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1

Legal abortion: a painful necessity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to increase knowledge about the psychosocial background and current living conditions of Swedish women seeking abortion, along with their motives for abortion and their feelings towards pregnancy and abortion. Two hundred and eleven women answered a questionnaire when they consulted the gynaecologist for the first time. The study indicates that legal abortion may be sought by

A. Kero; U. Högberg; L. Jacobsson; A. Lalos

2001-01-01

2

Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.  

PubMed

Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA. PMID:24338232

Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

2014-02-01

3

Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance of concerted efforts to improve access. Other countries contemplating changes to abortion policy can draw on the evidence and implementation strategies observed in Nepal. PMID:23741391

Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.

2013-01-01

4

Restricted access to abortion in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: exploring abortion tourism and barriers to legal reform.  

PubMed

Access to abortion remains a controversial issue worldwide. In Ireland, both north and south, legal restrictions have resulted in thousands of women travelling to England and Wales and further afield to obtain abortions in the last decade alone, while others purchase the 'abortion pill' from Internet sources. This paper considers the socio-legal context in both jurisdictions, the data on those travelling to access abortion and the barriers to legal reform. It argues that moral conservatism in Ireland, north and south, has contributed to the restricted access to abortion, impacting on the experience of thousands of women, resulting in these individuals becoming 'abortion tourists'. PMID:24617662

Bloomer, Fiona; O'Dowd, Kellie

2014-01-01

5

Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization.  

PubMed

According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. PMID:12293809

1998-07-01

6

[Abortion in Colombia. Medical, legal and socioeconomic aspects].  

PubMed

Abortion is a social problem and criminal sanctions are very ineffective in limiting it and are seldom applied (133 legal actions vs. 65,600 cases of induced abortion in 1965). Abortion is a social disease, as are prostitution, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse, and so far has been an insoluble problem. Colombian laws should be modified to reflect reality. Sex education must be emphasized, because ignorance is one of the main causes of abortion. Leniency should be applied toward women who cooperate with the authorities in identifying the person who performed an abortion. Legalization of abortion and enforcement of strict laws against it are considered as possible solutions, but both are rejected. The former is regarded as morally unacceptable and as imposing an excessive burden on scarce health services, the latter as even worse, imposing an equivalent burden on the court system, without s olving either health or social problems. The best and probably only solution is to improve education in family planning, to promote knowledge and motivation to enable the population to make sound and responsible decisions. PMID:4804875

Umańa, A O

1973-01-01

7

Abortion in Islamic countries--legal and religious aspects.  

PubMed

The debate over abortion is still controversial as ever. As one of every four people in the world is of the Muslim religion, it is important to learn more about the Islamic point of view toward this dilemma in medical ethics. The first part of this paper gives a general view of the sources of Islamic law and discusses modern developments in Islamic medical ethics regarding abortion. The second part focuses on the legal aspects of abortion in different Islamic states, dealing with the need to supply solutions to women who for different reasons wish to abort and at the same time enact laws that would not contradict Islamic principles. A study of three Muslim states (Egypt, Kuwait and Tunisia) demonstrates three different approaches toward legalizing abortion--a conservative approach, a more lenient approach, and a liberal one--all within Islamic oriented states. This leads to a conclusion that a more liberal attitude regarding abortion is possible in Islamic states, as long as traditional principles are taken into account. PMID:15163077

Asman, Oren

2004-01-01

8

Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted  

PubMed Central

Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

2012-01-01

9

Public opinion on abortion in eight Mexican states amid opposition to legalization.  

PubMed

In opposition to Mexico City's legalization of first-trimester abortion, 17 Mexican states (53 percent) have introduced initiatives or reforms to ban abortion entirely, and other states have similar legislation pending. We conducted an opinion survey in eight states--four where constitutional amendments have already been approved and four with pending amendments. Using logistic regression analyses, we found that higher education, political party affiliation, and awareness of reforms/initiatives were significantly associated with support for the Mexico City law. Legal abortion was supported by a large proportion of respondents in cases of rape (45-70 percent), risk to a woman's life (55-71 percent), and risk to a woman's health (48-68 percent). A larger percentage of respondents favored the Mexico City law, which limits elective legal abortion to the first 12 weeks of gestation (32-54 percent), than elective abortion without regard to gestational limit (14-31 percent). PMID:21972672

Valencia Rodríguez, Jorge; Wilson, Kate S; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; García, Sandra G; Sánchez Fuentes, Maria Luisa

2011-09-01

10

Access to Safe Legal Abortion in Malaysia: Women's Insights and Health Sector Response.  

PubMed

Malaysia has an abortion law, which permits termination of pregnancy to save a woman's life and to preserve her physical and mental health (Penal Code Section 312, amended in 1989). However, lack of clear interpretation and understanding of the law results in women facing difficulties in accessing abortion information and services. Some health care providers were unaware of the legalities of abortion in Malaysia and influenced by their personal beliefs with regard to provision of abortion services. Accessibility to safer abortion techniques is also an issue. The development of the 2012 Guidelines on Termination of Pregnancy and Guidelines for Management of Sexual and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Health Clinics by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, is a step forward toward increasing women's accessibility to safe abortion services in Malaysia. This article provides an account of women's accessibility to abortion in Malaysia and the health sector response in addressing the barriers. PMID:25452590

Low, Wah-Yun; Tong, Wen-Ting; Wong, Yut-Lin; Jegasothy, Ravindran; Choong, Sim-Poey

2015-01-01

11

[Reporting of induced abortions in 1994. A comparison between the data in the Registry of Legally Induced Abortions and the National Patient Registry].  

PubMed

Up to 31st December 1994 all cases of legally induced abortions were notified by the physician responsible for the operation to the National Board of Health and recorded in the Register of Induced Abortions. Following this data, abortion statistics will rely on data concerning induced abortions in the Danish National Patient Register, which includes information based upon the unique personal number of all patients admitted to hospitals. The completeness of the Register of Induced Abortions and the National Patient Register as to induced abortions in 1994 was assessed to evaluate the impact of the change in method of monitoring on trends in the national and regional abortion rate. The complete number of induced abortions was estimated to be the sum of the number recorded in both registers, cases recorded only in the Register of Induced Abortions, cases recorded only in the National Patient Register, and the missing number of registration of induced abortions calculated by capture-recapture methods. Of these 18,429 abortions 96.4% were registered in the National Patient Register and 93.5% in the Register of Induced Abortions. There were some regional variations. In some counties more abortions were registered in the Register of Induced Abortions and in others in the National Patient Register. Considering the change from 1995 in sources of the statistics of induced abortions, analyses of trends in the abortion rate in the early 1990s in Denmark must be evaluated with prudence. PMID:9092143

Krebs, L; Johansen, A M; Helweg-Larsen, K

1997-03-10

12

“Sometimes they used to whisper in our ears”: health care workers’ perceptions of the effects of abortion legalization in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Unsafe abortion has been a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. Since legalization in 2002, more than 1,200 providers have been trained and 487 sites have been certified for the provision of safe abortion services. Little is known about health care workers’ views on abortion legalization, such as their perceptions of women seeking abortion and the implications of legalization for abortion-related health care. Methods To complement a quantitative study of the health effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, we conducted 35 in-depth interviews with physicians, nurses, counsellors and hospital administrators involved in abortion care and post-abortion complication treatment services at four major government hospitals. Thematic analysis techniques were used to analyze the data. Results Overall, participants had positive views of abortion legalization – many believed the severity of abortion complications had declined, contributing to lower maternal mortality and morbidity in the country. A number of participants indicated that the proportion of women obtaining abortion services from approved health facilities was increasing; however, others noted an increase in the number of women using unregulated medicines for abortion, contributing to rising complications. Some providers held negative judgments about abortion patients, including their reasons for abortion. Unmarried women were subject to especially strong negative perceptions. A few of the health workers felt that the law change was encouraging unmarried sexual activity and carelessness around pregnancy prevention and abortion, and that repeat abortion was becoming a problem. Many providers believed that although patients were less fearful than before legalization, they remained hesitant to disclose a history of induced abortion for fear of judgment or mistreatment. Conclusions Providers were generally positive about the implications of abortion legalization for the country and for women. A focus on family planning and post-abortion counselling may be welcomed by providers concerned about multiple abortions. Some of the negative judgments of women held by providers could be tempered through values-clarification training, so that women are supported and comfortable sharing their abortion history, improving the quality of post-abortion treatment of complications. PMID:22520231

2012-01-01

13

Midwifery tutors' capacity and willingness to teach contraception, post-abortion care, and legal pregnancy termination in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Ghana has a high maternal mortality rate of 540 per 100 000. Although abortion complications usually are treatable, the risks of morbidity and death increase when treatment is delayed. Delay in care may occur when women have difficulty accessing treatment because health care providers are not trained, equipped, or willing to treat the complications of abortion. Gaps in the midwifery tutors' knowledge on comprehensive abortion care (CAC) have resulted in most midwives in Ghana not knowing the legal indications under which safe abortion care can be provided, and lacking the skills and competencies for CAC services. The aim of this study is to assess the capacity and willingness of midwifery tutors to teach contraception, post abortion care and legal termination in Ghana. Methods This study focused on all 14 midwifery schools in the country. A total of 74 midwifery tutors were interviewed for this study. Structured self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. The data were entered and checked for consistencies using Epiinfo 6.04 and analyzed using Stata 8. Descriptive analysis was used and frequencies reported with percentages. Results In total, 74 midwifery tutors were interviewed. Of these, 66 (89.2%) were females. The tutors had mainly been trained as midwives (51.4%) and graduate nurses (33.8%). Respondents were predominantly Christians (97.3%). The study discovered that only 18.9% of the tutors knew all the legal indications under which safe abortion care could be provided. The content of pre-service training of tutors did not include uterine evacuation with manual vacuum aspirator (MVA). The study also highlighted some factors that influence midwifery tutors' willingness to teach comprehensive abortion care. It was also revealed that personal and religious beliefs greatly influence teaching of Comprehensive Abortion Care. Conclusion The findings of this survey suggest that the majority of tutors did not know the abortion law in Ghana as well as the Ghana Health Service Reproductive Health Standards and Protocol. Thus, there is a need to enhance their capacities to teach the present pre-service students the necessary skills to offer CAC after school and to understand related issues such as related legal matters. PMID:20178600

2010-01-01

14

Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation  

PubMed Central

Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Results Findings confirm that health providers’ views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, ‘social pressures’ (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers’ decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their ‘discretion’ in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop ‘coping mechanisms’ which impede implementation of abortion policy. Conclusions The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that provider values and attitudes (not just resource constraints) modify providers’ implementation of policy; moreover their power of modification is constrained by organisational hierarchies and mid-level managers. We also revealed differing responses of ‘front line workers’ regarding the pressures they face; whilst midwives are seen globally as providers of safe-abortion services, in Ghana the midwife cadre displays more negative attitudes towards them than doctors. These findings allow the identification of recommendations for evidence-based practice. PMID:23829555

2013-01-01

15

Can policy analysis theories predict and inform policy change? Reflections on the battle for legal abortion in Indonesia  

PubMed Central

The relevance and importance of research for understanding policy processes and influencing policies has been much debated, but studies on the effectiveness of policy theories for predicting and informing opportunities for policy change (i.e. prospective policy analysis) are rare. The case study presented in this paper is drawn from a policy analysis of a contemporary process of policy debate on legalization of abortion in Indonesia, which was in flux at the time of the research and provided a unique opportunity for prospective analysis. Applying a combination of policy analysis theories, this case study provides an analysis of processes, power and relationships between actors involved in the amendment of the Health Law in Indonesia. It uses a series of practical stakeholder mapping tools to identify power relations between key actors and what strategic approaches should be employed to manage these to enhance the possibility of policy change. The findings show how the moves to legalize abortion have been supported or constrained according to the balance of political and religious powers operating in a macro-political context defined increasingly by a polarized Islamic-authoritarian—Western-liberal agenda. The issue of reproductive health constituted a battlefield where these two ideologies met and the debate on the current health law amendment became a contest, which still continues, for the larger future of Indonesia. The findings confirm the utility of policy analysis theories and stakeholder mapping tools for predicting the likelihood of policy change and informing the strategic approaches for achieving such change. They also highlight opportunities and dilemmas in prospective policy analysis and raise questions about whether research on policy processes and actors can or should be used to inform, or even influence, policies in ‘real-time’. PMID:21183461

Surjadjaja, Claudia; Mayhew, Susannah H

2011-01-01

16

Abortion - medical  

MedlinePLUS

Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

17

Abortion law reform in Nepal.  

PubMed

Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

Upreti, Melissa

2014-08-01

18

Abortion, Birthright and the Counselor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This transcript is the result of panel presentation given on the implications of liberalized abortion laws for counselors. A new law which went into effect in July, 1970, in New York State presented women with the option of obtaining a legal abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Counselors in New York State were, therefore, presented with new…

Fadale, Vincent E.; And Others

19

Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.  

PubMed

In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

Kumar, Ramya

2013-03-01

20

The Abortion Law Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This privately posted page offers extensive and highly credible information on legislation and jurisprudence relating to abortion in the US. The site offers thoroughly linked discussions of constitutional law, Roe v. Wade, Planned Parenthood v. Casey, state and federal abortion laws, including partial-birth abortion laws, and much more. The hypertext links are to primary documents including court decisions, texts of legislation, court briefs, and oral argument transcripts. There is also an index to primary documents for ease of access. We found the page to have no political agenda. As the author states, "this page is being constructed to help people, regardless of their political bent, understand the background and state of abortion law in America, and access related legal material--especially that which is less available and less well known."

21

The Politicization of Abortion and the Evolution of Abortion Counseling  

PubMed Central

The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation—head and heart counseling—departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade. PMID:23153144

2013-01-01

22

Estimates of illegal abortions in Israel, 1980-83.  

PubMed

Since the legalization of abortion in Israel in the late 1970s, only aggregate information on legal abortions has been available. A brief history of the public debate and relevant legislation concerning induced abortions in Israel is presented in the first part of this report. The second part presents estimates of the extent of illegal abortions in Israel during the years 1980-83. These estimates were obtained through standardization based on data for selected countries where the abortion law is similar to or more liberal than that in Israel, the system of abortion registration is more reliable and detailed, and the prevailing contraceptive habits and attitudes of women are known. Estimates indicate that: a) the total number of abortions in Israel is about half that quoted by the media from nonscientific sources, and b) the annual number of illegal abortions constitutes between 25 and 30% of the estimated total number of abortions. PMID:2347687

Sabatello, E F

1990-04-01

23

Human rights accountability for maternal death and failure to provide safe, legal abortion: the significance of two ground-breaking CEDAW decisions.  

PubMed

In 2011, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) issued two landmark decisions. In Alyne da Silva Pimentel v. Brazil, the first maternal death case decided by an international human rights body, it confirms that States have a human rights obligation to guarantee that all women, irrespective of their income or racial background, have access to timely, non-discriminatory, and appropriate maternal health services. In L.C. v. Peru, concerning a 13-year-old rape victim who was denied a therapeutic abortion and had an operation on her spine delayed that left her seriously disabled as a result, it established that the State should guarantee access to abortion when a woman's physical or mental health is in danger, decriminalise abortion when pregnancy results from rape or sexual abuse, review its restrictive interpretation of therapeutic abortion and establish a mechanism to ensure that reproductive rights are understood and observed in all health care facilities. Both cases affirm that accessible and good quality health services are vital to women's human rights and expand States' obligations in relation to these. They also affirm that States must ensure national accountability for sexual and reproductive health rights, and provide remedies and redress in the event of violations. And they reaffirm the importance of international human rights bodies as sources of accountability for sexual and reproductive rights violations, especially where national accountability is absent or ineffective. PMID:22789080

Kismödi, Eszter; de Mesquita, Judith Bueno; Ibańez, Ximena Andión; Khosla, Rajat; Sepúlveda, Lilian

2012-06-01

24

Abortion: The Viewpoint of Potential Consumers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A college survey showed strong support by a majority for legalized abortion, governmental support of abortion and family planning services, voluntary sterilization, and sex education and birth control information and/or services in the schools. Important differences of opinion among subgroups were, however, indicated. (Author/MJB)

Hamrick, Michael H.; And Others

1977-01-01

25

Youth often risk unsafe abortions.  

PubMed

The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to seeking safe abortion. Some countries lack adequately trained medical personnel and supplies. Mortality and morbidity declines are considered possible with legalization, more trained health personnel, and family planning programs for youth and education for parents. PMID:12287144

Barnett, B

1993-10-01

26

[Artificial abortion in Europe].  

PubMed

The authors of the article review the state in various European nations and the possibilities for performance of induced interruption of pregnancy. In connection with this they describe the existing various forms of legislation. There are countries, in which induced abortions are absolutely band (Ireland). Legislation of socialistic countries is far more democratic in this respect. There are many factors, on which depend whether to legalize or not induced interruption of pregnancy. In Roman-catholic countries the religious motives are determinant, but in some other countries--the demographic policy of the government, ect. The practice however prove that induced abortions are widely distributes in Europe. The number of registered abortions is quite large in the socialistic countries. The data show that Bulgaria occupies one the first places (61.9% of women). Furthermore there are a series of problems in connection with the formation of high sexual culture of the population. Attention is paid to family planning all over the world. The question about contraception is an important and pressing problem. Good knowledge of current drugs and methods for prevention of unwanted pregnancy and their correct usage leads to a substantial reduction in the number of induced abortions and their unfavourable consequences. PMID:2252142

Ivanov, S; Boianov, B; Marinov, B

1990-01-01

27

Women's self-reported responses to abortion.  

PubMed

The legalization of abortion in many states has allowed an alternative for women with unplanned or unwanted pregnancies who do not wish to deliver and raise their children or to place them for adoption. Of 158 women asked to recall their responses to the experience, 21% reported psychosocial satisfaction at the time of abortion, and 45% reported satisfaction several months later; over half reported an improved outlook on life, and nearly half found abortion preferable to other alternatives for future unplanned pregnancies. It may prove important to make counseling or therapy available to about 10% of women who report negative responses (guilt and confusion) to the abortion. PMID:3572835

Burnell, G M; Norfleet, M A

1987-01-01

28

Enablers of and Barriers to Abortion Training  

PubMed Central

Background Since the legalization of abortion services in the United States, provision of abortions has remained a controversial issue of high political interest. Routine abortion training is not offered at all obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) training programs, despite a specific training requirement by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Previous studies that described Ob-Gyn programs with routine abortion training either examined associations by using national surveys of program directors or described the experience of a single program. Objective We set out to identify enablers of and barriers to Ob-Gyn abortion training in the context of a New York City political initiative, in order to better understand how to improve abortion training at other sites. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 22 stakeholders from 7 New York City public hospitals and focus group interviews with 62 current residents at 6 sites. Results Enablers of abortion training included program location, high-capacity services, faculty commitment to abortion training, external programmatic support, and resident interest. Barriers to abortion training included lack of leadership continuity, leadership conflict, lack of second-trimester abortion services, difficulty obtaining mifepristone, optional rather than routine training, and antiabortion values of hospital personnel. Conclusions Supportive leadership, faculty commitment, and external programmatic support appear to be key elements for establishing routine abortion training at Ob-Gyn residency training programs. PMID:24404266

Guiahi, Maryam; Lim, Sahnah; Westover, Corey; Gold, Marji; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

2013-01-01

29

Abortion stigma: a reconceptualization of constituents, causes, and consequences.  

PubMed

Stigmatization is a deeply contextual, dynamic social process; stigma from abortion is the discrediting of individuals as a result of their association with abortion. Abortion stigma is under-researched and under-theorized, and the few existing studies focus only on women who have had abortions. We build on this work, drawing from the social science literature to describe three groups whom we posit are affected by abortion stigma: Women who have had abortions, individuals who work in facilities that provide abortion, and supporters of women who have had abortions, including partners, family, and friends, as well as abortion researchers and advocates. Although these groups are not homogeneous, some common experiences within the groups--and differences between the groups--help to illuminate how people manage abortion stigma and begin to reveal the roots of this stigma itself. We discuss five reasons why abortion is stigmatized, beginning with the rationale identified by Kumar, Hessini, and Mitchell: The violation of female ideals of sexuality and motherhood. We then suggest additional causes of abortion stigma, including attributing personhood to the fetus, legal restrictions, the idea that abortion is dirty or unhealthy, and the use of stigma as a tool for anti-abortion efforts. Although not exhaustive, these causes of abortion stigma illustrate how it is made manifest for affected groups. Understanding abortion stigma will inform strategies to reduce it, which has direct implications for improving access to care and better health for those whom stigma affects. PMID:21530840

Norris, Alison; Bessett, Danielle; Steinberg, Julia R; Kavanaugh, Megan L; De Zordo, Silvia; Becker, Davida

2011-01-01

30

International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.  

PubMed Central

During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126

Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

1988-01-01

31

Post legalisation challenge: minimizing complications of abortion.  

PubMed

Abortion has been legalized in Nepal since September 2002 by 11th amendment to the Muluki Ain. The present study was conducted in Paropakar Shree Panch Indra Rajya Laxmi Devi Maternity Hospital to assess the magnitude of induced abortion, its causes and the types of complications, in the post legalization phase. Prospective descriptive analyses of the patients who were admitted with history of induced abortion from 16th Dec 2003 to 13th March 2004 was carried out. A total of 305 cases of abortion complications were admitted during the three-month study period, which is 39.7% of the total gynaecological admissions (768). Of these 31 (10.25%) patients had history of induced abortion. Half of the induced abortion cases (52%) were of age group 21-29 yrs and 42% had three or more children. 39% of the cases had history of induced abortion at more than 12 weeks and almost half of the cases (48%) had history of family planning. The most common reason for seeking abortion was too many children (59%) followed by illegitimate pregnancy (16%). Twenty-one patients gave history of abortion being performed by doctors and the most common method used was D and C (75%). 77% of cases presented as incomplete abortion and one case presented with uterine perforation, bowel injury and peritonitis. Twenty patients had evacuation under sedation while five had manual vacuum aspiration (MVA); one patient required laparatomy. In two third of the patients intravenous fluid and antibiotics were used. Four patients required blood transfusion. Abortion complications constitute almost 40% of the total gynaecological admissions. Ten percent of the abortion cases had history of induced abortion. Medical persons, mainly doctors, performed most of the cases of induced abortion and D and C was the most commonly used method. However the patients had faced various types of complications. Untrained provider, resulting in serious life threatening injuries, performed more than a third of the cases of induced abortion at more than twelve weeks gestation. This points to the need for improved monitoring of the quality of services provided, and adherence to the criteria set by the procedural order. PMID:15821380

Ojha, N; Sharma, S; Paudel, J

2004-01-01

32

Exploring abortion knowledge and opinion among lawyers, an important yet overlooked stakeholder group in Mexico.  

PubMed

Lawyers are important actors shaping the abortion debate in Mexico. Of 250 private and public sector criminal lawyers surveyed from four regions, the majority knew about abortion laws in their states. At least 80% agreed with abortion in cases of rape, risk to a woman's life or health, and fetal malformations. Overall, 61% agreed with the Mexico City law and 84% would defend a woman denied a legal abortion. In multivariate analysis, being very knowledgeable of abortion laws was a significant predictor of more "progressive" abortion opinions, support for the Mexico City law, and support for the health indication. PMID:23066966

Wilson, Kate S; Garcia, Sandra G; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; McMurtrie, Stephanie M; Valencia, Jorge Armando; Diaz de Leon, Fernanda; Sanchez Fuentes, Maria Luisa

2012-01-01

33

[Abortion in unsafe conditions. Concealment, illegality, corruption and negligence].  

PubMed

"Abortion practiced under conditions of risk" is a phrase used to refer to illegal abortion. The phrase does not highlight the disappearance of risk when legislation changes. Rather, it calls attention to the fact that legal restrictions significantly increase dangers while failing to discourage women determined to terminate pregnancies. The International Planned Parenthood Federation defines abortion under conditions of risk as the use of nonoptimal technology, lack of counseling and services to orient the woman's decision and provide postabortion counseling, and the limitation of freedom to make the decision. The phrase encompasses concealment, illegality, corruption, and negligence. It is designed to impose a reproductive health perspective in response to an unresolved social conflict. Steps have been developed to improve the situation of women undergoing abortion even without a change in its legal status. Such steps include training and purchase of equipment for treatment of incomplete abortions and development of counseling and family planning services. The central difficulty of abortion induced in conditions of risk derives from the laws imposing the need for secrecy. In Mexico, the abortion decision belongs to the government and the society, while individual absorb the consequences of the practice of abortion. Public decision making about abortion is dominated by the concept that the female has an obligation to carry any pregnancy to term. Women who interfere with male descendency and practice a sexuality distinct from reproduction are made to pay a price in health and emotional balance. Resolution of the problem of abortion will require new concepts in terms of legal status, public health issues, and the rights of women. The problem becomes more pressing as abortion becomes more common in a country anxious to advance in the demographic transition. Only a commitment to the reproductive health of women and the full development of their rights as citizens will permit a favorable outcome to the problem. PMID:12158053

Ortiz Ortega, A

1993-01-01

34

U.S. tries to defuse abortion debate.  

