so large and all-encompassing that it may mask deeply rooted inequalities. In addition, abortion stigma may be seen as too complex and tangled an issue, thereby leading to paralysis. It is important that we become more precise in our understanding of abortion stigma so that we can carry out better research to understand and measure it, design interventions to mitigate it, and evaluate those interventions. PMID:24183406

  15. Safe abortion information hotlines: An effective strategy for increasing women's access to safe abortions in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Drovetta, Raquel Irene

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the implementation of five Safe Abortion Information Hotlines (SAIH), a strategy developed by feminist collectives in a growing number of countries where abortion is legally restricted and unsafe. These hotlines have a range of goals and take different forms, but they all offer information by telephone to women about how to terminate a pregnancy using misoprostol. The paper is based on a qualitative study carried out in 2012-2014 of the structure, goals and experiences of hotlines in five Latin American countries: Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. The methodology included participatory observation of activities of the SAIH, and in-depth interviews with feminist activists who offer these services and with 14 women who used information provided by these hotlines to induce their own abortions. The findings are also based on a review of materials obtained from the five hotline collectives involved: documents and reports, social media posts, and details of public demonstrations and statements. These hotlines have had a positive impact on access to safe abortions for women whom they help. Providing these services requires knowledge and information skills, but little infrastructure. They have the potential to reduce the risk to women's health and lives of unsafe abortion, and should be promoted as part of public health policy, not only in Latin America but also other countries. Additionally, they promote women's autonomy and right to decide whether to continue or terminate a pregnancy. PMID:26278832

  16. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial Administration...Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

  17. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial Administration...Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

  18. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial Administration...Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

  19. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial Administration...Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

  20. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial Administration...Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

  1. Presumptive Toxoplasma gondii abortion in a sheep

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann, Judith

    2003-01-01

    A primiparous ewe aborted in mid-gestation. Toxoplasma gondii was suspected as the cause of abortion and a presumptive diagnosis of T. gondii abortion was based on histological lesions of the placenta. PMID:12715986

  2. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  3. Abortive segmental perineal hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Tlougan, Brook E; Gonzalez, Mercedes E; Orlow, Seth J

    2011-01-01

    A six-week-old girl presented with a segmental, focally atrophic, vascular patch in the diaper area, present since birth. It had undergone minimal proliferation, but had ulcerated. Evaluation to rule out LUMBAR (Lower body hemangioma/Lipoma or other cutaneous anomalies, Urogenital anomalies, Myelopathy, Bony deformities, Anorectal/Arterial anomalies, and Renal anomalies) syndrome, which included ultrasound and Doppler examination of the abdomen, spine, and pelvis, was negative. We report a unique case of an ulcerated, segmental abortive hemangioma of the anogenital area with excellent clinical response to topical timolol gel. PMID:22031634

  4. Partner violence and abortion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133

  5. The politics of unsafe abortion in Burkina Faso: The interface of local norms and global public health practice

    PubMed Central

    Storeng, Katerini T.; Ouattara, Fatoumata

    2014-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how Burkina Faso's PAC policy emerged at the interface of political and moral negotiations between public health professionals, national bureaucrats and international agencies and NGOs. Burkinabè decision-makers and doctors, who are often hostile to induced abortion, have been convinced that PAC is ‘life-saving care’ which should be delivered for ethical medical reasons. Moreover, by supporting PAC they not only demonstrate compliance with international standards but also, importantly, do not have to contend with any change in abortion legislation, which they oppose. Rights-based international NGOs, in turn, tactically focus on PAC as a ‘first step’ towards their broader institutional objective to secure safe abortion and abortion rights. Such negotiations between national and international actors result in widespread support for PAC but stifled debate about further legalisation of abortion. PMID:25132157

  6. Going legal.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Tony; Howells, Rachel; Lindsay, Simon

    2013-02-01

    A 16-year-old girl is admitted with a paracetamol overdose, but refuses treatment. This article explores the legal, ethical and practical aspects of this case, which led ultimately to an application to the court for a judicial order. PMID:23213141

  7. A statement on abortion by 100 professors of obstetrics: 40 years later.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    In this Journal in 1972, 100 leaders in obstetrics and gynecology published a compelling statement that recognized the legalization of abortion in several states and anticipated the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade. They projected the numbers of legal abortions that likely would be required by women in the United States and described the role of the teaching hospital in meeting that responsibility. They wrote to express their concern for women's health in a new legal and medical era of reproductive control and to define the responsibilities of academic obstetrician-gynecologists. Forty years later, 100 professors examine the statement of their predecessors in light of medical advances and legal changes and suggest a further course of action for obstetrician gynecologists. PMID:24034806

  8. A statement on abortion by 100 professors of obstetrics: 40 years later.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    In this Journal in 1972, 100 leaders in obstetrics and gynecology published a compelling statement that recognized the legalization of abortion in several states and anticipated the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade. They projected the numbers of legal abortions that likely would be required by women in the United States and described the role of the teaching hospital in meeting that responsibility. They wrote to express their concern for women's health in a new legal and medical era of reproductive control and to define the responsibilities of academic obstetrician-gynecologists. Forty years later, 100 professors examine the statement of their predecessors in light of medical advances and legal changes and suggest a further course of action for obstetrician gynecologists. PMID:23500455

  9. Access to safe abortion: building choices for women living with HIV and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In many areas of the world where HIV prevalence is high, rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion have also been shown to be high. Of all pregnancies worldwide in 2008, 41% were reported as unintended or unplanned, and approximately 50% of these ended in abortion. Of the estimated 21.6 million unsafe abortions occurring worldwide in 2008 (around one in 10 pregnancies), approximately 21.2 million occurred in developing countries, often due to restrictive abortion laws and leading to an estimated 47,000 maternal deaths and untold numbers of women who will suffer long-term health consequences. Despite this context, little research has focused on decisions about and experiences of women living with HIV with regard to terminating a pregnancy, although this should form part of comprehensive promotion of sexual and reproductive health rights. In this paper, we explore the existing evidence related to global and country-specific barriers to safe abortion for all women, with an emphasis on research gaps around the right of women living with HIV to choose safe abortion services as an option for dealing with unwanted pregnancies. The main focus is on the situation for women living with HIV in Brazil, Namibia and South Africa as examples of three countries with different conditions regarding women's access to safe legal abortions: a very restrictive setting, a setting with several indications for legal abortion but non-implementation of the law, and a rather liberal setting. Similarities and differences are discussed, and we further outline global and country-specific barriers to safe abortion for all women, ending with recommendations for policy makers and researchers. PMID:22078463

  10. The Role of Interpersonal Communication in Preventing Unsafe Abortion in Communities: The Dialogues for Life Project in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Allison; Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gopinath, C. Y.; Kaufman, Anne; Bhattarai, Sanju

    2010-01-01

    Legal, procedural, and institutional restrictions on safe abortion services—such as laws forbidding the practice or policies preventing donors from supporting groups who provide legal services—remain a major access barrier for women worldwide. However, even when abortion services are legal, women face social and cultural barriers to accessing safe abortion services and preventing unwanted pregnancy. Interpersonal communication interventions play an important role in overcoming these obstacles, including as part of broad educational- and behavioral-change efforts. This article presents results from an interpersonal communication behavior change pilot intervention, Dialogues for Life, undertaken in Nepal from 2004 to 2006, after abortion was legalized in 2002. The project aimed to encourage and enable women to prevent unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions and was driven by dialogue groups and select community events. The authors’ results confirm that a dialogue-based interpersonal communication intervention can help change behavior and that this method is feasible in a low-resource, low-literacy setting. Dialogue groups play a key role in addressing sensitive and stigmatizing health issues such as unsafe abortion and in empowering women to negotiate for the social support they need when making decisions about their health. PMID:21128150

  11. Herpesviral abortion in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Smith, K C

    1997-05-01

    Abortion or neonatal disease may follow infection with several alpha, beta and gamma-herpesviruses. The alpha-herpesvirus, equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), causes single or epizootic abortions or neonatal deaths in equids, and the closely related virus EHV-4 causes sporadic equine abortions. In cattle, the alpha-herpesviruses, bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus) and bovine herpesvirus-5 (bovine encephalitis virus), and a gamma-herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus-4, have all been implicated as causes of abortion. In pigs, suid herpesvirus-1 (SHV-1: pseudorabies virus), an alpha-herpesvirus, and SHV-2 (porcine cytomegalovirus), a beta-herpesvirus, each cause abortion or neonatal piglet losses. Caprine herpesvirus-1, canine herpesvirus and feline herpesvirus-1, all alpha-herpesviruses, cause abortions or neonatal deaths in goats, dogs and cats, respectively. This review discusses the pathogenesis, pathology and laboratory diagnosis of these herpesviral abortions and neonatal diseases, with an emphasis on experimental studies of each disease. Alternative reviews covering other aspects of each infection, such as the genetic and antigenic structure of the viruses, host immune responses and approaches to vaccination and disease control are indicated at appropriate points in the text. PMID:9232116

  12. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  13. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  14. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  15. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  16. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  17. Adolescent abortion: trends and techniques.

    PubMed

    Ludmer, Pamela I; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Diaz, Angela

    2003-12-01

    The adolescent years are often characterized by high-risk behaviors. These behaviors carry consequences with them, including pregnancy and abortion. Although the abortion rate for adolescents has been decreasing since 1990, not all groups have seen an equal drop; notably, those adolescents not in school and members of minority groups are experiencing slower rates of decline. Adolescents undergo the same methods of abortion as adults; however, they have unique psychosocial needs, such as parental involvement and the prevention of future unwanted pregnancies, which should be assessed. PMID:14613664

  18. First-trimester medical abortion service in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, S St; Ho, P C

    2015-10-01

    Research on medical abortion has been conducted in Hong Kong since the 1990s. It was not until 2011 that the first-trimester medical abortion service was launched. Mifepristone was registered in Hong Kong in April 2014 and all institutions that are listed in the Gazette as a provider for legal abortion can purchase mifepristone from the local provider. This article aimed to share our 3-year experience of this service with the local medical community. Our current protocol is safe and effective, and advocates 200-mg mifepristone and 400-µg sublingual misoprostol 24 to 48 hours later, followed by a second dose of 400-µg sublingual misoprostol 4 hours later if the patient does not respond. The complete abortion rate is 97.0% and ongoing pregnancy rate is 0.4%. Some minor side-effects have been reported and include diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pain, and allergy. There have been no serious adverse events such as heavy bleeding requiring transfusion, anaphylactic reaction, septicaemia, or death. PMID:26493078

  19. Negligence in Academic Advising and Abortion Counseling: Courts Rulings and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Carolyn

    2002-01-01

    Presents two court cases to illuminate school counselors' legal responsibilities in academic advising and abortion counseling. The cases are presented to show how appellate court decisions can guide and inform future decision making in a variety of malpractice situations, and to equip professionals to exercise even greater care for their minor…

  20. Abortion of Defective Fetuses: Attitudes of Mothers of Congenitally Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslau, Naomi

    1987-01-01

    Compared a sample of mothers of children with cystic fibrosis, cerebral palsy, myelodysplasia, and multiple physical handicaps with a probability sample of mothers of children free of disabilities on their attitudes toward the availability of legal abortion. The responses were not distinguishable for the two groups, nor was the specific disability…

  1. Two-Dimensional Scalogram Analysis: Analyzing the Scalability of Attitudes toward Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancer, L. Suzanne

    The usefulness of L. Guttman's partial order scalogram analysis is investigated in this study of the structure of a set of items that measure attitudes toward legal abortion. These items, drawn from the National Opinion Research Center's "General Social Survey," have been the focus of considerable applied research investigating predictors of…

  2. Abortion services under national health insurance: the examples of England and France.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, S K

    1994-01-01

    The US can anticipate possible problems and benefits of different financing mechanisms as it moves to providing national health insurance coverage. England, Wales, and France have a national health service with a policy mandating abortion services. Examination of these systems shows that bureaucratic health care structures do not assure that all women have access to abortion services, however. Ideological, budgetary, and bureaucratic resistance operates at many public hospitals and public sector services. Abortion services always are a target for spending cuts when there is limited health care funding. In the US, the strong anti-abortion faction is likely to pressure health maintenance organizations and other managed care systems to limit access to abortion services. In the UK and France, independent, private health facilities fill the gaps in the public system and thus provide women universal access to abortion services. These facilities are at least as necessary in the US as they are in the UK and France. UK's National Health Service process of abortion referral delays abortions. In the UK and France, women tend to view public facilities as lacking confidentiality, so they automatically go to private providers. Other problems with obtaining a referral by a primary care provider include an extra health care visit, that the provider may not make or may delay the referral, and the woman's desire not to discuss the pregnancy with the regular provider. Bureaucratic and legal barriers in France force many women to seek and physicians to perform illegal abortions. Barriers in France are a one-week waiting period, required counseling by a social worker, and a required overnight stay in the hospital. These barriers must be avoided in the US to prevent illegal abortions. PMID:8033984

  3. The impact of recent policy changes on fertility, abortion, and contraceptive use in Romania.

    PubMed

    Serbanescu, F; Morris, L; Stupp, P; Stanescu, A

    1995-01-01

    A national household survey of 4,861 women aged 15-44 on reproductive health issues was conducted in Romania in 1993. The survey provided the opportunity to study the impact of policy changes by comparing selected aspects of fertility, abortion, and contraceptive use before and after the December 1989 revolution, when the laws restricting abortion and contraceptive use were abolished. After abortion became legal, the total fertility rate dropped to below replacement level, while the induced abortion rate doubled. Contraceptive prevalence increased 20 percent, but augmentation of the use of traditional methods, rather than the change in legislation, accounted for 70 percent of the increase. Limited sex education and contraceptive information, mistrust and misinformation about modern methods, a lack of adequately trained providers, and a shortage or uneven distribution of contraceptive supplies are major reasons for the continued high rates of unintended pregnancy. PMID:7618197

  4. Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Brooke; Hodge, James G.; Toner, Eric S.; Roxland, Beth E.; Penn, Matthew S.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Powell, Tia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Significant legal challenges arise when health-care resources become scarce and population-based approaches to care are implemented during severe disasters and pandemics. Recent emergencies highlight the serious legal, economic, and health impacts that can be associated with responding in austere conditions and the critical importance of comprehensive, collaborative health response system planning. This article discusses legal suggestions developed by the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Task Force for Mass Critical Care to support planning and response efforts for mass casualty incidents involving critically ill or injured patients. The suggestions in this chapter are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS Following the CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee’s methodology, the Legal Panel developed 35 key questions for which specific literature searches were then conducted. The literature in this field is not suitable to provide support for evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process resulting in seven final suggestions. RESULTS Acceptance is widespread for the health-care community’s duty to appropriately plan for and respond to severe disasters and pandemics. Hospitals, public health entities, and clinicians have an obligation to develop comprehensive, vetted plans for mass casualty incidents involving critically ill or injured patients. Such plans should address processes for evacuation and limited appeals and reviews of care decisions. To legitimize responses, deter independent actions, and trigger liability protections, mass critical care (MCC) plans should be formally activated when facilities and practitioners shift to providing MCC. Adherence to official MCC plans should contribute to protecting hospitals and practitioners who act in good faith from liability. Finally, to address anticipated staffing shortages during severe and prolonged disasters and pandemics, governments should develop approaches to formally expand the availability of qualified health-care workers, such as through using official foreign medical teams. CONCLUSIONS As a fundamental element of health-care and public health emergency planning and preparedness, the law underlies critical aspects of disaster and pandemic responses. Effective responses require comprehensive advance planning efforts that include assessments of complex legal issues and authorities. Recent disasters have shown that although law is a critical response tool, it can also be used to hold health-care stakeholders who fail to appropriately plan for or respond to disasters and pandemics accountable for resulting patient or staff harm. Claims of liability from harms allegedly suffered during disasters and pandemics cannot be avoided altogether. However, appropriate planning and legal protections can help facilitate sound, consistent decision-making and support response participation among health-care entities and practitioners. PMID:25144203

  5. Women's opinions on the legalisation of abortion in Chile 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Tia; Infante Erazo, Mariela; Hurtado Pinochet, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Chile is one of only four countries in the world where there is no explicit legal exception to prohibitions on abortion, and where the criminalisation of abortion endangers women's health and may be misaligned with public opinion. In this study we explored attitudes towards the legalisation of abortion and differences in levels of support across time. Among Chilean women in 2009 and 2013, we examined: (1) an additive index indicating support for legalisation of abortion in several situations and (2) support for each situation separately. We investigated the demographic characteristics associated with support for legalisation using multivariate regression. Over 70% of women supported the legalisation of abortion in cases of risk to the woman's life, rape and foetal malformation, and support was higher in 2013 compared to 2009 (? = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.44). Women with increasing education and those attending church services less frequently were more likely to support the legalisation of abortion (? = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.43), while those affiliated to a religion other than Catholicism (? =  - 0.32; 95% CI:  - 0.48,  - 0.16) were less likely to do so. Our study is the first to examine public opinions on abortion in Chile and differences in levels of support across time periods. Results indicate that current policies may not reflect trends in public opinion. PMID:25703034

  6. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  7. The effectiveness of using misoprostol with and without letrozole for successful medical abortion: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Naghshineh, Elham; Allame, Zahra; Farhat, Faezah

    2015-01-01

    Background: In developing countries it is important to the exploration of available and safe regimens for medical abortion. The present study was designed to assess the effect of letrozole compared to placebo pretreatment followed by sublingual misoprostol for therapeutic abortion in eligible women with gestational age less than 17 weeks. Materials and Methods: In this randomized control trail, 130 women eligible for legal abortions were randomly divided into two groups of case and controls. Cases received daily oral dose of 10 mg letrozole 10 mg letrozole for three days followed by sublingual misoprostol. Controls received daily oral dose of placebo followed by sublingual misoprostol. The dose of misoprostol was administrated according to ACOG guidelines based on patients’ gestational age. The rate of complete abortion, induction-of-abortion time, and side-effects were assessed as main outcomes. Results: Complete abortion was observed in 46 (76.7%) letrozole group and 26 (42.6%) controls (P < 0.0001). Also, in 14 subjects of letrozole group and 35 subjects in placebo group, the placenta was not delivered during follow-up and curettage was performed. The mean interval induction-to-abortion was 5.1 h in letrozole group and 8.9 h in control (P < 0.0001). The cumulative rates of the induction-of-abortion time were a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.0001). The incidence and severity of side-effects was comparable for the two groups (P = 0.9). Conclusion: Letrozole could be a quite beneficial adjuvant to misoprostol for induction of complete abortion in those who are candidates for legal medical abortion. PMID:26600834

  8. Global consequences of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Susheela

    2010-11-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of death and ill health in women in the developing world. A substantial body of research on these consequences exists, although studies are of variable quality. However, unsafe abortion has a number of other significant consequences that are much less widely recognized. These include the economic consequences, the immediate costs of providing medical care for abortion-related complications, the costs of medical care for longer-term health consequences, lost productivity to the country, the impact on families and the community, and the social consequences that affect women and families. This article will review the scientific evidence on the consequences of unsafe abortion, highlight gaps in the evidence base, suggest areas where future research efforts are needed, and speculate on the future situation regarding consequences and evidence over the next 5-10 years. The information provided is useful and timely given the current heightened interest in the issue of unsafe abortion, growing from the recent focus of national and international agencies on reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015 (as one of the Millennium Development Goals established in 2000). PMID:21118043

  9. The search for meaning: RU 486 and the law of abortion.

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, S S; Paxman, J M

    1992-01-01

    The advent of RU 486 (mifepristone), a steroid analogue capable of inducing menses within 8 to 10 weeks of a missed menstrual period, has provoked a firestorm of concern and controversy. When used in conjunction with prostaglandin (RU 486/PG), it is at least 95% effective. Used in France principally to terminate confirmed pregnancies very early in the process of gestation, RU 486 raises many interesting legal questions. This article focuses on whether and how RU 486/PG can be accommodated within the framework of the world's current abortion laws. Four avenues are explored and conclusions drawn. First, it is clear that RU 486/PG can be used readily, if approved, within the regimens established by liberal abortion laws, as has been the experience in France, the United Kingdom, and even China. Second, although unlikely, the introduction of this new technology may inspire a reexamination of restrictive abortion statutes themselves. Third, some of the presently restrictive laws may be interpreted to permit RU 486/PG use as a legal procedure, for a very narrow range of reasons. Finally, in some settings the early use of RU 486/PG (before pregnancy can be confirmed) may fall outside the reach of abortion legislation and hence be acceptable from a legal point of view. PMID:1415870

  10. Underreporting of induced and spontaneous abortion in the United States: an analysis of the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel K; Kost, Kathryn

    2007-09-01

    Underreporting of induced abortions in surveys is widespread, both in countries where the procedure is illegal or highly restricted and in those where it is legal. In this study, we find that fewer than one half of induced abortions performed in the United States in 1997-2001 (47 percent) were reported by women during face-to-face interviews in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Hispanic and black women and those with low income were among the least likely to report their experience of abortion. Women were also less likely to report abortions that occurred when they were in their 20s. Second-trimester abortions were more likely to be reported than first-trimester terminations. The levels of recent spontaneous abortion reported in the 2002 NSFG were consistent with the accumulated body of clinical research, although substantially more lifetime pregnancy losses were reported on self-administered surveys than in face-to-face interviews. Subsequent research should explore strategies to improve information collected on abortion, and, in the interim, research involving pregnancy outcomes should be adjusted for unreported induced abortions. PMID:17933292

  11. Young People's views and knowledge about abortion 

    E-print Network

    Harden, Jeni; Purcell, Carrie; Row-Dewar, Neneh

    The primary aim of this qualitative study was to gain insight into the views of young people from contrasting socioeconomic backgrounds about abortion and access to abortion services. The study set out to assess the ...