PubMed

In an apparent attempt to defuse acrimony at the International Conference on Population and Development, underway in Cairo, the US delegation is softening its stance on abortion decriminalization. US Vice President Al Gore, the head of the delegation, has stated, "The United States does not seek to establish a new international right to abortion, and we do not believe that abortion should be encouraged as a method of family planning." The Vatican and Muslim fundamentalists remain concerned, however, that the Cairo gathering represents an opportunity for the US to impose its abortion rights agenda on other countries. The draft prepared for presentation to the conference makes no explicit mention of legal abortion. Rather, it advocates safe motherhood, complete reproductive health care, and fertility control-- phrases the Vatican insists mask an intent to promote the use of abortion for family planning. PMID:12318927

Struck, D

1994-09-01

35

Recent developments in abortion law in industrialized countries.  

PubMed

An effort to bring new insights into the US abortion debate, this article reviews recent legal developments concerning abortion in 7 other industrialized countries. In addition to the US, the author examines developments in Canada, England, Ireland, France, Belgium, Romania, and Bulgaria. In the US, the Supreme Court has become the battleground for an increasingly bitter abortion debate. The 1989 ruling in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services has setback the 1973 Roe v. Wade ruling which guaranteed a woman's right to an abortion. Although the Webster did not overturn Roe, it did significantly weaken the trimester approach to abortion regulation and open the door to further restrictions. In Canada, however, the court has overturned a previously burdensome abortion law. The abortion debate in England has centered around the standard that says that an abortion may not take place when the fetus is "capable of being born alive." Conforming to present scientific knowledge, English law now allows abortions on demand during the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy -- bringing England closer to the practice of other European countries. Belgium has also recently approved of unimpeded abortions during the 1st 12 weeks. In France, the governments has ordered the manufacturer of RU486 to make the abortifacient available to French women. Ireland, however, remains the only industrialized country in the world where abortion is still illegal. The cases of Bulgaria and Romania show what can happen when abortion becomes the pawn of social policy and ideology. Romania is the extreme case. Prior to his downfall in 1989, President Ceaucescu had instituted one of the most restrictive abortion laws as part of a pronatalist policy. This resulted in widespread misery for women and created a great number of unwanted children, which the author warns is the result of restrictive abortions laws. PMID:2089193

Boland, R

1990-01-01

36

Abortions: A National Dilemma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses general attitudes towards unwanted pregnancies and abortions, the methods that students have resorted to in order to abort themselves, and the mental state of college women, who become pregnant with children they don't want. (RK)

Paulsen, James A.

1973-01-01

37

Polish parliament votes to reform harsh abortion law.  

PubMed

On June 30, the Polish senate voted to liberalize the country's abortion law, ratifying a provision adopted by the lower House of Parliament (Sejm) on June 10. Based on a model measure prepared by women deputies, the new proposal allows women facing economic or personal hardship to obtain legal abortions. In contrast, the current law only allows abortions when a woman's life is endangered or when the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest. Last year, the Polish anti-choice campaign successfully pressured members of Parliament to restrict abortion by appealing to Catholic doctrine and associating more liberal abortion laws with the Communist regime, which had left access to abortion essentially unfettered. Since enactment of the harsh law last year, Polish women have been forced to travel abroad for abortions, to resort to often unsafe procedures by providers operating illegally within the country, or to attempt self-abortion. Although President Walesa has indicated that he will veto the measure, his executive action could be overridden by a two-thirds vote of the Parliament. Poland is one of the many countries in Eastern and Central Europe that have experienced a surge in anti-choice organizing since the collapse of Communist governments. Groups seeking to impose additional restrictions on abortion in the region are often supported by US-based organizations. Human Life International, for example, recently sponsored a conference for anti-abortion activists in Moscow, Russia. For more information, contact Urszula Nowakowska, visiting attorney in CRLP's International Program. PMID:12287709

1994-07-01

38

Knowledge and perception of abortion and the abortion law in Trinidad and Tobago.  

PubMed

As for most of its Caribbean neighbours, Trinidad and Tobago's leading cause of maternal morbidity is unsafe abortion. Yet activism to introduce public policy and legislation that effectively address this aspect of women's reproductive rights and health has been met with public outcry. With almost hysterical opposition coming from certain religious quarters, there is the unsubstantiated impression that Trinidadians are overwhelmingly opposed to abortion law reform. A national survey was therefore carried out of people's knowledge and views on the current abortion law in Trinidad and Tobago. The survey found that although almost half of respondents had an unfavourable perception of abortion, more than half of them were in favour of broadening the legal grounds for accessing terminations. Incest, rape and danger to a woman's life were cited as the most significant circumstances under which abortions should be permitted. The vast majority of respondents agreed that voting on abortion law reform by members of the legislature should not be based on personal beliefs. The findings demonstrate that there is not the degree of opposition to abortion law reform that is widely assumed. On the other hand, given the wide variance of views and perceptions, we argue that public health concerns and human rights should always trump public opinion. PMID:17512381

Martin, Cedriann J; Hyacenth, Glennis; Suite, Lynette Seebaran

2007-05-01

39

Abortion and fertility regulation.  

PubMed

To achieve their desired fertility, women use a combination of contraception and abortion, and some societies also place constraints on marriage and sexual activity. The degree to which these means are adopted varies considerably, but for the foreseeable future abortion will remain an important element of fertility regulation. Globally, complications of unsafe abortion affect hundreds of thousands of women each year, and account for as many as 100,000 deaths annually (about two in ten maternal deaths), mainly in poor countries, where abortion typically remains illegal. Access to safe abortion is both essential and technically feasible and should be provided in combination with good quality family planning services. PMID:8642962

Kulczycki, A; Potts, M; Rosenfield, A

1996-06-15

40

Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.  

PubMed

This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity." PMID:12178893

Hisel, L M

1998-01-01

41

Ugandan opinion-leaders' knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion.  

PubMed

While laws in Uganda surrounding abortion remain contradictory, a frequent interpretation of the law is that abortion is only allowed to save the woman's life. Nevertheless abortion occurs frequently under unsafe conditions at a rate of 54 abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age annually, taking a large toll on women's health. There are an estimated 148,500 women in Uganda who experience abortion complications annually. Understanding opinion leaders' knowledge and perceptions about unsafe abortion is critical to identifying ways to address this public health issue. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 41 policy-makers, cultural leaders, local politicians and leaders within the health care sector in 2009-10 at the national as well as district (Bushenyi, Kamuli and Lira) level to explore their knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion and the potential for policy to address this issue. Only half of the sample knew the current law regulating abortion in Uganda. Respondents understood that the result of the current abortion restrictions included long-term health complications, unwanted children and maternal death. Perceived consequences of increasing access to safe abortion included improved health as well as overuse of abortion, marital conflict and less reliance on preventive behaviour. Opinion leaders expressed the most support for legalization of abortion in cases of rape when the perpetrator was unknown. Understanding opinion leaders' perspectives on this politically sensitive topic provides insight into the policy context of abortion laws, drivers behind maintaining the status quo, and ways to improve provision under the law: increase education among providers and opinion leaders. PMID:24064047

Moore, Ann M; Kibombo, Richard; Cats-Baril, Deva

2014-10-01

42

Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: a psychosocial study.  

PubMed

Despite its social, legal and medical importance, termination of pregnancy (TOP) (induced abortion) has rarely been the focus of psychosocial research. Of a total of 1329 women who consecutively attended the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Japan, 635 were expecting their first baby. Of these 635 women, 103 (16.2%) had experienced TOP once previously (first aborters), while 47 (7.4%) had experienced TOP two or more times (repeated aborters). Discriminant function analysis was performed using psychosocial variables found to be significantly associated with either first abortion or repeated abortion in bivariate analyses. This revealed that both first and repeated aborters could be predicted by smoking habits and an unwanted current pregnancy while the repeated aborters appear to differ from first aborters in having a longer pre-marital dating period, non-arranged marriages, smoking habits, early maternal loss experience or a low level of maternal care during childhood. These findings suggest that both the frequency of abortion and its repetition have psychosocial origins. PMID:9844843

Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, M

1998-09-01

43

[I. Induced abortions and spontaneous abortions. Psychopathological aspects apropos of a preliminary sample of 411 requests for pregnancy interruption].  

PubMed

Since 1975 (17th January), abortion is free and legal in France. The authors analyse 411 first cases of women requiring for an abortion (seen over a period of 11 weeks). Most of them are young women, single, many begin their sexual life. Unwanted pregnancy indicates absence of contraception by ignorance, refusal or ambivalence (never used = 184 cases). 105 women used archaic and inefficient contraceptive means. Modern contraceptive means was used by 154 women but ill applied, ill tolerated and/or discarded (pill = 103 cases, I.U.D. = 14, diaphragme = 2, condoms = 35). Unwanted pregnancy and abortion signify failure of contraception. We compare psychologic and psychopathologic features of women requiring repeated induced abortion with those of women suffering of repeated spontaneous abortion and infertility. These women have frequently (same) problems of feminine identity, bad maternal imago, absence of father, unhappy, and conflictive childhood, immature sexuality and personnality. Contradiction between conscious and unconscious wishes create the two opposite situations and intrapsychic conflicts (spontaneous abortion = conscious willing of pregnancy + unconscious rejection of unbearable pregnancy; induced abortion = strong but unconscious wish of pregancy + conscious and volontary rejection of maternity). Psychotherapy should improve sexual and affective life and in both cases. The authors compare infanticide and abortion behaviors, contraceptive means, and psychological problems of doctors who are asked abortion. PMID:1233904

Bourgeois, M; Labrousse, D

1975-07-01

44

A demand function for the New York City abortion market.  

PubMed

The 1970 abortion law in New York State made abortion on request legal. A sudden increase in demand for abortions was anticipated. In order to plan for the development of free-standing abortion clinics in New York City to meet this anticipated demand, the nature of their demand function was calculated. The clients of these free-standing clinics were mainly white, high-income women from outside New York City. Surprisingly enough, given the urgency of need situation of many of the prospective clients, the demand was found to be highly elastic. In other words, higher prices caused a lowering of demand for the abortion services. It is assumed that alternative services were used instead. PMID:12309937

Lackman, C L

1979-01-01

45

Abortion in early America.  

PubMed

This piece describes abortion practices in use from the 1600s to the 19th century among the inhabitants of North America. The abortive techniques of women from different ethnic and racial groups as found in historical literature are revealed. Thus, the point is made that abortion is not simply a "now issue" that effects select women. Instead, it is demonstrated that it is a widespread practice as solidly rooted in our past as it is in the present. PMID:10297561

Acevedo, Z

1979-01-01

46

Post-abortion mania.  

PubMed

We describe case histories of three women with post-abortion mania, including two women who underwent a change in diagnosis from bipolar II to bipolar I disorder and another woman who had no prior history of psychiatric disturbance. It is argued that the study of post-abortion mania should provide an opportunity to better understand the aetiology of puerperal mania. PMID:23381493

Sharma, Verinder; Sommerdyk, Christina; Sharma, Sapna

2013-04-01

47

Brazilian obstetrician-gynecologists and abortion: a survey of knowledge, opinions and practices  

PubMed Central

Background Abortion laws are extremely restrictive in Brazil. The knowledge, opinions of abortion laws, and abortion practices of obstetrician-gynecologists can have a significant impact on women's access to safe abortion. Methods We conducted a mail-in survey with a 10% random sample of obstetrician-gynecologists affiliated with the Brazilian Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. We documented participants' experiences performing abortion under a range of legal and illegal circumstances, and asked about which abortion techniques they had experience with. We used chi-square tests and crude logistic regression models to determine which sociodemographic, knowledge-related, or practice-related variables were associated with physician opinion. Results Of the 1,500 questionnaires that we mailed out, we received responses from 572 (38%). Less than half (48%) of the respondents reported accurate knowledge about abortion law and 77% thought that the law should be more liberal. One-third of respondents reported having previous experience performing an abortion, and very few of these physicians reported having experience with manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) or with misoprostol with either mifepristone or methotrexate. Physicians that favored liberalization of the law were more likely to have correct knowledge about abortion law, and to be in favor of public funding for abortion services. Conclusion Brazilian obstetrician-gynecologists need more information on abortion laws and on safe, effective abortion procedures. PMID:16288647

Goldman, Lisa A; García, Sandra G; Díaz, Juan; Yam, Eileen A

2005-01-01

48

Teen Motherhood and Abortion Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate the effect of abortion access on teen birthrates using county-level panel data. Past research suggested that prohibiting abortion led to higher teen birthrates. Perhaps surprisingly, the authors find that more recent restrictions in abortion access, including the closing of abortion clinics and restrictions on Medicaid funding, had the opposite effect. Small declines in access were related to

Thomas J Kane; Douglas Staiger

1996-01-01

49

The challenges procuring of safe abortion care in Botswana.  

PubMed

Botswana's national healthcare system has experienced substantial investment as a result of a growing economy and stable government, and improvements in quality and access are notable. Despite these advances, women's reproductive health continues to suffer as a result of unsafe abortion. The personal, financial, and health costs of women seeking dangerous illegal terminations, or crossing national borders to procure a legal abortion, are evident. Twenty-one in-depth, qualitative interviews with Batswana were conducted to gain some insight into the factors which make terminating an unwanted pregnancy difficult in Botswana. This small study demonstrates that there are important socio-cultural constraints, in addition to the legal barriers, that make abortion problematic. These constraints are entrenched in the wider issue of women's rights and status in society. PMID:24558781

Smith, Stephanie Samantha

2013-12-01

50

Incidence of post-abortion psychosis: a prospective study.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-one cunsultant psychiatrists participated in a prospective study of post-abortion psychosis among a population of 1 333 000 people. During the 15-month study only a single case was reported, concerning a woman who had a history of two previous attacks of puerperal psychosis. The incidence of post-abortion psychosis was 0-3 per 1000 legal abortions. The incidence of puerperal psychosis, which was also studied as an index of validity, was 1-7 per 1000 deliveries. This conforms with currently accepted figures and indicates that the study population was representative. I suggest that physiological changes, which are probably more profound after childbirth than after abortion, may be responsible for the higher incidence of puerperal psychosis. PMID:837169

Brewer, C

1977-01-01

51

Contesting the cruel treatment of abortion-seeking women.  

PubMed

This article draws on legal arguments made by civil society organisations to challenge the legal reasoning that apparently produced the decision in the Ms Y case in Ireland in August 2014. I show how legal standards of reasonableness and practicality ought to be interpreted in ways that are respectful of the patient's wishes and rights. The case concerned a decision by the Health Service Executive, the Irish public health authority, to refuse an abortion to a pregnant asylum seeker and rape survivor on the grounds that a caesarean section and early live delivery were practicable and reasonable alternatives justified by the need to protect fetal life. I argue that the abortion refusal may not have been a reasonable decision, as required by the terms of relevant legislation, for four different reasons. First, the alternative of a caesarean section and early live delivery was not likely to avert the risk of suicide, and in fact did not do so. Second, the consent to the caesarean section alternative may not have been a real consent in the legal sense if it was not voluntary. Third, an abortion refusal and forcible treatment fall below the norms of good medical practice as interpreted through a patient-centred perspective. Fourth, an abortion refusal that entails forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment ought not to be a reasonable action under the legislation. PMID:25555759

Fletcher, Ruth

2014-11-01

52

[Sexual violence in Congo-Kinshasa: necessity of decriminalizing abortion].  

PubMed

The sexual violence's committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are from their scales and consequences on women, real public health, politico-legal, and socio-economical challenges. More than a million of women have been victims of sexual violence on a period of less than fifteen years. Systematic rapes of women were used as war weapon by different groups involved in the Congolese war. Sexual violence against women has impacted public health by spreading sexually transmissible diseases including HIV/AIDS, causing unwanted pregnancies, leading to the gynaecological complications of rape-related injuries, and inflicting psychological trauma on the victims. Despite high level of unwanted pregnancies observed, the Congolese law is very restrictive and interdict induced abortion. This paper presents three arguments which plead in favour of legalizing abortion in DRC: 1) a restrictive law on abortion forces women to use unsafe abortion and increase incidence of injuries and maternal mortality ; 2) DRC has ratified the universal Declaration of human rights, the African union charter, and has than to promote equality between sexes, in this is included women reproductive rights; 3) an unwanted birth is an additional financial charge for a woman, a factor increasing poverty and psychologically unacceptable in case of rape. From the politico-legal point of view, ending rape impunity and decriminalizing abortion are recommended. Decriminalizing abortion give women choice and save victims and pregnant women from risks related to the pregnancy, a childbirth, or an eventual unsafe abortion. These risks increase the maternal mortality already high in DRC (between 950 and 3000 for 100000 live births). PMID:23167138

Kalonda, J C Omba

2012-01-01

53

78,000 women die each year from unsafe abortions worldwide. It is estimated that there are 20 million unsafe abortions per year on a global basis.  

PubMed

At February's Cairo+5 proceedings at the Hague, the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP) called a press conference to discuss changes in abortion laws around the world since the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. According to the director of CRLP's International Program, 9 countries have modified their abortion laws since Cairo. Of those, 7 liberalized their laws, while Poland and El Salvador further restricted legislation. The CRLP supports the liberalization of abortion laws for all women in all countries. Abortion law has been liberalized in South Africa since Cairo, with the enactment in 1997 of the Termination of Pregnancy Act. In contrast, however, anti-choice groups in Poland successfully challenged the legality of abortion in 1996 by declaring it against the Polish Constitution. Abortion is prohibited in Chile in all circumstances, even to save the life of the woman. However, despite the illegality of abortion in that country, half of all pregnancies in Chile end in abortion. Unsafe abortion contributes to the 50% maternal mortality rate in Nepal. Abortion in the country is punishable by a 20-year prison sentence, regardless of the age of the woman. PMID:12294838

Becker, B

1999-03-01

54

[A glossary for discussion about abortion].  

PubMed

Abortion and its diverse possible legal regulations is one of the major and toughest social controversies. This debate is even more problematic due to biases, prejudgments, different ideologies, beliefs, religious doctrines and political pressures. Chile has recently begun a new national discussion with an evident confusion, both in juridical and clinical terminology, which makes very difficult to achieve the necessary plural debate for a social and political consensus. The authors structured an academic collaborative project to create a glossary as a contribution for a discussion based on clearly defined notions about the different terms used in the abortion debate. Twenty-two concepts were selected and their definitions were reviewed and discussed by more than 50 different specialists. The final version of this glossary in Spanish language is presented. PMID:25694291

Astete A, Carmen; Beca I, Juan Pablo; Lecaros U, Alberto

2014-11-01

55

Magnitude and risk factors of abortion among regular female students in Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Induced abortion is one of the greatest human rights dilemmas of our time. Yet, abortion is a very common experience in every culture and society. According to the World Health Organization, Ethiopia had the fifth largest number of maternal deaths in 2005 and unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. Youth are disproportionately affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the magnitude and identify factors associated with abortion among female Wolaita Sodo University students. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University between May and June 2011. Data were collected from 493 randomly selected female students using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Results The rate of abortion among students was found to be 65 per 1000 women, making it three fold the national rate of abortion for Ethiopia (23/1000 women aged 15–44). Virtually all of the abortions (96.9%) were induced and only half (16) were reported to be safe. Students with history of alcohol use, who are first-year and those enrolled in faculties with no post-Grade 10 Natural Science background had higher risk of abortion than their counterparts. About 23.7% reported sexual experience. Less than half of the respondents (44%) ever heard of emergency contraception and only 35.9% of those who are sexually experienced ever used condom. Conclusions High rate of abortion was detected among female Wolaita Sodo University students and half of the abortions took place/initiated under unsafe circumstances. Knowledge of students on legal and safe abortion services was found to be considerably poor. It is imperative that improved sexual health education, with focus on safe and legal abortion services is rendered and wider availability of Youth Friendly family planning services are realized in Universities and other places where young men and women congregate. PMID:24666926

2014-01-01

56

Conscientious objection and induced abortion in Europe.  

PubMed

The issue of conscientious objection (CO) arises in healthcare when doctors and nurses refuse to have any involvement in the provision of treatment of certain patients due to their religious or moral beliefs. Most commonly CO is invoked when it comes to induced abortion. Of the EU member states where induced abortion is legal, invoking CO is granted by law in 21 countries. The same applies to the non-EU countries Norway and Switzerland. CO is not legally granted in the EU member states Sweden, Finland, Bulgaria and the Czech Republic. The Icelandic legislation provides no right to CO either. European examples prove that the recommendation that CO should not prevent women from accessing services fails in a number of cases. CO puts women in an unequal position depending on their place of residence, socio-economic status and income. CO should not be presented as a question that relates only to health professionals and their rights. CO mainly concerns women as it has very real consequences for their reproductive health and rights. European countries should assess the laws governing CO and its effects on women's rights. CO should not be used as a subtle method for limiting the legal right to healthcare. PMID:23848269

Heino, Anna; Gissler, Mika; Apter, Dan; Fiala, Christian

2013-08-01

57

Brazilian adolescents’ knowledge and beliefs about abortion methods: a school-based internet inquiry  

PubMed Central

Background Internet surveys that draw from traditionally generated samples provide the unique conditions to engage adolescents in exploration of sensitive health topics. Methods We examined awareness of unwanted pregnancy, abortion behaviour, methods, and attitudes toward specific legal indications for abortion via a school-based internet survey among 378 adolescents aged 12–21 years in three Rio de Janeiro public schools. Results Forty-five percent knew peers who had undergone an abortion. Most students (66.0%) did not disclose abortion method knowledge. However, girls (aOR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.2), those who had experienced their sexual debut (aOR1.76, 95% CI 1.1-3.0), and those attending a prestigious magnet school (aOR 2.7 95% CI 1.4-6.3) were more likely to report methods. Most abortion methods (79.3%) reported were ineffective, obsolete, and/or unsafe. Herbs (e.g. marijuana tea), over-the-counter medications, surgical procedures, foreign objects and blunt trauma were reported. Most techniques (85.2%) were perceived to be dangerous, including methods recommended by the World Health Organization. A majority (61.4%) supported Brazil’s existing law permitting abortion in the case of rape. There was no association between gender, age, sexual debut, parental education or socioeconomic status and attitudes toward legal abortion. However, students at the magnet school supported twice as many legal indications (2.7, SE.27) suggesting a likely role of peers and/or educators in shaping abortion views. Conclusions Abortion knowledge and attitudes are not driven simply by age, religion or class, but rather a complex interplay that includes both social spaces and gender. Prevention of abortion morbidity and mortality among adolescents requires comprehensive sexuality and reproductive health education that includes factual distinctions between safe and unsafe abortion methods. PMID:24521075

2014-01-01

58

Third trimester abortion for fetal abnormality.  

PubMed

Developments in medical technology have increased the possibility of diagnosing severe structural abnormalties in the fetus. If these occur, a woman may request termination of her pregnancy. This raises serious ethical and legal questions, in particular if the anomalies are discovered in the third trimester when the fetus is considered viable. Should doctors be allowed to act upon a request for abortion in such a situation, and, if so, which safeguards should be in place? These questions are discussed with special reference to the Netherlands where a commission established by the government recently published a report on this matter. PMID:11657241

Gevers, Sjef

1999-07-01

59

The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

Medoff, Marshall H.

2008-01-01

60

Abortion law in Muslim-majority countries: an overview of the Islamic discourse with policy implications.  

PubMed

Religion plays a significant role in a patient’s bioethical decision to have an abortion as well as in a country’s abortion policy. Nevertheless, a holistic understanding of the Islamic position remains under-researched. This study first conducted a detailed and systematic analysis of Islam’s position towards abortion through examining the most authoritative biblical texts (i.e. the Quran and Sunnah) as well as other informative factors (i.e. contemporary fatwas, Islamic mysticism and broader Islamic principles, interest groups, and transnational Islamic organizations). Although Islamic jurisprudence does not encourage abortion, there is no direct biblical prohibition. Positions on abortion are notably variable, and many religious scholars permit abortion in particular circumstances during specific stages of gestational development. It is generally agreed that the least blameworthy abortion is when the life of the pregnant woman is threatened and when 120 days have not lapsed; however, there is remarkable heterogeneity in regards to other circumstances (e.g. preserving physical or mental health, foetal impairment, rape, or social or economic reasons), and later gestational development of the foetus. This study secondly conducted a cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries. A predominantly conservative approach was found whereby 18 of 47 countries do not allow abortion under any circumstances besides saving the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, there was substantial diversity between countries, and 10 countries allowed abortion ‘on request’. Discursive elements that may enable policy development in Muslim-majority countries as well as future research that may enhance the study of abortion rights are discussed. Particularly, more lenient abortion laws may be achieved through disabusing individuals that the most authoritative texts unambiguously oppose abortion, highlighting more lenient interpretations that exist in certain Islamic legal schools, emphasizing significant actors that support abortion, and being mindful of policy frames that will not be well-received in Muslim-majority countries. PMID:23749735

Shapiro, Gilla K

2014-07-01

61

Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.  

PubMed

This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. PMID:25555764

Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

2014-11-01

62

Vatican is lone opponent of world conference's compromises on abortion.  

PubMed

Three years in the making, the draft program of action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development sets nonbinding policy guidelines to contain the world's population at 7.27 billion in 2015. Although the Vatican was pleased to see Pakistan put forward a compromise formula developed to appease Catholic and Muslim objectors of abortion, the Church was unprepared to accept the compromise immediately and requested further discussion. The Vatican's rejection drew a strong chorus of vocal disapproval from other conference delegates. Even Iran accepted the draft as a "perfect text," while Sweden grudgingly accepted it as a "rock-bottom compromise." With no Catholic countries objecting to the compromise, the Vatican stood alone in its refusal to compromise with the rest of the world's leaders and peoples. Germany, speaking for the European Union, warned that enough concessions had already been made. The rationale for Vatican opposition was unclear since the section explicitly rejects abortion as a means of family planning and urges countries to minimize both the incidence of unsafe abortion and abortion overall by improving family planning. Prevention of unwanted pregnancies must be given highest priority and women should have ready access to compassionate counselling, with abortion never promoted as a means of family planning. Moreover, there is no longer a reference to sexual health education, a plea to governments to review their laws and policies on abortion, and a call to consider women's health rather than relying upon criminal codes and punitive measures. Participants said the Vatican objected to a phrase stating that abortions, where legal, should be safe, while the Church representative argued that any suggestion that abortion is safe contradicts church doctrine on the sanctity of life. PMID:12345662

1994-09-01

63

Legal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monograph assesses the state of legal education as provided in law schools in the United States today. Positive aspects of legal education include technical proficiency, superb law faculties, good law students, and excellent facilities and libraries. The most striking negative aspect of legal education is its resistance to change. This…

McKay, Robert B.

64

[Abortion and misoprostol: health practices and scientific controversy].  

PubMed

This article puts into perspective the controversy between the association of the use of misoprostol for abortion and teratogenicity studies of the type found in a case report. The use of herbal medicinal drugs and the medical-obstetric and national and international norms governing the registration and circulation of pharmaceutical products were examined. Official documents of ANVISA, the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization on the use of misoprostol, as well as 68 articles such as case reports published in national journals, linking abortion, misoprostol and teratogenicity were reviewed, systematically filed and analyzed using the monographic method. The legal prohibition of abortion prevents the proper prescription and use of a drug such as misoprostol that is both safe and effective. Thus, the danger for the health of women is linked not to the intrinsic characteristics of the drug, but to the moral arguments that constitute negligence and disregard for the fundamental rights of women. PMID:22872339

Corręa, Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela; Mastrella, Miryam

2012-07-01

65

"Abortion will deprive you of happiness!": Soviet reproductive politics in the post-Stalin era.  

PubMed

This article examines Soviet reproductive politics after the Communist regime legalized abortion in 1955. The regime's new abortion policy did not result in an end to the condemnation of abortion in official discourse. The government instead launched an extensive campaign against abortion. Why did authorities bother legalizing the procedure if they still disapproved of it so strongly? Using archival sources, public health materials, and medical as well as popular journals to investigate the antiabortion campaign, this article argues that the Soviet government sought to regulate gender and sexuality through medical intervention and health "education" rather than prohibition and force in the post-Stalin era. It also explores how the antiabortion public health campaign produced "knowledge" not only about the procedure and its effects, but also about gender and sexuality, subjecting both women and men to new pressures and regulatory norms. PMID:22145180

Randall, Amy E

2011-01-01

66

Social determinants and access to induced abortion in burkina faso: from two case studies.  

PubMed

Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and concerns mainly young women. The legal restriction and social stigma make abortions most often clandestine and risky for women who decide to terminate a pregnancy. However, the exposure to the risk of unsafe induced abortion is not the same for all the women who faced unwanted pregnancy and decide to have an abortion. Drawn from a qualitative study on the issue of abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso's capital, the contrasting cases of two young women who had abortion allow us to show how the women's personal resources (such as the school level, financial resources, the compliance to social norms, the social network, etc.) may determine the degree of vulnerability of women, the delay to have an abortion, the type of care they are likely to benefit from, and the cost they have to face. This study concludes that the poorest always pay more (cost and consequences), take longer to have an abortion, and have more exposure to the risk of unsafe abortion. PMID:24790605

Ouédraogo, Ramatou; Sundby, Johanne

2014-01-01

67

Abortion in the Caribbean commonwealth.  

PubMed

A team visit was made to Antigua, Barbados, St. Vincent, and Trinidad-Tobago to examine current abortion statutes and to determine liberalization prospects. In addition the team analyzed the abortion statutes in 15 English-speaking territories. The team found the laws forbid abortion except to save the life of the mother, although there has been some liberalizing to include granting abortions when the physicial or mental health of the mother is endangered and additional liberalization is anticipated. Other findings were that illegal abortion is widespread and public opinion generally favors abortion law reform. The visit came in the wake of a recommendation by the 4th Commonwealth Medical Conference, held in 1974, that the Commonwealth Secretariat collect information on laws concerning the medical termination of pregnancy. PMID:12335319

1977-12-01

68

The road to moderation: the significance of Webster for legislation restricting abortion.  

PubMed

They only certain outcomes of the Webster decision is that state legislatures will be stimulated to enact more legislation regulating abortion. However it is unlikely that the worst prochoice fears will be realized. A return to the 19th century abortion prohibition era is very unlikely because of trends in Western societal attitudes and laws. Since 1973 and the Roe decision there have been more than 300 bills or acts enacted by state legislatures that regulate abortion. Whether it is criminal prohibitions, licensing requirements, zoning restrictions, parental participation, spousal participation, informed consent, health and sanitation regulations, post viability regulations, laws protecting the right of health care workers not to participate in abortion, public funding restrictions, or regulations of fetal experimentation, abortion regulations have definitely been wide spread. The democratic process is going to produce a moderate position on abortion as a result of the Webster decision for 7 reasons: (1) the period before Roe was a time when abortion legislation was in a trend towards moderation. In 1962 abortion prohibitions were in place in all states. In 1967 4 states adopted an abortion reform position that allowed for abortion in the hard cases: (1) maternal health, (2) fetal defect, (3) rape/incest. Over the next 5 years 9 more states followed and 3 others went even farther by allowing unrestricted abortion during early pregnancy. (2) public opinion is consistent and strong in favoring abortion restrictions except for the hard cases. (3) the trend towards moderation in abortion regulations is closely related to other legal trends toward moderation. No fault divorce was a move towards moderation. The abortion experience in Western Europe was towards moderation. (5) Medical technological developments are putting the power of abortion in the hands of women. Abortificant drugs that can be used without medical assistance give women greater freedom. (6) The history of abortion law enforcement is very moderate. (7) Judicial power continues as all member of the Supreme Court have stated publicly that the Constitution does allow some room for abortion. PMID:2628653

Wardle, L D

1989-01-01

69

Consensus on abortion unlikely at U.N. conference, Gore says.  

PubMed

US Vice President Al Gore is pessimistic about the likelihood of consensus on abortion and contraception at the 1994 World Population Conference given opposition on the part of the Vatican, governments of nations with large Roman Catholic populations, and Muslim fundamentalists. Although the Clinton Administration is advocating safe, legal abortion and accessible contraception, it does not intent to push for abortion rights in countries where the procedure is illegal. On the other hand, Gore has expressed confidence that the Cairo conference will forge a new approach to population and development based on improvements in women's status. PMID:12319073

1994-08-26

70

Knowledge and Attitudes of a Number of Iranian Policy-makers towards Abortion  

PubMed Central

Introduction Unsafe and illegal abortions are the third leading cause of maternal death. It affects physical, emotional and social health of women and their families. Abortion is a multi-dimensional phenomenon with several social, legal, and religious implications. The views of policy-makers affect the approach to abortion in every society. Understanding the attitudes and knowledge of high-ranking decision makers towards abortion was the purpose of this study. Materials and Methods A qualitative research was implemented by carrying out individual interviews with 29 out of a selection of 80 presidents of medical sciences universities, senior executive managers in the legal system, forensic medicine and decision-makers in the health system and a number of top Muslim clerics, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. Content analysis revealed the results. Results There were considerable unwillingness and reluctance among the interviewees to participate in the study. The majority of participants fairly knew about the prevalence of illegal abortions and their complications. There was strong agreement on abortion when health of the mother or the fetus was at risk. Abortion for reproductive health reasons was supported by a minority of the respondents. The majority of them disagreed with abortion when pregnancy was the result of a rape, temporary marriage or out of wedlock affairs. Making decision for abortion by the pregnant mother, as a matter of her right, did not gain too much approval. Conclusion It seemed that physical health of the mother or the fetus was of more importance to the respondents than their mental or social health. The mother's hardship was not any indication for induced abortion in the viewpoints of the interviewed policy-makers. Strengthening family planning programs, making appropriate laws in lines with religious orders and advocacy programs targeting decision makers are determined as strategies for improving women's health rights. PMID:23926489

Shamshiri-Milani, Hourieh; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Akbari, Feizollah

2010-01-01

71

The measurement of public opinion on abortion: the effects of survey design.  

PubMed

A factorial experiment examined the effects of the wording and sequence of survey questions on the measurement of attitudes toward abortion. When a first-trimester pregnancy is specified, 55% of respondents agree that a woman should be able to obtain a legal abortion for any reason, compared with 44% when no pregnancy duration is stated. Specifying first-trimester pregnancies has little effect on the proportion of respondents who agree that abortion should be available for maternal health, fetal defects or rape, but it significantly increases the proportion who agree that a woman should be able to obtain an abortion if she is single, has financial constraints or wants no more children. When gestational lengths from one to six months are presented to respondents in ascending order, agreement that a woman should be able to obtain an abortion for any reason is lower for any given length of gestation than when pregnancy durations are presented in descending order. Forty-eight percent of respondents agree that abortion should be legal for any reason when that question is posed after a series of specific reasons; however, 60% do so when it is the first question in the sequence. The difference in agreement with abortion for any reason between Catholics and non-Baptist Protestants, and between Republicans and Democrats, is much smaller when the question is asked first than when it is presented last. PMID:9258650

Bumpass, L L

1997-01-01

72

Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.  

PubMed

US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation. PMID:9328746

Stotland, N L

1997-09-01

73

Contraception following abortion and the treatment of incomplete abortion.  

PubMed

Family planning counseling and the provision of postabortion contraception should be an integrated part of abortion and postabortion care to help women avoid another unplanned pregnancy and a repeat abortion. Postabortion contraception is significantly more effective in preventing repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion when it is provided before women leave the healthcare facility where they received abortion care, and when the chosen method is a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method. This article provides evidence supporting these two critical aspects of postabortion contraception. It suggests that gynecologists and obstetricians have an ethical obligation to do everything necessary to ensure that postabortion contraception, with a focus on LARC methods, becomes an integral part of abortion and postabortion care, in line with the recommendations of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and of several other organizations. PMID:24739476

Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp Kallner, Helena; Faúndes, Anibal

2014-07-01

74

The politics of unsafe abortion in Burkina Faso: The interface of local norms and global public health practice  

PubMed Central

In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how Burkina Faso's PAC policy emerged at the interface of political and moral negotiations between public health professionals, national bureaucrats and international agencies and NGOs. Burkinabč decision-makers and doctors, who are often hostile to induced abortion, have been convinced that PAC is ‘life-saving care’ which should be delivered for ethical medical reasons. Moreover, by supporting PAC they not only demonstrate compliance with international standards but also, importantly, do not have to contend with any change in abortion legislation, which they oppose. Rights-based international NGOs, in turn, tactically focus on PAC as a ‘first step’ towards their broader institutional objective to secure safe abortion and abortion rights. Such negotiations between national and international actors result in widespread support for PAC but stifled debate about further legalisation of abortion. PMID:25132157

Storeng, Katerini T.; Ouattara, Fatoumata

2014-01-01

75

Induced abortion and contraception use  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine what proportion of women seeking induced abortion in the Calgary census metropolitan area were immigrants. Design For 2 months, eligible women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Women who refused were asked to provide their country of birth (COB) to assess for selection bias. Setting Two abortion clinics in Calgary, Alta. Participants Women presenting at or less than 15 weeks’ gestational age for induced abortion for maternal indications. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of women seeking induced abortion services who were immigrants. Secondary outcomes compared socioeconomic characteristics and contraception use between immigrant and Canadian-born women. Results A total of 752 women either completed a questionnaire (78.6%) or provided their COB (21.4%). Overall, 28.9% of women living in the Calgary census metropolitan area who completed the questionnaire were immigrants, less than the 31.2% background proportion of immigrant women of childbearing age. However, 46.0% of women who provided only COB were immigrants. When these data were combined, 34.2% of women presenting for induced abortion identified as immigrant, a proportion not significantly different from the background proportion (P = .127). Immigrant women presenting for induced abortion tended to be older, more educated, married with children, and have increased parity. They were similar to Canadian-born women in number of previous abortions, income status, and employment status. Conclusion This study suggests that immigrant women in Calgary are not presenting for induced abortion in disproportionately higher numbers, which differs from existing European literature. This is likely owing to differing socioeconomic characteristics among the immigrant women in our study from what have been previously described in the literature (typically lower socioeconomic status). Much still needs to be explored with regard to factors influencing the use of abortion services by immigrant women. PMID:25217694

du Prey, Beatrice; Talavlikar, Rachel; Mangat, Rupinder; Freiheit, Elizabeth A.; Drummond, Neil

2014-01-01

76

Clinical issues in post-abortion care.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the clinical issues in post-abortion care, including types of abortion procedures, expected post-abortion course, possible complications, and the components of the post-abortion visit. By providing follow-up care to their patients, NPs can increase continuity of care and promote successful contraceptive use. PMID:21499066

Cappiello, Joyce D; Beal, Margaret W; Simmonds, Katherine E

2011-05-01

77

Legal Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The legal processes following a rape charge mortify, denigrate and transfer guilt to the victim. Rape laws reinforce traditional sex roles and restrict the options available to women in defining their personal and sexual careers. (Author/AM)

Baril, Cecile; Couchman, Ian S. B.

1976-01-01

78

Psychological Sequelae of Elective Abortion  

PubMed Central

A mild, short, depressive and guilt ridden period following abortion is quite common, but a severe psychological reaction is rare. The indication for the abortion and the preabortal psychological state of the patient are the two most important factors. Almost all reported instances of postabortion psychoses have occurred in patients who had severe preabortal psychiatric problems. Women undergoing abortion for socioeconomic or psychosocial indications appear to be at minimal risk for long-term negative psychological sequelae. In contrast, women in whom abortion is carried out because of exposure to rubella and the risk of fetal malformation, maternal organic disease or the prenatal diagnosis of a genetically defective fetus are at greater risk and may need supportive psychotherapy. PMID:1099808

Blumberg, Bruce D.; Golbus, Mitchell S.

1975-01-01

79

Abortion of Defective Fetuses: Attitudes of Mothers of Congenitally Impaired Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared a sample of mothers of children with cystic fibrosis, cerebral palsy, myelodysplasia, and multiple physical handicaps with a probability sample of mothers of children free of disabilities on their attitudes toward the availability of legal abortion. The responses were not distinguishable for the two groups, nor was the specific disability…

Breslau, Naomi

1987-01-01

80

Unintended pregnancy and induced abortion among unmarried women in China: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Until recently, premarital examination for both men and women was a legal requirement before marriage in China. Researchers have carried out surveys of attendees' sexual activity, pregnancy and abortion before their marriages, trying to map out reproductive health needs in China, according to this unique population-based data. To systematically identify, appraise and summarise all available studies documenting pregnancy and

Xu Qian; Shenglan Tang; Paul Garner

2004-01-01

81

Negligence in Academic Advising and Abortion Counseling: Courts Rulings and Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two court cases to illuminate school counselors' legal responsibilities in academic advising and abortion counseling. The cases are presented to show how appellate court decisions can guide and inform future decision making in a variety of malpractice situations, and to equip professionals to exercise even greater care for their minor…

Stone, Carolyn

2002-01-01

82

Aborting and suspending pregnancy in rural Tanzania: an ethnography of young people's beliefs and practices.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization estimates that 3.1 percent of East African women aged 15-44 have undergone unsafe abortions. This study presents findings regarding abortion practices and beliefs among adolescents and young adults in Tanzania, where abortion is illegal. From 1999 to 2002, six researchers carried out participant observation in nine villages and conducted group discussions and interviews in three others. Most informants opposed abortion as illegal, immoral, dangerous, or unacceptable without the man's consent, and many reported that ancestral spirits killed women who aborted clan descendants. Nonetheless, abortion was widely, if infrequently, attempted, by ingestion of laundry detergent, chloroquine, ashes, and specific herbs. Most women who attempted abortion were young, single, and desperate. Some succeeded, but they experienced opposition from sexual partners, sexual exploitation by practitioners, serious health problems, social ostracism, and quasi-legal sanctions. Many informants reported the belief that inopportune pregnancies could be suspended for months or years using traditional medicine. We conclude that improved reproductive health education and services are urgently needed in rural Tanzania. PMID:19248715

Plummer, Mary L; Wamoyi, Joyce; Nyalali, Kija; Mshana, Gerry; Shigongo, Zachayo S; Ross, David A; Wight, Daniel

2008-12-01

83

Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary design drivers for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is to ensure crew safety. Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of CEV systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage. These studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the CEV, driving requirements for abort scenarios, and an overview of current ascent abort modes. Example analysis results are then discussed. Finally, future areas for abort analysis are addressed.

Davidson, John B., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Burt, Richard; McFarland, Mike

2007-01-01

84

Evaluation of a multi-pronged intervention to improve access to safe abortion care in two districts in Jharkhand  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the adoption of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act in 1972, access to safe abortion services remains limited in India. Awareness of the legality of abortion also remains low, leading many women to seek services outside the health system. Medical abortion (MA) is an option that has the potential to expand access to safe abortion services. A multi-pronged intervention covering a population of 161,000 in 253 villages in the Silli and Khunti blocks of Jharkhand was conducted between 2007 and 2009, seeking to improve medical abortion services and create awareness at the community level by providing information through community intermediaries and creating an enabling environment through a behavior change communication campaign. The study evaluates the changes in knowledge about abortion-related issues, changes in abortion care-seeking, and service utilization as a result of this intervention. Methods A baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted pre-intervention (n?=?1,253) followed by an endline survey (n?=?1,290) one year after the completion of the intervention phase. In addition, monitoring data from intervention facilities was collected monthly over the study period. Results Nearly 85% of respondents reported being exposed to safe abortion messaging as a result of the intervention. Awareness of the legality of abortion increased significantly from 19.7% to 57.6% for women, as did awareness of the specific conditions for which abortion is allowed. Results were similar for men. There was also a significant increase in the proportion of men and women who knew of a legal and safe provider and place from where abortion services could be obtained. Multivariate analysis showed positive associations between exposure to any component of the intervention and increased knowledge about legality and gestational age limits, however only interpersonal communication was associated with a significant increase in knowledge of where to obtain safe services (OR 4.8, SE 0.67). Utilization of safe abortion services, and in particular MA, increased at all intervention sites over the duration of the intervention with a shift towards women seeking care earlier in pregnancy. Conclusion The evaluation demonstrates the success of the intervention and its potential for replication in similar contexts within India. PMID:24886273

2014-01-01

85

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...551.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

2012-07-01

86

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...551.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

2013-07-01

87

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...551.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

2011-07-01

88

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...551.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

2010-07-01

89

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

...551.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

2014-07-01

90

Legal Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, provided by Nolo Press, a publisher of self-help law books and software, is a handy compendium of brief advice on fifteen topics, including small business, patent, copyright & trademark, legal research, wills & estate planning, and real estate. Content is composed of excerpted articles from Nolo books on the topics. Also provided are annotated lists of links related to each topic. While the purpose, of course, is to sell Nolo books and software, there is much useful content here.

91

Unsafe Abortion: Worldwide Estimates for 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsafe abortion is preventable and yet remains a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in much of the developing world. Over the last decade, the World Health Organization has developed a systematic approach to estimate the regional and global incidence of unsafe abortion. Estimates based on figures around the year 2000 indicate that 19 million unsafe abortions take place

Elisabeth Ĺhman; Iqbal Shah

2002-01-01

92

Abortion legislation: exploring perspectives of general practitioners and obstetrics and gynaecology clinicians.  

PubMed

Abortion legislation remains a contentious topic in the UK, which receives much attention from politicians, clinicians and professional bodies alike. In this study, the perspectives of general practitioners and obstetrics and gynaecology clinicians on the Abortion Act 1967 was explored. To this end, a short electronic questionnaire was distributed to all 211 GP and obstetrics and gynaecology clinicians affiliated with the University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine. Of the 100 anonymous responses collected, a significant majority felt that abortion law in Northern Ireland should be changed in line with the rest of the UK. The respondents' votes, however, were either opposed to or divided over any other changes to the Abortion Act, including altering the 24 week time limit, clarifying the legal definition of fetal abnormalities, introducing abortion purely on the woman's request, and modifying the requirement for two clinicians to approve any request for abortion. These perspectives were not entirely aligned with the recommendations of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee, or with current medical evidence and demographic data. PMID:25498561

Theodosiou, Anastasia A; Mitchell, Oliver R

2015-02-01

93

Second-Trimester Abortion Overview  

MedlinePLUS

... income (33% are at 100% or less of poverty line as compared with 26% of women who have a first-trimester abortion); and Are more likely to be African-American (31% of first-trimester patients are African-American ...

94

ABORTION AND CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the 2004 Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church first fell into my hands some months before its promulgation, one pleasant surprise was the text's spe- cific treatment and forthright condemnation of abortion in the context of human rights and, also, of the family as the sanctuary of life. The disconcerting fact is that, more commonly, the topic

Thomas D. Williams

95

Clandestine induced abortion: prevalence, incidence and risk factors among women in a Latin American country  

PubMed Central

Background Clandestine induced abortions are a public health problem in many developing countries where access to abortion services is legally restricted. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, clandestine induced abortions in a Latin American country. Methods We conducted a large population-based survey of women aged 18–29 years in 20 cities in Peru. We asked questions about their history of spontaneous and induced abortions, using techniques to encourage disclosure. Results Of 8242 eligible women, 7992 (97.0%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of reported induced abortions was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9%– 12.4%) among the 7962 women who participated in the survey. It was 13.6% (95% CI 12.8%– 14.5%) among the 6559 women who reported having been sexually active. The annual incidence of induced abortion was 3.1% (95% CI 2.9%– 3.3%) among the women who had ever been sexually active. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for induced abortion were higher age at the time of the survey (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.07– 1.15), lower age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.84– 0.91), geographic region (highlands: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23– 1.97; jungle: OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41– 2.31 [v. coastal region]), having children (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68– 0.98), having more than 1 sexual partner in lifetime (2 partners: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23– 2.09; ? 3 partners: OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.12– 3.67), and having 1 or more sexual partners in the year before the survey (1 partner: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01– 1.72; ? 2 partners: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14– 2.02). Overall, 49.0% (95% CI 47.6%– 50.3%) of the women who reported being currently sexually active were not using contraception. Interpretation The incidence of clandestine, potentially unsafe induced abortion in Peru is as high as or higher than the rates in many countries where induced abortion is legal and safe. The provision of contraception and safer-sex education to those who require it needs to be greatly improved and could potentially reduce the rate of induced abortion. PMID:19188628

Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; White, Peter J.; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Hughes, James P.; Gonzales, Marco A.; Garcia, Patricia J.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Holmes, King K.

2009-01-01

96

Post-abortion syndrome: creating an affliction.  

PubMed

The contention that abortion harms women constitutes a new strategy employed by the pro-life movement to supplement arguments about fetal rights. David C. Reardon is a prominent promoter of this strategy. Post-abortion syndrome purports to establish that abortion psychologically harms women and, indeed, can harm persons associated with women who have abortions. Thus, harms that abortion is alleged to produce are multiplied. Claims of repression are employed to complicate efforts to disprove the existence of psychological harm and causal antecedents of trauma are only selectively investigated. We argue that there is no such thing as post-abortion syndrome and that the psychological harms Reardon and others claim abortion inflicts on women can usually be ascribed to different causes. We question the evidence accumulated by Reardon and his analysis of data accumulated by others. Most importantly, we question whether the conclusions Reardon has drawn follow from the evidence he cites. PMID:19594725

Dadlez, E M; Andrews, William L

2010-11-01

97

Procedural abortion rights: Ireland and the European Court of Human Rights.  

PubMed

The Irish Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act seeks to clarify the legal ground for abortion in cases of risk to life, and to create procedures to regulate women's access to services under it. This article explores the new law as the outcome of an international human rights litigation strategy premised on state duties to implement abortion laws through clear standards and procedural safeguards. It focuses specifically on the Irish law reform and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, including A. B. and C. v. Ireland (2010). The article examines how procedural rights at the international level can engender domestic law reform that limits or expands women's access to lawful abortion services, serving conservative or progressive ends. PMID:25555760

Erdman, Joanna N

2014-11-01

98

Abortion Provision Among Practicing Obstetrician–Gynecologists  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate prevalence and correlates of abortion provision among practicing obstetrician–gynecologists in the United States. Methods We conducted a national probability sample mail survey of 1,800 practicing obstetrician–gynecologists. Key variables included whether respondents ever encountered patients seeking abortion in their practice, and whether they provided abortion services. Correlates of providing abortion included physician demographic characteristics, religious affiliation, religiosity, and the religious affiliation of the facility in which a physician primarily practices. Results Among practicing obstetrician–gynecologists, 97% encountered patients seeking abortions, while 14% performed them. Young female physicians were the most likely to provide abortions (18.6% vs. 10.6%, adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.57–4.08), as were those in the Northeast or West, those in highly urban zip codes, and those who identify as Jewish. Catholics, Evangelical Protestants, non–Evangelical Protestants, and physicians with high religious motivation were less likely to provide abortions. Conclusion The proportion of U.S. obstetrician–gynecologists who provide abortion may be lower than estimated in previous research. Access to abortion remains limited by the willingness of physicians to provide abortion services, particularly in rural communities and in the South and Midwest. PMID:21860290

Stulberg, Debra B.; Dude, Annie M.; Dahlquist, Irma; Curlin, Farr A.