  12. Abortable Reader-Writer Locks are No More Complex Than Abortable Mutex Locks

    E-print Network

    Abortable Reader-Writer Locks are No More Complex Than Abortable Mutex Locks Dartmouth Computer on designing abortable mutual exclusion locks, and fairly efficient algorithms of O(log n) RMR complexity have). The abort feature is just as important for a reader-writer lock as it is for a mutual exclusion lock

  13. Commentary: the public health consequences of restricted induced abortion--lessons from Romania.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, P; Wagner, M; Badea, M; Serbanescu, F

    1992-01-01

    The question of whether abortion should be legal is currently being decided in many countries. Although much of the discussion has focused on ethical issues, the public health consequences should not be overlooked and should be addressed realistically and responsibly. Nowhere are the public health manifestations of restricted abortion more apparent than in Romania. The pronatalist policies of the Ceaucescu regime resulted in the highest maternal mortality rate in Europe (approximately 150 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) and in thousands of unwanted children in institutions. PMID:1415854

  14. Orientation toward Abortion: Guilt or Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgeier, A.R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Students (N=118) were classified as pro-choice, anti-abortion, or mixed on the basis of their responses to 10 fictitious case histories of women who requested abortion. Attitudinal differences are discussed in the context of the public controversy over abortion. (Author/CM)

  15. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  16. Aborting a Message Flowing Through Social Communities

    E-print Network

    Magdon-Ismail, Malik

    Aborting a Message Flowing Through Social Communities Cindy Hui Rutgers University Piscataway, New that incorporate group structures and the distribution of trust in designing a useful abort mechanism. Index Terms is spreading and we wish to spread a counter rumor. We investigate the aborting of a message that is currently

  17. Aborting a Message Flowing Through Social Communities

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Mark

    Aborting a Message Flowing Through Social Communities Cindy Hui, Malik Magdon-Ismail, William A in designing a useful abort mechanism. Index Terms--agent-based simulation, information diffusion, information investigate the aborting of a message that is currently diffusing through a network, with the purpose

  18. Abortion, Moral Maturity and Civic Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hall, Megan Williams

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to rhetoric, moral reasonings scholarship, and journalism scholarship by examining public rhetoric on abortion and American popular media coverage (1940s to 1990s). Finds that the feminine means of moral reasoning has emerged into the foreground of discourse on abortion. Compares emergence of a common-ground rhetoric on abortion with a…

  19. Abortion Attitudes Among University Students in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardis, Panos D.

    This report hypothesized that Indian university students approve of abortion, that religiosity neutralizes the influence of education in abortion attitudes, and that Indian students are more liberal in their attitudes on abortion than American Catholic students. To test these hypotheses, the author collected data from 150 students from two…

  20. Reemergence of self-induced abortions.

    PubMed

    Honigman, B; Davila, G; Petersen, J

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of adolescent females attempting self-induced abortions are presented. Many ramifications and complications of illegal abortions are discussed as they affect the patient and society. In addition, we discuss the future of medical education as well as the economic aspects of health care in relationship to illegal abortions. PMID:8445179

  1. Clandestine induced abortion: prevalence, incidence and risk factors among women in a Latin American country

    PubMed Central

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; White, Peter J.; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Hughes, James P.; Gonzales, Marco A.; Garcia, Patricia J.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Holmes, King K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Clandestine induced abortions are a public health problem in many developing countries where access to abortion services is legally restricted. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, clandestine induced abortions in a Latin American country. Methods We conducted a large population-based survey of women aged 18–29 years in 20 cities in Peru. We asked questions about their history of spontaneous and induced abortions, using techniques to encourage disclosure. Results Of 8242 eligible women, 7992 (97.0%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of reported induced abortions was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9%– 12.4%) among the 7962 women who participated in the survey. It was 13.6% (95% CI 12.8%– 14.5%) among the 6559 women who reported having been sexually active. The annual incidence of induced abortion was 3.1% (95% CI 2.9%– 3.3%) among the women who had ever been sexually active. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for induced abortion were higher age at the time of the survey (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.07– 1.15), lower age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.84– 0.91), geographic region (highlands: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23– 1.97; jungle: OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41– 2.31 [v. coastal region]), having children (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68– 0.98), having more than 1 sexual partner in lifetime (2 partners: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23– 2.09; ? 3 partners: OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.12– 3.67), and having 1 or more sexual partners in the year before the survey (1 partner: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01– 1.72; ? 2 partners: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14– 2.02). Overall, 49.0% (95% CI 47.6%– 50.3%) of the women who reported being currently sexually active were not using contraception. Interpretation The incidence of clandestine, potentially unsafe induced abortion in Peru is as high as or higher than the rates in many countries where induced abortion is legal and safe. The provision of contraception and safer-sex education to those who require it needs to be greatly improved and could potentially reduce the rate of induced abortion. PMID:19188628

  2. Prevention of infection after induced abortion: release date October 2010: SFP guideline 20102.

    PubMed

    Achilles, Sharon L; Reeves, Matthew F

    2011-04-01

    One known complication of induced abortion is upper genital tract infection, which is relatively uncommon in the current era of safe, legal abortion. Currently, rates of upper genital tract infection in the setting of legal induced abortion in the United States are generally less than 1%. Randomized controlled trials support the use of prophylactic antibiotics for surgical abortion in the first trimester. For medical abortion, treatment-dose antibiotics may lower the risk of serious infection. However, the number-needed-to-treat is high. Consequently, the balance of risk and benefits warrants further investigation. Perioperative oral doxycycline given up to 12 h before a surgical abortion appears to effectively reduce infectious risk. Antibiotics that are continued after the procedure for extended durations meet the definition for a treatment regimen rather than a prophylactic regimen. Prophylactic efficacy of antibiotics begun after abortion has not been demonstrated in controlled trials. Thus, the current evidence supports pre-procedure but not post-procedure antibiotics for the purpose of prophylaxis. No controlled studies have examined the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for induced surgical abortion beyond 15 weeks of gestation. The risk of infection is not altered when an intrauterine device is inserted immediately post-procedure. The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or acute cervicitis carries a significant risk of upper genital tract infection; this risk is significantly reduced with antibiotic prophylaxis. Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) also have an elevated risk of post-procedural infection as compared with women without BV; however, additional prophylactic antibiotics for women with known BV has not been shown to reduce their risk further than with use of typical pre-procedure antibiotic prophylaxis. Accordingly, evidence to support pre-procedure screening for BV is lacking. Neither povidone-iodine nor chlorhexidine have been shown to alter the risk of infection when used as cervicovaginal preparation. However, chlorhexidine appears to be more effective than povidone iodine at reducing bacteria within the vagina. The Society of Family Planning recommends the routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis, preferably with doxycycline, before surgical abortion. Use of treatment doses of antibiotics with medical abortion may decrease the rare risk of serious infection but universal requirement for such treatment has not been established. PMID:21397086

  3. Contraception for adolescents after abortion.

    PubMed

    Sedlecky, Katarina; Stankovi?, Zoran

    2016-02-01

    Introduction Preventing repeated unplanned pregnancy among adolescents is still a challenge because many of them fail to use effective contraception after abortion. Objective To review currently recommended options of methods and counselling for effective prevention of repeat pregnancies in adolescents. Methods Review of the literature that was identified through the Medline, ScienceDirect, Google and Popline databases and relevant expert opinions. Results Counselling needs to be adapted to the needs, values and lifestyle of adolescents. The best results are achieved with nondirective or active contraceptive counselling, followed by regular check-ups and cautious and attentive approach in the management of doubts, prejudices and side effects related to the contraceptive chosen. Adolescents should initiate contraception immediately after abortion: the motivation for choosing an efficacious method is highest at that time; resumption of ovulation following induced abortion occurs on average after three weeks; more than half of these girls will resume sexual activity within two weeks after pregnancy termination. Long-acting reversible contraception use during adolescence is safe and most effective. However, achieving a high long-term continuation rate is especially challenging in adolescents; this is due to developmental and environmental characteristics that influence their contraceptive behaviour. Conclusion Adolescents should immediately after abortion initiate a reliable contraceptive method, preferably one whose efficacy is not user-dependent. Providing an appropriate health care would contribute to achieving continuity in the prevention of repeat pregnancy. PMID:26463183

  4. A consideration of abortion survivors.

    PubMed

    Ney, P G

    1983-01-01

    It is hypothesized that children who have siblings terminated by abortion have similar psychological conflicts to those children who survive disasters or siblings who die of accident of illness. There is evidence that children are aware of their mother's pregnancy termination. Having been chosen to survive, these children may have considerable conflicts regarding their existence. Since their life depended upon being wanted, they may become obsessively determined to please or they may feel a deep sense of obligation to their parents. If children have already lost a parent the child may look upon his new unborn sibling as a potential attachment. To be deprived by his mother's choice may stir latent hostility within the child the expression of which would be inhibited by the child's determination to stay wanted. Abortion survivors may be overprotected by parents attempting to deal with their unresolved guilt. As a substitute child the abortion survivor may have placed upon himself impossible expectations. It is contended that since approximately 50% of Western children are abortion survivors there is need to analyze their individual and collective responses. PMID:6861555

  5. Estimating the efficacy of medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Trussell, J; Ellertson, C

    1999-09-01

    Comparisons of the efficacy of different regimens of medical abortion are difficult because of the widely varying protocols (even for testing identical regimens), divergent definitions of success and failure, and lack of a standard method of analysis. In this article we review the current efficacy literature on medical abortion, highlighting some of the most important differences in the way that efficacy has been analyzed. We then propose a standard conceptual approach and the accompanying statistical methods for analyzing clinical trials of medical abortion and to explain how clinical investigators can implement this approach. Our review reveals that research on the efficacy of medical abortion has closely followed the conceptual model used for analysis of surgical abortion. The problem, however, is that, whereas surgical abortion is a discrete event occurring in the space of a few minutes or less, medical abortion is a process typically lasting from several days to several weeks. In this process, two events may occur that are not possible with surgical abortion. First, the woman can opt out of the process before a fair determination of efficacy can be made. Second, the process of medical abortion allows time for surgical interventions that may be convenient for the clinician but not strictly necessary from a medical perspective. Another difference from surgical abortions is that, for medical abortions, different medical abortion protocols specify different waiting periods, giving the drugs less time to work in some studies than in others before a determination of efficacy is made. We argue that, when analyzing efficacy of medical abortion, researchers should abandon their close reliance on the analogy to surgical abortion. In fact, medical abortion is more appropriately analyzed by life table procedures developed for the study of another fertility regulation technology; contraception. As with medical abortion, a woman initiating use of a contraceptive method can change her mind after some period of exposure and opt out. Also, as with medical abortion, a contraceptive can fail, usually with the risk of failure depending heavily on whether or not the woman follows the protocol for that method precisely. Finally, as with medical abortion, medical conditions may arise that necessitate discontinuing use of the contraceptive method. In both cases, these medical conditions are sometimes open to interpretation or subject to the skill, judgment, or experience of the clinician involved. The appropriate information to collect for a multiple decrement life table analysis of medical abortion includes data on compliance with the protocol, timing of the event of interest (abortion) when it is observable, and, because we argue that these should be regarded as events of interest, a typology of any surgical interventions that are conducted during the woman's participation in the study. PMID:10640155

  6. Q fever and spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Quijada, S G; Terán, B M; Murias, P S; Anitua, A A; Cermeño, J L B; Frías, A B

    2012-06-01

    Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, may result in abortions in infected animals and pregnant women. However, the role that Q fever plays in spontaneous abortions is still unknown. This study examined the association between Q fever serology and abortion in a region where Q fever is endemic. A case-control population-based study was conducted in General Yagüe Hospital (Burgos area, Spain) between June 2009 and July 2010. A total of 801 samples from 500 pregnant women were tested, of whom 273 had a spontaneous abortion and 227 gave birth. IgG and IgM antibody titres against Q fever were determined in their two phases (I and II) by immunofluorescence assay. Seropositivity (phase I IgG ?1:16 or phase II IgG ?1:80) was detected in 88/273 (32.2%) cases and 53/227 (23.3%) controls; p <0.01, OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3. Seropositivity for both phases of IgG, compatible with recent or persistent infection, was detected in 55 (20.1%) vs 22 (9.7%); p <0.001, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-3.9. High phase II IgG antibodies compatible with active or recent infection (titres ?1:160) were detected in 27 (9.6%) vs 7 (3.1%); p <0.002, OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-8.0, respectively. Q fever was diagnosed in 14 (5.1%) cases. The risk of abortion associated with serological markers of active or recent Q fever in pregnant women was measurable and noticeable in this population, and accounted for 12% (95% CI 4-21%). PMID:22471505

  7. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children - vulnerable with respect to repeat abortion. PMID:25005363

  8. Departure phase aborts for manned Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissel, Adam F.

    NASA goals are set on resumption of human activity on the Moon and extending manned missions to Mars. Abort options are key elements of any system designed to safeguard human lives and stated requirements stipulate the provision of an abort capability throughout the mission. The present investigation will focus on the formulation and analysis of possible abort modes during the Earth departure phase of manned Mars interplanetary transfers. Though of short duration, the departure phase encompasses a mission timeline where failures have frequently become manifest in historical manned spacecraft necessitating the inclusion of a departure phase abort capability. Investigated abort modes included aborts to atmospheric entry, and to Earth or Moon orbit. Considered interplanetary trajectory types included conjunction, opposition, and free-return trajectory classes. All abort modes were analyzed for aborts initiated at multiple points along each of these possible departure trajectories across all launch opportunities of the fifteen-year Earth-Mars inertial period. The consistently low departure velocities of the conjunction trajectories facilitated the greatest abort capability. An analysis of Mars transportation architectures was performed to determine the amount of available delta V inherent in each candidate architecture for executing departure aborts. Results indicate that a delta V of at least 4 km/s is required to achieve a continuous departure phase entry abort capability with abort flights less than three weeks duration for all transfer opportunity years. Less demanding transfer years have a corresponding increase in capability. The Earth orbit abort mode does not become widely achievable until more than 6 km/s delta V is provided; a capacity not manifest in any considered architecture. Optimization of the Moon abort mode resulted in slight departure date shifts to achieve improved lunar alignments. The Moon abort mode is only widely achievable for conjunction transfers during the optimum transfer years and delta V values greater than 4 km/s. A lesser delta V potential of 3 km/s is sufficient to enable entry aborts during the least demanding transfer opportunity years. Extensive abort capability is achievable for high delta V capable Mars architectures. Less propulsively capable architectures achieve moderate abort capability during favorable opportunity years.

  9. [Demand for abortion. Special aspects of drug-induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Champion, J; Cailleux-Kreitmann, J

    1994-03-01

    Since 1990, 180 to 200 abortions annually representing 8 to 9% of the total at the Center for Social Gynecology in Marseilles have been performed with RU-486. Experience with RU-486 since 1986 has led to some reflections concerning the tasks of the physician, the client, and the health team. Because of the need to begin proceedings before the forty-second day of amenorrhea, the physician must attach some urgency to these cases, and must somehow establish priorities among the different pressing medical needs of patients. The physician must diagnose extrauterine pregnancy at very early stages, and must decide whether endovaginal sonography is justified. Evaluation of the uterus ten to twelve days after RU-486 administration to determine the success of the procedure is also difficult. The physician's decisions about needed tests and procedures must take into account the patient's medical condition but also her psychological reactions. The woman must take action within the first 15 days of amenorrhea in order to arrange an RU-486 abortion. The one-week waiting period is probably necessary to allow her to reflect on her reasons for choosing RU-486 and perhaps to change her mind. Among all women who requested drug- induced abortions at the Center for Social Gynecology, 10% had spontaneous abortions, 10% decided to continue their pregnancies, and 25% preferred other types of abortion. The health care team must explain the procedure to the woman, who is often nervous and agitated. The behavior of the health workers can help reduce anxiety and de-dramatize the experience for the woman. During the morning of monitoring after administration of prostaglandins, the patient must be prepared to leave the service. In half of cases, the expulsion will occur after the woman has left the hospital. Information must be provided about expulsion at home, possible method failure, significant bleeding, and other side effects and complications. The necessity for the follow-up appointment must be stressed, and information about contraception must be given. PMID:8009395

  10. Abort Options for Potential Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, P. V.; Striepe, S. A.; Powell, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Mars trajectory design options were examined that would accommodate a premature termination of a nominal manned opposition class mission for opportunities between 2010 and 2025. A successful abort must provide a safe return to Earth in the shortest possible time consistent with mission constraints. In this study, aborts that provided a minimum increase in the initial vehicle mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) were identified by locating direct transfer nominal missions and nominal missions including an outbound or inbound Venus swing-by that minimized IMLEO. The ease with which these missions could be aborted while meeting propulsion and time constraints was investigated by examining free return (unpowered) and powered aborts. Further reductions in trip time were made to some aborts by the addition or removal of an inbound Venus swing-by. The results show that, although few free return aborts met the specified constraints, 85% of each nominal mission could be aborted as a powered abort without an increase in propellant. Also, in many cases, the addition or removal of a Venus swing-by increased the number of abort opportunities or decreased the total trip time during an abort.

  11. Abortion Provision Among Practicing Obstetrician–Gynecologists

    PubMed Central

    Stulberg, Debra B.; Dude, Annie M.; Dahlquist, Irma; Curlin, Farr A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate prevalence and correlates of abortion provision among practicing obstetrician–gynecologists in the United States. Methods We conducted a national probability sample mail survey of 1,800 practicing obstetrician–gynecologists. Key variables included whether respondents ever encountered patients seeking abortion in their practice, and whether they provided abortion services. Correlates of providing abortion included physician demographic characteristics, religious affiliation, religiosity, and the religious affiliation of the facility in which a physician primarily practices. Results Among practicing obstetrician–gynecologists, 97% encountered patients seeking abortions, while 14% performed them. Young female physicians were the most likely to provide abortions (18.6% vs. 10.6%, adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.57–4.08), as were those in the Northeast or West, those in highly urban zip codes, and those who identify as Jewish. Catholics, Evangelical Protestants, non–Evangelical Protestants, and physicians with high religious motivation were less likely to provide abortions. Conclusion The proportion of U.S. obstetrician–gynecologists who provide abortion may be lower than estimated in previous research. Access to abortion remains limited by the willingness of physicians to provide abortion services, particularly in rural communities and in the South and Midwest. PMID:21860290

  12. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2002-06-03

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  13. RHIC Abort Kicker Prefire Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.; Perlstein, S.

    2014-07-07

    In an attempt to discover any pattern to prefire events, abort prefire kicker data from 2007 to the present day have been recorded. With the 2014 operations concluding, this comprises 8 years of prefire data. Any activities that the Pulsed Power Group did to decrease prefire occurrences were recorded as well, but some information may be missing. The following information is a compilation of the research to date.

  14. The role of access in explaining state abortion rates.

    PubMed

    Gober, P

    1997-04-01

    The likelihood of having an abortion in the U.S.A. is strongly dependent upon where a woman lives. Abortion rates vary markedly from state to state, and these variations have been increasing, especially in recent years. Path analysis shows the causal structure of public demand and access variables that determined state abortion rates in 1991 and 1992. Access variables, including the restrictiveness of state laws regulating abortion, state funding of abortions for poor women and the availability of hospital abortions, affect abortion rates directly. Greater accessibility leads to higher abortion rates. Public demand variables affect abortion rates both directly and indirectly through access conditions. The number of women at risk of unintended pregnancies leads to higher abortion rates directly and indirectly through its effects on medical access. Per capita income, percent Catholic, and percent of the population born outside the state affect abortion rates indirectly through the access variables. High per capita income leads directly to greater availability of hospital abortions, higher levels of state funding of abortions for poor women, less restrictive state abortion laws, and indirectly to higher abortion rates. States with large non-native populations have less restrictive abortion laws and higher abortion rates. The presence of a large Catholic population reduces the number of hospitals offering abortion services and leads indirectly to lower abortion rates. The interaction of public demand and access at the state level creates geographically varying environments in which abortion decisions are made. PMID:9089921

  15. Differential Impact of Abortion on Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Wanda; Reardon, David

    1992-01-01

    Compared adolescent and adult reactions to abortion among 252 women. Compared to adults, adolescents were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with choice of abortion and with services received, to have abortions later in gestational period, to feel forced by circumstances to have abortion, to report being misinformed at time of abortion,…

  16. Abortion Rights in Latin America (NYT) 539 words

    E-print Network

    Lopez-Carr, David

    Abortion Rights in Latin America (NYT) 539 words Published: January 6, 2006 For proof that criminalizing abortion doesn't reduce abortion rates and only endangers the lives of women, consider Latin America. In most of the region, abortions are a crime, but the abortion rate is far higher than in Western

  17. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity. PMID:26278840

  18. What do abortion policies accomplish? : understanding how abortion laws and court cases affect public opinion

    E-print Network

    Hernandez, Cory D

    2014-01-01

    Abortion is a loaded, controversial, and divisive sociocultural and political term, concept, and debate. Yet little empirical research has been conducted to examine what effects abortion rights legislation and court cases ...

  19. Conscientious refusal to assist with abortion.

    PubMed

    Dooley, D

    1994-09-10

    Abortion is a moral issue affecting the identity and integrity of physicians and nurses. Ethical reasoning helps reasonable and sincere people who do not agree on abortion to understand the sources of disagreement and to explore shared principles in the differences. Discussions of abortion cannot be limited to the conflict between the rights of a woman to control her reproduction and the rights of a fetus to live. Religious, cultural, feminist, and political beliefs must also be considered. This complexity must be considered when examining whether physicians and nurses have rights to refuse to assist in abortion on conscientious grounds. People with fundamentally different moral outlooks already determine what is morally right or wrong, good or evil. Health professionals who refuse to assist in abortion base their decision on beliefs about moral duties, injunctions of natural law, and the essentially nonnegotiable rights of people to be protected from intentional harm. They know and regret the adverse effects for pregnant women but there is no compelling motivation to change their opposition to abortion. There is no morally neutral position from which to judge conscientious refusals in abortion. Society should develop a position that respects autonomy of belief and grants the right to physicians and nurses to conscientiously refuse to assist in abortions. In those countries where the abortion law grants physicians the right to refuse but not nurses, society needs to reflect on why nurses have been accorded second class professional and moral status. In those countries which have not yet formulated an abortion law, the government should consider how it can find enough health workers who will in good conscience assist in abortions. Governments must first seriously consider a presumptive right to conscientious refusal in abortion before health systems can redistribute sectors of responsibility among health workers and implement changes in recruitment policies for relevant specializations. PMID:8086982

  20. An AbortAn Abort--Aware Model ofAware Model of Transactional ProgrammingTransactional Programming

    E-print Network

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    An AbortAn Abort--Aware Model ofAware Model of Transactional ProgrammingTransactional Programming ­ An abort-aware semantics for transactions · Part 2: TSMs = Transactional State Machines ­ A finite-terminating transactions (known) ­ Ignores STM/HTM aborted transactions: for responsiveness, "abort" cannot be equal

  1. Antiprogestins and the abortion controversy: a progress report.

    PubMed

    Klitsch, M

    1991-01-01

    The development of the antiprogestin RU-486, and its current use in France and the UK, potential other application, politics in the US, and future are presented. Ru-486, as commonly known by its company code name, rather than its generic name mifepristone, is an analogue of a progestin used in oral contraceptives, with an added chemical group that allows it to link up with the progesterone receptor, but prevents progesterone's effects. It was approved in France in 1988, and has been used for early abortion up to 7 weeks LMP on 80,000 women. French women, after an initial diagnostic appointment, take 3 200 mg tablets of RU-486, then 36-48 hr later return for a Sulprostone (prostaglandin) injection, and are checked up 4-6 weeks later. About 96% abort completely. Some have nausea, vomiting, or pain. Bleeding averages 9 days, and 1% require treatment for bleeding. 2 cardiovascular events and 1 heart attack have been associated with the prostaglandin, now contraindicated in smokers or women 35. In England, RU-486 abortions began in late 1991, for pregnancies up to 9 weeks, using a gentler prostaglandin, Gemeprost, in a vaginal suppository. Only company-trained doctors may order the drug. Research continues on lower doses of RU-486, other prostaglandins, and effects on the fetus if abortion fails. While there is no known basis for a teratogenic effect of the antiprogestin, strong uterine contractions brought on by prostaglandins, such as misoprostol, as abused for illegal abortion in Latin America, may cause birth defects. RU-486 is expected to be useful for inducing labor, dilating the cervix, emergency contraception, pre-surgical management of Cushing's syndrome, brain cancers with profesterone receptors, among other conditions. Several of the 400 or so antiprogestins known are being tested clinically, notably HRP 2000 by WHO. Political controversy is so intense in the US that Roussel, the maker of RU-486, has no intention of marketing it, and even research supplies are unreliable. Meanwhile, pro-choice groups are innovating ways to test and market antiprogestins legally, perhaps inside state lines. It is expected that a suitable prostaglandin, misoprostol, licensed for peptic ulcer, will be available soon, and even RU-486 will become generic by 1998 when its patent expires. PMID:1786809

  2. [The social context of abortion in the mountains and forests of Peru].

    PubMed

    Fort, A L

    1993-01-01

    In the past few years a greater openness to examination of the characteristics and consequences of abortion as a public health issue and as a social phenomenon has been evident in Peru. To study the attitudes and experiences regarding abortion of low income women living in squatter settlements, focus groups were organized in the Andean city of Cuzco and the Amazon city of Iquitos. The participating women were aged 15 to 49, married or in union, and had at least three living children. The women in each city were divided into three groups of modern contraceptive users, traditional contraceptive users, and nonusers of contraception. They were further divided into two age groups over and under 30 years old. Two focus groups were held for each age and contraception group in each city for a total of twelve sessions in each. A total of 173 women participated. The focus groups met in Iquitos in December 1986 and in Cuzco in March 1987. Younger users of modern contraception did not express approval of abortion but rather stressed its health risks and especially the belief that repeat abortions would lead to cancer. Contraceptive users over 30 and women in the other two groups cited health risks and moral condemnation, speaking in terms of crime, sin, and punishment. Some saw a distinction nevertheless between very early abortion and later abortions, which were disapproved. Some women expressed resentment at wealthier women who were suspected of using abortion to limit their family size. Women in both cities identified abortion seekers as predominantly young, unmarried, older, or multiparous. Private physicians and nurses were said to be the most frequent practitioners, although health workers of all kinds were mentioned. A wide variety of herbal preparations and abortifacients were mentioned, but doubt was expressed as to efficacy in some cases. Curettage was said to be performed by physicians but no details were given. Opinion was divided concerning the desirability of possible legalization of abortion. There was evident feeling that abortion should be used for special cases or emergencies, but that family planning should be the usual practice for fertility limitation. PMID:12319001

  3. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  4. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050 Section 884...884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

  6. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

  7. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050 Section 884...884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to...

  8. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

  9. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050 Section 884...884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050 Section 884...884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to...

  12. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050 Section 884...884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to...

  14. Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access

    MedlinePLUS

    Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access June 2008 Approximately one-fifth (19%) of the 6. ... occurring annually in the U.S. end in induced abortion. 1 While abortion is one of the most ...