2011-01-01

99

ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

2002-06-03

100

Canine and feline abortion diagnostics.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the causes of canine or feline pregnancy loss is limited and the success rate for making a definitive diagnosis is disappointingly low. Although these facts are discouraging, there are some things that can be done to improve success rates. This paper will address limitations and explore ways for improvement. For abortions caused by microbial infections, there are many reasons why it may not possible to identify the agents. "Non-infectious" causes are much more difficult to diagnose, and their relative importance is unknown. These include endocrine failure, underlying endometrial disease, genetic abnormalities, nutritional deficiencies, and toxicosis from drugs or environmental sources. Genetic abnormalities are a major cause of human pregnancy loss, yet we have little specific information about genetic diseases leading to abortion in animals. This paper addresses ways clinicians and diagnosticians can work together to improve diagnostic success. Necropsy techniques for fetal and placental examination and sampling are briefly reviewed. It is hoped that this series of papers will stimulate discussion on the causes and pathogenesis of pregnancy failure, and focus attention on areas where abortion diagnostics can be improved. PMID:18541293

Schlafer, D H

2008-08-01

101

Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration.Methods: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified

Weijin Zhou; Henrik Toft Sřrensen; Jřrn Olsen

1999-01-01

102

First-trimester surgical abortion technique.  

PubMed

New data have emerged to support changes in first-trimester abortion practice in regard to antibiotic prophylaxis, cervical ripening, the use of manual vacuum aspiration, and pain management. This article addresses these new recommendations and reviews techniques in performing manual and electric vacuum uterine aspiration procedures before 14 weeks' gestation, including very early abortion (<7 weeks' gestation), technically difficult abortions, management of complications, and postabortal contraception. The information discussed also applies to miscarriage management. PMID:24286994

Yonke, Nicole; Leeman, Lawrence M

2013-12-01

103

Divergent Trends in Abortion and Birth Control Practices in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine  

PubMed Central

Context The last decade witnessed growing differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine despite demographic, social, and historical similarities of these nations. This paper investigates changes in birth control practices in the three countries and searches for an explanation of the diverging trends in abortion. Methods Official abortion and contraceptive use statistics, provided by national statistical agencies, were analysed. Respective laws and other legal documents were examined and compared between the three countries. To disclose inter-country differences in prevalence of the modern methods of contraception and its association with major demographic and social factors, an analysis of data from national sample surveys was performed, including binary logistic regression. Results The growing gap in abortion rate in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is a genuine phenomenon, not a statistical artefact. The examination of abortion and prevalence of contraception based on official statistics and three national sample surveys did not reveal any unambiguous factors that could explain differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. However, it is very likely that the cause of the inter-country discrepancies lies in contraceptive behavior itself, in adequacies of contraceptive knowledge and practices. Additionally, large differences in government policies, which are very important in shaping contraceptive practices of the population, were detected. Conclusion Since the end of the 1990s, the Russian government switched to archaic ideology in the area of reproductive health and family planning and neglects evidence-based arguments. Such an extreme turn in the governmental position is not observed in Belarus or Ukraine. This is an important factor contributing to the slowdown in the decrease of abortion rates in Russia. PMID:23349656

Denisov, Boris P.; Sakevich, Victoria I.; Jasilioniene, Aiva

2012-01-01

104

J-2X Abort System Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

2008-01-01

105

STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 6: Abort analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The abort analysis for the cycle 3 Operational Flight Profile (OFP) for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) is defined, superseding the abort analysis previously presented. Included are the flight description, abort analysis summary, flight design groundrules and constraints, initialization information, general abort description and results, abort solid rocket booster and external tank separation and disposal results, abort monitoring displays and discussion on both ground and onboard trajectory monitoring, abort initialization load summary for the onboard computer, list of the key abort powered flight dispersion analysis.

1980-01-01

106

An update in recurrent spontaneous abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses prior to the 20th week of gestation. The etiology of recurrent spontaneous abortion is often unclear and may be multifactorial, with much controversy regarding diagnosis and treatment. Reasonably accepted etiologic causes include, genetics, anatomical, endocrine, placental anomalies, hormonal problems, infection, smoking and alcohol consumption, exposure to environmental

Manoj Kumar Pandey; Reena Rani; Suraksha Agrawal

2005-01-01

107

Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion  

PubMed Central

Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Kernéis, Solen

2014-01-01

108

ABORTION COUNSELLING AND THE INFORMED CONSENT DILEMMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTAn obstacle to abortion exists in the form of abortion ‘counselling’ that discourages women from terminating their pregnancies. This counselling involves providing information about the procedure that tends to create feelings of guilt, anxiety and strong emotional reactions to the recognizable form of a human fetus. Instances of such counselling that involve false or misleading information are clearly unethical and

SCOTT WOODCOCK

2011-01-01

109

Adolescents and Abortion: Choice in Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication seeks to explain the many facets of adolescent abortion: teenagers' need for access to safe abortion; the need for confidentiality in order to ensure safety; the real intent and effect of parental involvement laws; and the roles of parents and the state in safeguarding the health of pregnant teenagers. The first section looks at…

Stone, Rebecca

110

Road map to scaling-up: translating operations research study’s results into actions for expanding medical abortion services in rural health facilities in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying unsafe abortion among the major causes of maternal deaths and respecting the rights to health of women, in 2002, the Nepali parliament liberalized abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy on request. However, enhancing women’s awareness on and access to safe and legal abortion services, particularly in rural areas, remains a challenge in Nepal despite a decade of the initiation of safe abortion services. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, an operations research study was carried out using quasi-experimental design to determine the effectiveness of engaging female community health volunteers, auxiliary nurse midwives, and nurses to provide medical abortion services from outreach health facilities to increase the accessibility and acceptability of women to medical abortion. This paper describes key components of the operations research study, key research findings, and follow-up actions that contributed to create a conducive environment and evidence in scaling up medical abortion services in rural areas of Nepal. Results It was found that careful planning and implementation, continuous advocacy, and engagement of key stakeholders, including key government officials, from the planning stage of study is not only crucial for successful completion of the project but also instrumental for translating research results into action and policy change. While challenges remained at different levels, medical abortion services delivered by nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives working at rural outreach health facilities without oversight of physicians was perceived to be accessible, effective, and of good quality by the service providers and the women who received medical abortion services from these rural health facilities. Conclusions This research provided further evidence and a road-map for expanding medical abortion services to rural areas by mid-level service providers in minimum clinical settings without the oversight of physicians, thus reducing complications and deaths due to unsafe abortion. PMID:24886393

2014-01-01

111

Muslim women having abortions in Canada  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To improve understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of Muslim patients presenting for abortion. Design Exploratory study in which participants completed questionnaires about their attitudes, beliefs, and experiences. Setting Two urban, free-standing abortion clinics. Participants Fifty-three self-identified Muslim patients presenting for abortion. Main outcome measures Women’s background, beliefs, and attitudes toward their religion and toward abortion; levels of anxiety, depression, and guilt, scored on a scale of 0 to 10; and degree of pro-choice or anti-choice attitude toward abortion, assessed by having respondents identify under which circumstances a woman should be able to have an abortion. Results The 53 women in this study were a diverse group, aged 17 to 47 years, born in 17 different countries, with a range of beliefs and attitudes toward abortion. As found in previous studies, women who were less pro-choice (identified fewer acceptable reasons to have an abortion) had higher anxiety and guilt scores than more pro-choice women did: 6.9 versus 4.9 (P = .01) and 6.9 versus 3.6 (P = .004), respectively. Women who said they strongly agreed that abortion was against Islamic principles also had higher anxiety and guilt scores: 9.3 versus 5.9 (P = .03) and 9.5 versus 5.3 (P = .03), respectively. Conclusion Canadian Muslim women presenting for abortion come from many countries and schools of Islam. The group of Muslim women that we surveyed was so diverse that no generalizations can be made about them. Their attitudes toward abortion ranged from being completely pro-choice to believing abortion is wrong unless it is done to save a woman’s life. Many said they found their religion to be a source of comfort as well as a source of guilt, turning to prayer and meditation to cope with their feelings about the abortion. It is important that physicians caring for Muslim women understand that their patients come from a variety of backgrounds and can have widely differing beliefs. It might be helpful to be aware that patients who hold more anti-choice beliefs are likely to experience more anxiety and guilt related to their abortion than pro-choice patients do. PMID:21626898

Wiebe, Ellen; Najafi, Roya; Soheil, Naghma; Kamani, Alya

2011-01-01

112

Induced illegal abortions in Benin City, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Abortions of all types constitute about 25% of our gynaecological admissions. In 8 months period between July 1974 and February 1975, 59 patients admitted into our unit with confirmed illegally induced abortions were studied personally by the author. It was found that most patients with this type of abortion were single, young schoolgirls. Most of the patients were 12 weeks pregnant or more at the time of the attempted termination. Most of the people who carried out these 'operations' by instrumentation were usually unskilled personnel. The complications in these patients which included one death are discussed. It is concluded that sex education including the use of contraceptive devices will help in reducing the high incidence of this 'social evil'. It is also thought that the liberalization of abortion laws in this country will also be helpful in reducing the complications associated with induced abortions. PMID:20352

Okojie, S E

1976-01-01

113

If war is "just," so is abortion.  

PubMed

Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians. PMID:12178844

Kissling, F

1991-01-01

114

The road to abortion (II): how government got hooked.  

PubMed

The first part of this series traced close links between eugenics (the effort to breed a "better" human race) and population control throughout the greater part of this century up to the 1960s. It stressed the population work of early eugenicists and eugenics sympathizers such as Frederick Osborn, Margaret Sanger, Gunnar Myrdal, Alan Guttmacher, Garrett Hardin and John D. Rockefeller 3rd. This second and concluding part will show how population controllers, from the 60s onward increasingly added economic and foreign-policy concerns to their original "eugenics" motive of improving human genetic stock. Working in both Democratic and Republican administrations, they gained major government backing for their programs and also played a key role in the legalization of abortion. I will use President Richard Nixon's administration as an example of heavy government involvement. PMID:11881670

Meehan, M

1999-01-01

115

Atmospherics: Abortion Law and Philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1934, Karl N. Llewellyn published a lively essay trumpeting the dawn of legal realism, “On Philosophy in American Law.” The charm of his defective little piece is its style and audacity. A philosopher might be seduced into reading Llewellyn’s essay by its title; but one soon learns that by “philosophy” Llewellyn only meant “atmosphere”. His concerns were the “general

Anita L. Allen

2007-01-01

116

Ascent abort capability for the HL-20  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HL-20 has been designed with the capability for rescue of the crew during all phases of powered ascent from on the launch pad until orbital injection. A launch-escape system, consisting of solid rocket motors located on the adapter between the HL-20 and the launch vehicle, provides the thrust that propels the HL-20 to a safe distance from a malfunctioning launch vehicle. After these launch-escape motors have burned out, the adapter is jettisoned and the HL-20 executes one of four abort modes. In three abort modes - return-to-launch-site, transatlantic-abort-landing, and abort-to-orbit - not only is the crew rescued, but the HL-20 is recovered intact. In the ocean-landing-by-parachute abort mode, which occurs in between the return-to-launch-site and the transatlantic-abort-landing modes, the crew is rescued, but the HL-20 would likely sustain damage from the ocean landing. This paper describes the launch-escape system and the four abort modes for an ascent on a Titan III launch vehicle.

Naftel, J. C.; Talay, T. A.

1993-10-01

117

The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

Medoff, Marshall

2010-01-01

118

Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2  

E-print Network

To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 ?s long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

2015-01-01

119

The Effect of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Restrictions on Teenage Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

I estimate the effect of state minimum legal drinking ages (MLDA) on teen pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates using individual level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results from a discrete-time hazard model indicate that a decrease in the MLDA below 21 years increases the probability of pregnancy among black teens and, surprisingly, decreases the probability of pregnancy

Inna Cintina

2012-01-01

120

The Effect of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Restrictions On Teenage Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

I estimate the effect of state minimum legal drinking ages (MLDA) on teen pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates using individual level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results from a discrete-time hazard model indicate that a decrease in the MLDA below 21 years increases the probability of pregnancy among black teens and, surprisingly, decreases the probability of pregnancy

Inna Cintina

2011-01-01

121

Factors associated with immediate abortion complications.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with increased risk of immediate complications from induced abortion. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a provincial database. SETTING: All Ontario general hospitals in which abortions are performed and all free-standing abortion clinics in Ontario. POPULATION: Women in Ontario aged 15 to 44 years who underwent an induced abortion in the province (without concurrent sterilization) between Jan. 1, 1992, and Dec. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: Recording of complications at the time of the procedure, gestational age, type of procedure, place of abortion (hospital or clinic), and patient's age, parity and history of previous abortion (spontaneous or induced). RESULTS: During the study period 83 469 abortions were performed that met our inclusion criteria. Immediate complications were reported in 571 cases (0.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, after other variables were controlled for, the patient's age, parity and history of previous abortions (spontaneous or induced) were not significant risk factors for immediate complications; however, gestational age, method of abortion and place of abortion were significant risk factors (p < 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) for having a complication from abortion was 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.63) between 9 and 12 weeks, compared with having one after abortion at 9 weeks or earlier, and increased to 3.3 (95% CI 2.23 to 5.00) after abortion between 17 and 20 weeks. Compared with surgical dilatation and curettage (D&C), instillation of saline and instillation of prostaglandins were more likely to be associated with immediate complications (OR 24.0, 95% CI 13.22 to 43.70, and OR 11.7, 95% CI 6.43 to 21.18, respectively), whereas both suction D&C and insertion of a laminaria tent were less likely to be associated with immediate complications (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.67, and OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.52, respectively). Compared with women who had an abortion in a free-standing clinic, the risk for immediate complications was greater among those who had an abortion in a hospital, especially a teaching hospital (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.58), a nonteaching hospital with 200 to 399 acute care beds (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.27 to 4.21) and a nonteaching hospital with fewer than 200 acute care beds (OR 5.9, 95% CI 4.04 to 8.64). CONCLUSION: The risk of immediate complications from induced abortion is very low. Unlike in previous studies, the woman's age, parity and history of previous spontaneous or induced abortions were not found to be risk factors. However, advancing gestational age and procedures involving instillation of saline or prostaglandins were predictive factors of immediate complications. PMID:8646655

Ferris, L E; McMain-Klein, M; Colodny, N; Fellows, G F; Lamont, J

1996-01-01

122

Abortion Providers' Experiences with Medicaid Abortion Coverage Policies: A Qualitative Multistate Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the implementation of state Medicaid abortion policies and the impact of these policies on abortion clients and abortion providers. Data Source From 2007 to 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 70 abortion-providing facilities in 15 states. Study Design In-depth interviews focused on abortion providers' perceptions regarding Medicaid and their experiences working with Medicaid and securing reimbursement in cases that should receive federal funding: rape, incest, and life endangerment. Data Extraction Data were transcribed verbatim before being coded. Principal Findings In two study states, abortion providers reported that 97 percent of submitted claims for qualifying cases were funded. Success receiving reimbursement was attributed to streamlined electronic billing procedures, timely claims processing, and responsive Medicaid staff. Abortion providers in the other 13 states reported reimbursement for 36 percent of qualifying cases. Providers reported difficulties obtaining reimbursement due to unclear rejections of qualifying claims, complex billing procedures, lack of knowledgeable Medicaid staff with whom billing problems could be discussed, and low and slow reimbursement rates. Conclusions Poor state-level implementation of Medicaid coverage of abortion policies creates barriers for women seeking abortion. Efforts to ensure policies are implemented appropriately would improve women's health. PMID:22742741

Dennis, Amanda; Blanchard, Kelly

2013-01-01

123

TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been studied include, for example, spontaneous abortions, congenital defects, low birt...

124

Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... NCI Publications Espańol RSS Feed Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk Reviewed: January 12, 2010 Introduction A woman’s ... that may influence a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer later in life. As a result, over several ...

125

Abortion and the search for public policy.  

PubMed

The social policy towards abortion determined by the Roe vs. Wade decision can be overturned at any time depending upon how the US Supreme Court reacts to challenges to its earlier ruling. Roe vs. Wade was decided by a 7 to 2 vote, and the members of the Supreme Court appointed by Presidents Reagan and Bush were chosen to uphold a conservative (anti-abortion) ideology. Although more than half of the present Court was appointed by these presidents, President Clinton now has the opportunity to appoint 2 more Justices. The public policy positions which are currently available to the Supreme Court or to Congress can be ranked on a chart from liberal to conservative. In this article, 7 different positions are described in detail, and the public policy implications of the implementation of each position are described. The first position considered is the extreme conservative position of "no abortion; no exceptions" as defined by author and Roman Catholic theologian Gerald Kelly. The only procedures allowed which would end the life of a fetus would be those to remove an ovary or fallopian tube in the case of an extrauterine pregnancy (permissible under the doctrine of double effect). In the most extreme interpretation of this situation (which Kelly does not seem to hold), those who perform abortions would be prosecuted for murder. The next position considered is the most liberal position, which is espoused by Michael Tooley, and which holds that abortion and early infanticide are both permissible. The third position is that which allows no abortion but has limited exceptions in cases of rape or incest. The appropriate consideration for abortion presented next is that of the late Joseph Fletcher who believed that whatever love requires is the proper response to the situation. Philosopher Dan Callahan espouses the notion that abortion should be performed for compelling reasons only (after effective counseling). The trimester approach to the problem of abortion is that set forth by Justice Harry Blackmun in Roe vs. Wade. This approach gives a woman freedom to decide to have an abortion during the first 2 trimesters of her pregnancy only. This approach has essentially dictated public policy in the US since 1973. The last position considered is that which maintains that a woman's right to equality demands that she have sole control over whether or not to have an abortion. PMID:8118140

McIntyre, R L

1993-01-01

126

The Principal's Legal Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principal is faced with myriad legal issues on a daily basis, making it imperative that he or she keep abreast with developing legal issues. The first of four sections, "Students and the Law," surveys federal statutes and landmark Supreme Court decisions pertaining to the rights of students. It addresses legal issues regarding search and…

Camp, William E., Ed.; And Others

127

Managing Legal Affairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses school administrators' legal-affairs management responsibilities regarding legal advice, law versus ethics, and sources of law. Suggests strategies for retaining and managing legal counsel and avoiding situations involving litigation, torts, and conflict resolution. Explains general counsel services; outlines education,…

Weeks, Richard H.

2001-01-01

128

Legal Interviewing For Paralegals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the training materials prepared for paralegals, or legal assistants, by the National Paralegal Institute under a Federal grant, the document presents legal interviewing techniques by focusing on an analysis of a particular legal interview conducted by a paralegal on a hypothetical case. From the analysis of the case, a number of problems,…

Statsky, William P.

129

SocioEconomic Determinants of Abortion Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abortion rates are increasing all around the world, especially for young women. Our proposals for public policies to reduce\\u000a unwanted pregnancies are based on an analysis of the socio-economic determinants of abortion rates. Special attention is paid\\u000a to regional levels of alcohol consumption, living conditions, and public spending on health and education. We carry out estimations\\u000a using data on regions

Ana I. Gil-Lacruz; Marta Gil-Lacruz; Estrella Bernal-Cuenca

130

Ethical and legal aspects of noninvasive prenatal genetic diagnosis.  

PubMed

The new technology that will allow genetic testing of a fetus within the first trimester of pregnancy by isolating cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in the mother's blood raises a range of ethical and legal issues. Considered noninvasive, this test is safe and reliable, and may avoid alternative genetic testing by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, which risks causing spontaneous abortion. Ethical and legal issues of cffDNA testing will become more acute if testing expands to fetal whole-genome sequencing. Critical issues include the state of the science or diagnostic art; the appropriateness of offering the test; the implications of denying the test when it is available and appropriate; disclosure and counseling following test results; and management of patients' choices on acquiring test results. A challenge will be providing patients with appropriate counseling based on up-to-date genetic knowledge, and accommodating informed patients' legal choices. PMID:24299974

Dickens, Bernard M

2014-02-01

131

A simplified method for differential staining of aborted and non-aborted pollen grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability to use chemical staining to discriminate aborted from non-aborted pollen grains has well-known practical applications in agriculture. A commonly used technique for assessing pollen vitality, Alexander’s stain, uses chloral hydrate, phenol and mercuric chloride, all of which are highly to...

132

Movement and counter-movement: a history of abortion law reform and the backlash in Colombia 2006-2014.  

PubMed

In 2006, the Constitutional Court of Colombia issued Decision C-355/2006, which liberalized the country's abortion law. The reform was groundbreaking in its argumentation, being one of the first judicial decisions in the world to uphold abortion rights on equality grounds, and the first by a constitutional court to rule on the constitutionality of abortion within a human rights framework. It was also the first of a series of reforms that would liberalize the abortion regulation in four other Latin American countries. The Colombian case is also notable for the process of strategic litigation carried out by feminist organizations after the Court's decision, in order to ensure its implementation and counter the opposition from conservative actors working in State institutions, as well as for the active role played by the Court in that process. Based on fieldwork carried out in Colombia in 2013, this article analyzes the process of progressive implementation and reactionary backlash after Decision C-355/2006, with an emphasis on strategic litigation by the feminist movement and subsequent decisions by the Constitutional Court, which consolidated its jurisprudence in the field of abortion rights. It highlights the role of both feminists and of conservative activists within State institutions as opposing social movements, and the dynamics of political and legal mobilization and counter-mobilization in that process. PMID:25555762

Ruibal, Alba

2014-11-01

133

Paternal exposure to mercury and spontaneous abortions.  

PubMed Central

The potential reproductive toxicity of mercury vapour was investigated by comparing the rate of spontaneous abortions among the wives of 152 workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour with the rate among the wives of 374 controls in the same plant. The results indicate an increase in the rate of spontaneous abortions with an increasing concentration of mercury in the fathers' urine before pregnancy. At concentrations above 50 micrograms/l the risk of spontaneous abortion doubles (odds ratio (OR) = 2.26; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.99-5.23). Special care was taken to avoid bias in reporting abortions and known risk factors of spontaneous abortions do not seem to explain the results. Several biological mechanisms might account for them including, in particular, direct action of mercury on the paternal reproductive system and indirect toxicity to the mother or embryo through transport of mercury from the father. These indications could be of practical importance and should therefore be further documented. PMID:2064975

Cordier, S; Deplan, F; Mandereau, L; Hemon, D

1991-01-01

134

Women's experiences in connection with induced abortion - a feminist perspective.  

PubMed

Although abortions are common, few researchers have explored the experiences of women related to abortions. The aim of this qualitative study was to analyse women's experiences of induced abortion from a feminist perspective. Five women aged 19-33 years were interviewed about 1 month after their abortion. The interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis from which the following themes were identified: experiences connected with the decision-making process, experiences connected with the abortion and experiences after the abortion. Childhood experiences of divided families, financial problems, being too young, and an insecure partnership influenced the women's decision to have an abortion. Ambivalence about abortion was strongly expressed throughout the process. Despite positive attitudes towards abortion in general, the women had negative attitudes towards their own abortion. They described receiving most support from their mothers and friends, in the decision-making process, and least from their partners. After the abortion the women gained a feeling of maturity and experience although their ambivalence persisted. One conclusion drawn from our study is that nurses and midwives need to be aware of women's complex experiences with abortions in order to support and empower women who seek an abortion. PMID:15147479

Aléx, Lena; Hammarström, Anne

2004-06-01

135

‘Miscarriage or abortion?’ Understanding the medical language of pregnancy loss in Britain; a historical perspective  

PubMed Central

Clinical language applied to early pregnancy loss changed in late twentieth century Britain when doctors consciously began using the term ‘miscarriage’ instead of ‘abortion’ to refer to this subject. Medical professionals at the time and since have claimed this change as an intuitive empathic response to women's experiences. However, a reading of medical journals and textbooks from the era reveals how the change in clinical language reflected legal, technological, professional and social developments. The shift in language is better understood in the context of these historical developments, rather than as the consequence of more empathic medical care for women who experience miscarriage. PMID:23429567

Moscrop, Andrew

2013-01-01

136

Economics of Cannabis Legalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Marijuana,legalization,offers an important,advantage,over,decriminalization in that it allows for legal distribution and taxation of cannabis. In the absence of taxation, the free market price of legal marijuana would beextremely low, on the order of five to ten cents per joint. In terms of intoxicating potential, a joint is equivalent to at least $1 or $2 worth of alcohol, the price

Dale Gieringer

137

Diagnostic categorization of post-abortion syndrome.  

PubMed

Some psychopathological characteristics are frequently observed in women who have voluntarily aborted. However, some resistance currently remains to their recognition as a differentiated nosological category, known as Post-Abortion Syndrome (PAS). We tried to assign a diagnostic category to women with PAS by determining the extent by which they fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of international classifications. Criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were met in the ten PAS cases studied. In addition, patients also showed other non-specific symptoms such as repeated and persistent dreams and nightmares related with the abortion, intense feelings of guilt and the "need to repair". PAS should be considered as an additional type of PTSD. It also has some specific characteristics that could help to understand the patient's life experience and to establish a psychotherapeutic intervention. PMID:15999304

Gómez Lavín, C; Zapata García, R

2005-01-01

138

Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion  

MedlinePLUS

... an abortion procedure? In an abortion procedure, the embryo or fetus is removed from a woman’s uterus . ... are removed with suction or other surgical instruments. Embryo: The developing organism from the time it implants ...