  15. ACOG Committee opinion no. 612: Abortion training and education.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Access to safe abortion hinges upon the availability of trained abortion providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports education for students in health care fields as well as clinical training for residents and advanced practice clinicians in abortion care in order to increase the availability of trained abortion providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the expansion of abortion education and an increase in the number and types of trained abortion providers in order to ensure women's access to safe abortions. Integrated medical education and universal opt-out training policies help to lessen the stigma of abortion provision and improve access by increasing the number of abortion providers. This Committee Opinion reviews the current status of abortion education, describes initiatives to ensure the availability of appropriate and up-to-date abortion training, and recommends efforts for integrating and improving abortion education in medical schools, residency programs, and advanced practice clinician training programs. PMID:25437741

  16. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Sarah C.; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Background Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. Objectives To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). Methods A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. Results In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15–49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. Conclusions The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies. PMID:26361246

  17. Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM) - Application Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Howard; Straube, Tim; Madsen, Jennifer; Ricard, Mike

    2002-01-01

    One of the most demanding tasks that must be performed by the Space Shuttle flight crew is the process of determining whether, when and where to abort the vehicle should engine or system failures occur during ascent or entry. Current Shuttle abort procedures involve paging through complicated paper checklists to decide on the type of abort and where to abort. Additional checklists then lead the crew through a series of actions to execute the desired abort. This process is even more difficult and time consuming in the absence of ground communications since the ground flight controllers have the analysis tools and information that is currently not available in the Shuttle cockpit. Crew workload specifically abort procedures will be greatly simplified with the implementation of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) project. The intent of CAU is to maximize crew situational awareness and reduce flight workload thru enhanced controls and displays, and onboard abort assessment and determination capability. SAFM was developed to help satisfy the CAU objectives by providing the crew with dynamic information about the capability of the vehicle to perform a variety of abort options during ascent and entry. This paper- presents an overview of the SAFM application. As shown in Figure 1, SAFM processes the vehicle navigation state and other guidance information to provide the CAU displays with evaluations of abort options, as well as landing site recommendations. This is accomplished by three main SAFM components: the Sequencer Executive, the Powered Flight Function, and the Glided Flight Function, The Sequencer Executive dispatches the Powered and Glided Flight Functions to evaluate the vehicle's capability to execute the current mission (or current abort), as well as more than IS hypothetical abort options or scenarios. Scenarios are sequenced and evaluated throughout powered and glided flight. Abort scenarios evaluated include Abort to Orbit (ATO), Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL), East Coast Abort Landing (ECAL) and Return to Launch Site (RTLS). Sequential and simultaneous engine failures are assessed and landing footprint information is provided during actual entry scenarios as well as hypothetical "loss of thrust now" scenarios during ascent.

  18. J-2X Abort System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

  19. Available Motherhood: Legal Technologies, "State of Exception" and the Dekinning of "War-Babies" in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mookherjee, Nayanika

    2007-01-01

    This article takes an ethnographical approach to explore the "state of exception" through which legal technologies of abortion and adoption of "war-babies" (children born as a result of wartime rapes) in the Bangladesh war enabled the dekinning and elimination of certain childhoods while the raped women were rekinned within legitimate heterosexual…

  20. What can obstetrician/gynecologists do to support abortion access?

    PubMed

    Mark, Alice G; Wolf, Merrill; Edelman, Alison; Castleman, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion causes approximately13% of all maternal deaths worldwide, with higher rates in areas where abortion access is restricted. Because safe abortion is so low risk, if all women who needed an abortion could access safe care, this rate would drop dramatically. As women's health providers and advocates, obstetrician/gynecologists can support abortion access. By delivering high-quality, evidence-based care ourselves, supporting other providers who perform abortion, helping women who access abortion in the community, providing second-trimester care, and improving contraceptive uptake, we can decrease morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion. PMID:26433507

  1. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 6: Abort analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The abort analysis for the cycle 3 Operational Flight Profile (OFP) for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) is defined, superseding the abort analysis previously presented. Included are the flight description, abort analysis summary, flight design groundrules and constraints, initialization information, general abort description and results, abort solid rocket booster and external tank separation and disposal results, abort monitoring displays and discussion on both ground and onboard trajectory monitoring, abort initialization load summary for the onboard computer, list of the key abort powered flight dispersion analysis.

  2. A qualitative investigation of low-income abortion clients' attitudes toward public funding for abortion.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Adrianne; Manski, Ruth; Dennis, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    We explored how low-income abortion clients in states where public funding was and was not available perceived the role of public funding for abortion. From October 2010 through February 2011, we conducted 71 semi-structured in-depth telephone interviews with low-income abortion clients in Arizona, Florida, New York, and Oregon. Women reported weighing numerous factors when determining which circumstances warranted public funding. Though most women generally supported coverage, they deviated from their initial support when asked about particular circumstances. Respondents felt most strongly that abortion should not be covered when a woman could not afford another child or was pregnant outside of a romantic relationship. Participants used disparaging language to describe the presumed behavior of women faced with unintended pregnancies. In seeking to discredit "other" women's abortions, women revealed the complex nature of abortion stigma. We propose that women's abortion experiences and subsequent opinions on coverage indicated three distinct manifestations of abortion stigma: women (1) resisted the prominent discourse that marks women who have had abortions as selfish and irresponsible; (2) internalized societal norms that stereotype women based on the circumstances surrounding the abortion; and (3) reproduced stigma by distancing themselves from the negative stereotypes associated with women who have had abortions. PMID:25068780

  3. [Abortion: an ethical or political issue?].

    PubMed

    Divay, Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Forty years after the decriminalisation of abortion, what is society's view of this hard-fought right of women? Do they finally have the freedom to control their own bodies? The sociological view put forward here questions the professional positioning of caregivers faced with women requesting an elective abortion. PMID:26654494

  4. Complexifying Commodification, Consumption, ART, and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    This commentary on Madeira's paper complicates the relationships between commodification, consumption, abortion, and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) she draws in two ways. First, I examine under what conditions the commodification of ARTs, gametes, and surrogacy lead to patients becoming consumers. Second, I show that there are some stark difference between applying commodification critiques to ART versus abortion. PMID:26242952

  5. Myths with Facts: SEX-SELECTIVE ABORTION

    E-print Network

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    Replacing Myths with Facts: SEX-SELECTIVE ABORTION LAWS IN THE UNITED STATES I N T E R N A T I O N, San Francisco. #12;Replacing Myths with Facts: SEX-SELECTIVE ABORTION LAWS IN THE UNITED STATES JUNE

  6. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  7. Abortion and Social Change in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Robert; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Recently collected data from a survey of the attitudes of 1,843 elite members of both traditional and new institutions towards abortion indicate that, barring a major religious revival, a relatively permissive abortion policy will probably continue whether or not the Supreme Court curtails or overturns Roe vs. Wade. (FMW)

  8. Violence against abortion increases in US clinics.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J

    1994-08-13

    In the US, violence against abortion clinics is escalating. In July 1994, a doctor who performed abortions and one of his escorts was gunned down outside of an abortion clinic. In March of 1993, another doctor was killed outside of a clinic. That killing prompted passage of a federal law designed to protect abortion providers and clinics from violence. In addition to the individuals murdered, the number of violent incidents against abortion clinics increased four-fold to 250 in 1993. Some elderly physicians feel compelled to continue to perform the procedure instead of retiring because there are no young practitioners to replace them. These physicians note that the young practitioners have no experience with the deaths and illness which resulted from illegal abortions and have not been properly trained by their medical schools. The US Attorney General has dispatched federal marshalls to guard abortion clinics, and local police are increasing their protection of clinics. Abortion protestors say that the new federal law will cause some formerly peaceful protestors to resort to violence. PMID:7920122

  9. Induced abortions and unintended pregnancies in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Rashida, Gul; Shah, Zakir; Niazi, Rehan

    2014-12-01

    During the past decade, unmet need for family planning has remained high in Pakistan and gains in contraceptive prevalence have been small. Drawing upon data from a 2012 national study on postabortion-care complications and a methodology developed by the Guttmacher Institute for estimating abortion incidence, we estimate that there were 2.2 million abortions in Pakistan in 2012, an annual abortion rate of 50 per 1,000 women. A previous study estimated an abortion rate of 27 per 1,000 women in 2002. After taking into consideration the earlier study's underestimation of abortion incidence, we conclude that the abortion rate has likely increased substantially between 2002 and 2012. Varying contraceptive-use patterns and abortion rates are found among the provinces, with higher abortion rates in Baluchistan and Sindh than in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. This suggests that strategies for coping with the other wise uniformly high unintended pregnancy rates will differ among provinces. The need for an accelerated and fortified family planning program is greater than ever, as is the need to implement strategies to improve the quality and coverage of postabortion services. PMID:25469930

  10. The road to abortion (II): how government got hooked.

    PubMed

    Meehan, M

    1999-01-01

    The first part of this series traced close links between eugenics (the effort to breed a "better" human race) and population control throughout the greater part of this century up to the 1960s. It stressed the population work of early eugenicists and eugenics sympathizers such as Frederick Osborn, Margaret Sanger, Gunnar Myrdal, Alan Guttmacher, Garrett Hardin and John D. Rockefeller 3rd. This second and concluding part will show how population controllers, from the 60s onward increasingly added economic and foreign-policy concerns to their original "eugenics" motive of improving human genetic stock. Working in both Democratic and Republican administrations, they gained major government backing for their programs and also played a key role in the legalization of abortion. I will use President Richard Nixon's administration as an example of heavy government involvement. PMID:11881670

  11. A tree of impact model. Evaluation of consequences of repeal of the abortion law on teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Horner, S D; Hilde, E

    1991-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a complex issue in the current sociopolitical milieu. The enactment of abortion laws adds to the complexity of the problem, involving moral and ethical issues, as well as social, economic, and health status consequences that should be considered in the development of legislation surrounding this issue. The tree of impact diagram is a mechanism for forecasting possible consequences of abortion laws. Historical, social, developmental, economic, and legal forces are considered in creating the tree of impact in relation to the health and well-being of teenage mothers and their children. PMID:1931264

  12. Medical abortion: the hidden revolution.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Phil

    2015-07-01

    While the medical abortion (MA) drugs, mifepristone and misoprostol, have radically altered reproductive health practices around the world, there has been little field research on the sales and use of these drugs, especially in developing countries. This leaves the family planning community with many unanswered questions. While good profiles of contraceptive use are available for many countries and we have good technical data on the MA drugs' efficacy, dosages and regimens such as home dosage of misoprostol versus clinic dosage, we have very little information about the quantities of MA drugs sold, how they are used, where they are used, and, in the case of misoprostol, for what purposes. Sales data are available from one excellent commercial survey and from social marketing sales of mifepristone and misoprostol and these are presented. Acknowledging the sensitivity of the issue, especially in countries where abortion is severely restricted, the author makes a plea for careful additional research to shed light on an important and growing part of the international reproductive health picture. PMID:26106105

  13. First trimester abortion by vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Borko, E; Breznik, R; Kokos, Z; Edelman, D; Brenner, W

    1975-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and complications of using the 8 mm diameter metal and flexible plastic cannulae for performing abortions of pregnancies of 7--10 menstrual weeks' gestation by vacuum aspiration, a comparative study was conducted. Both types of cannulae were randomly assigned to 300 subjects in a study design where the physician who performed the abortion was not the same person who evaluated the subject after the abortion or at the time of the follow-up visit. All abortions were performed under paracervical block anesthetic after mechanical dilatation of the cervix to 8.6 mm. The rates of specific complications, blood loss and the need for secondary procedures to complete the abortion were not significantly different for the two types of cannulae. The amount of tissue obtained with a routine curette check following the vacuum aspiration, and the incidence of cannula obstruction were similar for the two types of cannulae. PMID:1211837

  14. "Yes" to abortion but "no" to sexual rights: the paradoxical reality of married women in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, T K Sundari; Balasubramanian, P

    2004-05-01

    This study in rural Tamil Nadu, India, explored the reasons why many married women in India undergo induced abortions rather than use reversible contraception to space or limit births in terms of women's sexual and reproductive rights within marriage, and in the context of gender relations between couples more generally. It is based on in-depth interviews with two generations of ever-married women, some of whom had had abortions and others who had not, from 98 rural hamlets. The respondents were 66 women and 44 of their husbands. Non-consensual sex, sexual violence and women's inability to refuse their husband's sexual demands appeared to underlie the need for abortion in both younger and older women. Many men seemed to believe that sex within marriage was their right, and that women had no say in the matter. The findings raise questions about the presumed association between legal abortion and the enjoyment of reproductive and sexual rights. A large number of women who had abortions in this study were denied their sexual rights but were permitted, even forced, to terminate their pregnancies for reasons unrelated to their right to choose abortion. The study brings home the need for activism to promote women's sexual rights and a campaign against sexual violence in marriage. PMID:15242214

  15. Dementia and legal competency.

    PubMed

    Filakovi?, Pavo; Eri?, Anamarija Petek; Mihanovi?, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task execution, language difficulties, loosing perception of time and space, changes in mood and behaviour, personality alterations, loss of interests and initiative). Towards more accurate determination of legal competency the psychometric tests are being used. The appliance of these tests must be guided with basic question during evaluation: "For what is or is not he/she capable?" In prediction of possible dementia development, the modern diagnostic procedures are used as help for potentially demented individuals in order to plan own affairs and by oneself determine future guardian. This ensures the maximal respect and protection of rights among persons with dementia in order to independently manage life one step ahead of progressive illness. Finally, it is to be distinguished medical concept of legal capacity which is universal and judicial concept which is restricted by rules of national legal system differing from country to country. PMID:21755719

  16. Falling sex ratios and emerging evidence of sex-selective abortion in Nepal: evidence from nationally representative survey data

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Melanie Dawn; Puri, Mahesh; Hinde, Peter Richard Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To quantify trends in changing sex ratios of births before and after the legalisation of abortion in Nepal. While sex-selective abortion is common in some Asian countries, it is not clear whether the legal status of abortion is associated with the prevalence of sex-selection when sex-selection is illegal. In this context, Nepal provides an interesting case study. Abortion was legalised in 2002 and prior to that, there was no evidence of sex-selective abortion. Changes in the sex ratio at birth since legalisation would suggest an association with legalisation, even though sex-selection is expressly prohibited. Design Analysis of data from four Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011. Setting Nepal. Participants 31?842 women aged 15–49. Main outcome measure Conditional sex ratios (CSRs) were calculated, specifically the CSR for second-born children where the first-born was female. This CSR is where the evidence of sex-selective abortion will be most visible. CSRs were looked at over time to assess the impact of legalisation as well as for population sub-groups in order to identify characteristics of women using sex-selection. Results From 2007 to 2010, the CSR for second-order births where the first-born was a girl was found to be 742 girls per 1000 boys (95% CI 599 to 913). Prior to legalisation of abortion (1998–2000), the same CSR was 1021 (906–1150). After legalisation, it dropped most among educated and richer women, especially in urban areas. Just 325 girls were born for every 1000 boys among the richest urban women. Conclusions The fall in CSRs witnessed post-legalisation indicates that sex-selective abortion is becoming more common. This change is very likely driven by both supply and demand factors. Falling fertility has intensified the need to bear a son sooner, while legal abortion services have reduced the costs and risks associated with obtaining an abortion. PMID:23674444

  17. Fetal viability as a threshold to personhood. A legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Peterfy, A

    1995-12-01

    This essay opens with an examination of US laws concerning fetal viability as they apply to induced abortion, to a mother's right to refuse medical treatment necessary to save the life of a fetus, and to the rights to file suit for the wrongful death of unborn children. The history of abortion policies in the US is traced from the common law period of the early 19th century to the restrictive post-Civil War laws and the decisions of the Supreme Court in Roe vs. Wade, which upheld the constitutionality of previability abortions; Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services, in which the Court assigned viability to the 20th week of pregnancy and acknowledged that States could have a compelling previability interest in the fetus; and the Casey decision, which provided tolerance for limits on the availability of abortion before viability as long as the limits did not create an "undue burden" on the woman seeking the abortion. Courts dealing with the issue of compelling a mother to undergo medical treatment to save her fetus have been inconsistent as they balanced the state's interest in the fetus against the mother's rights to privacy. Judges have tended to err on the side of forcing the medical interventions, but the most recent trend is against this sort of judgement. In these cases, fetal viability has also served as a dividing line. The inconsistency of the legal system is illustrated by the fact that, whereas the fetus now has a legal existence, wrongful death actions entered on behalf of a nonviable fetus have often been denied although courts have been more willing to extend protection to fetuses in wrongful death tort cases than in abortion or medical intervention cases. Criminal law has a unique set of rules for dealing with fetuses as some states have broadened their definitions of "homicide" to include fetuses, even nonviable fetuses. Courts, however, are reluctant to enlarge criminal statutes on their own. While the central position given to the role of viability in the Roe vs. Wade decision was intended to apply only to abortion (and is diminishing there), state courts have accepted viability as equating personhood and have used the concept to decide medical treatment, wrongful death, and criminal cases. In order to resolve the inconsistencies exhibited by these decisions, states should be allowed to make all decisions regarding the treatment of fetuses. PMID:8568420

  18. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Coverage Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, Marc J.; Berndt, Jon S.; Burke, Laura M.; Falck, Robert D.; Gowan, John W., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    An important element in the design of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the consideration given to crew safety during various ascent phase failure scenarios. To help ensure crew safety during this critical and dynamic flight phase, the CEV requirements specify that an abort capability must be continuously available from lift-off through orbit insertion. To address this requirement, various CEV ascent abort modes are analyzed using 3-DOF (Degree Of Freedom) and 6-DOF simulations. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage using the current baseline vehicle design. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, thermal environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal are investigated to determine if the current vehicle requirements are appropriate and achievable. Sensitivity studies and design trades are also completed so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle design. An overview of the CEV ascent abort modes is presented along with the driving requirements for abort scenarios. The results of the analysis completed as part of the requirements validation process are then discussed. Finally, the conclusions of the study are presented, and future analysis tasks are recommended.

  19. A decade of international change in abortion law: 1967-1977.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1978-01-01

    Modern thinking on abortion, reflected in recent legal developments around the world, has turned from concentration upon criminality in favor of female and family well-being. New laws enacted during the last decade are coming to focus upon conditions of health and social welfare of women and their existing families as indications for lawful termination of pregnancy. Regulations governing the delivery of services may be restrictive, however, so as to limit in practice access to means of safe, legal abortion made available in theory. Requirements may be imposed that only medical personnel with unduly high qualifications perform procedures, or that they be undertaken only in institutions meeting standards higher than similar health care requires. Approval procedures may be established involving second medical opinions or committees to monitor observance of the law, which may delay abortions and therefore increase their hazards. Parental and spousal consent requirements may exist in addition with the same effects, or to veto a pregnant female's request. Regulations may be employed more positively, however, to encourage contraceptive practice. A disappointment with legislative reform is that it may fail to improve circumstances if public resources are not applied to achieve the supply of services newly rendered legitimate, and illegal practice may persist. PMID:665881

  20. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  1. On Avoiding Spare Aborts in Transactional Memory Idit Keidar

    E-print Network

    Keidar, Idit

    On Avoiding Spare Aborts in Transactional Memory Idit Keidar Dept. of Electrical Engineering a theory for un- derstanding aborts in transactional memory systems (TMs). Existing TMs may abort many transactions that could, in fact, commit without violating correctness. We call such unnecessary aborts spare

  2. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  4. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  5. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  6. Emotional Sequelae of Abortion: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemkau, Jeanne Parr

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes literature on normative reactions to abortion and factors that increase risk of negative emotional sequelae. Discusses characteristics of woman, social support and cultural milieu around the abortion, the medical environment and abortion procedure itself, and events subsequent to abortion which may cause conflict. Discusses implications…

  7. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  8. Feelings of Well-Being Before and After an Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hittner, Amy

    1987-01-01

    Examined feelings of well-being in 217 women who had abortions. Results suggest that, compared to women who have not had abortions, those who choose abortion feel more negatively. Of women choosing abortion, those who are already mothers are most likely to be depressed and lonely, followed by those from lower educational and socioeconomic…

  9. Immediate Intrauterine Device Insertion Following Surgical Abortion.

    PubMed

    Patil, Eva; Bednarek, Paula H

    2015-12-01

    Placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after a first or second trimester surgical abortion is safe and convenient and decreases the risk of repeat unintended pregnancy. Immediate postabortion IUD placement is not recommended in the setting of postprocedure hemorrhage, uterine perforation, infection, or hematometra. Otherwise, there are few contraindications to IUD placement following surgical abortion. Sexually transmitted infection screening should follow US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. No additional antibiotics are needed beyond those used for the abortion. Placing immediate postabortion IUDs makes highly-effective long-acting reversible contraception more accessible to women. PMID:26598301

  10. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    E-print Network

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 ?s long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  11. Development of Legal Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glöckner, Andreas; Towfigh, Emanuel; Traxler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In a comprehensive empirical investigation (N = 71,405) we analyzed the development of legal expertise in a critical 1-year period of academic legal training in which advanced law students start practicing to solve complex cases. We were particularly interested in the functional form of the learning curve and inter-individual differences in…

  12. School Safety Legal Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Ronald D., Ed.; And Others

    This legal anthology presents contemporary thoughts covering a broad range of topics in education and school safety from a national perspective. It covers four major areas: (1) an overview of schools in U.S. society from historical and legal perspectives; (2) an exploration of some aspects of school crime; (3) restitution, parental liability,…

  13. Database Reviews: Legal Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiser, Virginia

    Detailed reviews of two legal information databases--"Laborlaw I" and "Legal Resource Index"--are presented in this paper. Each database review begins with a bibliographic entry listing the title; producer; vendor; cost per hour contact time; offline print cost per citation; time period covered; frequency of updates; and size of file. A detailed…

  14. Boldly Redefining Legal Education

    E-print Network

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    -YEAR CURRICULUM #12;Boldly Redefining Legal Education Since we were given a blank slate, our accomplished, nationally- ranked faculty designed a cutting-edge approach to legal education not found at other law schools, federalism and individual liberties. This course focuses on how constitutional arguments are made, and how

  15. Accreditation's Legal Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graca, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Like most issues in higher education, the accreditation paradigm in the United States is defined in large measure by the legal and political climate in which the academy finds itself. In the case of accreditation in particular, the legal substrate is of particular importance given the central role of accreditation in a college's ability to receive…

  16. [Abortion: 20 years of Brazilian research].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Corrêa, Marilena; Squinca, Flávia; Braga, Kátia Soares

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the main characteristics of the scientific literature on abortion in Brazil. Data were collected from 88 literature bases, and 2,109 documents from 1987 to 2008 were retrieved. Based on the findings, the field of abortion in Brazil is dominated by female researchers affiliated with public universities and nongovernmental organizations from the Southeast, with training in health sciences. There is no research on abortion in the North, while 14% of the studies were conducted in the Northeast and 4% in the Central-West. Abortion has been a constant theme in the scientific literature in Brazil, increasing in the mid-20th century. PMID:19347220

  17. TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been studied include, for example, spontaneous abortions, congenital defects, low birt...

  18. Launch Abort System Flight Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Bosworth, John T.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is an overview of the Launch Abort System (LAS) for the Constellation Program. The purpose of the paper is to review the planned tests for the LAS. The program will evaluate the performance of the crew escape functions of the Launch Abort System (LAS) specifically: the ability of the LAS to separate from the crew module, to gather flight test data for future design and implementation and to reduce system development risks.

  19. The Bad Mother: Stigma, Abortion and Surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Stigma taints individuals with a spoiled identity and loss of status or discrimination. This article is the first to examine the stigma attached to abortion and surrogacy and consider how law may stigmatize women for failing to conform to social expectations about maternal roles. Courts should consider evidence of stigma when evaluating laws regulating abortion or surrogacy to determine whether these laws are based on impermissible gender stereotyping. PMID:26242937

  20. Abortion and anxiety: what's the relationship?

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Julia Renee; Russo, Nancy F

    2008-07-01

    Using data from the United States National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), we conducted secondary data analyses to examine the relationship of abortion, including multiple abortions, to anxiety after first pregnancy outcome in two studies. First, when analyzing the NSFG, we found that pre-pregnancy anxiety symptoms, rape history, age at first pregnancy outcome (abortion vs. delivery), race, marital status, income, education, subsequent abortions, and subsequent deliveries accounted for a significant association initially found between first pregnancy outcome and experiencing subsequent anxiety symptoms. We then tested the relationship of abortion to clinically diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and social anxiety disorder, using NCS data. Contrary to findings from our analyses of the NSFG, in the NCS analyses we did not find a significant relationship between first pregnancy outcome and subsequent rates of GAD, social anxiety, or PTSD. However, multiple abortions were found to be associated with much higher rates of PTSD and social anxiety; this relationship was largely explained by pre-pregnancy mental health disorders and their association with higher rates of violence. Researchers and clinicians need to learn more about the relations of violence exposure, mental health, and pregnancy outcome to avoid attributing poor mental health solely to pregnancy outcomes. PMID:18468755

  1. The problems of therapeutic abortion and infanticide.

    PubMed

    Humphries, S V

    1978-04-01

    Medical professionals need to revaluate current ethical standards which permit the killing of a normal fetus but require the use of heroic efforts to save the life of a severely deformed or mentally handicapped child once that child is born. The ethical issues involved in both abortion and infanticide are similar. Direct objections to both of these practices refer to the person killed and indirect objections refer to the side effects experienced by the family and society. Direct objections are irrelevant in abortion since the fetus is not aware that it is being killed and are also irrelevant in infanticide until the child is old enough to become aware of death. Indirect objections to abortion include: 1) guilt experienced by the mother and the abortion provider; 2) decline in maternal feeling in the society as a whole; and 3) the use of medical personnel and facilitates to provide unnecessary services. Advantages associated with abortion are that it: 1) reduces the number of unwanted children; 2) reduces the number of abnormal children; and 3) provides a safe and inexpensive form of contraception. Indirect objects to to infanticide are similar to those noted for abortion. The advantage of infanticide is that it avoids the on-going distress of parents who must live with and support a severe handicapped child. PMID:657265

  2. Movement and counter-movement: a history of abortion law reform and the backlash in Colombia 2006-2014.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, Alba

    2014-11-01

    In 2006, the Constitutional Court of Colombia issued Decision C-355/2006, which liberalized the country's abortion law. The reform was groundbreaking in its argumentation, being one of the first judicial decisions in the world to uphold abortion rights on equality grounds, and the first by a constitutional court to rule on the constitutionality of abortion within a human rights framework. It was also the first of a series of reforms that would liberalize the abortion regulation in four other Latin American countries. The Colombian case is also notable for the process of strategic litigation carried out by feminist organizations after the Court's decision, in order to ensure its implementation and counter the opposition from conservative actors working in State institutions, as well as for the active role played by the Court in that process. Based on fieldwork carried out in Colombia in 2013, this article analyzes the process of progressive implementation and reactionary backlash after Decision C-355/2006, with an emphasis on strategic litigation by the feminist movement and subsequent decisions by the Constitutional Court, which consolidated its jurisprudence in the field of abortion rights. It highlights the role of both feminists and of conservative activists within State institutions as opposing social movements, and the dynamics of political and legal mobilization and counter-mobilization in that process. PMID:25555762

  3. Reproductive rights on firmer ground with prochoice White House, Congress. Special report -- abortion and the 1992 elections.

    PubMed

    1992-11-12

    After 12 years, the US citizens elected a pro-choice president and preserved the already pro-choice Congress even though new people constitute 25% of the House of Representatives. The Congress gained even more pro-choice members. The abortion issue played an important secondary role (preceded by the economy) in the national elections, but was more important at the state level in many states. For example, voters overwhelmingly chose to preserve access to legal abortion in Arizona (69.31%) and Maryland (62.38%). In addition, 4 new women Senators and a Senator-elect from Colorado publicly proclaimed their pro-choice stance. The states of Missouri, North Carolina, and North Dakota elected pro-choice governors resulting in 30 pro-choice US governors and 20 antiabortion governors. President-elect Clinton can unilaterally repeal 2 of Bush's executive orders: the gag rule and the ban on fetal tissue transplantation research. He will need Congress' support to renew the Title X family planning program, to grant public funding for medically necessary abortions for poor women again, and the pass of the Freedom of Choice Act. Congress and the new president face the obstacle of convincing the public of the damage to basic rights done by the Supreme Court as evidenced by abortion rulings. They also need to lead the pro-choice groups to begin concentrating on how to prevent unwanted pregnancies so as to reduce the number of abortions and the needs of all women who want and need access to safe abortion. The Republican party's great hostility toward abortion and its intolerance for a variety of beliefs and life styles alienated most US citizens. Recent political losses are motivating the Republican party to reorganize but it depends on the moderates' ability and willingness to reclaim the party. PMID:12285933

  4. Women's Private Conversations about Abortion: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Herold, Stephanie; Kimport, Katrina; Cockrill, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Abortion is a relatively frequent experience, yet public discourse about abortion is contentious and stigmatizing. Little literature is available on private conversations about abortion, which may be distinct from public discourse. We explored private discourse by documenting the nature of women's discussions about abortion with peers in a book club. We recruited thirteen women's book clubs in nine states. Participants (n = 119) read the book Choice: True Stories of Birth, Contraception, Infertility, Adoption, Single Parenthood, & Abortion, and participated in a book club meeting, which we audio-recorded and transcribed. Data collection occurred between April 2012 and April 2013. In contrast to public discourse of abortion, private discourse was nuanced and included disclosures of multiple kinds of experiences with abortion. Participants disclosed having abortions, considering abortion as an option for past or future pregnancies, and supporting others through an abortion. Distinguishing between public and private discourse enabled us to identify that an "abortion experience" could include personal decisions, hypothetical decisions, or connection with someone having an abortion. The book club atmosphere provided a rare opportunity for participants to explore their relationship to abortion. More research is needed to understand the role of private discourse in reducing abortion stigma. PMID:26086582

  5. [The first 100 early medical abortions].

    PubMed

    Lidegaard, O; Larsen, J F; Blaabjerg, J; Larsen, E

    1999-05-31

    Early medical abortion was introduced in Denmark in 1998. This article describes our experiences with the first 100 patients at Herlev University Hospital. The regimen was 600 mg mifepriston (RU486) given orally on day one. All women had an ultrasound examination before RU486 was given in order to ensure an intrauterine pregnancy and a gestationel age of eight weeks or less, and all had a quantitative P-hCG. On day three the patients received 1 mg gemeprost as vagitory as well as a paracetamol/-codein suppository. They were observed in the department for four hours, and were thereafter discharged no matter whether a complete abortion had occurred ot not. On day 14 a new P-hCG was taken. All women in whom the hCG value was not reduced to one half of the initial value or less underwent a new ultrasound examination. All women were given a questionnaire. The effectivity was 96%. Four of 100 women were evacuated: one due to severe vaginal bleeding four hours after application of gemeprost, two because of womiting soon after having taken RU486 and one due to incomplete abortion. Half of the women began to bleed before application of gemeprost, and 91% had bleeding for more than six days. One half had no side effects to mifepristone, the other half had mild nausea. Nine of ten patients were sufficiently relieved of pain without opioids, whereas 10% were insufficiently pain relieved. Eight of ten patients would choose the same method again, in case of a future need for an induced abortion. The reason for not preferring a medical abortion among the remaining 20% was primarily pain. Early medical abortion should be offered to all women referred for induced abortion with a gestational age of eight weeks or less. PMID:10485206

  6. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs. PMID:3147672

  7. Evidence for Parachlamydia in bovine abortion.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Silke; Casson, Nicola; Kaiser, Carmen; Thoma, Ruedi; Pospischil, Andreas; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole

    2009-03-16

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious aetiology still remains a major economic problem. In this study, we focused on a new possible abortigenic agent called Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Retrospective samples (n=235) taken from late-term abortions in cattle were investigated by real-time diagnostic PCR for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydia spp., respectively. Histological sections of cases positive by real-time PCR for any Chlamydia-related agent were further examined by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies. Chlamydophila abortus was detected only in three cases (1.3%) by real-time PCR and ArrayTube Microarray playing a less important role in bovine abortion compared to the situation in small ruminants in Switzerland. By real-time PCR as many as 43 of 235 (18.3%) cases turned out to be positive for Parachlamydia. The presence of Parachlamydia within placental lesions was confirmed in 35 cases (81.4%) by immunohistochemistry. The main histopathological feature in parachlamydial abortion was purulent to necrotizing placentitis (25/43). Parachlamydia should be considered as a new abortigenic agent in Swiss cattle. Since Parachlamydia may be involved in lower respiratory tract infections in humans, bovine abortion material should be handled with care given the possible zoonotic risk. PMID:18951734

  8. Conservative management of spontaneous abortions. Women's experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, E.; Janssen, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe women's experiences with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. DESIGN: Descriptive survey using questionnaires with fixed-choice and open-ended questions. The latter were analyzed for themes, using qualitative methods. SETTING: Urban and suburban private primary care family practices. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of family practice patients (59 of 80 eligible) pregnant for less than 12 weeks who had spontaneous abortions without surgery. Response rate was 84.7%; 50 questionnaires were received from the 59 women. METHOD: Women were asked about their physical experiences, including amount of pain and bleeding; emotional effects; their satisfaction with medical care; and their suggestions for improving care. MAIN FINDINGS: The mean worst pain experienced during a spontaneous abortion on an 11-point scale was 5.9. Bleeding varied, but was often very heavy. Satisfaction rate was 92.9% with family physician care and 84.6% with hospital care. Women described the emotional effect of "natural" spontaneous abortions and made recommendations for improving care. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the physical and emotional experiences of the women in this study might help physicians better prepare and support patients coping with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. PMID:10540695

  9. Report: a study of morbidity of induced abortion data from women belonging to Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Farah; Aslam, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morbidity of induced abortion in relation to facilities, service providers and social responses of general population of women, from Karachi, Pakistan. Cross-sectional survey, conducted from February to December 2010, through a researcher-administered questionnaire from 61 randomly selected women, who underwent for Induced Abortion, aged 18-50 years. The questionnaire included open and closed ended questions, regarding demography, facilities, service providers and various complications observed. Overall, 98 immediate health problems were reported by 40 (65.5%) of the respondents, 153 late adverse effects or chronic by 46 (75.4%); while 101 mental complications had been reported by 45 (73.8%) of the 61 aborting women; respectively. Private clinics surfaced as the most frequently adopted source as reported by 40.7% of the respondents. Two third majorities had the procedure in satisfactory, good hygienic conditions by skilled professionals. Around 59% of the aborting women were aware of the religious perspective of the subject. Marked incidence of complications had been registered, regardless of type of method adopted, hygienic condition of the procedure or skill of the provider. Although, awareness of religious perspective of the subject was there, still quite a lot opted for abortion. This suggests that strong socioeconomic factors influence women to take peril of such an attempt. It also reveals the existence of a big gap for the awareness services for educating the risks involved to the women's health. Study revealed that services are easily accessible; without any legal, religious or social barriers. Semi or un-educated women, mostly from low socioeconomic sector are opting the procedure in majority, being less aware and stalwartly influenced by environmental factors; hence excessive availability of abortion services should be revisited. Lack of deep awareness of the consequences also contributes for deteriorating future reproductive and mental health. Awareness and counseling services for aborting women, for their health risks, as well as about human perspective of the issue, needs to be initiated, for better management of their reproductive health and rights. PMID:25553703

  10. A prospective study of complications from comprehensive abortion care services in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In March 2002, Nepal's Parliament approved legislation to permit abortion on request up to 12 weeks of pregnancy. Between 2004 and 2007, 176 comprehensive abortion care (CAC) service sites were established in Nepal, leading to a rise in safe, legal abortions. Though monitoring systems have been developed, reporting of complications has not always been complete or accurate. The purpose of this study was to report the frequency and type of abortion complications arising from CAC procedures in different types of facilities in Nepal. Methods A total of 7,386 CAC clients from a sample of facilities across Nepal were enrolled over a three-month period in 2008. Data collection included an initial health questionnaire at the time of abortion care and a follow-up questionnaire assessing complications, administered two weeks after the abortion procedure. A total of 7,007 women (95%) were successfully followed up. Complication rates were assessed overall and by facility type. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between experiencing a complication and client demographic and facility characteristics. Results Among the 7,007 clients who were successfully followed, only 1.87% (n = 131) experienced signs and symptoms of complications at the two-week follow up, the most common being retained products of conception (1.37%), suspected sepsis (0.39%), offensive discharge (0.51%) and moderate bleeding (0.26%). Women receiving care at non-governmental organization (NGO) facilities were less likely to experience complications than women at government facilities, adjusting for individual and facility characteristics (AOR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08-0.40). Compared to women receiving CAC at 4-5 weeks gestation, women at 10-12 weeks gestation were more likely to experience complications, adjusting for individual and facility characteristics (AOR = 4.21; 95% CI: 1.38-12.82). Conclusions The abortion complication rate in Nepali CAC facilities is low and similar to other settings; however, significant differences in complication rates were observed by facility type and gestational age. Interventions such as supportive supervision to improve providers' uterine evacuation skills and investment in equipment for infection control may lower complication rates in government facilities. In addition, there should be increased focus on early pregnancy detection and access to CAC services early in pregnancy in order to prevent complications. PMID:22221895

  11. Acceptability of medical abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol.

    PubMed

    Creinin, M D; Park, M

    1995-07-01

    A clinical trial of efficacy of methotrexate and misoprostol for abortion was performed involving 86 women requesting an abortion at < 56 days gestation. An acceptability evaluation was included in the design of the trial. Subjects were questioned before the study about their reasons for choosing a medical abortion and past experience with surgical abortion. After the study was completed, the women were questioned about their medical abortion experience. All questions were asked in an open-ended manner. Eighty-five of 86 (99%) patients completed both questionnaires. The most common reason cited as to why women chose to have a medical abortion was to avoid some aspect of the surgery (48%). Forty-one (48%) women had experienced a surgical abortion; 49% of these women chose to have a medical abortion because of a "bad" past experience related to the surgical procedure. Upon completion of this study, 67 (79%) patients stated the medical abortion was a good experience, 12(14%) a bad experience, and 6 (7%) had a neutral response. When asked what method they would choose if they were to have another abortion, 89% would choose this method of medical abortion rather than a surgical abortion. In women who choose to participate in a clinical research trail, methotrexate and vaginal misoprostol are an acceptable and desirable method of abortion. PMID:8521713

  12. Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size Email Print Share Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know Article Body Only a handful of states grant minors access to abortion without their parents’ knowledge or permission. The majority ...

  13. Paradoxical Parallels in the American and German Abortion Decisions

    E-print Network

    Levy, Richard E.; Somek, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    In this Article, Professors Levy and Somek engage in a careful comparative analysis of the leading constitutional abortion decisions in the United States and Germany. This analysis is occasioned by the remarkable convergence of the abortion...

  14. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  15. Understanding why women seek abortions in the US

    E-print Network

    Biggs, M; Gould, Heather; Foster, Diana

    2013-01-01

    why women seek abortions in the US. BMC Women's Health 2013Women's Health 2013, 13:29 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6874/13/29 RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Understanding why women seek abortions in the US

  16. Student Nurses View an Abortion Client: Attitude and Context Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Edward H.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two studies of the relationship between student nurses' attitudes and patient perception with regard to abortion. Results indicate that the student nurses' judgments were related to their prevailing attitude toward abortion and to their religiosity. (Author/MA)

  17. Death and legal fictions.

    PubMed

    Shah, Seema K; Truog, Robert D; Miller, Franklin G

    2011-12-01

    Advances in life-saving technologies in the past few decades have challenged our traditional understandings of death. Traditionally, death was understood to occur when a person stops breathing, their heart stops beating and they are cold to the touch. Today, physicians determine death by relying on a diagnosis of 'total brain failure' or by waiting a short while after circulation stops. Evidence has emerged, however, that the conceptual bases for these approaches to determining death are fundamentally flawed and depart substantially from the established biological conception of death. We argue that the current approach to determining death consists of two different types of unacknowledged legal fictions. These legal fictions were developed for practices that are largely ethically legitimate but need to be reconciled with the law. The considerable debate over the determination of death in the medical and scientific literature has not informed the public that vital organs are being procured from still-living donors and it seems unlikely that this information can remain hidden for long. Given the instability of the status quo and the difficulty of making the substantial legal changes required by complete transparency, we argue for a second-best policy solution: acknowledging the legal fictions involved in determining death to move in the direction of greater transparency. This may someday result in more substantial legal change to directly confront the challenges raised by life-sustaining and life-preserving technologies without the need for fictions. PMID:21810923

  18. [Repeated spontaneous abortions: discussion on its etiologies].

    PubMed

    Fignon, A; Hamamah, S; Delaigue, H; Vanwalleghem, E; Body, G; Lansac, J

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion (SA) is the most common complication of pregnancy and is estimated to be between 15 to 20% of all clinical pregnancies. However for "recurrent spontaneous abortion" (RSA) the frequency is more difficult to determine (between 0.05 to 1%). The purpose of this paper is to review the literature concerning RSA etiologies. Particular attention has been paid to the male factors contribution in RSA. Because of the poverty of controlled studies, answers to questions about the RSA are very difficult. PMID:7881491

  19. RHIC ABORT KICKER WITH REDUCED COUPLING IMPEDANCE.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.; DAVINO,D.

    2002-06-02

    Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without external resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit.

  20. Abortion in single girls in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tang, G W

    1982-03-01

    Abortion in single girls in an increasing problem in Hong Kong. This paper is an attempt to look at the psychosocial factors in sexual behavior in a selected sample of girls. Of 100 girls requesting an abortion, 70% were educated to Form III level (grade 10 U.S. equivalent) and these did not come from broken or disturbed homes. The adequacy of their prepregnancy use of contraception was significantly and positively related to their level of formal education. These girls were all made pregnant by their boy-friends. Some aspects of their sexual behavior are described. PMID:7096165

  1. [Morbidity after induced abortions in 1989].

    PubMed

    Bilina, T; Kobilková, J

    1992-02-01

    All the women who underwent a mini-abortion in 1989 at the 2nd clinic of obstetrics and gynecology of Prague were followed-up in order to ascertain the relationship of complications after a mini-abortion to parity; the amount of time that elapsed before the manifestation of difficulty; the clinical symptoms of readmission after abortion; the week of gestation when ultrasound was performed for the diagnosis of the causes of difficulty; and the role of treatment. 1769 mini-abortions were carried out in 1989. 90 (5.08%) women were hospitalized for complications. The youngest patient was 16 years old, the oldest 42 years old. 6.66% of the affected women were under 18 years old, 10% were in the 18-20 age group, 20% were under 25 years old, and 12.22% were under 30 years old. 24.44% were 35 years old, and 17.77% were over 35 years of age. 25 (25.55%) women were primigravida, and 68.88% were multiparous with at least 1 birth. 5.55% of women had an abortion or mini-abortion in their anamnesis. The complication in 10 clinic readmission cases occurred 2 days after induced abortion in 11.11%, 4 days later in 38.88%, 6 days later in 22.22%, 8 days later in 10%, and 10 days later in 3.33%. 18.14% of women were hospitalized longer than 10 days. The most frequent cause of admitting patients was suspicion of inflammation in 50%, residue in 22.22% and endometritis in 13.5%. 7.77% of the women were admitted for bleeding, 5.55% for endometritis and adnexitis, and 1.11% for parametritis and adnexitis. Ultrasound investigation was performed for every women admitted for complications. In 58.9% there were no findings, the fetal remains had been eliminated from the uterine cavity. The association of morbidity with the length of pregnancy was demonstrated by the fact that in 6.66% the abortion was performed in the 5th week of gestation, in 23.33% in the 6th week, in 47.77% in the 7th week, and in 22.22% in the 8th week. 73 patients (81%) were treated with antibiotics. Only in 19% was the treatment limited to uterotonic hormones. PMID:1628333

  2. Legal highs - legal aspects and legislative solutions.

    PubMed

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Kulpa, Piotr; Sawicki, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Ma?gorzata; Wojty?a, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2011-12-01

    In recent years the attention of society, the media and politicians has focused on the negative phenomenon of the occurrence of an enormous amount of new psychoactive substances flooding the European market. In Poland and in Europe they are known under the name 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs'. In many countries these compounds present a serious social and health problem. The core of the problem is the fact that in the light of the law these substances are legal, while actually they imitate the eff ect of illegal narcotics. Smart drugs are sold allegedly as 'products not intended for human consumption', under the cover of 'collector's commodities', 'incense sticks' or 'bath salts'. Efforts undertaken by many countries, including Poland, are biased towards gaining control over this pathological phenomenon by placing the subsequent substances on the list of prohibited agents. However, the resilient chemical and pharmaceutical industry still remains one step ahead by introducing new derivatives of already banned products, practically identical in action. The presented article is an attempt to bring closer the problem of smart drugs in Poland, from the occurrence of this alarming phenomenon, through the spread of sales in shops all over Poland, to a series of changes in the Polish anti-narcotic law, drastic actions of closing the shops throughout the entire country, and transferring the sale of smart drugs to the internet. PMID:22216803

  3. Methotrexate and misoprostol for early abortion: a multicenter trial. Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Creinin, M D; Burke, A E

    1996-07-01

    A prospective trial was conducted including 300 pregnant women seeking elective abortion to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of methotrexate and misoprostol for abortion at < or = 56 days gestation. Subjects received methotrexate 50 mg/m2 intramuscularly followed 7 days later by misoprostol 800 micrograms vaginally. The misoprostol dose was repeated the next day if the abortion did not occur. Efficacy is reported elsewhere. Subjects were questioned before the study as to their reasons for choosing a medical abortion and past experience with surgical abortion. After the study was completed, the women were questioned about their medical abortion experience. All questions were asked in an open-ended manner. Main outcome measures included reasons for abortion and study participation, attitudes about the nonsurgical abortion experience, and feelings about preference of nonsurgical or surgical abortion. The most common reason cited as to why women chose to have a nonsurgical abortion was to avoid some aspect of the surgery (48.4%). The percent of women who cited that avoiding surgery was an important reason in their choice of nonsurgical abortion varied by study site and according to whether the woman had a prior surgical abortion. Upon completion of the study, 73.4% of women stated it was a good experience, 19.5% a neutral experience, 7.1% a bad experience, and 1.0% gave no response. When asked what method they would choose if they had to have another abortion, 83.5% would choose this method of medical abortion rather than a surgical abortion. Intramuscular methotrexate and vaginal misoprostol are an acceptable and desirable method of abortion. PMID:8804803

  4. ‘The Trial the World is Watching’: The 1972 Prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, Abortion, and the Regulation of the Medical Profession in Apartheid South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Klausen, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman’s life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country’s newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary’s stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their ‘duty’ to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites’ attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa’s extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430

  5. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section 457.475 Public...457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under...is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for the...

  6. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section 457.475 Public...457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under...is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for the...

  7. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section 457.475 Public...457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under...is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for the...

  8. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section 457.475 Public...457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under...is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for the...

  9. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section 457.475 Public...457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under...is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for the...

  10. The Effect of Religious Membership on Teen Abortion Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomal, Annette

    2001-01-01

    Studied abortion rates among teenagers in 1,024 counties in 18 states that report abortion numbers. Results show that counties with high levels of religious membership were more likely to be in a state with a parental involvement law for teenage abortions. Both religious membership level and a parental involvement law were negatively related to…

  11. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  12. Transaction Abort Rate Reduction with Prioritized Atomic Multicast Protocols

    E-print Network

    Muñoz, Francesc

    Transaction Abort Rate Reduction with Prioritized Atomic Multicast Protocols Emili Miedes.:TransactionAbortRateReductionwithPrioritizedAtomicMulticastProtocolsITI-SIDI-2012/008 #12;#12;Transaction Abort Rate Reduction with Prioritized Atomic Multicast Protocols Emili Miedes and Francesc D. Mu

  13. Resets vs. Aborts in Linear Temporal Logic Roy Armoni1

    E-print Network

    Kupferman, Orna

    Resets vs. Aborts in Linear Temporal Logic Roy Armoni1 , Doron Bustan2 , Orna Kupferman3 of Pnueli's LTL. Both ForSpec and Sugar 2.0 directly support reset/abort signals, in which a check for a property may be terminated and declared successful by a reset/abort sig- nal, provided the check has

  14. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  15. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  16. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  17. Powered Safe Abort for Autonomous Rendezvous of Spacecraft

    E-print Network

    Powered Safe Abort for Autonomous Rendezvous of Spacecraft Louis Breger and Jonathan P. How MIT-optimized rendezvous trajectories. These trajectories guarantee the existence of known powered abort trajectories the existence of known active safe abort trajectories for a large class of possible spacecraft anomalies

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Arsenic Exposure and Risk of Spontaneous Abortion,

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Arsenic Exposure and Risk of Spontaneous Abortion, Stillbirth, and Infant out during 2002­2004 in Matlab, Bangladesh. Spontaneous abortion was evaluated in relation to urinary of spontaneous abortion was 1.4 (95% confi- dence interval CI 0.96­2.2) among women with urine arsenic

  19. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  20. Reducing Transaction Abort Rates with Prioritized Atomic Multicast Protocols

    E-print Network

    Muñoz, Francesc

    Reducing Transaction Abort Rates with Prioritized Atomic Multicast Protocols Emili Miedes, Francesc:ReducingTransactionAbortRateswithPrioritizedAtomicMulticastProtocolsTR-ITI-ITE-07/22 #12;#12;Reducing Transaction Abort Rates with Prioritized Atomic Multicast Protocols Emili Miedes, Francesc D. Mu

  1. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  3. Solo-fast Universal Constructions for Deterministic Abortable Objects

    E-print Network

    Johnen, Colette

    Solo-fast Universal Constructions for Deterministic Abortable Objects Claire Capdevielle, Colette.lastname@labri.fr) Abstract. In this paper we study efficient implementations for deter- ministic abortable objects. Deterministic abortable objects behave like ordinary objects when accessed sequentially, but they may return

  4. Secure Multi-Party Computation with Identifiable Abort Yuval Ishai

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Secure Multi-Party Computation with Identifiable Abort Yuval Ishai Computer Science Department" attacks, allowing even a single malicious party to force the protocol to abort. In this work, we initiate a systematic study of the more robust notion of security with identifiable abort, which leverages the effect

  5. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  6. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  7. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  8. The Psychosocial Factors of the Abortion Experience: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Lisa Roseman

    1976-01-01

    Due to faulty methodology no general statements can be made about psychosocial factors for women receiving illegal abortions. Women receiving therapeutic abortions experienced favorable psychological consequences more often than negative consequences. New abortion patients are mostly young, unmarried women who are not in a social position to care…

  9. The Global Politics of Abortion. Worldwatch Paper 97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jodi L.

    Locating the issue of abortion in a global public policy context, with the array of public health, human rights, and social questions that are implicated, is the aim of this paper. Abortion laws around the world have been liberalized since the 1950s, with a resultant decrease in abortion-related mortality among women. The proportion of the world's…

  10. "Right tool," wrong "job": Manual vacuum aspiration, post-abortion care and transnational population politics in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Suh, Siri

    2015-06-01

    The "rightness" of a technology for completing a particular task is negotiated by medical professionals, patients, state institutions, manufacturing companies, and non-governmental organizations. This paper shows how certain technologies may challenge the meaning of the "job" they are designed to accomplish. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a syringe device for uterine evacuation that can be used to treat complications of incomplete abortion, known as post-abortion care (PAC), or to terminate pregnancy. I explore how negotiations over the rightness of MVA as well as PAC unfold at the intersection of national and global reproductive politics during the daily treatment of abortion complications at three hospitals in Senegal, where PAC is permitted but induced abortion is legally prohibited. Although state health authorities have championed MVA as the "preferred" PAC technology, the primary donor for PAC, the United States Agency for International Development, does not support the purchase of abortifacient technologies. I conducted an ethnography of Senegal's PAC program between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included interviews with 49 health professionals, observation of PAC treatment and review of abortion records at three hospitals, and a review of transnational literature on MVA and PAC. While MVA was the most frequently employed form of uterine evacuation in hospitals, concerns about off-label MVA practices contributed to the persistence of less effective methods such as dilation and curettage (D&C) and digital curettage. Anxieties about MVA's capacity to induce abortion have constrained its integration into routine obstetric care. This capacity also raises questions about what the "job," PAC, represents in Senegalese hospitals. The prioritization of MVA's security over women's access to the preferred technology reinforces gendered inequalities in health care. PMID:25948127

  11. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  12. The Psychological and Emotional Effects of Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arafat, Ibtihaj S.; Chireau, Ruby M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological and emotional effects of abortion on women who terminated their pregnancies for social, economic, or personal reasons. These effects were determined, in part, by an analysis of the woman's concept of self, the external support given, and the various coping mechanisms utilized in the…

  13. A Legal Constant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  14. Legal Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Salome

    2011-01-01

    For legal issues in the field of disability compliance, this is an exciting time in postsecondary education. The twentieth anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) signals a reawakening of the commitment to provide equal access to individuals with disabilities. This chapter explores three of the compliance issues that will be of…

  15. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  16. Legal Disclosure of HIV Status

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Legal Disclosure Translate Text Size Print Legal Disclosure HIV Disclosure Policies and Procedures If your HIV test ... aids.gov • locator.aids.gov • facing.aids.gov • HIV/AIDS Service Locator Locator Widgets • Instructions • API Find ...