139

42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for the purchase of health benefits coverage...section affects the expenditure by a State, locality...abortion services or for health benefits coverage...

2013-10-01

140

42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.  

...is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for the purchase of health benefits coverage...section affects the expenditure by a State, locality...abortion services or for health benefits coverage...

2014-10-01

141

42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for the purchase of health benefits coverage...section affects the expenditure by a State, locality...abortion services or for health benefits coverage...

2012-10-01

142

42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...abortion is necessary to save the life of the mother. (2) Rape or incest. FFP is available in expenditures for abortion services performed to terminate a pregnancy resulting from an act of rape or incest. (c) Partial Federal funding...

2011-10-01

143

42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...abortion is necessary to save the life of the mother. (2) Rape or incest. FFP is available in expenditures for abortion services performed to terminate a pregnancy resulting from an act of rape or incest. (c) Partial Federal funding...

2010-10-01

144

The Road to Pad Abort 1 - Duration: 6:55.  

NASA Video Gallery

At the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, N.M., engineers and technicians are preparing for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The Launch Abort System is a sophisticated new rocket tower designed t...

145

Woman-centered research on access to safe abortion services and implications for behavioral change communication interventions: a cross-sectional study of women in Bihar and Jharkhand, India  

PubMed Central

Background Unsafe abortion in India leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Abortion has been legal in India since 1971, and the availability of safe abortion services has increased. However, service availability has not led to a significant reduction in unsafe abortion. This study aimed to understand the gap between safe abortion availability and use of services in Bihar and Jharkhand, India by examining accessibility from the perspective of rural, Indian women. Methods Two-stage stratified random sampling was used to identify and enroll 1411 married women of reproductive age in four rural districts in Bihar and Jharkhand, India. Data were collected on women's socio-demographic characteristics; exposure to mass media and other information sources; and abortion-related knowledge, perceptions and practices. Multiple linear regression models were used to explore the association between knowledge and perceptions about abortion. Results Most women were poor, had never attended school, and had limited exposure to mass media. Instead, they relied on community health workers, family and friends for health information. Women who had knowledge about abortion, such as knowing an abortion method, were more likely to perceive that services are available (? = 0.079; p < 0.05) and have positive attitudes toward abortion (? = 0.070; p < 0.05). In addition, women who reported exposure to abortion messages were more likely to have favorable attitudes toward abortion (? = 0.182; p < 0.05). Conclusions Behavior change communication (BCC) interventions, which address negative perceptions by improving community knowledge about abortion and support local availability of safe abortion services, are needed to increase enabling resources for women and improve potential access to services. Implementing BCC interventions is challenging in settings such as Bihar and Jharkhand where women may be difficult to reach directly, but interventions can target individuals in the community to transfer information to the women who need this information most. Interpersonal approaches that engage community leaders and influencers may also counteract negative social norms regarding abortion and associated stigma. Collaborative actions of government, NGOs and private partners should capitalize on this potential power of communities to reduce the impact of unsafe abortion on rural women. PMID:22404903

2012-01-01

146

Catholic options in the abortion debate.  

PubMed

The little-known Roman Catholic theological doctrine of probabilism, an ethical system explicated in all manuals of moral theology, is explained using as an example the dilemma of abortion. Probabilism is based on the notion that a doubtful moral obligation may not be imposed as though it were certain. "Ubi dubium, ibi libertas," means where there is doubt, there is freedom. There are 2 types of moral probability, intrinsic probability, where the individual, without the help of moral theologians, perceives the inapplicability of a particular moral teaching; and extrinsic probability, which involves reliance on the findings of 5 or 6 reputable moral theologians, who may hold a liberal view. Probabilism implies a reasonable doubt, and one's reasons must be cogent, but not necessarily conclusive. Today's abortion debate is an example of a respectable debate, where the liberal view has been endorsed by a number of reputable religious or other humanitarian bodies that in some cases abortion is not always immoral. Other examples in history are the view once taught by the church that taking interest on loans was immoral, that depriving slaves and women of civil rights on non-Catholics of religious or political freedom was moral. For today's legislators, there is a precedent throughout theological history for the state permitting an evil: both St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that prostitution, although evil, should not be outlawed, because worse evils would occur with prohibition. Legislators who personally find abortion always immoral can support a Roe V. Wade decision because 1) it does not require anyone to have an abortion, and 2) the abortion debate, among Catholics, and non-Catholics is not settled. PMID:12178838

Maguire, D C

1990-01-01

147

RHIC ABORT KICKER WITH REDUCED COUPLING IMPEDANCE.  

SciTech Connect

Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without external resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit.

HAHN,H.; DAVINO,D.

2002-06-02

148

Sex Selective Abortions, Fertility and Birth Spacing Claus C Portner  

E-print Network

Sex Selective Abortions, Fertility and Birth Spacing Claus C P¨ortner Department of Economics under the title "The Determinants of Sex Selective Abortions." #12;Abstract Previous research on sex selective abortions has ignored the interactions between fertility, birth spacing and sex selection

Silver, Whendee

149

Abortion, Adoption, and Marriage: Alternative Resolutions of an Unwanted Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to previous article by Stolley and Hall (this issue) on presentation of adoption and abortion in undergraduate marriage and family textbooks. Contends that Stolley and Hall have constructed the issue as involving but two options (abortion and adoption). Asserts that abortion and adoption are but two of several related topics. Considers…

Nock, Steven L.

1994-01-01

150

Increasing access to legal termination of pregnancy and postabortion contraception at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.  

PubMed

The Zambian Association of Gynecology and Obstetrics is one of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) member societies participating in the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences from the East, Central, and Southern Africa region. The activities included in this country's plan of action were to provide access to safe abortion within the full extent of the law to women receiving care at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, and to increase the proportion of women leaving the hospital with a contraceptive method. Zambian law regarding abortion is liberal, but in general it was not applied until very recently. The proportion of legal terminations of pregnancy among patients receiving abortion care at the hospital increased from 3.2% in 2009 to 7.7% in 2011, while the percentage of women leaving the hospital with a contraceptive method increased from 25.3% to 69.4% over the same period. PMID:24786142

Macha, Swebby; Muyuni, Mutinta; Nkonde, Scholastica; Faúndes, Anibal

2014-07-01

151

Explorations in Legal Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of Recht der Werkelijkheid is dedicated to the topic of exploring legal cultures. As the case studies nicely illustrate, law and culture relate to each other in a variety of ways in different national and international settings. How judges in South Africa incorporate community values into the legal system and how unquestioned cultural assumptions play a significant

J. F. Bruinsma; D. Nelken

2007-01-01

152

Accreditation's Legal Landscape  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like most issues in higher education, the accreditation paradigm in the United States is defined in large measure by the legal and political climate in which the academy finds itself. In the case of accreditation in particular, the legal substrate is of particular importance given the central role of accreditation in a college's ability to receive…

Graca, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

153

Minimizing Legal Liability Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing a beginning point for better understanding of the legal liabilities involved in risk sports and adventure education programs, this article discusses legal liability based on negligence, participants' responsibility, and perception of risk. The establishment of professional safety guidelines is advocated. (JC)

van der Smissen, Betty

1979-01-01

154

'The trial the world is watching': the 1972 prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, abortion, and the regulation of the medical profession in apartheid South Africa.  

PubMed

After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman's life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country's newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary's stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their 'duty' to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites' attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa's extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430

Klausen, Susanne M

2014-04-01

155

Miscarriage, abortion or criminal feticide: understandings of early pregnancy loss in Britain, 1900-1950.  

PubMed

This paper explores the close links in medical understandings of miscarriage and abortion in the first half of the twentieth century in Britain. In the absence of a clear legal framework for abortion, and the secrecy surrounding the practice, medical literature suggests contradictory and confused views about women presenting with clinical signs of pregnancy loss. On one hand, there was a lack of clarity as to whether pregnancy loss was natural or induced, with a clear tendency to assume that symptoms of miscarriage were the result of criminal interference gone wrong. On the other hand, women who did not present for treatment when miscarriage was underway were accused of neglecting their unborn children. The paper suggests that discourses around pregnancy loss were class-based, distrustful of female patients, and shaped by the wider context of fertility decline and concerns about infant mortality. The close historical connection between miscarriage and abortion offers some insight into why both the pro-life movement and miscarriage support advocates today draw on similar imagery and rhetoric about early fetal loss. PMID:24594057

Elliot, Rosemary

2014-09-01

156

The Psychological and Emotional Effects of Abortion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological and emotional effects of abortion on women who terminated their pregnancies for social, economic, or personal reasons. These effects were determined, in part, by an analysis of the woman's concept of self, the external support given, and the various coping mechanisms utilized in the…

Arafat, Ibtihaj S.; Chireau, Ruby M.

157

Abortion, Capital Punishment, and the Politics of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In her paper, Professor Kimberly J. Cook uses statistics to illustrate the role the Christian Right plays in the public discourse over two issues permeated with religious overtones: abortion and the death penalty. She shows how the Christian Right's approach to these issues is based on an ideological notion of 'Justice \\

Kimberly J. Cook

2000-01-01

158

Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

1971-01-01

159

The RHIC beam abort kicker system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy stored in the RHIC beam is about 200 kJ per ring at design energy and intensity. To prevent quenching of the superconducting magnets or material damage, the beam will be safely disposed of by an internal beam abort system, which includes the kicker magnets, the pulsed power supplies, and the dump absorber. Disposal of heavy ions, such as

H. Hahn; A. Dunbar; C. I. Pai; R. T. Sanders; N. Tsoupas; J. E. Tuozzolo

1999-01-01

160

An update in recurrent spontaneous abortion.  

PubMed

Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses prior to the 20th week of gestation. The etiology of recurrent spontaneous abortion is often unclear and may be multifactorial, with much controversy regarding diagnosis and treatment. Reasonably accepted etiologic causes include, genetics, anatomical, endocrine, placental anomalies, hormonal problems, infection, smoking and alcohol consumption, exposure to environmental factors, psychological trauma and stressful life event, certain coagulation and immunoregulatory protein defects. Detection of an abnormality in any of these areas may result into specific therapeutic measures, with varying degrees of success. However, the majority of cases of RSA remains unexplained and is found to be associated with certain autoimmune (APA, ANA, ACA, ATA, AECA) and alloimmune (APCA, Ab2, MLR-Bf) antibodies that may play major role in the immunologic failure of pregnancy and may lead to abortion. Alteration in the expression of HLA-G molecules, T-helper-1 (Th-1) pattern of cytokines and natural killer (NK) cells activity may also induce abortion. Various forms of treatment like antithrombotic therapies such as aspirin and heparin, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy, immunotherapy with paternal lymphocytes and vitamin D3 therapy are effective mode of treatment for unexplained cause of fetal loss in women with RSA. PMID:15906053

Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Rani, Reena; Agrawal, Suraksha

2005-07-01

161

Psychological Consequences of Abortion among the Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran  

PubMed Central

Objective Abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. Method 278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study. Results The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively. Conclusion Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women's health impact on family and population health. PMID:22952518

Pourreza, Abolghasem

2011-01-01

162

Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.

2007-01-01

163

American Legal Ethics Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Cornell Law School's Legal Information Institute site (LII), the American Legal Ethics Library contains rules or codes, ethics opinions, judicial conduct codes, legal commentaries, and other materials relating to the law governing lawyers. Codes or rules are available for most of the nation's 50 states. Currently, the site also offers eleven commentaries on the "law of lawyering" for eleven different jurisdictions, written by legal scholars and major law firms in each jurisdiction's area. Another twelve narratives are in progress, including one for the European community. Accessible by topic or jurisdiction, the information is also available on CD-ROM. The hypertext format makes it easy to link from commentaries to relevant codes and rules. Roger C. Cramton, the Robert S. Stevens Professor of Law at Cornell, directs the project.

164

Legal Writing Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those not familiar with its nuances and requirements, legal writing can be a taxing affair at first. Fortunately, the Legal Writing Institute's homepage is a good place to start learning more about the basics of legal writing. First-time visitors can begin by looking over the "About" section, which offers up a host of materials about the Institute, including a most useful FAQ guide and information about their listservs. After that, visitors will want to move to the "Resources" section. Here they will find a collection of syllabi, resources on plagiarism, and an "Idea Bank" which will be quite a boon to legal writing instructors. The site is rounded out by an "Employment Listings" area and information about the Institute's conferences.

165

Global Legal Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Legal scholars and those with an interest in the law will definitely want to take a look at the Global Legal Information Network (GLIN) website. Here visitors can search official full text legal documents, including judicial decisions, legislation, and laws. The database is provided courtesy of the Law Library of the United States Congress, and it draws from countries from around the world who wish to provide access to their own legal documents. Some of the countries who participate in the program include Brazil, Costa Rica, Kuwait, Peru, and Romania. Visitors will find that the ways to search the database are extremely helpful. Options include searching by jurisdiction, publication date, subject terms, and language. The site is rounded out by a section that provides answers to frequently asked questions about using the database.

2005-01-01

166

[Medico-legal autopsy].  

PubMed

Today's clinical autopsy has to satisfy teaching, research and questions of good clinical practice. In a sense, clinical autopsy finds itself as a subject between the physician and his patient but also between clinicians and pathologists. Medico-legal autopsy, on the other hand, is subject to an official act. It can be performed against the will of the deceased or his family. For clinicians or practitioners it is not possible to directly order medico-legal autopsies. However, they are obliged to inform the police in every case of uncertain death (non-natural death, aussergewöhnlicher Todesfall). Not only the questions to be answered do vary between clinical und medico-legal autopsy but also there are remarkable differences of technique. Thus, neither can clinical autopsy be replaced by medico-legal one nor is it in any way accurate to perform clinical autopsy in possibly forensic cases. PMID:18019179

Hauri, R

2007-10-24

167

A six month prospective study on different aspects of abortion.  

PubMed

A six month prospective study on various aspects of abortion was conducted from April 1, 1991 to Sept. 30, 1991 in Sidamo Regional Hospital (Yirgalem). A total of 185 cases of abortion were seen. Of these, 64 (35%) were induced and 121 (65%) were spontaneous. There were 2 deaths in the illegally induced group abortion, 1 death in the other group. Induced abortion was higher in age group 20-24 (61%), single (65%), unemployed (70%), nulliparous (48%) and 7-12 grade educational level (67%). The pregnancy was unwanted in all cases of induced abortion and in 50 (41%) of the spontaneous cases. The common instruments used for inducing abortion were plastic catheters (58%) and metallic instruments (32%). The abortionists were mainly health workers (55%). The mean hospital stay was 6.3 days for illegally induced and 2.1 days for spontaneous abortions. The incidence of septic abortion was found to be statistically significantly higher in induced than in spontaneous abortion (p < 0.001) while haemorrhagic shock was not (p > 0.05). The type of anaesthesia and required procedure are also analyzed in this study. Eighty-eight percent of the study population did not use any type of contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is discussed. PMID:8404881

Madebo, T; G/Tsadic, T

1993-07-01

168

World Legal History Needs You.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course syllabus for world legal history is presented to encourage more instruction in that field. It includes segments on modern and early primitive law, early civilized legal systems, medieval religious legal systems, acceptance and rejection of Roman law in Europe, and developments in the legal history of specific countries. (MSE)

Funk, David A.

1987-01-01

169

CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

DREES,A.FLILLER,R.III.FU,W.MICHNOFF,R.

2004-07-05

170

[Immunologic characteristics of repeated spontaneous abortions].  

PubMed

In 28 couples with spontaneous abortions, data of immunological investigations revealed an elevated frequency of HLA DR compatibility and immunological characteristics defining distinct patterns of immune responsiveness. In the half of women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) we observed a failure to develop a recognition response to paternal inherited fetal antigens expressed by the lack of classical evidence of in vivo allo-immunization such as antipaternal antibodies, and the absence of the inhibitors of cell-mediated immunity found in maternal blood during pregnancy. In few cases, the paternal cells are inefficient to elicit in vitro maternal cell-mediated lympholysis. In most women with a normal pregnancy occurring after spontaneous abortions or prior to RSA, an immune recognition response was evidenced by the presence of antipaternal antibodies and/or blocking factor acting on in vitro cell-mediated lympholysis. These observations support the hypothesis that immunological process could be the cause of some fetal losses of unknown etiology, through a defective or unsuitable maternal immune response. PMID:2963993

Genetet, N; Fauchet, R; Philippe, H J; Vialard, J; Grall, J Y; Giraud, J R; Genetet, B

1987-12-01

171

Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

2014-01-01

172

Abortion care in Ghana: a critical review of the literature.  

PubMed

The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25508038

Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

2014-09-01

173

Abortion care in Ghana: a critical review of the literature.  

PubMed

The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25438507

Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

2014-09-01

174

It Is Time to Integrate Abortion Into Primary Care  

PubMed Central

The Roe v Wade decision made safe abortion available but did not change the reality that more than 1 million women face an unwanted pregnancy every year. Forty years after Roe v Wade, the procedure is not accessible to many US women. The politics of abortion have led to a plethora of laws that create enormous barriers to abortion access, particularly for young, rural, and low-income women. Family medicine physicians and advanced practice clinicians are qualified to provide abortion care. To realize the promise of Roe v Wade, first-trimester abortion must be integrated into primary care and public health professionals and advocates must work to remove barriers to the provision of abortion within primary care settings. PMID:23153160

2013-01-01

175

A case of Candida guilliermondii abortion in an Arab mare  

PubMed Central

Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species. PMID:24707460

Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

176

Induced Abortions Among Adolescent Women in Rural Maharashtra, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study in rural Maharashtra, India, adolescents constituted 13.1% of the 1717 married women who had an induced abortion during an 18-month period in 1996–1998. The 197 adolescents who were subsequently interviewed had a lesser role in the decision-making process on abortion than women older than them. Most abortions were obtained in the private sector. Though spacing was the

Bela Ganatra; Siddhi Hirve

2002-01-01

177

DO PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT LAWS REDUCE ADOLESCENT ABORTION RATES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the impact of parental involvement laws on adolescent abortion rates and pregnancy rates. The analysis estimates abortion rate and pregnancy rate models using state-level data pooled over time for adolescents aged 15-17 compared to older teens aged 18-19 and adults aged 20-44. The results indicate that parental involvement laws reduce adolescent abortion rates and may, to a

ROBERT L. OHSFELDT; STEPHAN F. GOHMANN

1994-01-01

178

Legal issues related to adolescent pregnancy: current concepts.  

PubMed

Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials. PMID:3602637

Rhodes, A M

1986-09-01

179

Launch Architecture Impact on Ascent Abort and Crew Survival  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was performed to assess the effect of booster configuration on the ascent abort process. A generic abort event sequence was created and booster related risk drivers were identified. Three model boosters were considered in light of the risk drivers: a solid rocket motor configuration, a side mount combination solid and liquid configuration, and a stacked liquid configuration. The primary risk drivers included explosive fireball, overpressure, and fragment effects and booster-crew module re-contact. Risk drivers that were not specifically booster dependent were not addressed. The solid rocket configuration had the most benign influence on an abort while the side mount architecture provided the most challenging abort environment.

Mathias, Donovan L.; Lawrence, Scott L.

2006-01-01

180

Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

Koza, Pamela

1976-01-01

181

Legal Issues: Status Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper provides information concerning legal issues relating to sex bias which may be inherent in the present popular usage of standardized interest measurement instruments, focusing on current laws and guidelines, and the possible implications of judicial decisions which relate to sex bias and interest testing in education and employment…

Fitzgerald, Laurine E.; Fisher, B. Jeanne

182

[Integrity of young abortion applicants is overestimated].  

PubMed

In 1995 an 11-year old North African girl underwent two abortions over the course of half a year without her mother/guardian or social service having been contacted beforehand in each case. The maternal health care center, the school nurse, and the Karolinska Hospital women's ward took care of the operations. The girl has consistently claimed that if her home had been contacted she would have been rejected by her family, and the health care personnel have accepted her assertion. The reasons for not contacting the home or social services are 1) that it has become established practice that a young woman's need for personal integrity takes precedence over the need of health care authorities for information, 2) that the social agency's general guidelines from 1989 concerning abortion do not specify a specific lower age limit for the right of a woman to have an abortion, 3) that the gynecological clinic of Karolinska Hospital also played a part by placing the medical need of the girl ahead of the social need, and 4) that there is a general tendency for authorities to take over the responsibility of parents. In September 1995 the girl was placed in a state home and later in a correctional facility because she escaped several times, had a boyfriend with whom she planned to be engaged, and had received various presents, leading to the suspicion that she had been exposed to sexual exploitation. A psychologist's examination has shown that she has pseudo- maturity and regressive tendency--evidence that she has suffered a strong childhood trauma. A mother's love and care may be the only thing that will ensure her a better future. PMID:10093436

Olsson, S

1999-03-01

183

[Myocardial infarction during post-abortion DIC].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 40 year old woman admitted for dilatation and curettage at 12 weeks of amenorrhoea with post-abortion partial placental retention. Clinically she had developed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) complicated by an acute coronary syndrome with persistent ST elevation in the inferior leads. Management of her myocardial ischaemia was symptomatic, due to the underlying complex coagulation disorder making coronary reperfusion techniques impossible. After treatment for the cause of DIC, coronary angiography revealed no detectable angiographic lesion or spasm. In this context, the most likely aetiological hypothesis is a thrombus related to the DIC in an otherwise healthy heart, which was spontaneously lysed. PMID:16555703

Bonello, L; Fourcade, L; Com, O; Quilici, J; Bonnet, J L

2006-02-01

184

After-birth abortion: the intuition argument.  

PubMed

The argument advanced by Giubilini and Minerva is an important one, but it suffers from some shortcomings. I briefly criticise their reasoning and method and argue that after birth abortion should be limited largely to infants with disabilities. My argument is based not on solid scientific evidence or cold rational reasoning but on intuition, something that has long been discounted as irrelevant in biomedical discourse. I end with a recommendation to all of us: in order to make a change, one should not only choose one's battles, but also one's weapon and mode of attack. PMID:23637457

Lederman, Zohar

2013-05-01

185

Legal Aid Network of Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a group of Kentucky's legal service providers, the focus of the Legal Aid Network of Kentucky's website is to provide helpful information about legal services available to specific "groups of vulnerable Kentuckians". These groups include people who meet certain income guidelines, people 60 years and older, and in some cases, those people who are victims of domestic violence. Visitors will find that the site has five primary sections, including "Find Legal Help", "Self-Help Forms", and "Law Library". Visitors can use the "Find Legal Help" area to look up local legal services from across the state or by using an interactive map provided here. The "Video Library" area offers short videos about bankruptcy, eviction, and foreclosure. It is important to remember that these videos provide legal information, and do not constitute legal advice. Finally, visitors can also use the search engine here to look for information on specific topics.

186

Context and Conscience: Public Attitudes Toward Abortion in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, abortion has become a salient issue in Mexican politics. In this study, we intend to use data from the World Values Surveys to acertain the correlates of attitudes toward abortion among Mexican mass publics. We will examine the effects of attitudinal variables (respect for life, attitudes toward sexual morality, feminism, ideology), religious variables (Catholicism, doctrinal orthodoxy, church

John Tuman; Danielle Roth-Johnson; Ted Jelen

187

Plasma diamine oxidase levels in pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma diamine oxidase levels were assayed in 66 patients who presented with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. Levels within the normal range were associated with continuing pregnancies, whereas levels below the normal range were associated with subsequent abortion. Among those patients in whom gestation was greater than eight weeks, 66.6% of diamine oxidase levels correctly predicted the pregnancy outcome. Assay

M Legge; G B Duff

1981-01-01

188

Abortion a business hurdle for nation's Catholic hospitals.  

PubMed

Abortion is the foremost moral issue for 626 Catholic hospitals nationwide since church teachings prohibit the performance of elective abortions. This and the fact that Catholic hospitals can not do voluntary sterilizations can hinder their ability to get managed care contracts. In some cases a hospital will not join a network because abortions and sterilizations are done in other hospitals in the network. In other cases they have been in plans where abortions are performed in other contract facilities; this does not violate the Catholic church policy since the abortions are not performed in their facility. When a Catholic and secular hospital plan a merger, Catholic ideals seem to take precedence. A Catholic hospital that went bankrupt in Philadelphia, was turned over to investors, and was under no obligation to follow the Catholic church's directives, but did not perform abortions anyway. In Washington state there are merger talks going on between a secular facility and the Franciscan Health System. The cessation of abortion and sterilization services appear to be outweighed by the financial benefits. Besides, these procedures can be performed through other providers in the area. In Michigan similar merger talks may fail because of the abortion issue. The government justice system is investigating and is likely to challenge any merger there. PMID:10294510

Burda, D

1989-08-25

189

Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access  

MedlinePLUS

... United States: Incidence and access to services, 2005. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 40(1), 2008. 14 Guttmacher Institute. Bans on “partial-birth” abortions. State Policies in Brief, 2008. 15 Gostin LO. Abortion politics: Clinical freedom, trust in the Judiciary, and the ...

190

Day of Launch Profile Selection for Pad Abort Guidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A day of launch selection approach that involves choosing from an array of pitch profiles of varying loft was analyzed with the purpose of reducing the risk of a land landing failure during a pad abort. It was determined that selecting from three pitch profiles can reduce the number of waterline abort performance requirement failures approximately in half without compromising other performance metrics.

Whitley, Ryan J.