  17. [Frequency of abortion and seroprevalence of the principal diseases causing ovine infectious abortion in the area of Rabat (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Benkirane, A; Jabli, N; Rodolakis, A

    1990-01-01

    A survey was carried out on 23 sheep flocks to estimate the frequency of abortion as well as the prevalence of antibodies against abortive infections. During the visit of each farm, a questionnaire was completed with the collaboration of the owner and blood samples were collected from all aborted ewes and some of those with normal lambing. A rate of 7% abortion was reached in both aborted and normally lambed ewes. Anti-Chlamydia psittaci antibodies were the most frequently detected (14 flocks). Anti-Coxiella burnetii and anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 9 flocks, whereas anti-Brucella and anti-Salmonella abortus ovis were present in only 1 flock each. None of the 5 infections was detected in 2 flocks. Mixed infections were prevalent: 13 flocks were simultaneously infected by at least 2 abortive pathogens. The procedure used does not allow the cause of abortion to be identified in all cases. PMID:2288452

  18. Legal implications of tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lucassen, Anneke; Wheeler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the legal rules that govern the way surgeons deal with human tissues during the course of diagnosing and treating their patients. The topic is dominated by the Human Tissue Act 2004, which was enacted in September 2006; thus, the article applies specifically only to England, Wales and Northern Ireland, since Scotland has separate legislation (Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006). Although the Human Tissue Act 2004 was built largely upon a plethora of legal principles that were developed throughout the Commonwealth and in the US, some of the principles underlying it will be equally familiar and applicable to surgeons across the world. Much everyday clinical activity falls outside the remit of the Act, and depends both upon other statutes, and on common law rules, principally those relating to consent. PMID:20412669

  19. The Relationship between Neutralization Techniques and Induced Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Tabei, Seyed Ziaaddin; Salehzadeh, Hamzeh; Rahnavard, Farnaz; Namavar Jahromi, Bahia; Hemmati, Soroor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Induced abortion is not only a serious threat for women’s health, but also a controversial topic for its ethical and moral problems. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between neutralization techniques and attempting to commit abortion in married women with unintended pregnancy. Methods: After in-depth interviews with some women who had attempted abortion, neutralization themes were gathered. Next, to analyze the data quantitatively, a questionnaire was created including demographic and psychosocial variables specifically related to neutralization. The participants were divided into two groups (abortion and control) of unintended pregnancy and were then compared. Results: Analysis of psychosocial variables revealed a significant difference in the two groups at neutralization, showing that neutralization in the control group (56.97±10.24) was higher than that in the abortion group (44.19±12.44). To evaluate the findings more accurately, we examined the causal factors behind the behaviors of the abortion group. Binary logistic regression showed that among psychosocial factors, neutralization significantly affected abortion (95% CI=1.07-1.35). Conclusion: Despite the network of many factors affecting induced abortion, neutralization plays an important role in reinforcing the tendency to attempt abortion. Furthermore, the decline of religious beliefs, as a result of the secular context of the modern world, seems to have an important role in neutralizing induced abortion. PMID:25349851

  20. Will Congress keep the two-tier system of abortion?

    PubMed

    Goodman, E

    1994-08-16

    Comments were made about the US legislative agenda to provide universal health insurance coverage and basic health care which must cover the most controversial procedure, abortion. Compromises have been offered that would deny abortion to any women receiving a government subsidy, that would allow employers to opt out of coverage, that would allow a nurse or doctor to opt out of performing an abortion, and that would allow women to refuse abortion insurance coverage. Neither prochoice nor prolife groups have cooperated in reducing the demand for abortion. Over the past several years, the debate has evolved to the point where prolife groups are trying to make abortion impossible, not just illegal, by murdering doctors and escorts and blocking clinic entrances. A CNN poll revealed in the beginning of August 1994 that 8% agreed that force was justifiable for preventing abortion, and 3% agreed that killing a doctor was justifiable. Members of Congress have attempted to create a neutral or safety zone to no avail. This has created the illusion of peace, but the abortion war rages on. Health care reform must address this controversial question and move in one direction or another. The present system perpetrates a double standard because the financially comfortable are covered for abortion care, and the poor under Medicaid are denied abortion coverage. PMID:12289883

  1. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes. PMID:25715152

  2. Towards safe abortion access: an exploratory study of medical abortion in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Petitet, Pascale Hancart; Ith, Leakhena; Cockroft, Melissa; Delvaux, Thérèse

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, following its approval by the Ministry of Health, the medical abortion combination pack Medabon (containing mifepristone and misoprostol) was made available at pharmacies and in a restricted number of health facilities in Cambodia. The qualitative study presented in this paper was conducted in 2012 as a follow-up to longer-term ethnographical research related to reproductive health and fertility regulation between 2008 and 2012. Observations were carried out at several clinic and pharmacy sites and in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 women who attended two MSI Cambodia centres and 10 women identified through social networks; six men (women's male partners); eight health care providers at the two MSI centres and four pill sellers at private or informal pharmacies (who also provided health care services in private clinics). Although the level of training among the drug sellers and providers varied, their knowledge about medical abortion regimens, correct usage and common side effects was good. Overall, women were satisfied with the services provided. Medical abortion was not always a women-only process in this study as some male partners were also involved in the care process. The study illustrates positive steps forward being taken in making abortion safe and preventing and reducing unsafe abortion practices in Cambodia. PMID:25702068

  3. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  4. Launch, Entry and Abort, Intravehicular Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    Senior spacesuit expert, will present information about Launch, Entry and Abort (LEA) spacesuits - part of an overall vehicle crew escape and survival system. These LEA spacesuits are worn during the launch and reentry to enhance crew survival. The U.S. has traditionally called these spacesuits Intravehicular Activity (IVA) spacesuits. The Russians refer to this type of spacesuit as "Rescue Suits." Thomas will discuss the success of the LEA suits and the consequences of eliminating their use or providing inadequate systems.

  5. A Rehnquistean bed: the abortion issue revisited.

    PubMed

    Maher, V F; Badin, R

    1990-12-01

    Individuals as members of societies are subject to externally imposed norms of behavior (laws). When societal control and regulation adversely impact upon individual autonomy, conflict is frequently the end product. Such issues surround the rights of privacy vis-a-vis the abortion issue. The Supreme Court addressed this issue in the 1988-1989 term. This article critically examines the court's decision and raises questions of individual and professional import. PMID:2269898

  6. [Elective abortions, a right to defend].

    PubMed

    Zaccabri, Annie

    2015-12-01

    Every year in France, almost 210 000 women request a termination of an unwanted pregnancy. Two thirds of them were however using a form of contraception, hence the importance, for caregivers, of encouraging women to find the method which works best for them. The right to abortion is the fruit of a long fight for a woman's right to control her own body. It is a right which must be protected. PMID:26654493

  7. CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.FLILLER,R.III.FU,W.MICHNOFF,R.

    2004-07-05

    Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  8. Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

  9. Abortion care in Ghana: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

    2014-09-01

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25438507

  10. Disparities in abortion rates: a public health approach.

    PubMed

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Harris, Lisa H; Weitz, Tracy A

    2013-10-01

    Women of lower socioeconomic status and women of color in the United States have higher rates of abortion than women of higher socioeconomic status and White women. Opponents of abortion use these statistics to argue that abortion providers are exploiting women of color and low socioeconomic status, and thus, regulations are needed to protect women. This argument ignores the underlying causes of the disparities. As efforts to restrict abortion will have no effect on these underlying factors, and instead will only result in more women experiencing later abortions or having an unintended childbirth, they are likely to result in worsening health disparities. We provide a review of the causes of abortion disparities and argue for a multifaceted public health approach to address them. PMID:23948010

  11. Abortion politics, scientific research and access to services.

    PubMed

    1994-12-01

    In the US, the Republican-dominated 104th Congress will likely revisit some of the issues of the abortion debates of the 1980s. The Hyde Amendment, which restricts federal funding of abortions, will likely be tightened, and other recently repealed abortion funding restrictions may be reinstated, such as the ban on abortion coverage for employees and dependents in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Plan. Abortion politics may be used to reinstitute a ban on fetal tissue transplantation research and to interfere with US Food and Drug Administration approval of RU-486. The recently-passed Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances (FACE) Act may be weakened by reducing the penalties for action against abortion clinics. Anti-abortion activists will also be able to influence abortion policy through appropriations bills. It is unclear how far the social conservatives will be allowed to go in this direction by the Republican party leadership and the President. It is doubtful, however, that the public will allow changes in FACE, and family planning still enjoys widespread public support. Any serious debate about helping women avoid out-of-wedlock and unwanted births while receiving welfare must grapple with the issue of access to family planning and abortion services. PMID:12288096

  12. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  13. Are all abortions equal? Should there be exceptions to the criminalization of abortion for rape and incest?

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Politics, public discourse, and legislation restricting abortion has settled on a moderate orthodoxy: restrict abortion, but leave exceptions for pregnancies that result from rape and incest. I challenge that consensus and suggest it may be much harder to defend than those who support the compromise think. From both Pro-Life and Pro-Choice perspectives, there are good reasons to treat all abortions as equal. PMID:25846041

  14. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature...concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the...

  15. 45 CFR 156.280 - Segregation of funds for abortion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Segregation of funds for abortion services. 156.280 Section 156.280... § 156.280 Segregation of funds for abortion services. (a) State opt-out of abortion coverage. A QHP issuer must comply...

  16. 75 FR 15597 - Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ...Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection...Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection...ensure that Federal funds are not used for abortion services (except in cases of rape...

  17. 45 CFR 156.280 - Segregation of funds for abortion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Segregation of funds for abortion services. 156.280 Section 156.280... § 156.280 Segregation of funds for abortion services. (a) State opt-out of abortion coverage. A QHP issuer must comply...

  18. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature...concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the...

  19. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature...concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the...

  20. 45 CFR 156.280 - Segregation of funds for abortion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Segregation of funds for abortion services. 156.280 Section 156.280... § 156.280 Segregation of funds for abortion services. (a) State opt-out of abortion coverage. A QHP issuer must comply...

  1. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature...concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the...

  2. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs...Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature...concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the...

  3. 3 CFR 13535 - Executive Order 13535 of March 24, 2010. Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection...Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection...ensure that Federal funds are not used for abortion services (except in cases of...

  4. Threads of a Common Cloth: Access to Safe Abortion and Human Rights in Cambodia

    E-print Network

    Lester, Felicia C

    2003-01-01

    with unsafe abortion. Both the Cairo Programme and theCairo Platfonn and the Beijing Programme call on governments to recognize unsafe abortion andCairo Platform and the Beijing Programme call on governments to recognize unsafe abortion and

  5. Waddlia, Parachlamydia and Chlamydiaceae in bovine abortion.

    PubMed

    Blumer, S; Greub, G; Waldvogel, A; Hässig, M; Thoma, R; Tschuor, A; Pospischil, A; Borel, N

    2011-09-28

    The etiology remains unknown in many cases of bovine abortion in Switzerland. Bacteria of the Chlamydiales order are known abortive agents, therefore cases of bovine abortion from three representative regions of Switzerland were investigated in this study. Particularly Chlamydiaceae as well as the Chlamydia-like organisms Waddlia and Parachlamydia were of interest, especially because of their possible zoonotic potential. Placenta samples (n=343) were tested for these bacteria by different PCR-methods, immunohistochemistry and serology for Chlamydia abortus. Additionally an attempt for the isolation of Waddlia and Parachlamydia was made by co-cultivation in amoebae. In 67.3% of the 343 cases a necrotizing and/or purulent placentitis was found histologically. By real-time PCR, 0.9% (3/343) of the cases were positive for Waddlia, 13.4% (46/343) positive for Parachlamydia and 14.6% (50/343) positive or questionable positive for Chlamydiaceae. Of these samples, confirmation by immunohistochemistry was possible in 2/3 cases for Waddlia, 25/46 for Parachlamydia and 4/50 for Chlamydiaceae. Of the 50 cases positive or questionable positive for Chlamydiaceae, species-identification by ArrayTube Microarray or 16S rRNA PCR resulted in 41 cases positive for C. abortus whereas the presence of Chlamydia suis was confirmed in four and Chlamydia pecorum in one case. This study brought evidence for the importance of different members of Chlamydiales in different regions of Switzerland although Waddlia is not occurring in a high prevalence. On the other hand mixed infections with different Chlamydiales as well as with other abortigenic agents could be found. PMID:21658867

  6. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  7. THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.

    1999-03-29

    THE ENERGY STORED IN THE RHIC BEAM IS ABOUT 200 KJ PER RING AT DESIGN ENERGY AND INTENSITY. TO PREVENT QUENCHING OF THE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS OR MATERIAL DAMAGE, THE BEAM WILL BE SAFELY DISPOSED OF BY AN INTERNAL BEAM ABORT SYSTEM, WHICH INCLUDES THE KICKER MAGNETS, THE PULSED POWER SUPPLIES, AND THE DUMP ABSORBER. DISPOSAL OF HEAVY IONS, SUCH AS GOLD, IMPOSES DESIGN CONSTRAINTS MORE SEVERE THAN THOSE FOR PROTON BEAMS OF EQUAL INTENSITY. IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE THE THERMAL SHOCK IN THE CARBON-FIBER DUMP BLOCK, THE BUNCHES MUST BE LATERALLY DISPERSED.

  8. Relationships between mild PM10 and ozone urban air levels and spontaneous abortion: clues for primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Di Ciaula, Agostino; Bilancia, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    The effects of environmental pollution on spontaneous abortion (SAB) are still unclear. Records of SAB were collected from five cities (514,996 residents) and correlated with PM10, NO2 and ozone levels. Median pollutant concentrations were below legal limits. Monthly SABs positively correlated with PM10 and ozone levels but not with NO2 levels. The mean monthly SAB rate increase was estimated equal to 19.7 and 33.6 % per 10 ?g/m(3) increase in PM10 or ozone concentration, respectively. Higher values of PM10 and SABs were evident in cities with- than in those without pollutant industries, with a number of SABs twofolds higher in the former group. In conclusion, SAB occurrence is affected by PM10 (particularly if industrial areas are present) and ozone concentrations, also at levels below the legal limits. Thus, SAB might be considered, at least in part, a preventable condition. PMID:25609560

  9. Interferon-? promotes abortion due to Brucella infection in pregnant mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suk; Lee, Dong Soo; Watanabe, Kenta; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2005-01-01

    Background The mechanisms of abortion induced by bacterial infection are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated abortion induced by Brucella abortus, a causative agent of brucellosis and facultative intracellular pathogen, in a mouse model. Results High rates of abortion were observed for bacterial infection on day 4.5 of gestation, but not for other days. Regardless of whether fetuses were aborted or stayed alive, the transmission of bacteria into the fetus and bacterial replication in the placenta were observed. There was a higher degree of bacterial colonization in the placenta than in other organs and many bacteria were detected in trophoblast giant cells in the placenta. Intracellular growth-defective virB4 mutant and attenuated vaccine strain S19 did not induce abortion. In the case of abortion, around day 7.5 of gestation (period of placental development), transient induction of IFN-? production was observed for infection by the wild type strain, but not by the virB4 mutant and S19. Neutralization of IFN-?, whose production was induced by infection with B. abortus, served to prevent abortion. Conclusion These results indicate that abortion induced by B. abortus infection is a result of transient IFN-? production during the period of placental development. PMID:15869716

  10. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  11. Mourning and Guilt among Greek Women Having Repeated Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naziri, D.; Tzavaras, A.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted clinical study concerning bereavement process of Greek women after abortion. Found strong identificatory tendencies on both mother and father images. Argues that, in cases of repeated abortion, mourning and guilt do not only refer to murdered and lost "person-fetus" but principally to death and loss of object of ambiguous desire.…

  12. Regulating Abortion: Impact on Patients and Providers in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Silvie; Joyce, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The State of Texas began enforcement of the Woman's Right to Know (WRTK) Act on January 1, 2004. The law requires that all abortions at or after 16 weeks' gestation be performed in an ambulatory surgical center (ASC). In the month the law went into effect, not one of Texas's 54 nonhospital abortion providers met the requirements of a surgical…

  13. Abortion-Related Services: Value Clarification through "Difficult Dialogues" Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpeli, Moliehi Rosemary; Botma, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Midwives play a pivotal role in women's health in the face of increased deaths related to backyard abortions. Since the commencement in South Africa of the Name of the Act No. 92 of 1996 that allows abortion services, there has been a moral divide among healthcare workers in South Africa. This article reflects the opinions of preregistration…

  14. Abortion in Young Women and Subsequent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Ridder, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The extent to which abortion has harmful consequences for mental health remains controversial. We aimed to examine the linkages between having an abortion and mental health outcomes over the interval from age 15-25 years. Methods: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 25-year longitudinal study…

  15. Grief and Elective Abortion: Breaking the Emotional Bond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppers, Larry G.

    1988-01-01

    Used maternal-infant bonding as theoretical framework to examine grief and elective abortion in 80 women who terminated their pregnancies either by vacuum aspiration, dilitation and evacuation, or intrauterine induction. Found grief associated with elective abortion to be symptomatically similar to grief experienced following involuntary…

  16. Validation of a Scale to Measure Reasoning about Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Nancy K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Developed and administered Reasoning about Abortion Questionnaire (RAQ) to measure how persons view abortions. Pilot tested the RAQ on 134 college students and modified scale on basis of data. Administered revised RAQ to college students (N=230) replicating factor pattern and obtaining evidence for validity of polarity scores through structured…

  17. Recommendations for abortion surveys using the ballot-box technique.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Marcelo; Diniz, Debora

    2012-07-01

    The article lists recommendations for dealing with methodological aspects of an abortion survey and makes suggestions for testing and validating the survey questionnaire. The recommendations are based on the experience of the Brazilian Abortion Survey (PNA), a random sample household survey that used the ballot-box technique and covered adult women in all urban areas of the country. PMID:22872333

  18. 3. Have the products been legally produced?

    E-print Network

    3. Have the products been legally produced? 3.Legality Environmental aspects Social aspects Management, and that what is sustainable may not always be legal (World Bank, 2006; Contreras-Hermosilla et should know I 3. Have the products been legally produced? Have the products been legally produced?3

  19. Legal Language, on the Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    2006-01-01

    US federal, state, and municipal courts are facing a severe shortage of qualified interpreters as the non-English-speaking population in the country soars. Virginia Benmaman, a professor of Hispanic studies and legal interpretation advocate, runs a bilingual legal interpretation program at the College of Charleston that helps students tackle the…

  20. 25 Legal and Legislative Milestones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This timeline reflects some of the most significant legal and legislative milestones that have influenced higher education over the 25 years that "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education," formerly "Black Issues in Higher Education," has been in print. The legal battles have primarily involved the settlement of desegregation cases and the use of race…

  1. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  2. The Legal Audit: Preventing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Daniel H.

    1987-01-01

    Suffolk University initiated two audits that proved beneficial: a legal audit and an insurance audit. A legal audit involves having an attorney review a college's contracts, personnel handbooks, catalogs, etc., in order to anticipate and prevent problems. An insurance audit reviews an institution's risk coverage. (MLW)

  3. Understanding why women seek abortions in the US

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current political climate with regards to abortion in the US, along with the economic recession may be affecting women’s reasons for seeking abortion, warranting a new investigation into the reasons why women seek abortion. Methods Data for this study were drawn from baseline quantitative and qualitative data from the Turnaway Study, an ongoing, five-year, longitudinal study evaluating the health and socioeconomic consequences of receiving or being denied an abortion in the US. While the study has followed women for over two full years, it relies on the baseline data which were collected from 2008 through the end of 2010. The sample included 954 women from 30 abortion facilities across the US who responded to two open ended questions regarding the reasons why they wanted to terminate their pregnancy approximately one week after seeking an abortion. Results Women’s reasons for seeking an abortion fell into 11 broad themes. The predominant themes identified as reasons for seeking abortion included financial reasons (40%), timing (36%), partner related reasons (31%), and the need to focus on other children (29%). Most women reported multiple reasons for seeking an abortion crossing over several themes (64%). Using mixed effects multivariate logistic regression analyses, we identified the social and demographic predictors of the predominant themes women gave for seeking an abortion. Conclusions Study findings demonstrate that the reasons women seek abortion are complex and interrelated, similar to those found in previous studies. While some women stated only one factor that contributed to their desire to terminate their pregnancies, others pointed to a myriad of factors that, cumulatively, resulted in their seeking abortion. As indicated by the differences we observed among women’s reasons by individual characteristics, women seek abortion for reasons related to their circumstances, including their socioeconomic status, age, health, parity and marital status. It is important that policy makers consider women’s motivations for choosing abortion, as decisions to support or oppose such legislation could have profound effects on the health, socioeconomic outcomes and life trajectories of women facing unwanted pregnancies. PMID:23829590

  4. Lessons from the Dutch abortion experience.

    PubMed

    David, H P; Rademakers, J

    1996-01-01

    Not only does the Netherlands have the lowest induced abortion rate in the world, but Dutch youth have the lowest rates of both adolescent pregnancy and abortion. This record is attributed to a general stance of openness and acceptance of sexuality as a healthy part of life that emerged in 1965-75 in response to recognition of the public health impact of unwanted pregnancy. Modern contraceptives (excluding condoms) are provided at no charge by the national health service and are easily accessible to teenagers. Sex education, which begins at an early age, seeks to instill skills that enhance partner communication and negotiation. By the late 1980s, unplanned births represented only 6% of all first births. In 1992, 38% of Dutch women terminated their first pregnancy compared with 47% in the US; that same year, the Dutch adolescent pregnancy rate was 9.2/1000 women 15-19 years old compared with 95.9/1000 in the US. In 1995, 85% of Dutch youth used contraception at first intercourse (46% condom, 13% pill, 24% pill and condom, and 1% other method). Overall, the Dutch experience suggests that a less ambivalent public approach to sexuality might encourage more responsible reproductive behavior in the US. PMID:8986032

  5. The PEP-II abort kicker system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, J de; Donaldson, A.; Kulikov, A. Lipari, J.

    1997-07-01

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of electron beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 uS (the beam transit time around the time). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% in 370 nS. This report discusses the design of the system controls, interlocks, power supplies, and modulator.

  6. Feminist Legal Theory, Critical Legal Studies, and Legal Education or "The Fem-Crits Go to Law School."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menkel-Meadow, Carrie

    1988-01-01

    The commonalities and divergences in critiques of legal education offered by critical legal studies and feminist theory are examined. Both schools of thought focus on the hierarchy, passivity, depersonalization, and decontextualization of present-day legal education. (Author/MSE)

  7. Beyond abortion: the potential reach of a human life amendment.

    PubMed

    Westfall, D

    1982-01-01

    In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court held that the constitutionally protected right to privacy includes a woman's right to terminate pregnancy. Following the decision, anti-abortion groups turned to Congress to limit or negate that right. As a result of their efforts, several "human life" statutes and constitutional amendments have been proposed. This Article focuses on the implications of proposed amendments that seek to ban or limit the availability of abortions indirectly by broadening the definition of "person" to include unborn individuals. The Article discusses the potentially serious effects such an amendment would have in areas unrelated to abortion. It finds that the resulting chaos and uncertainty would have great social costs, and concludes that if abortions are to be banned or restricted, a human life amendment that directly deals with abortion is preferable to one that defines "person" to include the unborn. PMID:7148834

  8. Postpartum and Post-Abortion Contraception: From Research to Programs.

    PubMed

    Shah, Iqbal H; Santhya, K G; Cleland, John

    2015-12-01

    Contraception following delivery or an induced abortion reduces the risk of an early unintended pregnancy and its associated adverse health consequences. Unmet need for contraception during the postpartum period and contraceptive counseling and services following abortion have been the focus of efforts for the last several decades. This article provides an introduction to the more focused contributions that follow in this special issue. We discuss the validity and measurement of the concept of unmet need for family planning during the postpartum period. We then present key findings on postpartum contraceptive protection, use dynamics, and method mix, followed by an assessment of interventions to improve postpartum family planning. The evidence on postabortion contraceptive uptake and continuation of use remains thin, although encouraging results are noted for implementation of comprehensive abortion care and for the impact of post-abortion contraceptive counseling and services. Drawing on these studies, we outline policy and program implications for improving postpartum and post-abortion contraceptive use. PMID:26643486

  9. Choice of contraceptive method for birth control and attitudes toward abortion in Swedish women ages 23-29.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M E; Olsson, H M; Sjödén, P O

    1995-01-01

    In Sweden, contraceptive methods for birth control are readily available, but one in four pregnancies was legally terminated during the period from 1975 to 1990. Our purpose in conducting the present study was to describe young women's choices and use of contraceptive methods and their attitudes to abortion. The participants were 305 Swedish women ages 23-29 years. Eighty-eight percent of the women were using some contraceptive method. The most common method was hormonal (43%), followed by a barrier method (22%). The women considered that abortion should not be used as a method of birth control and that the fact that a pregnancy is unintended is not a sufficient reason for terminating it. An acceptable reason, they thought, for a woman to have an abortion is the woman's present situation, in particular her social situation. The women were aware that the use of contraceptive methods gives them the chance to choose if and when they wish to have children. PMID:7706142

  10. [Abortion according to paragraph 218ff. of the German penal code and life support of premature infants from the viewpoint of the pediatrician].

    PubMed

    von Voss, H

    1986-05-01

    The actual reality of abortion in the Federal Republic of Germany is shocking: in 1984, 100 000-340 00 abortions took place. In contrast to the goals established in the reform of criminal law in Para. 218ff. (StGB) from 1976, unborn life is not protected. Moreover, for "social indications" abortion is being carried out more and more frequently, which results in the killing of new life. Even if the basic laws seem to provide unborn life with a high measure of protection, court decisions regarding abortion according to Para. 218ff. (StGB) indicate that in practice, there is very little protection. The so-called "test-tube baby" enjoys more legal protection than the child begotten in the natural manner. To a certain extent, the paediatrician is confronted with demands to save life. Prematures with a very low birth weight should be kept alive. According to the 1984 records of the Federal Office for Statistics, in the Federal Republic of Germany an average of 147.9 abortions were performed per 1000 children born. For the most part the abortions were performed on account of social indications. Since life begins when the sperm and egg fuse, which is also recognized by basic law 14 days after conception, the paediatrician in particular must feel himself responsible for life yet unborn. However, the paediatrician must also stand up for the disabled child and its right to life, because Para. 218ff. did not intend to eliminate disabled children from society. PMID:3724760

  11. Legal highs on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances. PMID:20141450

  12. Solar energy legal bibliography update

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Energy Legal Bibliography Update is a compilation of approximately 100 solar publications abstracted for their legal and policy content (covering the period October 1978 to August 1979). Emphasis is on legal barriers and incentives to solar energy development. Abstracts are arranged under the following categories: Antitrust, Biomass, Building Codes, Consumer Protection, Environmental Aspects, Federal Legislation and Programs, Financing/Insurance, International Law, Labor, Land Use (Covenants, Easements, Nuisance, Zoning), Local Legislation and Programs, Ocean Energy, Patents and Licenses, Photovoltaics, Solar Access Rights, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Standards, State Legislation and Programs, Tax Law, Tort Liability, Utilities, Warranties, Wind Resources, and General Solar Law.

  13. Abort Trigger False Positive and False Negative Analysis Methodology for Threshold-Based Abort Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Cruz, Jose A.; Johnson Stephen B.; Lo, Yunnhon

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative methodology for bounding the false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) probabilities associated with a human-rated launch vehicle abort trigger (AT) that includes sensor data qualification (SDQ). In this context, an AT is a hardware and software mechanism designed to detect the existence of a specific abort condition. Also, SDQ is an algorithmic approach used to identify sensor data suspected of being corrupt so that suspect data does not adversely affect an AT's detection capability. The FP and FN methodologies presented here were developed to support estimation of the probabilities of loss of crew and loss of mission for the Space Launch System (SLS) which is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The paper provides a brief overview of system health management as being an extension of control theory; and describes how ATs and the calculation of FP and FN probabilities relate to this theory. The discussion leads to a detailed presentation of the FP and FN methodology and an example showing how the FP and FN calculations are performed. This detailed presentation includes a methodology for calculating the change in FP and FN probabilities that result from including SDQ in the AT architecture. To avoid proprietary and sensitive data issues, the example incorporates a mixture of open literature and fictitious reliability data. Results presented in the paper demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in providing quantitative estimates that bound the probability of a FP or FN abort determination.

  14. The introduction of first trimester medical abortion in Armenia.

    PubMed

    Louie, Karmen S; Chong, Erica; Tsereteli, Tamar; Avagyan, Gayane; Vardanyan, Susanna; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-02-01

    In Armenia, abortion is the main means of fertility regulation; however, before research activities were initiated only surgical methods were available and the quality of services was low in some areas. Our clinical study from 2008-2011 aimed to show that early medical abortion is an acceptable and feasible option. A total of 700 eligible women with pregnancies up to 63 days LMP presenting for abortion were recruited for the study in five locations. Participants took 200 mg mifepristone and 800 ?g buccal misoprostol 24-48 hours later. They returned for a follow-up visit two weeks after mifepristone administration. 95% of the women had successful abortions and 95% were satisfied with the method. In 2012-2013, we conducted a follow-up assessment to examine the ongoing provision and quality of medical abortion services at the former research sites. Medical record reviews, interviews and observations were carried out three times approximately six months apart. The assessment found that all five sites had continued providing medical abortion, with about half of eligible women choosing the medical method. Four of the five sites were achieving high success rates. Staff turnover and the lack of trained providers likely contributed to the higher failure rate at the fifth site. These findings provide evidence that first trimester medical abortion is an acceptable and feasible option for Armenian women and providers, and that high quality services are being delivered. PMID:25702069

  15. Constructing the meaning of ultrasound viewing in abortion care.

    PubMed

    Kimport, Katrina; Weitz, Tracy A

    2015-07-01

    As ultrasound scanning becomes increasingly routine in abortion care, scholars and activists have forwarded claims about how viewing the ultrasound image will affect pregnant women seeking abortion, speculating that it will dissuade them from abortion. These accounts, however, fail to appreciate how viewing is a social process. Little research has investigated how ultrasound workers navigate viewing in abortion care. We draw on interviews with twenty-six ultrasound workers in abortion care for their impressions and practices around ultrasound viewing. Respondents reported few experiences of viewing dissuading women from abortion, but did report that it had an emotional effect on patients that they believed was associated with gestational age. These impressions informed their practices, leading many to manage patient viewing based on the patient's gestational age. Other aspects of their accounts, however, undercut the assertion that the meaning of ultrasound images is associated with gestation and show the pervasiveness of cultural ideas associating developing foetal personhood with increasing gestational age. Findings demonstrate the social construction of ultrasound viewing, with implications in the ongoing contestation over abortion rights in the US. PMID:25688650

  16. Neospora caninum - Associated Abortions in Slovak Dairy Farm

    PubMed Central

    ŠPILOVSKÁ, Silvia; REITEROVÁ, Katarína; ANTOLOVÁ, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of repeated abortions in livestock. This study aimed to determine the seropositivity to N. caninum using indirect ELISA and the influence of the infection on the occurrence of abortions in selected dairy herd in Slovakia. Method: Blood samples were obtained from 490 cattle over a period of two years and were tested for N. caninum antibodies using indirect ELISA. Results: The presence of specific antibodies in the herd was detected in 118 (24.1%) cows. According to selected groups; 117 (41.0%) cows with a history of abortion, 65 (43.3%) heifers and 223 (2.2%) cows without abortions were tested positive to Neospora. Vertical transmission of N. caninum dominated in examined herd and the relative risk (RR) of dam-daughter seropositivity in progenies of seropositive mothers was 2.1 times higher than in progenies of seronegative dams. Molecular analyses of aborted foetuses of seropositive mothers showed the presence of Neospora DNA. However, 23 (28.1%) of heifers born to seronegative cows were seropositive, indicating also the postnatal transmission of the infection from the environment. Conclusion: Study revealed significant correlation between the presence of specific antibodies and the occurrence of abortions, the risk of abortion in seropositive animals was 3.8 times higher than in seronegative ones. Incorrect farm management contributed to spread and circulation of neosporosis in entire dairy herd what could significantly impair the reproduction and economic parameters of breeding. PMID:25904951

  17. Health services fail women who suffer unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    1994-02-01

    Physicians, medical schools, and health systems are failing, respectively, to provide the treatment, training, and facilities necessary for proper care of women suffering from the complications of unsafe abortions. Family planning services, also, are failing to reach the women at risk. Thousands of women are dying because of this. In some countries, unsafe abortions may account for as many as half of maternal deaths; however, due to social attitudes, information is hard to obtain. The report of the World Health Organization Technical Working Group on the Prevention and Management of Unsafe Abortion has been released. This report states that treatment of these complications should be extended throughout the health care system; more training and facilities, especially at the primary care level, are necessary; physicians should give higher priority to complications due to unsafe abortions; "punitive attitudes" or health care workers should not effect treatment; more research on the management of complications of unsafe abortions and on the use of contraception after abortion is necessary; family planning advice and assistance should be offered after treatment for complications; and family planning services should be designed with women's preferences in mind. The report also lists tests, treatments, and services necessary at primary care and first referral levels for women with complications from unsafe abortions. PMID:12345453

  18. Effectiveness of Family Planning Policies: The Abortion Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Bajos, Nathalie; Le Guen, Mireille; Bohet, Aline; Panjo, Henri; Moreau, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relation between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion remains a topic of heated debate. Many of the contradictions are likely due to the fact that abortion is the end point of a process that starts with sexual activity, contraceptive use (or non-use), followed by unwanted pregnancy, a decision to terminate, and access to abortion. Trends in abortion rates reflect changes in each step of this process, and opposing trends may cancel each other out. This paper aims to investigate the roles played by the dissemination of contraception and the evolving norms of motherhood on changes in abortion rates. Methods Drawing data from six national probability surveys that explored contraception and pregnancy wantedness in France from 1978 through 2010, we used multivariate linear regression to explore the associations between trends in contraceptive rates and trends in (i) abortion rates, (ii) unwanted pregnancy rates, (iii) and unwanted birth rates, and to determine which of these 3 associations was strongest. Findings The association between contraceptive rates and abortion rates over time was weaker than that between contraception rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p?=?0.003). Similarly, the association between contraceptive rates and unwanted birth rates over time was weaker than that between contraceptive rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p?=?0.000). PMID:24670784

  19. Shuttle abort landing site emergency medical services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenas, David K.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    NASA and DOD studies of medical-planning and logistical problems are reviewed as applicable to providing emergency medical care at remote transoceanic abort landing (TAL) sites. Two options are analyzed including a modified surgical response team and a combination physician/medical technician team. The two concepts are examined in terms of cost-effectiveness, specific types of medical support such as blood procurement, and search-and-rescue requirements. It is found that the physician/technician team is more economically efficient, and the description of the concept permits the development of an effective TAL-site astronaut medical-support system. A balance is struck between the competing problems of cost and medical capability by planning for on-scene medical stabilization and air evacuation to DOD tertiary medical centers.

  20. Space shuttle (ATP configuration) abort staging investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampy, J. M.; Blackwell, K. L.; Allen, E. C., Jr.; Fossler, I.

    1973-01-01

    A wind tunnel test conducted in a 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel to determine the force and moment characteristics of the ATP Orbiter and modified ATP External Tank/SRB combination during abort staging conditions is discussed. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded for the orbiter and ET/SRB combination. Pitch polars were obtained for an angle of attack range from minus 10 to plus 10 degrees and orbiter incidence angles (orbiter relative to the ET/SRB combination) of 0 and 2 degrees. A limited amount of yaw data were obtained at 0 degree angle of attack and beta range from minus 10 to plus 10 degrees. In addition, orbiter pitch control effectiveness was determined at several grid points. These force and moment data were obtained for Mach numbers of 0.9, 1.2 and 2.0.

  1. Women's Education Level, Maternal Health Facilities, Abortion Legislation and Maternal Deaths: A Natural Experiment in Chile from 1957 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Elard; Thorp, John; Bravo, Miguel; Gatica, Sebastián; Romero, Camila X.; Aguilera, Hernán; Ahlers, Ivonne

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the main factors related to maternal mortality reduction in large time series available in Chile in context of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Methods Time series of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) from official data (National Institute of Statistics, 1957–2007) along with parallel time series of education years, income per capita, fertility rate (TFR), birth order, clean water, sanitary sewer, and delivery by skilled attendants were analysed using autoregressive models (ARIMA). Historical changes on the mortality trend including the effect of different educational and maternal health policies implemented in 1965, and legislation that prohibited abortion in 1989 were assessed utilizing segmented regression techniques. Results During the 50-year study period, the MMR decreased from 293.7 to 18.2/100,000 live births, a decrease of 93.8%. Women's education level modulated the effects of TFR, birth order, delivery by skilled attendants, clean water, and sanitary sewer access. In the fully adjusted model, for every additional year of maternal education there was a corresponding decrease in the MMR of 29.3/100,000 live births. A rapid phase of decline between 1965 and 1981 (?13.29/100,000 live births each year) and a slow phase between 1981 and 2007 (?1.59/100,000 live births each year) were identified. After abortion was prohibited, the MMR decreased from 41.3 to 12.7 per 100,000 live births (?69.2%). The slope of the MMR did not appear to be altered by the change in abortion law. Conclusion Increasing education level appears to favourably impact the downward trend in the MMR, modulating other key factors such as access and utilization of maternal health facilities, changes in women's reproductive behaviour and improvements of the sanitary system. Consequently, different MDGs can act synergistically to improve maternal health. The reduction in the MMR is not related to the legal status of abortion. PMID:22574194

  2. 45 CFR 156.280 - Segregation of funds for abortion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segregation of funds for abortion services. 156... for abortion services. (a) State opt-out of abortion coverage. A QHP issuer must comply with a State law that prohibits abortion coverage in QHPs. (b) Termination of opt out. A QHP issuer may...

  3. Review Article Abstract: Many plant species abort a large fraction of their em-

    E-print Network

    Klinkhamer, Peter

    Review Article Abstract: Many plant species abort a large fraction of their em- bryos. It has often abort- ed. Such selective embryo abortion would lead to investment of resources only in the offspring with the highest potential fit- ness. Many studies have shown that otherwise viable embryos are aborted. However

  4. 45 CFR 156.280 - Segregation of funds for abortion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segregation of funds for abortion services. 156... for abortion services. (a) State opt-out of abortion coverage. A QHP issuer must comply with a State law that prohibits abortion coverage in QHPs. (b) Termination of opt out. A QHP issuer may...

  5. 45 CFR 156.280 - Segregation of funds for abortion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Segregation of funds for abortion services. 156... for abortion services. (a) State opt-out of abortion coverage. A QHP issuer must comply with a State law that prohibits abortion coverage in QHPs. (b) Termination of opt out. A QHP issuer may...

  6. Orion Launch Abort System Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Rachel; Davidson, John; Gonzalez, Guillo

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Launch Abort System Office is taking part in flight testing to enable certification that the system is capable of delivering the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment during both nominal and abort conditions. Orion is a NASA program, Exploration Flight Test 1 is managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. Although the Launch Abort System Office has tested the critical systems to the Launch Abort System jettison event on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. During Exploration Flight Test 1, the Launch Abort System was to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Exploration Flight Test 1 was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. This was the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. Exploration Flight Test 1 provides critical data that enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The Exploration Flight Test 1 separation event occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff. The separation of the Launch Abort System jettison occurs once Orion is safely through the most dynamic portion of the launch. This paper will present a brief overview of the objectives of the Launch Abort System during a nominal Orion flight. Secondly, the paper will present the performance of the Launch Abort System at it fulfilled those objectives. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test Vehicles will certainly contribute to the vehicle architecture of a human-rated space launch vehicle.

  7. Sensationalized Philosophy: A Reply to Marquis's "Why Abortion is Immoral"

    E-print Network

    Cudd, Ann E.

    1990-01-01

    -1 Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Sensationalized Philosophy: A Reply to Marquis's "Why Abortion is Immoral" Author(s): Ann E. Cudd Source: The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 87, No. 5 (May, 1990), pp. 262-264 Published by: Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Stable URL... access to The Journal of Philosophy. http://www.jstor.org 262 THE JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY COMMENTS AND CRITICISM SENSATIONALIZED PHILOSOPHY: A REPLY TO MARQUIS'S "WHY ABORTION IS IMMORAL"* I N a recent article, Don Marquis' claims to show "Why Abortion...

  8. Analysis of beam loss induced abort kicker instability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Ahrens, L.; Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mi, J.; Pai, C.; Tan, Y.

    2012-05-20

    Through more than a decade of operation, we have noticed the phenomena of beam loss induced kicker instability in the RHIC beam abort systems. In this study, we analyze the short term beam loss before abort kicker pre-fire events and operation conditions before capacitor failures. Beam loss has caused capacitor failures and elevated radiation level concentrated at failed end of capacitor has been observed. We are interested in beam loss induced radiation and heat dissipation in large oil filled capacitors and beam triggered thyratron conduction. We hope the analysis result would lead to better protection of the abort systems and improved stability of the RHIC operation.

  9. Distinctions in Disclosure: Mandated Informed Consent in Abortion and ART.

    PubMed

    Daar, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Enactment of mandated pre-procedure disclosures in abortion and assisted reproductive technology (ART) services has swelled in recent years. Calls to equally regard these mandates as neutral tools in furtherance of patient protection fail to acknowledge key substantive and structural differences in these reproduction-affecting mandates. While ART mandates permit physicians to use their medical judgment to protect presumptively vulnerable egg donors and gestational carriers, abortion disclosures impart scientifically suspect messaging aimed at dissuading women from pursuing pregnancy termination. These and other distinctions counsel in favor of regarding and analyzing abortion and ART mandated disclosures as separate and distinguishable informed consent tools. PMID:26242946

  10. Legal aspects of telepathology.

    PubMed

    Dierks, C

    2000-01-01

    In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU) and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross-border security level the regulations of the EU-Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross-border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross-border or cross-regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to avoid such disturbances and encompass mutual standards of care as well as methods to balance reimbursement. PMID:11339574

  11. Legal high’ associated Wallenberg syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Alok; Kumar, Anil; Raza, Muhammad Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Legal highs’ are substances of synthetic or natural origin having psychotropic properties. ‘Legal highs’ are often new and, in many cases, the actual chemical ingredients in a branded product can be changed without notifications and the risks are unpredictable. Acute recreational drug toxicity is a common reason for presentation to both hospital and prehospital medical services. It appears that, generally, the pattern of toxicity associated with ‘legal highs’ is broadly similar to that seen with classical stimulant recreational drugs such as cocaine, MDMA (3,4 methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine) and amphetamine. Lack of clear literature pertaining to their chemical properties, pharmacology and toxicology makes an evaluation of their effects difficult. We describe a unique case in which consumption of such a substance led to hospital admission and a diagnosis of ‘lateral medullary stroke’ or ‘Wallenberg syndrome’. We believe that this is the first described case of a ‘legal high’ intake linked to a posterior circulation stroke. PMID:23709150

  12. Getting Help with Legal Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Law Attorneys. Your local Area Agency on Aging (AAA) can refer you to an attorney. Some AAAs provide legal services for seniors. Find your local AAA on the Eldercare Locator. The More Resources section ...

  13. Legal Issues for LGBT Caregivers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... org The Transgender Law Center (TLC) is a civil rights organization advocating for transgender communities. TLC connects transgender people and their families to technically and culturally competent legal services, increases acceptance and enforcement of laws and policies ...

  14. The Power of the Pill for the Next Generation: Oral Contraception’s Effects on Fertility, Abortion, and Maternal & Child Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Hungerman, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how oral contraception’s diffusion to young unmarried women affected the number and parental characteristics of children born to these women. In the short-term, pill access caused declines in fertility and increases in both the share of children born with low birthweight and the share born to poor households. In the long-term, access led to negligible changes in fertility while increasing the share of children with college-educated mothers and decreasing the share with divorced mothers. The short-term effects appear to be driven by upwardly-mobile women opting out of early childbearing while the long-term effects appear to be driven by a retiming of births to later ages. These effects differ from those of abortion legalization, although we find suggestive evidence that pill diffusion lowered abortions. Our results suggest that abortion and the pill are on average used for different purposes by different women, but on the margin some women substitute from abortion towards the pill when both are available. JELNo. I0, J13, N12. PMID:22389533

  15. [Research on abortion in Brazil: gaps and challenges for the public health field].

    PubMed

    Menezes, Greice; Aquino, Estela M L

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of abortion studies produced in the field of public health in Brazil, highlighting current research gaps and challenges. Most studies focus on women admitted to public hospitals for treatment of incomplete abortion, so their scope is limited to abortions presenting complications. Women's profiles, abortion methods, motives, and immediate consequences for women's physical health are also included. However, there remains a need for studies on the following aspects: measuring abortion incidence; investigating cases of post-abortion complications and death; analyzing the relationship between abortion and contraception; investigating the impact of abortion on women's mental health; and incorporating men's perspectives. There is an urgent need for evaluative research on abortion care in public services. Research results should be disseminated widely, so as to help overcome any ideological bias in the current debate on abortion rights in the country. PMID:19684927

  16. [Abortion in Brazil: a household survey using the ballot box technique].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda. PMID:20640252

  17. Integrating Mobile Phones into Medical Abortion Provision: Intervention Development, Use, and Lessons Learned From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Constant, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical abortion is legal in South Africa but access and acceptability are hampered by the current protocol requiring a follow-up visit to assess abortion completion. Objective To assess the feasibility and efficacy of information and follow-up provided via mobile phone after medical abortion in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods Mobile phones were used in three ways in the study: (1) coaching women through medical abortion using short message service (SMS; text messages); (2) a questionnaire to assess abortion completion via unstructured supplementary service data (USSD, a protocol used by GSM mobile telephones that allows the user to interact with a server via text-based menus) and the South African mobile instant message and social networking application Mxit; and (3) family planning information via SMS, mobisite and Mxit. A needs and context assessment was done to learn about women’s experiences undergoing medical abortion and their use of mobile phones. After development, the mobile interventions were piloted. Recruitment was done by field workers at the clinics. In the RCT, women were interviewed at baseline and exit. Computer logs were also analyzed. All study participants received standard of care at the clinics. Results In the RCT, 234 women were randomized to the intervention group. Eight did not receive the intervention due to invalid numbers, mis-registration, system failure, or opt-out, leaving 226 participants receiving the full intervention. Of the 226, 190 returned and were interviewed at their clinic follow-up visit. The SMSs were highly acceptable, with 97.9% (186/190) saying that the SMSs helped them through the medical abortion. In terms of mobile phone privacy, 86.3% (202/234) said that it was not likely or possible that someone would see SMSs on their phone, although at exit, 20% (38/190) indicated that they had worried about phone privacy. Having been given training at baseline and subsequently asked via SMS to complete the self-assessment questionnaire, 90.3% (204/226) attempted it, and of those, 86.3% (176/204) reached an endpoint of the questionnaire. For the family planning information, a preference for SMS was indicated by study clients, although the publicly available Mxit/mobisite was heavily used (813,375 pages were viewed) over the study duration. Conclusions SMS provided a good medium for timed, "push" information that guided and supported women through medical abortion. Women were able to perform a self-assessment questionnaire via mobile phones if provided training and prompted by SMS. Phone privacy needs to be protected in similar settings. This study may contribute to the successful expansion of medical abortion provision aided by mobile phones. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR): PACTR201302000427144; http://www.pactr.org/ATMWeb/appmanager/atm/atmregistry?dar=true&tNo=PACTR201302000427144 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6N0fnZfzm). PMID:25098569

  18. Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival - Duration: 108 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

  19. Expertise and Scottish abortion practice: understanding healthcare professionals’ accounts 

    E-print Network

    Beynon-Jones, Siân M.