2010-01-01

191

Selective Seed Abortion Increases Offspring Survival in Cynoglossum officinale (Boraginaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective embryo abortion is one of the evolutionary explanations for the surplus of ovules found in many plant species. To manipulate the level of embryo abortion, we removed ovules and applied nutrients to plants of Cynoglossum officinale(Boraginaceae) after they started to flower. From these two treatments and a control series, seeds were collected, germinated, and transplanted in the field to

Chantal Melser; Peter G. L. Klinkhamer

2001-01-01

192

Mourning and Guilt among Greek Women Having Repeated Abortions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted clinical study concerning bereavement process of Greek women after abortion. Found strong identificatory tendencies on both mother and father images. Argues that, in cases of repeated abortion, mourning and guilt do not only refer to murdered and lost "person-fetus" but principally to death and loss of object of ambiguous desire.…

Naziri, D.; Tzavaras, A.

1993-01-01

193

Women's Legal History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Women's Legal History website is the home of a searchable database of articles and papers on pioneering women lawyers in the United States. The site contains sections that include the WLH Biography Project and the index and bibliographic notes from "Woman Lawyer: The Trial of Clara Foltz" by Barbara Babcock. In the WLH Biography Project, visitors can look over the life stories of women in the legal profession, such as Agnes Sagebiel, Marge Wagner, and Julia Jennings. There are over 1,000 profiles that visitors can browse alphabetically or search by name, year, ethnicity, or law school. Additionally, the site contains detailed information about Babcock's recent work, along with media clips related to the subject of women lawyers

2013-01-01

194

Legal Information Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cornell University's Law School has an international reputation for scholarly activity, and Scout Report readers will be glad to learn about the online resources afforded by its Legal Information Institute (LII). Founded in 1992 by co-directors Thomas R. Bruce and Peter W. Martin, the LII publishes electronic versions of "core materials in numerous areas of the law". Some of the key materials that users will find here include Supreme Court decisions, decisions of the U.S. Court of Appeals, decisions of the New York Court of Appeals, and the U.S. Code. For those more casual or first-time users, the site has a well-written introduction to basic legal citation and a lexicon of basic legal terms. The homepage of the site also features a selection of recent law events that have made the news, complete with hypertext links to the complete decisions. The "Law aboutâ?¦" area is helpful, as visitors can browse around to find information about various sectors of law including enterprise law, criminal law, and constitutional law.

195

Effectiveness of Family Planning Policies: The Abortion Paradox  

PubMed Central

Objective The relation between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion remains a topic of heated debate. Many of the contradictions are likely due to the fact that abortion is the end point of a process that starts with sexual activity, contraceptive use (or non-use), followed by unwanted pregnancy, a decision to terminate, and access to abortion. Trends in abortion rates reflect changes in each step of this process, and opposing trends may cancel each other out. This paper aims to investigate the roles played by the dissemination of contraception and the evolving norms of motherhood on changes in abortion rates. Methods Drawing data from six national probability surveys that explored contraception and pregnancy wantedness in France from 1978 through 2010, we used multivariate linear regression to explore the associations between trends in contraceptive rates and trends in (i) abortion rates, (ii) unwanted pregnancy rates, (iii) and unwanted birth rates, and to determine which of these 3 associations was strongest. Findings The association between contraceptive rates and abortion rates over time was weaker than that between contraception rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p?=?0.003). Similarly, the association between contraceptive rates and unwanted birth rates over time was weaker than that between contraceptive rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p?=?0.000). PMID:24670784

Bajos, Nathalie; Le Guen, Mireille; Bohet, Aline; Panjo, Henri; Moreau, Caroline

2014-01-01

196

The efficacy of immediate post-abortion intrauterine device insertion.  

PubMed

Ovulation returns soon after abortion, with half of the women ovulating by 21 days after the procedure. Immediate post-abortion insertion provides immediate contraceptive protection. Clinicians have feared that rates of uterine perforation due to intrauterine devices (IUDs) and expulsion of IUDs may be higher in the post-abortal uterus due to its softness and enlargement. This study was carried out to assess the safety and efficacy of IUD insertion immediately after induced abortion compared with insertion during the first menstrual cycle after abortion. All women were counseled about a method of contraception, particularly copper T-380A, and divided into two groups: Group 1 included 226 women who preferred immediate IUD insertion, and Group 2 included 100 women who opted for interval-IUD insertion during the first menstrual cycle after abortion. All women were followed-up at two and eight weeks after insertion of the IUDs. Severe bleeding was observed 10.62% in Group 1 and 6% in Group 2. Expulsion rate was 7.08% and 8% in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, which was not statistically significant. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) was observed in one case in Group 1. However uterine perforation was not noted in either group. In conclusion, insertion of an IUD immediately after an induced abortion is safe and if a woman asks for a modern contraceptive method it could be offered. PMID:12635744

Göçmen, A; Demirpolat, N; Ay?in, H

2002-01-01

197

Space shuttle (ATP configuration) abort staging investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel test conducted in a 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel to determine the force and moment characteristics of the ATP Orbiter and modified ATP External Tank/SRB combination during abort staging conditions is discussed. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded for the orbiter and ET/SRB combination. Pitch polars were obtained for an angle of attack range from minus 10 to plus 10 degrees and orbiter incidence angles (orbiter relative to the ET/SRB combination) of 0 and 2 degrees. A limited amount of yaw data were obtained at 0 degree angle of attack and beta range from minus 10 to plus 10 degrees. In addition, orbiter pitch control effectiveness was determined at several grid points. These force and moment data were obtained for Mach numbers of 0.9, 1.2 and 2.0.

Rampy, J. M.; Blackwell, K. L.; Allen, E. C., Jr.; Fossler, I.

1973-01-01

198

Women's Education Level, Maternal Health Facilities, Abortion Legislation and Maternal Deaths: A Natural Experiment in Chile from 1957 to 2007  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess the main factors related to maternal mortality reduction in large time series available in Chile in context of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Methods Time series of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) from official data (National Institute of Statistics, 1957–2007) along with parallel time series of education years, income per capita, fertility rate (TFR), birth order, clean water, sanitary sewer, and delivery by skilled attendants were analysed using autoregressive models (ARIMA). Historical changes on the mortality trend including the effect of different educational and maternal health policies implemented in 1965, and legislation that prohibited abortion in 1989 were assessed utilizing segmented regression techniques. Results During the 50-year study period, the MMR decreased from 293.7 to 18.2/100,000 live births, a decrease of 93.8%. Women's education level modulated the effects of TFR, birth order, delivery by skilled attendants, clean water, and sanitary sewer access. In the fully adjusted model, for every additional year of maternal education there was a corresponding decrease in the MMR of 29.3/100,000 live births. A rapid phase of decline between 1965 and 1981 (?13.29/100,000 live births each year) and a slow phase between 1981 and 2007 (?1.59/100,000 live births each year) were identified. After abortion was prohibited, the MMR decreased from 41.3 to 12.7 per 100,000 live births (?69.2%). The slope of the MMR did not appear to be altered by the change in abortion law. Conclusion Increasing education level appears to favourably impact the downward trend in the MMR, modulating other key factors such as access and utilization of maternal health facilities, changes in women's reproductive behaviour and improvements of the sanitary system. Consequently, different MDGs can act synergistically to improve maternal health. The reduction in the MMR is not related to the legal status of abortion. PMID:22574194

Koch, Elard; Thorp, John; Bravo, Miguel; Gatica, Sebastián; Romero, Camila X.; Aguilera, Hernán; Ahlers, Ivonne

2012-01-01

199

Induced Abortion andSpontaneous Fetal Loss InSubsequent Pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theeffect ofinduced abortion onspon- taneous pregnancy loss insubsequent pregnancies was studied basedon3,416 pairs ofmatched dataina follow-up investigation. Pregnancy outcome wasex- amined alsoinrelation toabortion procedure, gesta- tion length attimeofabortion, andnumber ofprevious abortions. Ingeneral there wasnosignificant associa- tionbetween prior induced abortion andrisks of Induced abortion isconsidered themostcommonly usedsurgical procedure intheUnited States' andaccounts forabout 30percentofallknownpregnancies.2 Reported results ofstudies relating history ofinduced abortion to

PATRICIA G. STEINHOFF

1982-01-01

200

World Legal Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors pick your language! This University of Ottawa website can be read in six different languages, including Arabic, Russian, Chinese and English. The "About JuriGlobe" link, on the left hand side menu of any page, explains the three main goals of the site. Visitors will learn that the law professors who formed this site feel there should be more recognition and consideration of "the diversity of the various legal systems, their languages and their economic and demographic importance in the world." Once visitors choose their language, they will be redirected to a map that shows the different types of law that govern the countries of the world. Across the top of the map are links to explanations of the different types of law, as well as which countries have a combination of laws or a unified system of laws. The types of law represented on the map are "Civil Law", "Common Law", "Muslim Law", "Customary Law", and "Mixed Systems". The "Demographic Distribution" link on the left hand side menu illustrates with graphs and tables the percentage in which the world population is represented by the various legal systems.

201

Spectrum of antibodies to reproductive hormones in threatened abortion.  

PubMed

The spectrum of antibodies to reproductive hormones and the diagnostic significance of their measurements in threatened abortion during trimester I were studied. Enhanced production of antibodies to hormones was detected by ELISA in patients with threatened abortion (N=44) in comparison with women with normal gestation (N=30). These antibodies were detected more often than antiphospholipid antibodies (p<0.05). Antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin (IgM, IgG) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (IgG) were associated with threatened abortion. According to ROC analysis, their measurements were diagnostically significant in this pathology (AUC>0.8). Subclasses IgG1 and IgG2 predominated among IgG to chorionic gonadotropin. Presumably, antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone could serve as independent factors of threatened abortion risk during trimester I. PMID:25348563

Menzhinskaya, I V; Van'ko, L V; Kiryushchenkov, P A; Tambovtseva, M A; Kashentseva, M M; Sukhikh, G T

2014-10-01

202

The spread of 'Post Abortion Syndrome' as social diagnosis.  

PubMed

This paper examines the content of Post Abortion Syndrome (PAS) claims, the social actors involved and how this social diagnosis bypassed professional dissent and diffused into public policy in the United States. Previous works on the spread of PAS focus on almost exclusively on anti-abortion think tanks and policymakers. Missing from these analyses, however, is an emphasis on the grassroots-level actions undertaken by evangelical crisis pregnancy center (CPC) activists in introducing and circulating PAS claims. The CPC movement introduced PAS claims and provided the fodder for anti-abortion think tanks to construct evidence of pro-life claims. Despite dissent from health professionals and academic researchers, CPC PAS claims successfully diffused into federal and state abortion policy. I draw upon Brown et al.'s social diagnosis framework and Armstrong's five-stage model of diagnosis development to frame this account. PMID:24565137

Kelly, Kimberly

2014-02-01

203

Commercial Crew Program: Launch Abort Systems - Duration: 5:36.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's work in the next generation of launch abort systems (LAS) is significantly different from past programs. Instead of designing a specific system for a given spacecraft or rocket, engineers ar...

204

Stigma in abortion care: application to a grounded theory study.  

PubMed

A recent research study found that being more directly involved in medical abortion places greater demands on the nurses. The demands required by nurses working in abortion care may be increased by the stigma attached to such an antisocial action. This paper presents an application of stigma theory, as espoused by Goffman, based on a qualitative research study on abortion. It is argued that women attending for abortion are stigmatised and nurses, although 'wise', have an affiliate stigma through their close association with the procedure. It is proposed that the situation can be ameliorated by addressing stigma at policy, local and personal levels. Examples from other areas of practice are outlined for possible application to practice. PMID:21692583

Lipp, Allyson

2011-02-01

205

Integrated Flight Performance Analysis of a Launch Abort System Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes initial flight performance analyses conducted early in the Orion Project to support concept feasibility studies for the Crew Exploration Vehicle s Launch Abort System (LAS). Key performance requirements that significantly affect abort capability are presented. These requirements have implications on sizing the Abort Motor, tailoring its thrust profile to meet escape requirements for both launch pad and high drag/high dynamic pressure ascent aborts. Additional performance considerations are provided for the Attitude Control Motor, a key element of the Orion LAS design that eliminates the need for ballast and provides performance robustness over a passive control approach. Finally, performance of the LAS jettison function is discussed, along with implications on Jettison Motor sizing and the timing of the jettison event during a nominal mission. These studies provide an initial understanding of LAS performance that will continue to evolve as the Orion design is matured.

Tartabini, Paul V.

2007-01-01

206

Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival - Duration: 1:48.  

NASA Video Gallery

The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

207

21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.  

...abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine cavity, inflated, and slowly extracted. The extraction of the balloon from the uterus causes dilation of the cervical os. This generic type of device may include pressure sources and pressure controls....

2014-04-01

208

21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.  

... A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to aspirate transcervically the products of conception or menstruation from the uterus by using a cannula connected to a suction source. This device is used for pregnancy termination or menstrual...

2014-04-01

209

21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine cavity, inflated, and slowly extracted. The extraction of the balloon from the uterus causes dilation of the cervical os. This generic type of device may include pressure sources and pressure controls....

2013-04-01

210

21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to aspirate transcervically the products of conception or menstruation from the uterus by using a cannula connected to a suction source. This device is used for pregnancy termination or menstrual...

2013-04-01

211

Integrating Mobile Phones into Medical Abortion Provision: Intervention Development, Use, and Lessons Learned From a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Medical abortion is legal in South Africa but access and acceptability are hampered by the current protocol requiring a follow-up visit to assess abortion completion. Objective To assess the feasibility and efficacy of information and follow-up provided via mobile phone after medical abortion in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods Mobile phones were used in three ways in the study: (1) coaching women through medical abortion using short message service (SMS; text messages); (2) a questionnaire to assess abortion completion via unstructured supplementary service data (USSD, a protocol used by GSM mobile telephones that allows the user to interact with a server via text-based menus) and the South African mobile instant message and social networking application Mxit; and (3) family planning information via SMS, mobisite and Mxit. A needs and context assessment was done to learn about women’s experiences undergoing medical abortion and their use of mobile phones. After development, the mobile interventions were piloted. Recruitment was done by field workers at the clinics. In the RCT, women were interviewed at baseline and exit. Computer logs were also analyzed. All study participants received standard of care at the clinics. Results In the RCT, 234 women were randomized to the intervention group. Eight did not receive the intervention due to invalid numbers, mis-registration, system failure, or opt-out, leaving 226 participants receiving the full intervention. Of the 226, 190 returned and were interviewed at their clinic follow-up visit. The SMSs were highly acceptable, with 97.9% (186/190) saying that the SMSs helped them through the medical abortion. In terms of mobile phone privacy, 86.3% (202/234) said that it was not likely or possible that someone would see SMSs on their phone, although at exit, 20% (38/190) indicated that they had worried about phone privacy. Having been given training at baseline and subsequently asked via SMS to complete the self-assessment questionnaire, 90.3% (204/226) attempted it, and of those, 86.3% (176/204) reached an endpoint of the questionnaire. For the family planning information, a preference for SMS was indicated by study clients, although the publicly available Mxit/mobisite was heavily used (813,375 pages were viewed) over the study duration. Conclusions SMS provided a good medium for timed, "push" information that guided and supported women through medical abortion. Women were able to perform a self-assessment questionnaire via mobile phones if provided training and prompted by SMS. Phone privacy needs to be protected in similar settings. This study may contribute to the successful expansion of medical abortion provision aided by mobile phones. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR): PACTR201302000427144; http://www.pactr.org/ATMWeb/appmanager/atm/atmregistry?dar=true&tNo=PACTR201302000427144 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6N0fnZfzm). PMID:25098569

Constant, Deborah

2014-01-01

212

Hobi-Like Pestivirus in Aborted Bovine Fetuses  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivirus control/eradication programs in cattle herds. PMID:22162547

Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

2012-01-01

213

[Aspergillus terreus as a cause of mycotic abortion in cows].  

PubMed

The fungus Aspergillus terreus Thom et Church was subjected to microscopic and cultivation study in the organs of an aborted foetus and was demonstrated to be the causative agent of abortion in cattle. The culture of the isolated organism is described and brief data reporting on its ecology are presented. Attention is drawn to the probable source of infection and to the insufficiently known aspects of the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:6782741

Adámková, A; Otcenásek, M; Lávicka, M

1981-01-01

214

"After birth" abortion: a biomedical and conceptual nonsense.  

PubMed

Recently, two authors suggested that killing a healthy newborn might be morally permissible, subsuming it under the heading of 'after birth abortion'. Their proposed new definition implies that infanticide should be permitted whenever II trimester abortion for social reasons is. The suggestion stirred public outcry; nonetheless it needs to be analyzed since some 20% of countries allow II trimester abortion for social reasons and 5% do this on demand. A proper delimitation of the definition of "abortion" is thus very important to ensure careful application; for this reason we have attempted a critical analysis of their arguments. In the area of pregnancy termination different moral standards are apparently applied in different countries, but many reasons exist why the equation between II trimester abortion for social reasons and the killing of healthy neonates is to be morally rejected in all cases. The "inversed reification" of the concept of infanticide as a more abstract, euphemistic 'after birth abortion' blurs the fundamental difference between a non-viable fetus and a viable neonate. The best-known and most widely utilized (although illegal) "social reason" for "late abortion" and "infanticide" is a pregnancy with a female fetus or neonate. If infanticide for neonates were to be considered morally permissible, specifically it is this practice that would be applied. And this should be rejected on two levels: conceptual, through a critique of the exclusive use of one specific notion of personhood, and pragmatic through refusal of gender-discriminatory forms of infanticide (the killing of female neonates). In conclusion, having investigated the new concept we have concluded that the term "after birth abortion" is biologically and conceptually nonsensical. PMID:23495749

Benagiano, Giuseppe; Landeweerd, Laurens; Brosens, Ivo

2013-07-01

215

Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

2011-01-01

216

Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

2006-01-01

217

Five-Segment Booster (FSB) Abort to Orbit (ATO) Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Five Segment Booster (FSB) concept has been evolving for a number of years as a means to enhance the overall safety and reliability of the Space Shuttle system by minimizing the need to fly the more challenging Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) abort profiles. The initial evaluation of the FSB concept was conducted in 1996 to determine the feasibility of the FSB in achieving transatlantic abort leading TAL from the pad, thus eliminating the return to launch site (RTLS) abort mode. The initial study was conducted by ATK Thiokol and did show the potential for the FSB to eliminate the RTLS abort mode. Later Rockwell (now Boeing) conducted a similar study utilizing FSB performance characteristics and verified that the FSB could indeed achieve TAL from the pad, thereby eliminating the necessity for the RTLS abort. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the details of the enhancements achieved through the internally funded study conducted by Boeing and ATK Thiokol. To better understand the enhancements that were addressed as part of this follow-on study, some background on what was achieved in the Phase A study is appropriate.

Tobias, Mark; Sauvageau, Donald R.; Hines, Mark; Geiser, Norman L.; Cash, Steve (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

218

Getting Real About Legal Realism, New Legal Realism and Clinical Legal Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jerome Frank’s call for a “clinical lawyer-school” is cited so frequently in clinical scholarship that it borders on the canonical. Like many calls for reform in legal education, Frank’s plea for clinical lawyer-schools was based on a critique of the appellate case method of legal instruction. However, unlike most critiques, the legal realist critique was embedded within a jurisprudential challenge

Katherine R. Kruse

2011-01-01

219

Continuous Improvements to East Coast Abort Landings for Space Shuttle Aborts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvement initiatives in the areas of guidance, flight control, and mission operations provide increased capability for successful East Coast Abort Landings (ECAL). Automating manual crew procedures in the Space Shuttle's onboard guidance allows faster and more precise commanding of flight control parameters needed for successful ECALs. Automation also provides additional capability in areas not possible with manual control. Operational changes in the mission concept allow for the addition of new landing sites and different ascent trajectories that increase the regions of a successful landing. The larger regions of ECAL capability increase the safety of the crew and Orbiter.

Butler, Kevin D.

2003-01-01

220

Legal Language, on the Fly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

US federal, state, and municipal courts are facing a severe shortage of qualified interpreters as the non-English-speaking population in the country soars. Virginia Benmaman, a professor of Hispanic studies and legal interpretation advocate, runs a bilingual legal interpretation program at the College of Charleston that helps students tackle the…

Monaghan, Peter

2006-01-01

221

Legal Aspects of the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

2004-01-01

222

On Legality Assertions in Euclid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the programming language Euclid requires that a compiler for the language produce legality assertions to aid in verification of programs written in the language. This paper analyzes the legality assertions that must be produced and discusses the impact that this requirement has on the implementation of the language.

David B. Wortman

1979-01-01

223

Feminist Legal Theory, Critical Legal Studies, and Legal Education or "The Fem-Crits Go to Law School."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The commonalities and divergences in critiques of legal education offered by critical legal studies and feminist theory are examined. Both schools of thought focus on the hierarchy, passivity, depersonalization, and decontextualization of present-day legal education. (Author/MSE)

Menkel-Meadow, Carrie

1988-01-01

224

Waiving legal rights in research.  

PubMed

The US federal research regulations prohibit informed consent, whether written or oral, from including provisions in which human subjects waive or appear to waive legal rights. We argue that policies that prevent human subjects from waiving legal rights in research can be ethically justified under the rationale of group, soft paternalism. These policies protect competent adults from making adverse decisions about health and legal matters that they may not understand fully. However,this rationale is less defensible if there is a comprehensive compensation for injury programme available in which subjects are asked to waive some legal rights in order to participate in the programme. In this situation, subjects should be allowed to waive some legal rights to obtain the benefits of the programme. PMID:23893867

Resnik, David B; Parasidis, Efthimios

2014-07-01

225

Small-area variations in utilization of abortion services in Ontario from 1985 to 1992.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess interregional differences in the utilization of abortion services in Ontario from 1985 to 1992. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of provincial therapeutic abortion database. SETTING: All hospitals conducting abortions between 1985 and 1992 and all free-standing abortion clinics conducting abortions between 1990 and 1992. POPULATION: All women in Ontario aged 15 to 44 years who underwent a therapeutic abortion in Ontario during the study period. OUTCOME MEASURES: Utilization of abortion services by county and age-specific abortion rates by county of residence. RESULTS: From 1985 to 1989, when only hospital data were gathered, the mean therapeutic abortion rate increased by 11.2%. From 1990 to 1992, when data from hospitals and free-standing clinics were collected, the mean rate increased by 26.5%. Logistic regression analysis showed significant variation in the age-standardized abortion rates between counties in each study year (p < 0.0001). The counties with age-standardized rates below the 25th percentile had the highest proportions of women who sought abortion services outside their county of residence; in some of these counties no abortions were performed in local facilities. CONCLUSION: There are interregional variations in the utilization of abortion services in Ontario. These disparities raise questions about the accessibility of abortion services and need to be further investigated. PMID:7773896

Ferris, L E; McMain-Klein, M

1995-01-01

226

Human rights versus legal control over women's reproductive self-determination.  

PubMed

States have a duty under international human rights law to protect people's health. Nonetheless, while some health-related policies and laws protect basic human rights, others violate fundamental rights when they criminalize, prohibit, and restrict access to necessary health services. For example, laws and regulations related to protection of life from conception, contraception, actions of pregnant women, and abortion can harm women and place women and health care providers in jeopardy of legal penalization. Given the adverse consequences of punitive and restrictive laws related to pregnancy, advocates, civil society groups, human rights groups, and government institutions must work together to promote, protect, and fulfill women's fundamental reproductive rights. PMID:25006084

Uberoi, Diya; de Bruyn, Maria

2013-01-01

227

Legal highs on the Internet.  

PubMed

This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances. PMID:20141450

Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

2010-02-01

228

The prevalence of posttraumatic stress among women requesting induced abortion  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the prevalence and pattern of traumatic experiences, to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), to identify risk factors for PTSD and PTSS, and to analyse the association of PTSD and PTSS with concomitant anxiety and depressive symptoms in women requesting induced abortion. Methods A Swedish multi-centre study of women requesting an induced abortion. The Screen Questionnaire – Posttraumatic Stress Disorder was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results Of the 1514 respondents, almost half reported traumatic experiences. Lifetime- and point prevalence of PTSD were 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8–8.5) and 4% (95% CI: 3.1–5.2), respectively. The prevalence of PTSS was 23% (95% CI: 21.1–25.4). Women who reported symptoms of anxiety or depression when requesting abortion were more likely to have ongoing PTSD or PTSS. Also single-living women and smokers displayed higher rates of ongoing PTSD. Conclusions Although PTSD is rare among women who request an induced abortion, a relatively high proportion suffers from PTSS. Abortion seeking women with trauma experiences and existing or preexisting mental disorders need more consideration and alertness when counselled for termination. PMID:23978220

2013-01-01

229

Selective seed abortion increases offspring survival in Cynoglossum officinale (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

Selective embryo abortion is one of the evolutionary explanations for the surplus of ovules found in many plant species. To manipulate the level of embryo abortion, we removed ovules and applied nutrients to plants of Cynoglossum officinale (Boraginaceae) after they started to flower. From these two treatments and a control series, seeds were collected, germinated, and transplanted in the field to assess the quality of the resulting offspring. Nutrient addition did not increase the number of seeds per flower significantly. Fewer embryos were aborted in the ovule removal treatment. The seeds produced in the ovule removal treatment had a significantly greater mass and significantly lower survival than the offspring from the control group. This difference in survival indicates that offspring of lower quality are selectively aborted in the control group. Offspring from the nutrient addition treatment survived longer. The offspring of the treatments did not differ significantly from the control group in growth. Simple mathematical calculations, based on the differences in offspring quality that we found, indicate that the selective abortion hypothesis can be an important factor explaining the advantage of the "surplus production" of ovules. PMID:11410467

Melser, C; Klinkhamer, P G

2001-06-01

230

Mid-trimester abortion by extraamniotic Emcredil versus normal saline.  

PubMed

Data is presented for 40 mid-trimester abortions, induced by 0.1% Emcredil (Group 1--20 cases) and normal saline (Group 2--20 cases) by instillation in the extraamniotic space. It was observed that the 2 groups were comparable for age, parity and period of gestation. The mean induction-abortion interval was 18 hours 9 minutes in Group 1 and 19 hours 19 minutes in Group 2. Abortion was complete in 45% and 65% in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. With a cutoff time of 30 hours, there were 3 failures, 1 in Group 1 and 2 in Group 2. The induction-abortion interval was significantly less in the more advanced pregnancies in the saline group. There was no complication in either of the 2 groups. It is hypothesized that normal saline also acts by damage of the decidual cells with liberation of prostaglandins locally. Also since normal saline is a cheap and easily available commodity with no contraindication for its use and no side-effects, it seems to hold a lot of promise for induction of mid-trimester abortion. PMID:2515847

Zauva, B L; Gupta, I; Dhall, G I

1989-08-01

231

Making abortions safe: a matter of good public health policy and practice.  

PubMed Central

Globally, abortion mortality accounts for at least 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Preventing mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. This article examines the changes in policy and health service provision required to make abortions safe. It is based on a wide-ranging review of published and unpublished sources. In order to be effective, public health measures must take into account the reasons why women have abortions, the kind of abortion services required and at what stages of pregnancy, the types of abortion service providers needed, and training, cost and counselling issues. The transition from unsafe to safe abortions demands the following: changes at national policy level; abortion training for service providers and the provision of services at the appropriate primary level health service delivery points; and ensuring that women access these services instead of those of untrained providers. Public awareness that abortion services are available is a crucial element of this transition, particularly among adolescent and single women, who tend to have less access to reproductive health services generally. PMID:10859852

Berer, M.

2000-01-01

232

Naphyrone: a "legal high" not legal any more.  

PubMed

Naphyrone, also known as naphthylpyrovalerone and O-2482, is a cathinone derivative that has been recently advertized for purchase on a number of websites. Naphyrone belongs to a new class of "designer drugs" that has emerged on the drugs abuse market and has gained popularity as the new "legal high." Legal highs have been circulating for a number of years in Europe and are becoming popular in the United States. They are affordable, widely available, legal to use and possess, and legal to supply. This review presents any available information about safety profile, clinical data, analytical profile, and legislation of this legal high, which is not legal any more. Any available information has been collected by various literature search engines and the World Wide Web. The structure of naphyrone is similar to that of pyrovalerone, a monoamine uptake inhibitor. This new designer drug does not have a long history of use, so there is little evidence of its long-term effects or on the risks from its use. Because of its similarity to other cathinone derivatives, naphyrone is likely to share the same risks, such as anxiety, paranoia, and overstimulation of the heart and circulatory system. Naphyrone was classified as a controlled drug under the UK Misuse of Drugs Act of 1971 (Amendment No. 2) Regulation 2010. PMID:22168347

Vardakou, Ioanna; Pistos, Constantinos; Dona, Artemis; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotiris

2012-10-01

233

Legal Disclosure of HIV Status  

MedlinePLUS

... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Having Children Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... show â??good faithâ?ť efforts to notify the marriage partners of a patient with HIV/AIDS. Disclosure ...

234

Understanding Financial and Legal Matters  

MedlinePLUS

... Saved Articles » My ACS » Understanding Financial and Legal Matters Find out about things you can do to ... to people with disabilities. Taking Charge of Money Matters This series of booklets (in PDF format) covers ...

235

Pediatricians' Group Opposes Legal Marijuana  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Pediatricians' Group Opposes Legal Marijuana American Academy of Pediatrics says drug has potential ... Preidt Monday, January 26, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Marijuana MONDAY, Jan. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Marijuana shouldn' ...

236

Getting Help with Legal Matters  

MedlinePLUS

... Law Attorneys. Your local Area Agency on Aging (AAA) can refer you to an attorney. Some AAAs provide legal services for seniors. Find your local AAA on the Eldercare Locator. The More Resources section ...

237

LEGAL, EDUCATIONAL, and INSTITUTIONAL INDICATORS  

E-print Network

-Related Indicators Continuing Education, Technical Assistance Protection of Special Values InstitutionsLEGAL, EDUCATIONAL, and INSTITUTIONAL INDICATORS John E. Mitchell and Stanley F. Hamilton #12;SRR Policies and Practices Public Information and Participation Professional Education/Technical Assistance

Wyoming, University of

238

Knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners towards abortion and post abortion care in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria, on abortion and post-abortion care. It was a cross-sectional study of private medical practitioners in the study area using self-administered structured questionnaires. The results showed that 32.3% of the doctors terminate unwanted pregnancies when requested to do so. The majority of them (51.6%) use D&C in combination with manual vacuum aspiration for the termination of pregnancies in the first trimester. A total of 61 (63.5%) respondents offered various types of post-abortal care (PAC) services, while 42 (43.8%) of them screened women with abortion complications for sexually transmitted infections. For the doctors who do not terminate unwanted pregnancies, their main reasons were religious and moral considerations rather than obedience to the Nigerian abortion laws. We conclude that the majority of private medical practitioners in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria, do not terminate unwanted pregnancies because of their religious beliefs. PMID:19603321

Onah, H E; Ogbuokiri, C M; Obi, S N; Oguanuo, T C

2009-07-01

239

Late Presentation of Unsafe Abortion after 5 Years of Procedure  

PubMed Central

A majority of the unsafe abortions are performed by untrained birth attendants or quacks leading to complications in a large proportion of these cases. Complications like bowel injury, bladder injury, uterine perforation, and septic abortion are mostly caused by unskilled hands and are detected immediately or within few days of the procedure, owing to the need for tertiary level care. Here we present a very interesting case of unsafe abortion induced by a Ryle's tube in a 32-year-old lady, which was diagnosed five years after the procedure. Considering its atypical presentation, it is the first case of its kind in the literature. The details of the case and its management are described along with appropriate pictures. PMID:24649386

Nayak, Prasanta Kumar; Mitra, Subarna; Padma, Alaganandam; Agrawal, Sarita

2014-01-01

240

Reverse Launch Abort System Parachute Architecture Trade Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study investigated a potential Launch Abort System (LAS) Concept of Operations and abort parachute architecture. The purpose of the study was to look at the concept of jettisoning the LAS tower forward (Reverse LAS or RLAS) into the free-stream flow rather than after reorienting to a heatshield forward orientation. A hypothesized benefit was that due to the compressed timeline the dynamic pressure at main line stretch would be substantially less. This would enable the entry parachutes to be designed and sized based on entry loading conditions rather than the current stressing case of a Pad Abort. Ultimately, concerns about the highly dynamic reorientation of the CM via parachutes, and the additional requirement of a triple bridle attachment for the RLAS parachute system, overshadowed the potential benefits and ended this effort.

Litton, Daniel K.; O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Winski, Richard G.

2011-01-01

241

Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort Controller Performance Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper covers the simulation and evaluation of a controller design for the Crew Module (CM) Launch Abort System (LAS), to measure its ability to meet the abort performance requirements. The controller used in this study is a hybrid design, including features developed by the Government and the Contractor. Testing is done using two separate 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computer simulation implementations of the LAS/CM throughout the ascent trajectory: 1) executing a series of abort simulations along a nominal trajectory for the nominal LAS/CM system; and 2) using a series of Monte Carlo runs with perturbed initial flight conditions and perturbed system parameters. The performance of the controller is evaluated against a set of criteria, which is based upon the current functional requirements of the LAS. Preliminary analysis indicates that the performance of the present controller meets (with the exception of a few cases) the evaluation criteria mentioned above.

Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Raney, David L.

2007-01-01

242

Campylobacter jejuni abortions in two beef cattle herds in Saskatchewan  

PubMed Central

Abortions, accompanied by placental retention and weight loss, occurred during February and March in 19% of 120 and 10% of 108 beef cows and heifers on two neighboring ranches in southern Saskatchewan. A diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni abortion was made based on lesions of necrotizing and suppurative placentitis and fetal bronchopneumonia in association with the culture of large numbers of C. jejuni from placentas and fetal tissues. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated with variable frequency from fecal samples of aborting and healthy cows, and scouring and healthy calves. Campylobacter jejuni serotype 2 (Lior) was isolated from fetal tissues and feces of a scouring calf, whereas C. jejuni serotypes 1, 4, 5 and 99 were isolated from feces of in-contact cattle. We hypothesized that the source and mode of transmission of C. jejuni was fecal contamination of water supplies and feeding grounds by carrier cows or wildlife. PMID:17423586

Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Janzen, Eugene D.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Berry, Catherine; Clark, Edward G.; Haines, Deborah M.

1990-01-01

243

Two challenges to the double effect doctrine: euthanasia and abortion.  

PubMed

The validity of the double effect doctrine is examined in euthanasia and abortion. In these two situations killing is a method of treatment. It is argued that the doctrine cannot apply to the care of the dying. Firstly, doctors are obliged to harm patients in order to do good to them. Secondly, patients should make their own value judgments about being mutilated or killed. Thirdly, there is little intuitive moral difference between direct and indirect killing. Nor can the doctrine apply to abortion. Doctors kill fetuses as a means of treating the mother. They also kill them as an inevitable side effect of other treatment. Drawing a moral distinction between the direct and the indirect killing gives counterintuitive results. It is suggested that pragmatic rules, not ethics, govern practices around euthanasia and cause it to be more restricted than abortion. PMID:11934939

Shaw, A B

2002-04-01

244

Measuring the impact of health policies using Internet search patterns: the case of abortion  

PubMed Central

Background Internet search patterns have emerged as a novel data source for monitoring infectious disease trends. We propose that these data can also be used more broadly to study the impact of health policies across different regions in a more efficient and timely manner. Methods As a test use case, we studied the relationships between abortion-related search volume, local abortion rates, and local abortion policies available for study. Results Our initial integrative analysis found that, both in the US and internationally, the volume of Internet searches for abortion is inversely proportional to local abortion rates and directly proportional to local restrictions on abortion. Conclusion These findings are consistent with published evidence that local restrictions on abortion lead individuals to seek abortion services outside of their area. Further validation of these methods has the potential to produce a timely, complementary data source for studying the effects of health policies. PMID:20738850

2010-01-01

245

Studies on the mechanisms of abortion induction by Trichosanthin.  

PubMed

Radix trichosanthis, an abortifacient drug of mid-gestation, is extracted from the root tuber of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim, Cucurbitaceae. Its purified effective principle is a basic protein of molecular weight of approximately 18,000 and is named trichosanthin. By authorization it has been proved to be very effective in abortion induction of mid-gestation, particularly effective in curing ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole, and invasive mole, and it has also some therapeutic action on choriocarcinoma. From the analysis of the experimental results on its initial site of action, the morphological and functional injury of trophoblast cells of placenta and of cultures in vitro and the effect on prostaglandin synthesis, the following conclusions are drawn concerning the mechanisms of abortion induction by trichosanthin: (1) Trichosanthin exerts its action directly on the placental trophoblasts and possesses a certain degree of specificity; (2) It selectively causes the necrotic denaturation of the syncytiotrophoblasts of placental villi, which makes fragments of the disintegrated cells clumped in the blood sinus, hence the coagulation of blood and the circulation hindrance, and tissue necrosis over large areas follows. The necrosis of placental villi is the primary response, and circulation hindrance secondary; (3) Structural injuries have been reflected on the impairment of functional activities; the concentrations of HCG and steroid hormones fall rapidly below the threshold values of threatened abortion. Serious structural and functional injuries bring about destructive disturbances on the normal endocrine relationship between the mother and the fetus and on metabolic exchanges. It is further postulated that through certain unknown mechanism the synthesis of prostaglandins increases, uterine contraction is initiated and abortion ensues. In summary, trichosanthin, a plant protein discovered from Chinese medicinal herbs, is a drug effective in abortion induction and against trophoblastic neoplasms. Preliminary elucidation of the mechanisms of abortion induction by trichosanthin has afforded a basis for the clinical application with better efficacy and its possible abortifacient use in early pregnancy and for the discovery of newer cancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:193179

1976-01-01

246

Ki-67 Expression in Hydatidiform Moles and Hydropic Abortions  

PubMed Central

Background Differential diagnosis of hydatidiform moles from non-molar specimens as well as their sub-classification such as complete and partial hydatidiform moles are important for clinical management and accurate risk assessment for persistent gestational trophoblastic disease, but diagnosis based solely on histomorphology suffers from poor interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility. Objectives This study was undertaken to determine whether the expression of Ki-67 protein could differentiate these entities. Materials and Methods We performed Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining in 19 molar (8 partial and 11 complete moles) and 10 non-molar (hydropic abortions) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Ploidy analysis using flow cytometry had confirmed diploidy in hydropic abortions and complete moles and triploidy in partial moles. Results Ki-67 immunoreactivity was assessed in villous cytotrophoblasts, syncytiotrophoblasts and stromal cells. Positive cells were found to be restricted mostly to the villous cytotrophoblasts, while syncytiotrophoblasts showed an absence of immunostaining for Ki-67, and occasional weak nuclear staining was seen in the stromal cells. There was a significant difference in Ki-67 immunoreactivity of cytotrophoblastic cells between hydropic abortions and complete moles (P < 0.001), hydropic abortions and partial moles (P = 0.002) and also between complete and partial moles (P < 0.001). On the other hand, there is significant overlap in the Ki-67 immunoreactivity between complete and partial moles (++ staining category) and between partial moles and hydropic abortions (+ staining category). Conclusions Despite the significant differences , Ki-67 immunostaining could not be helpful in distinguishing molar placentas from hydropic abortions as well as partial from complete hydatidiform moles, because there are considerable overlaps between results in different categories. PMID:24396579

Khooei, Alireza; Atabaki Pasdar, Fatemeh; Fazel, Alireza; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Nikravesh, Mohammad Reza; Khaje Delui, Mohammad; Pourheydar, Bagher

2013-01-01

247

Minnesota court overturns ban on Medicaid coverage for abortion.  

PubMed

Hennipin County District Court Judge William Posten issued a decision on June 16 striking down Minnesota's near ban on abortion coverage for low-income women. Ruling in Women of the State of Minnesota vs. Haas-Steffen, Judge Posten found that the state Constitution's rights of privacy and equality are more protective of women's reproductive choices than the corresponding federal rights. Holding that "the state's selective funding of childbirth over abortion impinges on an indigent woman's fundamental right to decide for herself whether to continue or terminate her pregnancy," the state district court permanently enjoined enforcement of the measure. Minnesota must now cover all medically necessary abortions for women receiving Medicaid. For more than 15 years, the statutes and regulations invalidated by Judge Posten have limited abortion coverage to cases of life endangerment or reported rape or incest. State officials have indicated that they will seek a stay and expedited review of Judge Posten's decision from the Minnesota Supreme Court. Filed on March 8, 1993, the Minnesota case is one of 5 such lawsuits brought by CRLP. Last December, in a similar case, the West Virginia Supreme Court struck down that state's ban on Medicaid coverage for abortions. Similar CRLP cases are still pending in Florida, Texas, and Montana. Plaintiffs--a class of Minnesota Medicaid-eligible women seeking abortions, Dr. Jane Hodgson, Pro-Choice Resources, Women's Health Center, Midwest Health Center for Women, and Meadowbrook Women's Clinic, on behalf of themselves and the women they serve--are represented by CRLP's Simon Heller, Janet Benshoof, and Lenora Lapidus, along with Minnesota attorney Linda Ojala. PMID:12345511

1994-06-24

248

Risk of Spontaneous Abortion among Women Exposed to Polybrominated Biphenyls  

PubMed Central

Accidental contamination of livestock in Michigan in 1973 with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) led to the establishment of a registry of exposed individuals in 1976. At the time of enrollment, serum was collected and analyzed for PBBs and polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs. In 1997, women aged 18 years or older and active in the registry were invited to participate in a telephone interview about their health. Using generalized estimating equations to account for correlated outcomes within the same woman, we assessed the risk of spontaneous abortion among 529 women with 1344 potentially exposed pregnancies. PBB and PCB exposure were not associated with risk of spontaneous abortion after adjusting for maternal age at conception, age at menarche, and prior infertility. Compared to pregnancies with PBB exposure below the limit of detection, those with levels above 2.9 ppb had a non-significant reduced odds of spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR=0.73; 95% CI= 0.47-1.13). Compared to pregnancies with PCB exposure below the limit of detection, those with levels above 6.5 ppb had little difference in risk (adjusted OR=0.91; 95% CI= 0.59-1.41). Maternal age at conception above 34 years was significantly associated with elevated risk of spontaneous abortion (OR=2.46; 95% CI= 1.10-5.49). The effect of prior infertility was of borderline significance (OR=1.52; 95% CI= 0.98-2.38). Older age at menarche was associated with decreased risk of spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.38-0.89, comparing menarche at 12-13 with menarche <12). Our results do not support an association between exposure to PBBs or PCBs and risk of spontaneous abortion. PMID:17239850

Small, Chanley M.; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Terrell, Metrecia; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Tolbert, Paige; Rubin, Carol; Henderson, Alden; Marcus, Michele

2008-01-01

249

Effect of aspirin on bleeding time during elective abortion.  

PubMed

The template bleeding time, indicative of a predictable measure of potential blood loss due to altered platelet function, is unaffected by pregnancy or by the first stage of labor. Two tablets of aspirin (650 mg), but not sodium salicylate or acetaminophen, significantly prolongs the template bleeding time for at least 26 hours after consumption in patients undergoing first or second trimester induced abortion. Patients anticipating induced pregnancy interruption should refrain from any aspirin consumption for at least 26 hours prior to abortion. PMID:934566

Waltman, R; Tricomi, V; Tavakoli, F M

1976-07-01

250

Equine abortion and premature birth associated with Cellulosimicrobium cellulans infection.  

PubMed

During the 2002 and 2003 foaling seasons, Cellulosimicrobium (Cellumonas) cellulans (formerly Oerskovia xanthineolytica) was the principal microorganism isolated from fetal tissues or placentas from cases of equine abortion, premature birth, and term pregnancies. Significant pathologic findings included chronic placentitis and pyogranulomatous pneumonia. In addition, microscopic and macroscopic alterations in the allantochorion from 4 of 7 cases of placentitis were similar to those caused by Crossiella equi and other nocardioform bacteria. This report confirms a causative role of C. cellulans infection in equine abortion. PMID:15305747

Bolin, David C; Donahue, James M; Vickers, Mary L; Giles, Ralph C; Harrison, Lenn; Jackson, Carney; Poonacha, K B; Roberts, John E; Sebastian, Manu M; Sells, Steve E; Tramontin, Robert; Williams, Neil M

2004-07-01

251

Dynamic Modeling of Ascent Abort Scenarios for Crewed Launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the last 30 years, the United States's human space program has been focused on low Earth orbit exploration and operations with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs. After nearly 50 years, the U.S. is again working to return humans beyond Earth orbit. To do so, NASA is developing a new launch vehicle and spacecraft to provide this capability. The launch vehicle is referred to as the Space Launch System (SLS) and the spacecraft is called Orion. The new launch system is being developed with an abort system that will enable the crew to escape launch failures that would otherwise be catastrophic as well as probabilistic design requirements set for probability of loss of crew (LOC) and loss of mission (LOM). In order to optimize the risk associated with designing this new launch system, as well as verifying the associated requirements, NASA has developed a comprehensive Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the integrated ascent phase of the mission that includes the launch vehicle, spacecraft and ground launch facilities. Given the dynamic nature of rocket launches and the potential for things to go wrong, developing a PRA to assess the risk can be a very challenging effort. Prior to launch and after the crew has boarded the spacecraft, the risk exposure time can be on the order of three hours. During this time, events may initiate from either of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, or the ground systems, thus requiring an emergency egress from the spacecraft to a safe ground location or a pad abort via the spacecraft's launch abort system. Following launch, again either the spacecraft or the launch vehicle can initiate the need for the crew to abort the mission and return to the home. Obviously, there are thousands of scenarios whose outcome depends on when the abort is initiated during ascent as to how the abort is performed. This includes modeling the risk associated with explosions and benign system failures that require aborting a spacecraft under very dynamic conditions, particularly in the lower atmosphere, and returning the crew home safely. This paper will provide an overview of the PRA model that has been developed of this new launch system, including some of the challenges that are associated with this effort. Key Words: PRA, space launches, human space program, ascent abort, spacecraft, launch vehicles

Bigler, Mark; Boyer, Roger L.

2015-01-01

252

A suborbital abort guidance scheme for orbital returns to the launch site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A suborbital abort guidance scheme is presented for returning the orbiter vehicle to the launch site in the event of a booster malfunction. The guidance scheme described, referred to as FBGUID, represents a simple closed-form technique to the flyback abort problem. In addition to returning to the launch site, objectives of the formulation are to preclude excessive structural and heating loads. A demonstration of the feasibility of this abort guidance concept is included for a 150-second abort time.

Lacy, W. R.

1971-01-01

253

Unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion in the Philippines: context and consequences.  

PubMed

Despite advances in reproductive health law, many Filipino women experience unintended pregnancies, and because abortion is highly stigmatized in the country, many who seek abortion undergo unsafe procedures. This report provides a summary of reproductive health indicators in the Philippines—in particular, levels of contraceptive use, unplanned pregnancy and unsafe abortion—and describes the sociopolitical context in which services are provided, the consequences of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion,and recommendations for improving access to reproductive health services. PMID:24006559

Hussain, Rubina; Finer, Lawrence B

2013-04-01

254

Exploring Abortion Knowledge and Opinion Among Lawyers, an Important yet Overlooked Stakeholder Group in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawyers are important actors shaping the abortion debate in Mexico. Of 250 private and public sector criminal lawyers surveyed from four regions, the majority knew about abortion laws in their states. At least 80% agreed with abortion in cases of rape, risk to a woman's life or health, and fetal malformations. Overall, 61% agreed with the Mexico City law and

Kate S. Wilson; Sandra G. García; Claudia Díaz Olavarrieta; Stephanie M. McMurtrie; Jorge Armando Valencia; Fernanda Diaz de Leon; Maria Luisa Sanche Fuentes

2011-01-01

255

Reduction of the abortion rate due to Toxoplasma in 3 goat herds following administration of sulfadimidine  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of sulfadimidine (4 doses of 33 mg/kg body weight, IM, q48h) against Toxoplasma abortion was assessed in 3 dairy goat herds suffering from Toxoplasma abortions during the 4th month of gestation. This protocol was very effective for the control of Toxoplasma abortions (P < 0.01). PMID:24179245

Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Lafi, Shawkat Q.; Ioannidou, Evi; Papadopoulos, Elias; Terpsidis, Konstantinos; Karanikolas, George; Petridou, Evanthia J.; Brozos, Christos; Karatzias, Harilaos

2013-01-01

256

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and psychological distress following medical and surgical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Abortion can be a difficult event to cope with and can lead to the development of psychological disturbance. The aim of this prospective and longitudinal study was to assess and to predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms following abortion. Moreover, this study aimed to assess whether the type of abortion had an impact on women’s experience. Method: Eighty-six women

C. Rousset; C. Brulfert; N. Séjourné; N. Goutaudier; H. Chabrol

2011-01-01

257

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and psychological distress following medical and surgical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Abortion can be a difficult event to cope with and can lead to the development of psychological disturbance. The aim of this prospective and longitudinal study was to assess and to predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms following abortion. Moreover, this study aimed to assess whether the type of abortion had an impact on women’s experience. Method: Eighty-six women

C. Rousset; C. Brulfert; N. Séjourné; N. Goutaudier; H. Chabrol

2012-01-01

258

Medication Abortion within a Student Health Care Clinic: A Review of the First 46 Consecutive Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol has been available in the United States since 2000. The authors reviewed the first 46 medication abortion cases conducted at a university-based student health care clinic to determine the safety and feasibility of medication abortion in this type of clinical setting. Participants:…

Godfrey, Emily M.; Bordoloi, Anita; Moorthie, Mydhili; Pela, Emily

2012-01-01

259

Choices on contraceptive methods in post-abortion family planning clinic in the northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Brazil, a Ministry of Health report revealed women who underwent an abortion were predominantly in the use of contraceptive methods, but mentioned inconsistent or erroneously contraceptive use. Promoting the use of contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies is one of the most effective strategies to reduce abortion rates and maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, providing post-abortion family planning

Ana Laura CG Ferreira; Ariani I Souza; Raitza A Lima; Cynthia Braga

2010-01-01

260

Religion and abortion: Roman Catholicism lost in the pelvic zone.  