    2010-01-01

    Current UK abortion law has been subjected to extensive feminist critique because of the relationships that it constructs between healthcare professionals (HCPs) and women with unwanted pregnancies. The law allows HCPs ...

  20. Parental occupational exposure and spontaneous abortions in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Lindbohm, M.L.; Hemminki, K.; Kyyroenen, P.

    1984-09-01

    Spontaneous abortions were analyzed by the occupational exposure of women and their husbands, with data from the Finnish hospital discharge register and the national census. The occupations were grouped according to presumed exposure into seven categories: exposure to solvent; automobile exhaust fumes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; other chemicals; metals; textile dust; and animal microorganisms. The relative risks of spontaneous abortion were estimated with logistic regression analysis to adjust for potentially confounding factors. The broad exposure categories appeared, at most, to be weak risk factors of spontaneous abortion, because the relative risks of abortion were not significantly increased in any of the parental exposure groups. The analysis of detailed occupational categories showed some female and male occupations with an increased risk. The observations of increased risk related to laboratory work supported earlier findings. The high number of textile occupations with increased risk is also worth noting, and further investigations are necessary to confirm whether this is due to occupational hazards or other factors.

  1. Foetus or child? Abortion discourse and attributions of humanness.

    PubMed

    Miko?ajczak, Ma?gorzata; Bilewicz, Micha?

    2015-09-01

    Due to moral, religious, and cultural sensibilities, the topic of abortion still gives rise to controversy. The ongoing public debate has become visibly polarized with the usage of the pro-life versus pro-choice rhetoric. The aim of the current research was to investigate whether the language used in abortion discourse can affect people's attitudes by changing their attributions of humanity to unborn. Across three experimental studies we showed that participants who read about a 'foetus', compared to a 'child' declared higher support for elective abortion (Study 1; N = 108), this effect can be explained by greater humanness, as reflected in human nature traits, attributed to the child (vs. the foetus; Study 2; N = 121). The effect is mediated uniquely by attribution of human nature, but not by human uniqueness traits (Study 3; N = 120). These findings serve as a starting point for discussion of the role of language in shaping attitudes on abortion and other morally ambiguous issues. PMID:25418861

  2. Cytogenetic findings in 122 couples with recurrent abortions.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C

    1981-01-01

    R-banded chromosome complements were analysed from 122 couples who had experienced three or more spontaneous abortions. Five women and one man were found to be carriers of translocations t(2;17), t(5;9), t(11;22), t(17;22), and t(13q14q). Two other karyotypes were abnormal: 46,XXq--and 47,XXX. Banded chromosome studies are recommended for couples with repeated abortions. PMID:7262863

  3. Five-Segment Booster (FSB) Abort to Orbit (ATO) Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Mark; Sauvageau, Donald R.; Hines, Mark; Geiser, Norman L.; Cash, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Five Segment Booster (FSB) concept has been evolving for a number of years as a means to enhance the overall safety and reliability of the Space Shuttle system by minimizing the need to fly the more challenging Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) abort profiles. The initial evaluation of the FSB concept was conducted in 1996 to determine the feasibility of the FSB in achieving transatlantic abort leading TAL from the pad, thus eliminating the return to launch site (RTLS) abort mode. The initial study was conducted by ATK Thiokol and did show the potential for the FSB to eliminate the RTLS abort mode. Later Rockwell (now Boeing) conducted a similar study utilizing FSB performance characteristics and verified that the FSB could indeed achieve TAL from the pad, thereby eliminating the necessity for the RTLS abort. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the details of the enhancements achieved through the internally funded study conducted by Boeing and ATK Thiokol. To better understand the enhancements that were addressed as part of this follow-on study, some background on what was achieved in the Phase A study is appropriate.

  4. A study of reported therapeutic abortions in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Howell, E M

    1975-05-01

    Legislation in 1967 allowed abortions in North Carolina for reasons of mental or physical danger to the mother or child or in cases of rape. In 1971 the statute was changed to require 2 rather than 3 physicians in agreement, to reduce residency requirements from 4 months to 30 days, and mandatory reporting of all abortions. A study of reported abortions since 1967 is undertaken for time trends, differences, distribution, and complications of patients in 1971 voluntary versus mandatory reporting, and abortion ratio for mandatory reporting period. 4378 abortion were reported for 1971. 70.6% of the women were white; 29.4 nonwhite. The most frequent indication was for psychiatric reasons (90%) and the most frequent procedure was suction curettage. Mean age was 23.6 years; mean gestation was 11.9 weeks. In comparison to national data for 1971, North Carolina had similar age distribution, later performance of abortion in terms of gestational age, and similar distribution of operational procedures. PMID:1130570

  5. Morbidity and mortality following induced abortion in Nnewi, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ikechebelu, J I; Okoli, C C

    2003-07-01

    We present a study of the maternal morbidity and mortality among 76 patients treated at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi for complications of induced abortion from January 1996 to December 2000. The total number of maternal admissions over this period was 5750, and illegal induced abortion was responsible for 1.3% of the admissions, with a mortality rate of 5.3% (n = 4) for induced abortion. This accounted for 21.1% of the total maternal deaths (n = 19) for the period. The mean age of the women was 20.6 years (range 15-34 years), 94.7% (n = 72) were unmarried, 93.5% (n = 71) were nulliparous and 76.5% (n = 58) were unemployed, 67.1% (n = 51) had had a mid-trimester termination at > 13 weeks gestational age. It is significant that 55.3% of the patients were teenagers and 45.1% of the mid-trimester abortions occurred in this group. Genital sepsis, haemorrhage, pelvic infection with peritonitis and abscess formation, uterine perforation, and gut injury were the major complications encountered. This study demonstrates that induced abortion is still a major cause of maternal mortality in Nigeria. Integrated family health education, planned parenthood and contraceptive education, a mass literacy campaign and improvement of the existing national health services are recommended in order to ameliorate the problems of illegally induced abortion in Nigeria. PMID:12870609

  6. Continuous Improvements to East Coast Abort Landings for Space Shuttle Aborts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    Improvement initiatives in the areas of guidance, flight control, and mission operations provide increased capability for successful East Coast Abort Landings (ECAL). Automating manual crew procedures in the Space Shuttle's onboard guidance allows faster and more precise commanding of flight control parameters needed for successful ECALs. Automation also provides additional capability in areas not possible with manual control. Operational changes in the mission concept allow for the addition of new landing sites and different ascent trajectories that increase the regions of a successful landing. The larger regions of ECAL capability increase the safety of the crew and Orbiter.

  7. Abortion in Latin America is a matter of desperation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, D

    1990-01-01

    For North Americans, the abortion debate is one of rights: the fetus' right to be born versus the mother's right to control her body. But for Latin American women, debating rights is a luxury that has little to do with the brutal reality of becoming pregnant and knowing it will be impossible to feed yet another child, says Sylvia Marcos. A Mexican psychotherapist who has taught at Harvard University, Marcos works with women in squatters' camps throughout Mexico. "If you want to end abortion in Latin America, you will have to change the whole economic system," said Marcos in an interview. Unfortunately, Marcos said, abortion foes have failed to come up with answers to the poverty that drives Latin American women to have what she estimates are 12 million illegal abortions a year. Women in Latin America, most of them Catholic, are expected to marry young and have many children. Most women choose abortion only after having many children and deciding it would be impossible to feed another, Marcos said. The combination of Catholicism and culture--extolling the virtues of large families--and women's utter lack of means to provide is devastating psychologically and physically, she said. Furthermore, about 1/2 of all Latin American women are raising children alone. "It's so unjust," said Marcos. The 12 million abortions reflect desperation--not an anti-life orientation, she said. "When you are hungry, you do not debate the ethics of when life begins," said Marcos. "If we had enough to eat, then we could care." Women who have abortions continue to call themselves Catholic but often quit going to communion. "Not only do they have a hard time recovering physically from illegal abortions, but they are denied spiritual enjoyment," Marcos said. Trapped in desperate situations, women ignore church teachings about abortion--particularly if they are Indians who still identify strongly with traditions that uphold different ideas about when life begins. Both prochoice and prolife forces in North America, said Marcos, have tended to look at the abortion issue from a North American perspective and have not formed a broader analysis that takes into account the concrete realities of poor women--the majority in Latin America. "It's very American to start with an abstract moral principle," she said. PMID:12178836

  8. Drug combination adds fuel to US abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Rutter, T L

    1995-09-16

    A recent study in the US showed that abortion was achieved in 171/178 women aged 18 to 47 with pregnancies of 63 days or less duration through the administration of an intramuscular injection of methotrexate (a drug used to treat cancer) followed five to seven days later with a dose of misoprostol (used to treat ulcers). The report of this study prompted the founder of the anti-abortion group Operation Rescue to threaten the report's author with being "hunted down and tried for genocide" should abortion ever be made illegal. While the National Abortion Rights Action League urged that the procedure be judged on medical not political terms, a spokesperson for the National Right to Life Committee expressed concern for the reproductive and psychological health of women undergoing medical abortions. The Population Council is currently completing clinical trials of the regimen which employs RU-486 to achieve medical abortion and expects to file a new drug application with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996. The methotrexate/misoprostol combination would be much less expensive than RU-486 (approximately $10 compared to $250 at current prices), and a pharmaceutical company is currently attempting to raise the six million dollars necessary to fund the large-scale clinical trials which must precede FDA approval. While the availability of medical abortions would make the procedure much more accessible and private for women, proper counseling must be given to the women to avoid unwanted side effects and so that the women know what to expect. PMID:7549678

  9. Legal obligations of NHS managers.

    PubMed

    Jacks, H J

    1988-10-01

    The loss of crown immunity resulting from section 2 of the National Health Service (Amendment) Act 1986 has understandably caused much concern relating to the application of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 to hospitals. The NHS managers must remember that their legal obligations can be both civil and criminal. PMID:10291890

  10. Legal Aspects of Fuel Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Frederick W.

    1974-01-01

    School administrators are advised to get legal authorization now for as much maneuvering room as can be worked out with vendors of heating fuels and gasoline for school buses. Safeguards for saving gasoline and anti-freeze are outlined. (Author/MF)

  11. Legal Issues Surrounding Safe Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Reed B.

    This handbook provides an overview of legal issues pertaining to the safety of public schools. Following the introduction, chapter 2 describes the governance model and philosophy on which American education is based. Court decisions and federal and state legislation that mandate the right to a safe school are discussed in chapter 3. The fourth…

  12. Legal Issues for Industrial Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathercoal, Forrest; Stern, Sam

    This book is designed to help industrial educators develop a basis for making decisions based on sound legal and ethical considerations--decisions related to students, colleagues, equipment, and money. The issues also concern administrators, advisory-committee members, risk managers, insurance representatives, and attorneys who work with…

  13. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  14. Prevalence and epidemiological features of ovine enzootic abortion in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Bagdonas, J; Petkevicius, S; Russo, P; Pepin, M; Salomskas, A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of performed study was to determine the level of enzootic abortion (EA) in sheep breeding farms in different districts of Lithuania, to determine differences in clinical signs and infection frequency between various age groups, and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of complement fixation test for antibodies detection and indirect immunofluorescence for antigen detection in sheep chlamydiosis. The clinical, serological and immunological tests in sheep farms were performed in 2004 and 2005. Comparing different age groups of sheep revealed that the lowest number of infected sheep was registered in animals younger than 18 months (23.1%, antibodies titre 3.191 log2, P<0.05) and highest in animals aged 18 to 24 months (53.8%, antibodies titre 4.224 log2, P<0.001). In sheep aged more than 3 years, titre of antibodies was significantly reduced. The majority of infected sheep which aborted (86.4%) was registered in 18-24 month age group. Furthermore, in sheep which aborted the infection level was 2.5-fold higher as compared to sheep which didn't abort. Analysis of smears from patological material by indirect FAT revealed that 54.5% of animals were positive to Chlamydophila abortus infection. The highest prevalence of chlamydia (66.7%) was registered in placentas of sheep which aborted. PMID:18198539

  15. Induced Abortions and the Risk of Preeclampsia Among Nulliparous Women.

    PubMed

    Parker, Samantha E; Gissler, Mika; Ananth, Cande V; Werler, Martha M

    2015-10-15

    Induced abortion (IA) has been associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia among nulliparous women, but it remains unclear whether this association differs by method (either surgical or medical) or timing of IA. We performed a nested case-control study of 12,650 preeclampsia cases and 50,600 matched control deliveries identified in the Medical Birth Register of Finland from 1996 to 2010. Data on number, method, and timing of IAs were obtained through a linkage with the Registry of Induced Abortions. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Overall, prior IA was associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia, with odds ratios of 0.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 1.0) for 1 prior IA and 0.7 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.0) for 3 or more IAs. Differences in the associations between IA and preeclampsia by timing and method of IA were small, with odds ratios of 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.1) for late (?12 gestation weeks) surgical abortion and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.7, 1.2) for late medical abortion. There was no association between IA in combination with a history of spontaneous abortion and risk of preeclampsia. In conclusion, prior IA only was associated with a slight reduction in the risk of preeclampsia. PMID:26377957

  16. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress among women requesting induced abortion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence and pattern of traumatic experiences, to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), to identify risk factors for PTSD and PTSS, and to analyse the association of PTSD and PTSS with concomitant anxiety and depressive symptoms in women requesting induced abortion. Methods A Swedish multi-centre study of women requesting an induced abortion. The Screen Questionnaire – Posttraumatic Stress Disorder was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results Of the 1514 respondents, almost half reported traumatic experiences. Lifetime- and point prevalence of PTSD were 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8–8.5) and 4% (95% CI: 3.1–5.2), respectively. The prevalence of PTSS was 23% (95% CI: 21.1–25.4). Women who reported symptoms of anxiety or depression when requesting abortion were more likely to have ongoing PTSD or PTSS. Also single-living women and smokers displayed higher rates of ongoing PTSD. Conclusions Although PTSD is rare among women who request an induced abortion, a relatively high proportion suffers from PTSS. Abortion seeking women with trauma experiences and existing or preexisting mental disorders need more consideration and alertness when counselled for termination. PMID:23978220

  17. Development of an abort gap monitor for the large hadroncollider

    SciTech Connect

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, requires monitoring the parasitic charge in the 3.3ms long gap in the machine fill structure. This gap, referred to as the abort gap, corresponds to the raise time of the abort kickers magnets. Any circulating particle present in the abort gap at the time of the kickers firing is lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, and can potentially damage a number of the LHC components. CERN specifications indicate a linear density of 6 x 106 protons over a 100 ns interval as the maximum charge safely allowed to accumulate in the abort gap at 7 TeV. We present a study of an abort gap monitor, based on a photomultiplier tube with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting such low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted in the dedicated diagnostics port. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) using a Hamamatsu 5961U MCP-PMT, which indicate that such an instrument has the required sensitivity to meet LHC specifications.

  18. Psychological Aspects of Contraception, Unintended Pregnancy, and Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Julia R.; Rubin, Lisa R.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of important biopsychosocial factors linking women's reproductive health and mental health is increasing. This review focuses on psychological aspects of contraception, unintended pregnancy, and abortion because these are common reproductive health experiences in U.S. women's lives. This review addresses the mental-health antecedents and consequences of these experiences, mostly focusing on depression and depressive symptoms before and after unintended pregnancy and contraception. As mental-health antecedents, depressive symptoms predict contraceptive behaviors that lead to unintended pregnancy, and mental-health disorders have been associated with having subsequent abortions. In examining the mental-health consequences, most sound research does not find abortion or contraceptive use to cause mental-health problems. Consequently, evidence does not support policies based on the notion that abortion harms women's mental health. Nevertheless, the abortion-care setting may be a place to integrate mental-health services. In contrast, women who have births resulting from unintended pregnancies may be at higher risk of postpartum depression. Social policies (e.g., paid maternity leave, subsidized child care) may protect women from mental-health problems and stress of unplanned children interrupting employment, education, and pre-existing family care responsibilities. PMID:25938133

  19. ACLU: strict anti-abortion law could also ban contraceptives.

    PubMed

    1991-09-01

    In states that pass very restrictive abortion laws, contraceptives may be outlawed as well. A Louisiana law prohibits abortion, even to save the life of the mother, and defines the moment of conception to be contact between a spermatozoan and an ovum. The law carries a maximum 10 year prison sentence and a $100,000 maximum fine. According to this definition, oral contraceptives, IUDs and Norplant would all be considered abortifacient and would thus be illegal. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has filled a suit on behalf of the women seeking abortions, the physicians performing abortions, and abortion clinics. There appear to be some problem with banning the contraceptives because the law stipulates that you must terminate the pregnancy with intent and if you don't know you are pregnant, then you can't have intent. Thus contraceptives work without knowledge of pregnancy and should not be included. The ACLU also claims that the definition of conception is not medically or scientifically accepted and as such it is faulty. PMID:12317309

  20. Contraception and abortion: Fruits of the same rotten tree?

    PubMed

    Newton, William

    2015-05-01

    This article seeks to show how contraception, when generally accepted in a society, helps to bring about a radical change in social perceptions of sexual intercourse, human life, the human person, science, and morality in general. On account of this, contraception helps to ingrain abortion and other anti-life practices into the culture that accepts it and, therefore, in no sense can be considered as a panacea for abortion. Particular attention is given to the thought of John Paul II on this matter who noted that "despite their differences of nature and moral gravity, contraception and abortion are often closely connected, as fruits of the same tree" (Evangelium vitae, n. 13). Lay summary: The article considers the connection between contraception and abortion and defends Pope John Paul II's claim that "despite their differences of nature and moral gravity, contraception and abortion are often closely connected, as fruits of the same tree." The thesis is that contraception is a "game-changer" in the sense that it changes the way we think about some very fundamental realities such as attitudes to sex, to life, to science, to the human person, and to morality. Any one of these changes would have a significant impact on a society in terms of promoting a culture of death: together they are devastating. PMID:25999612

  1. Guiding change: provider voices in youth pre-abortion counselling in urban Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Helen Kim Hong; Martin, Philip; Chinh, Nguyen Quoc; Cong, Duong Dinh

    2010-08-01

    Pre-abortion counselling has a role in promoting safe sex practices and in preventing repeated unplanned pregnancies and repeated abortions among abortion-seeking women. Such counselling is essential in Vietnam, especially given the common use of abortion. Arguably, in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, the delivery of pre-abortion counselling is more urgent for young women, who have historically been ignored by State reproductive health initiatives and are increasingly exposed to transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unplanned pregnancies and abortion. This paper charts urban Vietnamese service providers' discourses in pre-abortion counselling specific for reducing risks of additional unwanted pregnancies, repeat abortion and STI/HIV transmission among young Vietnamese women. Thirteen providers working in counselling delivery, management and programme-planning at the Reproductive Health Care Centre of Ho Chi Minh City participated in this study. Through qualitative interviews, this paper elicits a range of provider attitudes, considerations and approaches in pre-abortion counselling and presents these discourses using participant anecdotes. Demonstrated among participant responses were five key pre-abortion counselling phases for promoting effective family planning among young women. Topics covered in these counselling phases included abortion complications, post-abortion fertility return, contraception, behaviour change and STI/HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health basics (SRH). The service provider discourses gleaned from this study are foundational for further research and development of best practice guidelines in pre-abortion counselling. PMID:19593699

  2. Making abortions safe: a matter of good public health policy and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Berer, M.

    2000-01-01

    Globally, abortion mortality accounts for at least 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Preventing mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. This article examines the changes in policy and health service provision required to make abortions safe. It is based on a wide-ranging review of published and unpublished sources. In order to be effective, public health measures must take into account the reasons why women have abortions, the kind of abortion services required and at what stages of pregnancy, the types of abortion service providers needed, and training, cost and counselling issues. The transition from unsafe to safe abortions demands the following: changes at national policy level; abortion training for service providers and the provision of services at the appropriate primary level health service delivery points; and ensuring that women access these services instead of those of untrained providers. Public awareness that abortion services are available is a crucial element of this transition, particularly among adolescent and single women, who tend to have less access to reproductive health services generally. PMID:10859852

  3. 14 CFR 1203.100 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Legal basis. 1203.100 Section 1203.100 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Scope § 1203.100 Legal basis. (a)...

  4. Legal Positivism in International Criminal Law 

    E-print Network

    Luckey, Charles

    2009-11-25

    In this paper I will argue that, international criminal law constitutes a valid legal system. There is skepticism over the authority of international law; some claim that it is not a genuine legal system, and does not ...

  5. Legal Issues of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Join Home » Learn » Library Legal Issues of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder January 21, 2010 Overview Health insurance Child custody ... the Juvenile Justice System Families of children with bipolar disorder often face legal issues related to their child's ...

  6. Association Study of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene Polymorphisms with Spontaneous Abortion: Is This a Possible Reason for Unexplained Spontaneous Abortion?

    PubMed Central

    Anousha, Negin; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Biramijamal, Firouzeh; Rahmani, Ali; Maghbooli, Zhila; Aghababaei, Elahe; Nemati, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen plays a crucial role in fetal and placental development through estrogen receptors. Association of estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) polymorphisms with spontaneous abortion has been shown in some studies. Our main goal was to study the potential association of spontaneous abortion with the ESR1 gene variations (PvuII and XbaI) in fetal tissue. Totally, 161 samples were recruited including 80 samples of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded fetal tissue from spontaneous abortion and 81 samples of normal term placental tissue. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method was performed for genotyping the rs2234693 (A/G XbaI) and rs9340799 (T/C PvuII) single nucleotide polymorphisms located in intron 1 of ESR1. The results have been confirmed by DNA sequencing analysis. The different genotypes distribution was detected in two study groups. Haplotype analysis indicated that ppxx is protective genotype against spontaneous abortion (P = 0.01). In conclusion, the potential role of ESR1 genetic variation in spontaneous abortion might be valuable in high-risk subjects, and that needs to be confirmed with future studies. PMID:24228243

  7. Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort Controller Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Raney, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper covers the simulation and evaluation of a controller design for the Crew Module (CM) Launch Abort System (LAS), to measure its ability to meet the abort performance requirements. The controller used in this study is a hybrid design, including features developed by the Government and the Contractor. Testing is done using two separate 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computer simulation implementations of the LAS/CM throughout the ascent trajectory: 1) executing a series of abort simulations along a nominal trajectory for the nominal LAS/CM system; and 2) using a series of Monte Carlo runs with perturbed initial flight conditions and perturbed system parameters. The performance of the controller is evaluated against a set of criteria, which is based upon the current functional requirements of the LAS. Preliminary analysis indicates that the performance of the present controller meets (with the exception of a few cases) the evaluation criteria mentioned above.

  8. Divergent Views on Abortion and the Period of Ensoulment

    PubMed Central

    Khitamy, Badawy A. B.

    2013-01-01

    A Muslim woman in her sixteenth week of pregnancy was informed that her ultrasound scan showed spina bifida, and laboratory results confirmed the diagnosis. The child would have various complications and, most probably, would need medical care for life. With the consent of her husband she decided to terminate the pregnancy. Her decision sparked controversy among Muslim clerics in her community, sparking debate between those who would allow abortion for medical reasons and those who oppose abortion for any reason. This paper will review the philosophical and theological arguments of the pro-life and pro-choice groups as well as the Islamic perspective concerning a woman’s autonomy over her reproductive system, the sanctity of the fetus and the embryo, therapeutic abortion, and ensoulment. PMID:23573379

  9. [Chromosome Anomalies in cases of habitual Abortions (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Breuker, K H; Winkhaus-Schindl, I; Citoler, P

    1978-01-01

    Chromosome examinations in the case of 78 married couples with recurrent abortions are discussed. The analyses were based on 141 caryogrammes--78 women, 63 men. Inheritied chromosome anomalies as cause of the recurrent abortions could be ascertained with 7 patients (5%): 4 autosomal anomalies in the form of balanced translocations; 1 gonosomal anomaly occurring as X-trisomy with deletion of the short arms of an X-chromosome; 2 cases of striking fragility of the chromosome no. 2. The significance of such chromosome anomalies in women and recurrent miscarriages is discussed. Cytogenetic and histological examinations of the aborted product of conception can give valuable indications for the detection of a chromosome anomaly in the parents. The prognosis and consequences of parental chromosome anomaly and the necessity of prenatal chromosome analyses are discussed. PMID:627336

  10. Involvement of Parachlamydia in bovine abortions in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Wheelhouse, Nick; Howie, Fiona; Gidlow, Jo; Greub, Gilbert; Dagleish, Mark; Longbottom, David

    2012-08-01

    Bovine abortion represents a major animal welfare issue and a cause of substantial economic loss yet the rate of successful diagnosis remains low. Chlamydia-related organisms including Parachlamydia have recently emerged as putative cattle abortifacients. Placental tissue samples and fetal lung from bovine abortion submissions across Scotland in Spring 2011 were investigated by histopathology for the presence of suspect Chlamydia-related organisms. Evidence of Chlamydia-related organisms was observed in 21/113 (18.6%) placenta samples. Thirteen of the suspect cases and 18 histopathology negative cases were analysed by molecular and immunohistochemical methods. All samples were PCR positive for Parachlamydia but sequencing revealed high homology between identified environmental 16S sequences in all but three cases. Parachlamydial antigen was detected in 10/31 placental samples (32.2%) with pathology consistent with chlamydial infection. This work supports the need for further surveillance investigations and experimental studies to determine the role of Parachlamydia in bovine abortion. PMID:22341682

  11. The A0 abort system for the Tevatron upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.

    1989-03-01

    The installation of electrostatic separator modules at B48 and C17 in the Tevatron necessitates changes to the Tevatron abort system. There will no longer be room for either the proton or antiproton kicker magnets used in the present system. The kickers at C17 will be permanently removed. The kickers at B48 will be temporarily removed for collider operation and will be replaced for fixed target operation. The existing proton abort system will remain unchanged during fixed target operation. This note describes a proposed abort system for operation in the collider mode for 22 on 22 bunches and provides details of specifications for the required components. In certain cases, for example in the case of the pulsers for the magnets and the absorber assembly, system components are designed with the option of upgrading to 44 on 44 bunch operation in mind. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  12. Roe v. Abortion Abolition Society, 9 March 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    The plaintiffs, two patients, two physicians, a clinic providing abortion services, members of its staff, and an escort service, sought to bring a class action against an anti-abortion society and its members under the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871, which prohibits private conspiracies to deprive persons or classes of persons of the equal protection of the laws or of equal privileges and immunities under the laws. They claimed that the defendants had harassed, intimidated, and assaulted them. The Court held that the plaintiffs did not constitute a class for purposes of the statute because holding similar religious views on abortion was not sufficient to meet the common characteristics requirement of a class. The Court, however, allowed class action suits based on different statutory provisions to continue against several municipalities for failure to protect the plaintiffs' rights against the society and its members. PMID:12346728

  13. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Trajectory Analysis and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falck, Robert D.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle is the first crewed capsule design to be developed by NASA since Project Apollo. Unlike Apollo, however, the CEV is being designed for service in both Lunar and International Space Station missions. Ascent aborts pose some issues that were not present for Apollo, due to its launch azimuth, nor Space Shuttle, due to its cross range capability. The requirement that a North Atlantic splashdown following an abort be avoidable, in conjunction with the requirement for overlapping abort modes to maximize crew survivability, drives the thrust level of the service module main engine. This paper summarizes 3DOF analysis conducted by NASA to aid in the determination of the appropriate propulsion system for the service module, and the appropriate propellant loading for ISS missions such that crew survivability is maximized.

  14. Pitch Guidance Optimization for the Orion Abort Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillwater, Ryan Allanque

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration created the Constellation program to develop the next generation of manned space vehicles and launch vehicles. The Orion abort system is initiated in the event of an unsafe condition during launch. The system has a controller gains schedule that can be tuned to reduce the attitude errors between the simulated Orion abort trajectories and the guidance trajectory. A program was created that uses the method of steepest descent to tune the pitch gains schedule by an automated procedure. The gains schedule optimization was applied to three potential abort scenarios; each scenario tested using the optimized gains schedule resulted in reduced attitude errors when compared to the Orion production gains schedule.

  15. Measuring the impact of health policies using Internet search patterns: the case of abortion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Internet search patterns have emerged as a novel data source for monitoring infectious disease trends. We propose that these data can also be used more broadly to study the impact of health policies across different regions in a more efficient and timely manner. Methods As a test use case, we studied the relationships between abortion-related search volume, local abortion rates, and local abortion policies available for study. Results Our initial integrative analysis found that, both in the US and internationally, the volume of Internet searches for abortion is inversely proportional to local abortion rates and directly proportional to local restrictions on abortion. Conclusion These findings are consistent with published evidence that local restrictions on abortion lead individuals to seek abortion services outside of their area. Further validation of these methods has the potential to produce a timely, complementary data source for studying the effects of health policies. PMID:20738850

  16. Finding Secure Curves with the Satoh-FGH Algorithm and an Early-Abort Strategy

    E-print Network

    Gaudry, Pierrick

    Finding Secure Curves with the Satoh-FGH Algorithm and an Early-Abort Strategy Mireille Fouquet 1 and an early-abort strategy based on SEA, we are able to #12;nd secure random curves in characteristic two

  17. The Road to Pad Abort 1 - Duration: 6 minutes, 55 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, N.M., engineers and technicians are preparing for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The Launch Abort System is a sophisticated new rocket tower designed t...

  18. Chlamydia-related abortions in cattle from Graubunden, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Borel, N; Thoma, R; Spaeni, P; Weilenmann, R; Teankum, K; Brugnera, E; Zimmermann, D R; Vaughan, L; Pospischil, A

    2006-09-01

    In 2001, the first case of bovine chlamydial abortion was reported in canton Graubunden, Switzerland. In this region, Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus is endemic in small ruminants. Hence, we aimed to investigate the incidence of chlamydia-related abortions in cattle from Graubunden. During breeding seasons of 2003-2004, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded placenta specimens (n = 235) from late-term abortions in cattle were analyzed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry with a Chlamydiaceae-specific monoclonal antibody against chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and 2 different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods (16 S ribosomal ribonucleic acid [rRNA] PCR, intergenic spacer [IGS-S] PCR), followed by PCR product sequencing. In 149 of 235 cases (63.4%), histopathologic lesions such as purulent and/or necrotizing placentitis were observed. Chlamydial antigen was clearly demonstrated in immunohistochemistry in only 1 of 235 cases (0.4%). Cp. abortus or Cp. psittaci was found in 12 of 235 (5.1%) and 10 of 235 cases (4.2%) by 16 S rRNA PCR and IGS-S PCR, respectively. However, we detected, by 16 S rRNA PCR, 43 of 235 cases (18.3%) to be positive for chlamydia-like organisms. In contrast to the situation in small ruminants in the canton Graubunden, bovine abortion from Cp. abortus seems not to play an important role. Nevertheless, zoonotic potential should be taken into account when handling abortion material from cattle. The significance of chlamydia-like isolates other than Waddlia chondrophila remains an open question in abortion and needs further investigation. PMID:16966448

  19. Minnesota court overturns ban on Medicaid coverage for abortion.

    PubMed

    1994-06-24

    Hennipin County District Court Judge William Posten issued a decision on June 16 striking down Minnesota's near ban on abortion coverage for low-income women. Ruling in Women of the State of Minnesota vs. Haas-Steffen, Judge Posten found that the state Constitution's rights of privacy and equality are more protective of women's reproductive choices than the corresponding federal rights. Holding that "the state's selective funding of childbirth over abortion impinges on an indigent woman's fundamental right to decide for herself whether to continue or terminate her pregnancy," the state district court permanently enjoined enforcement of the measure. Minnesota must now cover all medically necessary abortions for women receiving Medicaid. For more than 15 years, the statutes and regulations invalidated by Judge Posten have limited abortion coverage to cases of life endangerment or reported rape or incest. State officials have indicated that they will seek a stay and expedited review of Judge Posten's decision from the Minnesota Supreme Court. Filed on March 8, 1993, the Minnesota case is one of 5 such lawsuits brought by CRLP. Last December, in a similar case, the West Virginia Supreme Court struck down that state's ban on Medicaid coverage for abortions. Similar CRLP cases are still pending in Florida, Texas, and Montana. Plaintiffs--a class of Minnesota Medicaid-eligible women seeking abortions, Dr. Jane Hodgson, Pro-Choice Resources, Women's Health Center, Midwest Health Center for Women, and Meadowbrook Women's Clinic, on behalf of themselves and the women they serve--are represented by CRLP's Simon Heller, Janet Benshoof, and Lenora Lapidus, along with Minnesota attorney Linda Ojala. PMID:12345511

  20. House subcommittee rejects effort to remove abortion coverage.

    PubMed

    1994-05-27

    On May 12, (1994) a subcommittee of the House Education and Labor Committee voted 16-11 in support of retaining abortion coverage in the President's proposed health care plan. With its vote, the Labor/Management Relations subcommittee rejected an amendment by Representative Ron Klink (D-PA), which would have allowed insurers to cover abortions only in cases of forcible rape or incest, or life endangerment. Two Republican Representatives joined 14 Democrats voting against the amendment, while 3 Democratic Representatives were among the 11 people supporting the Klink amendment. The subcommittee also defeated an amendment introduced by Representative Dick Armey (R-TX), which would have prohibited any language in a health care reform bill from overruling constitutional state laws restricting abortion. 14 subcommittee members voted against the Armey amendment; 11 voted in favor. The subcommittee is not expected to act on a final health care measure before the Memorial Day recess. In related news, a Veterans' Affairs House subcommittee voted 11-8 on May 11 to prohibit the performance of abortions at Department of Veterans' Affairs Hospitals or the coverage of abortion services by VA funds. The amendment was introduced in the Hospitals and Health Care subcommittee by Representative Chris Smith (R-NJ). Neither subcommittee action represents a final decision on abortion coverage in health care reform and none of the 5 Congressional committees considering health reform is expected to finalize their proposals before the Memorial Day recess. The Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee and the House Ways and Means Committee started work on health care reform on May 18. The Senate Finance Committee has only been meeting privately thus far, while neither the full House Education and Labor Committee nor the House Energy and Commerce Committee has met. PMID:12319328

  1. A Storytelling Learning Model for Legal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuano, Nicola; De Maio, Carmen; Gaeta, Angelo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Salerno, Saverio; Fratesi, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a learning model based on "Storytelling" and its application in the context of legal education helping build challenging training resources that explain, to common citizens with little or no background about legal topics, concepts related to "Legal Mediation" in general and in specific…

  2. Same-Sex Couples: Legal Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…

  3. Dynamic Modeling of Ascent Abort Scenarios for Crewed Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Boyer, Roger L.

    2015-01-01

    For the last 30 years, the United States's human space program has been focused on low Earth orbit exploration and operations with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs. After nearly 50 years, the U.S. is again working to return humans beyond Earth orbit. To do so, NASA is developing a new launch vehicle and spacecraft to provide this capability. The launch vehicle is referred to as the Space Launch System (SLS) and the spacecraft is called Orion. The new launch system is being developed with an abort system that will enable the crew to escape launch failures that would otherwise be catastrophic as well as probabilistic design requirements set for probability of loss of crew (LOC) and loss of mission (LOM). In order to optimize the risk associated with designing this new launch system, as well as verifying the associated requirements, NASA has developed a comprehensive Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the integrated ascent phase of the mission that includes the launch vehicle, spacecraft and ground launch facilities. Given the dynamic nature of rocket launches and the potential for things to go wrong, developing a PRA to assess the risk can be a very challenging effort. Prior to launch and after the crew has boarded the spacecraft, the risk exposure time can be on the order of three hours. During this time, events may initiate from either of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, or the ground systems, thus requiring an emergency egress from the spacecraft to a safe ground location or a pad abort via the spacecraft's launch abort system. Following launch, again either the spacecraft or the launch vehicle can initiate the need for the crew to abort the mission and return to the home. Obviously, there are thousands of scenarios whose outcome depends on when the abort is initiated during ascent as to how the abort is performed. This includes modeling the risk associated with explosions and benign system failures that require aborting a spacecraft under very dynamic conditions, particularly in the lower atmosphere, and returning the crew home safely. This paper will provide an overview of the PRA model that has been developed of this new launch system, including some of the challenges that are associated with this effort. Key Words: PRA, space launches, human space program, ascent abort, spacecraft, launch vehicles

  4. Abortion associated with Chlamydia abortus in extensively reared Iberian sows.

    PubMed

    Salinas, J; Ortega, N; Borge, C; Rangel, M J; Carbonero, A; Perea, A; Caro, M R

    2012-10-01

    Reproductive disease was investigated in Iberian pigs on an extensive farrow-to-finish farm in the southwest of Spain. Chlamydia abortus was isolated in cell culture and C. abortus-specific PCR products were detected in placental and fetal tissues. In one batch of 14 sows, the percentage of sera positive for C. abortus specific antibodies increased from 35.7% to 85.7% in the period of 2 weeks following abortion. C. abortus may play a role in abortion in extensively reared Iberian sows. PMID:22476020

  5. Design and test of the RHIC CMD10 abort kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Mi, J.; Meng, W.; Montag, C.; Pai, C.; Sandberg, J.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. E.; Zhang, W.

    2015-05-03

    In recent RHIC operational runs, planned and unplanned pre-fire triggered beam aborts have been observed that resulted in quenches of SC main ring magnets, indicating a weakened magnet kick strength due to beam-induced ferrite heating. An improvement program was initiated to reduce the longitudinal coupling impedance with changes to the ferrite material and the eddy-current strip geometry. Results of the impedance measurements and of magnet heating tests with CMD10 ferrite up to 190°C are reported. All 10 abort kickers in the tunnel have been modified and were provided with a cooling system for the RUN 15.

  6. Psychological outcomes of medical versus surgical elective first trimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Crandell, Lena

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the most recent studies that compare psychological outcomes after either a medical or a surgical abortion to pre-procedure findings. Some studies demonstrated slightly higher levels of anxiety and depression following surgical versus medical methods. Studies that evaluated post-traumatic stress showed conflicting results. Overall, the majority of the studies demonstrated that psychological outcomes, specifically quality of life, anxiety and depression, are markedly improved following either method. Finally, the studies reviewed suggest that having a choice of method may improve women's psychological outcomes following abortion. PMID:22900806

  7. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents...of this section) with legal research and the preparation of legal...accomplished by use of carbon paper. The inmate shall bear the...special time allowance for research and preparation of...

  8. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents...of this section) with legal research and the preparation of legal...accomplished by use of carbon paper. The inmate shall bear the...special time allowance for research and preparation of...

  9. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents...of this section) with legal research and the preparation of legal...accomplished by use of carbon paper. The inmate shall bear the...special time allowance for research and preparation of...

  10. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents...of this section) with legal research and the preparation of legal...accomplished by use of carbon paper. The inmate shall bear the...special time allowance for research and preparation of...

  11. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents...of this section) with legal research and the preparation of legal...accomplished by use of carbon paper. The inmate shall bear the...special time allowance for research and preparation of...

  12. Legal Aspects of Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakhu, Ram

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly deals with relevant technological advances, business prospects for space tourism and related policy developments with a view to forecast the viability of space tourism industry. It further analyses applicable international space law and some national laws that particularly have direct relevance to space tourism. Legal lacunae are identified and suggestions are made with a view to encourage the development of this newest application of space technology.

  13. Legal aspects of satellite teleconferencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The application of satellite communications for teleconferencing purposes is discussed. The legal framework within which such a system or series of systems could be developed is considered. The analysis is based on: (1) satellite teleconferencing regulation, (2) the options available for such a system, (3) regulatory alternatives, and (4) ownership and management aspects. The system is designed to provide a capability for professional education, remote medical diagnosis, business conferences, and computer techniques.

  14. Use of Prostaglandin E2 in the Management of Missed Abortion, Missed Labour, and Hydatidiform Mole

    PubMed Central

    Karim, S. M. M.

    1970-01-01

    Treatment of six cases of missed abortion and one case of hydatidiform mole with intravenous infusion of prostaglandin E2 resulted in complete abortion in all cases. Of 15 patients with missed labour, 14 were delivered successfully with similar treatment. The technique appears to be a safe, reliable, and rapid method of managing missed abortion, missed labour, and hydatidiform mole. PMID:5448780

  15. Factors affecting abortion frequency in dairy herd improvement herds in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequency of abortions among lactating cows during 1995-2005 was studied. Only lactations with breeding dates were used. Abortion frequency was 1.51% among 2,980,527 lactations (>151d pregnant by end of lactation). Observed frequency of abortion was 1.6% in 2005. Analyses were conducted to determine...

  16. Reduction of the abortion rate due to Toxoplasma in 3 goat herds following administration of sulfadimidine

    PubMed Central

    Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Lafi, Shawkat Q.; Ioannidou, Evi; Papadopoulos, Elias; Terpsidis, Konstantinos; Karanikolas, George; Petridou, Evanthia J.; Brozos, Christos; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of sulfadimidine (4 doses of 33 mg/kg body weight, IM, q48h) against Toxoplasma abortion was assessed in 3 dairy goat herds suffering from Toxoplasma abortions during the 4th month of gestation. This protocol was very effective for the control of Toxoplasma abortions (P < 0.01). PMID:24179245

  17. Parachlamydia spp. and related Chlamydia-like organisms and bovine abortion.

    PubMed

    Borel, Nicole; Ruhl, Silke; Casson, Nicola; Kaiser, Carmen; Pospischil, Andreas; Greub, Gilbert

    2007-12-01

    Chlamydophila abortus and Waddlia chondrophila cause abortion in ruminants. We investigated the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion. Results of immunohistochemical analyses were positive in 30 (70%) of 43 placentas from which Chlamydia-like DNA was amplified, which supports the role of Parachlamydia spp. in bovine abortion. PMID:18258043

  18. A Deterministic Database Replication Protocol Where Multicast Writesets Never Got Aborted

    E-print Network

    Muñoz, Francesc

    A Deterministic Database Replication Protocol Where Multicast Writesets Never Got Aborted J.R. JuReplicationProtocolWhereMulticastWritesetsNeverGotAbortedTR-ITI-ITE-07/15 #12;#12;A Deterministic Database Replication Protocol Where Multicast Writesets Never Got Aborted J.R. Ju´arez, J.E. Armend´ariz, F.D. Mu

  19. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 145.52 Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature or advertisements concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the mails by 18 U.S.C....

  20. Understanding the Effects of Personal and School Religiosity on the Decision to Abort a Premarital Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamczyk, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Although much research has examined the relationship between religion and abortion attitudes, few studies have examined whether religion influences abortion behavior. This study looks at whether individual and school religiosity influence reported abortion behavior among women who become pregnant while unmarried. Hierarchical Logistic Models are…

  1. Does polyovulation counterbalance a high abortion rate in humans? V. LUMMAA, E. HAUKIOJA & R. LEMMETYINEN

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    Does polyovulation counterbalance a high abortion rate in humans? V. LUMMAA, E. HAUKIOJA & R) suggested that the purpose of polyovu- lations might be to produce `insurance ova'. Spontaneous abortions°15¢N 26°E and RymaÈttylaÈ 60°15¢N Keywords: abortion; fertility; insurance ova; polyovulation; twinning

  2. Induced abortion ratio in modern Sweden falls with age, but rises again before menopause

    E-print Network

    Tullberg, Birgitta

    Induced abortion ratio in modern Sweden falls with age, but rises again before menopause Birgitta S, as is often found in abortion statistics, could depend on older women on average having larger families rather than on age per se. We used data on abortions and births in Sweden during 1994 to investigate how

  3. Reducing Sub-Transaction Aborts and Blocking Time within Atomic Commit

    E-print Network

    Gruenwald, Le

    Reducing Sub-Transaction Aborts and Blocking Time within Atomic Commit Protocols Stefan B¨ottcher1 involves the risk of infinite blocking and can lead to a high number of aborts. In this paper, we introduce-transaction aborts that arise due to message loss or due to conflicting concurrent transactions by distinguishing re

  4. 3 CFR 13535 - Executive Order 13535 of March 24, 2010. Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act... 13535 Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection and... that Federal funds are not used for abortion services (except in cases of rape or incest, or when...

  5. MobiCom Poster: Eliminating Aborted Data Delivery Over Cellular Links

    E-print Network

    MobiCom Poster: Eliminating Aborted Data Delivery Over Cellular Links Andrei Gurtov gurtov@cs.helsinki.fi University of Helsinki, Finland and ICSI, Berkeley, USA Internet users often abort their transfers from aborted transport connections are of- ten sent unnecessarily to the user over a slow last-hop link

  6. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 145.52 Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature or advertisements concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the mails by 18 U.S.C....

  7. Growth Factor and Bcl-2 Mediated Survival During Abortive Proliferation of

    E-print Network

    Sinskey, Anthony J.

    Growth Factor and Bcl-2 Mediated Survival During Abortive Proliferation of Hybridoma Cell Line John- pressed human bcl-2 (hbcl-2) to mitigate cell death. Abortive proliferation, or continuous proliferation for proliferation was found to be solely determined by the presence of cell culture nutrients. Abortive

  8. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 145.52 Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature or advertisements concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the mails by 18 U.S.C....

  9. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 145.52 Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature or advertisements concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the mails by 18 U.S.C....

  10. During the second half of the twentieth century the number of countries with liberal induced abortion

    E-print Network

    Bock, John

    abortion legislation was increasing steadily. By the end of the twentieth century over 60 percent induced abortions were generally prohibited. Almost all of the latter are developing countries, where induced abortions are performed frequently by unqualified personnel under unsanitary conditions and thus

  11. 19 CFR 145.52 - Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... abortion. 145.52 Section 145.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 145.52 Literature concerning devices for unlawful abortion. Mail articles containing literature or advertisements concerning devices to produce unlawful abortions, are prohibited from the mails by 18 U.S.C....

  12. Medication Abortion within a Student Health Care Clinic: A Review of the First 46 Consecutive Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Emily M.; Bordoloi, Anita; Moorthie, Mydhili; Pela, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol has been available in the United States since 2000. The authors reviewed the first 46 medication abortion cases conducted at a university-based student health care clinic to determine the safety and feasibility of medication abortion in this type of clinical setting. Participants:…

  13. Reduction of the abortion rate due to Toxoplasma in 3 goat herds following administration of sulfadimidine.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Ioannidou, Evi; Papadopoulos, Elias; Terpsidis, Konstantinos; Karanikolas, George; Petridou, Evanthia J; Brozos, Christos; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2013-11-01

    The efficacy of sulfadimidine (4 doses of 33 mg/kg body weight, IM, q48h) against Toxoplasma abortion was assessed in 3 dairy goat herds suffering from Toxoplasma abortions during the 4th month of gestation. This protocol was very effective for the control of Toxoplasma abortions (P < 0.01). PMID:24179245

  14. 28 CFR 543.15 - Legal aid program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Activities § 543.15 Legal aid program. (a) A legal aid program which is funded...Warden shall refer a request or decision to terminate or restrict a program...legal assistants working in legal aid programs the same status...

  15. 28 CFR 543.15 - Legal aid program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Activities § 543.15 Legal aid program. (a) A legal aid program which is funded...Warden shall refer a request or decision to terminate or restrict a program...legal assistants working in legal aid programs the same status...

  16. 28 CFR 543.15 - Legal aid program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Activities § 543.15 Legal aid program. (a) A legal aid program which is funded...Warden shall refer a request or decision to terminate or restrict a program...legal assistants working in legal aid programs the same status...

  17. 28 CFR 543.15 - Legal aid program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Activities § 543.15 Legal aid program. (a) A legal aid program which is funded...Warden shall refer a request or decision to terminate or restrict a program...legal assistants working in legal aid programs the same status...

  18. 28 CFR 543.15 - Legal aid program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Activities § 543.15 Legal aid program. (a) A legal aid program which is funded...Warden shall refer a request or decision to terminate or restrict a program...legal assistants working in legal aid programs the same status...

  19. Use of Heated Helium to Simulate Surface Pressure Fluctuations on the Launch Abort Vehicle During Abort Motor Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; James, George H.; Burnside, Nathan J.; Fong, Robert; Fogt, Vincent A.

    2011-01-01

    The solid-rocket plumes from the Abort motor of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV, also know as Orion) were simulated using hot, high pressure, Helium gas to determine the surface pressure fluctuations on the vehicle in the event of an abort. About 80 different abort situations over a wide Mach number range, (0.3< or =M< or =1.2) and vehicle attitudes (+/-15deg) were simulated inside the NASA Ames Unitary Plan, 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel. For each abort case, typically two different Helium plume and wind tunnel conditions were used to bracket different flow matching critera. This unique, yet cost-effective test used a custom-built hot Helium delivery system, and a 6% scale model of a part of the MPCV, known as the Launch Abort Vehicle. The test confirmed the very high level of pressure fluctuations on the surface of the vehicle expected during an abort. In general, the fluctuations were found to be dominated by the very near-field hydrodynamic fluctuations present in the plume shear-layer. The plumes were found to grow in size for aborts occurring at higher flight Mach number and altitude conditions. This led to an increase in the extent of impingement on the vehicle surfaces; however, unlike some initial expectations, the general trend was a decrease in the level of pressure fluctuations with increasing impingement. In general, the highest levels of fluctuations were found when the outer edges of the plume shear layers grazed the vehicle surface. At non-zero vehicle attitudes the surface pressure distributions were found to become very asymmetric. The data from these wind-tunnel simulations were compared against data collected from the recent Pad Abort 1 flight test. In spite of various differences between the transient flight situation and the steady-state wind tunnel simulations, the hot-Helium data were found to replicate the PA1 data fairly reasonably. The data gathered from this one-of-a-kind wind-tunnel test fills a gap in the manned-space programs, and will be used to establish the acoustic environment for vibro-acoustic qualification testing of the MPCV.

  20. Performance of Driver-Vehicle in Aborted Lane Change Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.

    1995-01-01

    A 'lane change crash' is defined as a family of collisions that occurred when a driver attempts to change lane and strikes or is struck by a vehicle in the adjacent lane. One type of maneuver that is commonly used to avert a lane change crash involved aborting the intended lane change, and returning the vehicle to the original lane of the subject vehicle.