PubMed

The Roman Catholic Church has held the most absolute and extreme position against abortion taken by any religious group. Opposition to abortion by US Catholic bishops has been unflagging since Roe vs. Wade was decided. The current strategy embraced by the bishops is to restrict access to abortion as a prelude to attaining a complete ban on the procedure. The bishops, of course, have a political and constitutional right to champion public policy issues. This ability is limited only by the laws regarding tax-exempt status which make it impossible for the bishops to endorse political candidates. Opponents of the positions of the bishops, in turn, have a right to challenge their positions. The bishops, acting jointly as the United States Catholic Conference (USCC), express their own opinions, not the opinions of the 53 million US Catholics and have been criticized by both conservative and progressive groups in the church. Since women can not become Catholic bishops, or even priests, they are excluded from meetings of the USCC. Catholic lay groups have expressed the view that there is more than one legitimate Catholic position regarding abortion and have even filed briefs in favor of retaining the decision reached in Roe vs. Wade. The bishops, however, are able to draw on a multitude of institutions to further their view and have enhanced the operations of their 28 statewide lobbying offices as the abortion battle has shifted to the states. The Webster decision signaled a return of the bishops to a prominent position in the anti-abortion campaign. Prior to Webster, they kept their distance from the Protestant religious right. With Webster, the bishops felt the time was right to press hard to further restrictions to access to abortion. As they began to apply pressure, a pro-choice backlash developed, with leading Catholic politicians adopting strong pro-choice positions. The bishops reacted by taking such aggressive actions as denouncing certain politicians by name. This behavior caused even more alienation of middle-of-the-road Catholics from the bishops' position. The bishops tried to recover by hiring a professional public relations firm and the pollster used by the Reagan administration. The public relations firm was dismissed within a year. Religious observers wonder why the church is so adamantly against abortion in every circumstance, despite the beliefs of its members. In fact, in 1974, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith noted the church's opposition to abortion but fell short of calling it murder and was honest about the church's ambiguity over the personhood of a fetus or at what stage in development the creator endows a fetus with a soul. This question has been debated by theologians since the early centuries of the church. Even the current Pope favors the term "that which is in the process of becoming" when discussing a fetus. In addition, church history and positions regarding the possibility of a "just war" make the church's adherence to the impossibility of a "just abortion" hard to justify. This hard-line position has removed the church from a position in which it could help women and society understand the values which must underly every decision to have an abortion. PMID:8274867

Kissling, F

1993-01-01

261

Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... Register About Us Contact Us My Cart Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to ... Dating Violence Affects Health Later in Life Healthy Children Radio: Improving Kids' Health and Behavior in 2012 (Audio) Infant CPR ... Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young ...

262

Post-Abortion Counseling: Helping To Heal the Grief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A university health center has experienced an increase in the number of women undergoing elective abortion which resulted in their seeking counseling services to assist them in dealing with overwhelming feelings of guilt and grief. The loss of a pregnancy is often followed by a typical grief reaction that occurs after any bereavement. In working…

Tentoni, Stuart C.

263

Post-abortion endometritis-myometritis and HIV infection.  

PubMed

The objective was to explore if HIV-1 infection is a risk factor for post-abortion endometritis-myometritis (PAEM) in an urban hospital in Kampala, Uganda. HIV-1 seroprevalence in women with and without post-abortion infection was established using two standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Fifty-two women with PAEM and 106 without PAEM infection were recruited. The HIV-1 seroprevalence was 17 (32.7%) among women with PAEM and 38 (36.5%) among women without post-abortion infection. HIV infection was not found to correlate with the risk for PAEM. HIV-1 seroprevalence in both groups was double that among antenatal clients in the same hospital, 14.6% in 1997. Life-threatening infections such as septicaemia, peritonitis and pelvic abscesses were observed among 12 cases (23%). HIV-1 infection was not shown to be a risk factor for PAEM, but women with abortions with and without PAEM have a higher prevalence of HIV-1 than antenatal clients. PMID:12437891

Okong, P; Biryahwaho, B; Bergström, S

2002-11-01

264

Experiences of abortion: A narrative review of qualitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP) has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a narrative review of qualitative studies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods.

Mabel LS Lie; Stephen C Robson; Carl R May

2008-01-01

265

The Effect of Poisonous Range Plants on Abortions in Livestock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Natural toxins from plants and fungi, in addition to man-made toxicants, have been implicated with abortion, embryonic death, or neonatal loss in livestock. Plants causing reproductive problems for livestock can be found on most, if not all rangelands worldwide, thus exposing livestock at various t...

266

Social scripts and stark realities: Kenyan adolescents' abortion discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores students' narratives and discourses about adolescent pregnancy and abortion elicited via internet?based open?ended questions posed in response to a cartoon vignette. We report on content analysis of recommendations and strategies for how to manage the unplanned pregnancy of a fictional young couple and in their own personal lives. The responses of 614 young people were analysed. Strategies

Ellen M. H. Mitchell; Carolyn Tucker Halpern; Eva Muthuuri Kamathi; Shirley Owino

2006-01-01

267

Men, Me, and AbortionOn Doing the Right Thing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author recounts his long personal involvement in the abortion drama of over 400,000 males annually found in the waiting rooms of over 400 clinics. He shares research findings from four waves of survey data from 1984 through 2004 involving 3,000 males. Highlights include the desire of almost all to stay with the clinic patient throughout the procedure and afterwards

Art Shostak

2008-01-01

268

A Study of Abortion and Problems in Decision-Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is directed to people who, sufficiently disturbed by complex realities of problem pregnancies, are prepared to think beyond the confines of ideology. It is a challenge to people who tend to reduce the problem of unwanted pregnancies either to "abortion on demand" or to "right to life" ideologies. (Author)

Cotroneo, Margaret; Krasner, Barbara R.

1977-01-01

269

Western juniper-induced abortions in beef cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective—To determine if the bark from western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) will induce late term abortions in cattle. Animals—6 two-year-old Angus heifers. Procedures—Bark from western juniper trees was collected, dried, and finely ground. Pregnant cows were dosed starting on day 250 of gesta...

270

Potential for violence causing fear among Canadian doctors who perform abortions.  

PubMed Central

The November shooting of a Vancouver physician has caused increased fear among doctors who perform abortions in British Columbia. There is also concern within the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists that the recent violence and ongoing harassment will drive doctors from the abortion field. Some anti-abortion advocates support violence against those who perform abortions but spokespersons for the movement say they represent "fringe" views. One BC anti-abortion coalition now requires people to sign a pledge of nonviolence before participating in its conferences or other events. Images p928-a p930-a PMID:7697583

LeBourdais, E

1995-01-01

271

Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis reveals mechanisms of embryo abortion during chrysanthemum cross breeding  

PubMed Central

Embryo abortion is the main cause of failure in chrysanthemum cross breeding, and the genes and proteins associated with embryo abortion are poorly understood. Here, we applied RNA sequencing and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to analyse transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of normal and abortive embryos. More than 68,000 annotated unigenes and 700 proteins were obtained from normal and abortive embryos. Functional analysis showed that 140 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 41 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were involved in embryo abortion. Most DEGs and DEPs associated with cell death, protein degradation, reactive oxygen species scavenging, and stress-response transcriptional factors were significantly up-regulated in abortive embryos relative to normal embryos. In contrast, most genes and proteins related to cell division and expansion, the cytoskeleton, protein synthesis and energy metabolism were significantly down-regulated in abortive embryos. Furthermore, abortive embryos had the highest activity of three executioner caspase-like enzymes. These results indicate that embryo abortion may be related to programmed cell death and the senescence- or death-associated genes or proteins contribute to embryo abortion. This adds to our understanding of embryo abortion and will aid in the cross breeding of chrysanthemum and other crops in the future. PMID:25288482

Zhang, Fengjiao; Wang, Zhiquan; Dong, Wen; Sun, Chunqing; Wang, Haibin; Song, Aiping; He, Lizhong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi; Teng, Nianjun

2014-01-01

272

Knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners in Calabar towards post-abortion care.  

PubMed

This study examined the knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners in Calabar on abortion, post-abortion case and post-abortion family planning. Forty eight private practitioners who were proprietors of private clinics in the city were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results showed that 22.9% of the doctors routinely terminate unwanted pregnancies when requested to do so by women, while 83.3% of them treat women who experience complications of unsafe abortion. The major reasons given by some of the doctors for not terminating unwanted pregnancies were religious, moral and ethical considerations rather than respect for the Nigerian abortion law. Only 18.2% of the doctors use standard procedures such as manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for the management of patients with abortion and abortion complications. A good number of them did not routinely practice integrated post-abortion family planning and STDs management. There is need for a comprehensive programme of retraining of private medical practitioners in Calabar on the principles and practices of safe abortion, post-abortion care and family planning. These aspects of reproductive health need to be integrated into the medical training curricula in Nigeria. It is believed that this approach would help reduce the present high rate of abortion-related morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. PMID:15055147

Etuk, S J; Ebong, I F; Okonofua, F E

2003-12-01

273

Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System Guidance and Control Analysis Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. Aborts from the launch pad to early in the flight of the CLV second stage are performed using the Launch Abort System (LAS). During this type of abort, the LAS Abort Motor is used to pull the Crew Module (CM) safely away from the CLV and Service Module (SM). LAS abort guidance and control studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the Orion CEV, an overview of the LAS ascent abort mode, and a summary of key LAS abort analysis methods and results.

Davidson, John B.; Kim, Sungwan; Raney, David L.; Aubuchon, Vanessa V.; Sparks, Dean W.; Busan, Ronald C.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.

2008-01-01

274

Design of Launch Abort System Thrust Profile and Concept of Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes how the Abort Motor thrust profile has been tailored and how optimizing the Concept of Operations on the Launch Abort System (LAS) of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) aides in getting the crew safely away from a failed Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Unlike the passive nature of the Apollo system, the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle will be actively controlled, giving the program a more robust abort system with a higher probability of crew survival for an abort at all points throughout the CLV trajectory. By optimizing the concept of operations and thrust profile the Orion program will be able to take full advantage of the active Orion LAS. Discussion will involve an overview of the development of the abort motor thrust profile and the current abort concept of operations as well as their effects on the performance of LAS aborts. Pad Abort (for performance) and Maximum Drag (for separation from the Launch Vehicle) are the two points that dictate the required thrust and shape of the thrust profile. The results in this paper show that 95% success of all performance requirements is not currently met for Pad Abort. Future improvements to the current parachute sequence and other potential changes will mitigate the current problems, and meet abort performance requirements.

Litton, Daniel; O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Winski, Richard G.; Davidson, John B.

2008-01-01

275

Changes in Service Delivery Patterns After Introduction of Telemedicine Provision of Medical Abortion in Iowa  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed the effect of a telemedicine model providing medical abortion on service delivery in a clinic system in Iowa. Methods. We reviewed Iowa vital statistic data and billing data from the clinic system for all abortion encounters during the 2 years prior to and after the introduction of telemedicine in June 2008 (n?=?17?956 encounters). We calculated the distance from the patient’s residential zip code to the clinic and to the closest clinic providing surgical abortion. Results. The abortion rate decreased in Iowa after telemedicine introduction, and the proportion of abortions in the clinics that were medical increased from 46% to 54%. After telemedicine was introduced, and with adjustment for other factors, clinic patients had increased odds of obtaining both medical abortion and abortion before 13 weeks’ gestation. Although distance traveled to the clinic decreased only slightly, women living farther than 50 miles from the nearest clinic offering surgical abortion were more likely to obtain an abortion after telemedicine introduction. Conclusions. Telemedicine could improve access to medical abortion, especially for women living in remote areas, and reduce second-trimester abortion. PMID:23153158

Grindlay, Kate; Buchacker, Todd; Potter, Joseph E.; Schmertmann, Carl P.

2013-01-01

276

Denial of Abortion Because of Provider Gestational Age Limits in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the factors influencing delay in seeking abortion and the outcomes for women denied abortion care because of gestational age limits at abortion facilities. Methods. We compared women who presented for abortion care who were under the facilities’ gestational age limits and received an abortion (n?=?452) with those who were just over the gestational age limits and were denied an abortion (n?=?231) at 30 US facilities. We described reasons for delay in seeking services. We examined the determinants of obtaining an abortion elsewhere after being denied one because of facility gestational age limits. We then estimated the national incidence of being denied an abortion because of facility gestational age limits. Results. Adolescents and women who did not recognize their pregnancies early were most likely to delay seeking care. The most common reason for delay was having to raise money for travel and procedure costs. We estimated that each year more than 4000 US women are denied an abortion because of facility gestational limits and must carry unwanted pregnancies to term. Conclusions. Many state laws restrict abortions based on gestational age, and new laws are lowering limits further. The incidence of being denied abortion will likely increase, disproportionately affecting young and poor women. PMID:23948000

Weitz, Tracy A.; Jones, Rachel K.; Barar, Rana E.; Foster, Diana Greene

2014-01-01

277

Contraceptive use among women seeking repeat abortion in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Limited access to modern contraceptives in populations that desire smaller families can lead to repeat unintended pregnancy and repeat abortions. We conducted an analysis of the medical records of 1,200 women seeking abortion-related services in public and private facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from October 2008 to February 2009. We examined the characteristics of initial and repeat abortion clients including prior contraceptive use and subsequent method selection. The incidence of repeat abortion was 30%. Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives and they were nearly twice as likely to leave the facility with a method. However, repeat abortion clients were significantly more likely to have ever used short-term reversible methods and to choose short-term methods post-abortion. Contraceptive counseling services for repeat abortion clients' should address reasons for previous contraceptive failure, discontinuation, or non-use. Post-abortion family planning services should be strengthened to help decrease repeat abortion. PMID:24558782

Prata, Ndola; Holston, Martine; Fraser, Ashley; Melkamu, Yilma

2013-12-01

278

Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic profile and contraceptive behaviour in patients with abortion at Jimma Hospital, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

This is a descriptive prospective study on abortion patients admitted to Jimma Hospital, south west Ethiopia from September 1992 to August 1993. Forty four Percent (N = 285) of the patients admitted were interviewed using a questionnaire. Fifty three percent (N = 151) had induced while the remaining had spontaneous abortion. Patients with induced abortion were younger (P = 0.0000) and had smaller family size (P = 0.06283) than patients with spontaneous abortion. Induced abortion was more common among students (30.9%) and those with secondary education (71.8%) whereas spontaneous abortion was most common among housewives (64.4%). Almost 50% of the patients with induced abortion were married. Eighty two percent of all interviewed had unwanted pregnancies. The contraceptive methods most commonly used were the pill and abstinence. Fifty patients got pregnant while on the pill. The most common reason for not using contraceptives or discontinuation was the side effects associated with the pill. PMID:8997846

Abdella, A

1996-10-01

279

Some epidemiological data on spontaneous abortion in Hungary, 1971-80.  

PubMed Central

A population based survey of women who had spontaneous abortion in Hungary between 1971 and 1980 has been evaluated. Individual data sheets completed by specialists in obstetrical institutions were used. The ratio of spontaneous abortions was 13.1% during the whole period studied but declined during the decade. The maximum occurrence was in the fifth to eighth week of gestation, when more than 40% of all spontaneous abortions occurred. Thereafter spontaneous abortion ratios decreased gradually with duration of pregnancy. The distribution of spontaneous abortions by calendar month shows characteristic seasonal changes, the minimum values being found from April to July whereas the maximum values were from October to February. The spontaneous abortion ratios increased significantly with the age of mother, over age 40 it approached 50%. They also increased with the pregnancy order, a minimum figure being registered at the first pregnancy of women in their 20s. The risk for women with a history of spontaneous abortion was 33%. PMID:6747514

Czeizel, A; Bognár, Z; Rockenbauer, M

1984-01-01

280

[Pregnancy termination in Bulgaria – past, present and future perspectives. Drugs induced abortion – guidelines by WHO].  

PubMed

There are still too many unsafe abortions performed worldwide. Together with the efforts to reduce the abortion by choice, we note a rise in the need for mid trimester pregnancy termination for medical reasons. The article looks at the past present and future perspective of the abortion as a procedure in Bulgaria. States the fact that medical abortion is officially not widely performed. We reckon that with the existing guidelines by WHO and with Mifepriston and Misoprostol recently registered in Bulgaria, it is time for the medical abortion to become part of the clinical practice in Bulgaria. We believe that early medical abortion as well as mid trimester induced abortion is and adequate if not better alternative to the existing in Bulgaria procedures. PMID:24294758

Marinov, B; Andreeva, A

2013-01-01

281

Free Legal Services - Attracting Legal Talent for Public Involvement Groups  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the public service responsibilities of lawyers, and how they can fulfill the annual goal of performing pro bono services by serving certain public involvement groups, including organization involved in Constitutional issues and environmental protection matters. Public involvement groups should consider their needs for legal services and consider soliciting lawyers to serve on their boards or to volunteer legal services which will assist those lawyers in fulfilling their professional obligations under Rules of Professional Conduct. The group should identify specific activities and tasks that require the skills and training of a lawyer, including corporate governance issues; conflict-of-interest questions; the statutory construction of laws, regulations and ordinances; or analysis of potential liability. The addition of a lawyer to advisory boards for governmental agencies and for non-profit boards of charitable, religious, civic, community, environmental and educational organizations may provide those boards with knowledge, analytical approaches and insights that complement the abilities of other board members. Rules of Professional Conduct applicable to lawyers include admonitions for lawyers to provide 'Public Service'. Representative of many rules, the American Bar Association Model Rule 6.1, entitled 'Voluntary Pro Bono Publico Service' addresses every lawyer's professional responsibility to provide legal services to those 'unable to pay'. This Model Rule exhorts each lawyer to provide fifty (50) hours of legal services without fee or expectation of fee to persons of limited means or charitable, religious or civic, community, governmental and educational organizations or to individuals, groups or organizations seeking 'to secure or protect civil rights, civil liberties, or public rights, or charitable, religious, civic, community, governmental and educational organizations in matters in furtherance of their purposes, where the payment of standard legal fees would significantly deplete the organisation's economic resources'. This Public Service rule sets forth a goal that lawyers should aspire to meet; the rule is without disciplinary penalties for its violation. (authors)

Domby, A.H. [Troutman Sanders LLP, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

2007-07-01

282

Legality and legitimacy in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tension between legality and legitimacy is the basis of ethics in general, and sport in particular. Sporting reality transcends all social and economic systems. Within sport we can see, following Heraclitus's dictum, that “Confrontation is the seed of everything”. When in a contest between athletes, the antagonism between humans reaches its zenith, the competitors mirror each other. It is

Anna Hogenová

2002-01-01

283

STUDENT LEGAL SERVICE YOUR CREDIT  

E-print Network

.illinoisattorneygeneral.gov Better Business BureauBetter Business Bureau www.bbb.org Federal Trade CommissionFederal Trade Commission-680-7289 To Order Credit Report 800-888-4213 To Dispute Credit Report 800-916-8800 Source: United States Federal Trade Commission, www.ftc.gov THE INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS NOT INTENDED AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR LEGAL

Anastasio, Thomas J.

284

Handbook of Legal Education Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook contains analyses of 88 elementary and secondary legal education materials and includes many lawyers' critiques. It is intended to help teachers identify and select law instruction curricula which will most effectively meet the needs of students. The materials analyzed are listed alphabetically by title and include multimedia,…

Turner, Mary Jane, Comp.

285

PLATO, EDUCOM, and Legal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of the PLATO and EDUCOM systems in legal education are described. Teaching techniques (simulation and gaming), their role in law school curricula, and a survey of uses nationwide are discussed. Available at 675 S. Westmoreland Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90005. (MSE)

Munro, Robert J.; Noah, Dennis

1979-01-01

286

40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

2010-07-01

287

40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

2013-07-01

288

40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

2012-07-01

289

40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

2011-07-01

290

40 CFR 52.874 - Legal authority.  

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kansas § 52.874 Legal authority. ...available to the public is inadequate. Kansas Statutes Annotated 65-3015 would...local agency legal authority: (1) Kansas City, Kans.-Wyandotte County...

2014-07-01

291

Post abortion family planning counseling as a tool to increase contraception use  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the impact of the post-abortion family planning counseling in bringing about the contraceptive usage in women who had induced abortion in a family planning clinic. Method The Diyarbakir Office of Turkish Family Planning Association (DTFPA) is a nonprofit and nongovernmental organization which runs a family planning clinic to serve the lower socio-economic populations, in Diyarbakir-Turkey. Post abortion counseling is introduced by using proper communication skills and with using appropriate methods to women. In this study we introduced contraceptive usage of women who had induced abortion one year ago and followed by DTFPA's clinic. Results 55.3% of our clients were not using contraceptive methods before abortion. At the end of the one year, 75.9% of our followed-up clients revealed that they were using one of the modern contraceptive methods. There was no woman with IUD before induced abortion. At the end of one year 124 (52.3%) women had IUD. "A modern method was introduced immediately after abortion" was the most important factor increasing modern method usage. Conclusion Our results advocate that post-abortion counseling may be an effective tool to increase the usage of contraceptives. Improved and more qualified post-abortion family planning counseling should be an integral part of abortion services. PMID:19146657

Ceylan, Ali; Ertem, Meliksah; Saka, Gunay; Akdeniz, Nurten

2009-01-01

292

Orion Guidance and Control Ascent Abort Algorithm Design and Performance Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the ascent flight phase of NASA s Constellation Program, the Ares launch vehicle propels the Orion crew vehicle to an agreed to insertion target. If a failure occurs at any point in time during ascent then a system must be in place to abort the mission and return the crew to a safe landing with a high probability of success. To achieve continuous abort coverage one of two sets of effectors is used. Either the Launch Abort System (LAS), consisting of the Attitude Control Motor (ACM) and the Abort Motor (AM), or the Service Module (SM), consisting of SM Orion Main Engine (OME), Auxiliary (Aux) Jets, and Reaction Control System (RCS) jets, is used. The LAS effectors are used for aborts from liftoff through the first 30 seconds of second stage flight. The SM effectors are used from that point through Main Engine Cutoff (MECO). There are two distinct sets of Guidance and Control (G&C) algorithms that are designed to maximize the performance of these abort effectors. This paper will outline the necessary inputs to the G&C subsystem, the preliminary design of the G&C algorithms, the ability of the algorithms to predict what abort modes are achievable, and the resulting success of the abort system. Abort success will be measured against the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) abort performance metrics and overall performance will be reported. Finally, potential improvements to the G&C design will be discussed.

Proud, Ryan W.; Bendle, John R.; Tedesco, Mark B.; Hart, Jeremy J.

2009-01-01

293

Complicated illegal induced abortions at a tertiary health institution in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: Globally it is estimated that 26-53 million induced abortions occur annually. An estimated 20 million of these are unsafe especially in countries with restrictive abortion laws. Approximately 48% of all abortions worldwide were unsafe and more than 97% of these are in developing countries. Our objective was to find out complications of illegal induced abortions in a tertiary care institution. Methods : All cases of complicated induced abortion, seen over a 5 year period were reviewed. Relevant data relating to the socio-demographic profile of the patients, clinical presentation, abortion service providers and facilities and mode of termination of pregnancy were extracted. Results: One hundred and nineteen patients, constituting 3.4% of gynaecological admissions were studied. The mean age of the patients was 23.5±6.6 years with over 80% single. The mean gestational age at abortion was 12.8± 4.1 weeks. Incomplete abortion and postabortal sepsis formed the major indication for admission. About a fifth of the cases had abdominal visceral involvement. Twenty (18%) had laparotomy and 10(9%) had renal dialysis. Over 75% of patients were discharged in stable state. Conclusion: This study highlights the pressing need for an organised program for reproductive health education especially for the adolescents and unmarried who were most affected by abortion complications. In addition training and continuing medical education for doctors favourably disposed to abortion services is highly indicated from this study.

Ikeanyi, Maduabuchi Eugene; Okonkwo, Chukwunwendu Anthony

2014-01-01

294

The stigmatisation of abortion: a qualitative analysis of print media in Great Britain in 2010  

PubMed Central

The media play a significant part in shaping public perceptions of health issues, and abortion attracts continued media interest. Detailed examination of media constructions of abortion may help to identify emerging public discourse. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine if and how the print media in contributes to the stigmatisation of abortion. Articles from seven British and five Scottish national newspapers from 2010 were analysed for overall framings of abortion and emergent themes, including potentially stigmatising discursive constructs and language. Abortion was found to be presented using predominantly negative language and discursive associations as ‘risky’, and in association with other ‘discredited’ social practices. Key perspectives were found to be absent or marginalised, including those of women who have sought abortion. Few articles framed abortion as a positive and legitimate choice. Negative media representations of abortion contribute to the stigmatisation of the procedure and of women who have it, and reflect a discrediting of women's reproductive decision-making. There is a need to challenge the notion that abortion stigma is inevitable, and to encourage positive framings of abortion in the media and other public discourse. PMID:25115952

Purcell, Carrie; Hilton, Shona; McDaid, Lisa

2014-01-01

295

Therapeutic abortion in Islam: contemporary views of Muslim Shiite scholars and effect of recent Iranian legislation  

PubMed Central

Abortion is forbidden under normal circumstances by nearly all the major world religions. Traditionally, abortion was not deemed permissible by Muslim scholars. Shiite scholars considered it forbidden after implantation of the fertilised ovum. However, Sunni scholars have held various opinions on the matter, but all agreed that after 4?months gestation abortion was not permitted. In addition, classical Islamic scholarship had only considered threats to maternal health as a reason for therapeutic abortion. Recently, scholars have begun to consider the effect of severe fetal deformities on the mother, the families and society. This has led some scholars to reconsider the prohibition on abortion in limited circumstances. This article reviews the Islamic basis for the prohibition of abortion and the reasons for its justification. Contemporary rulings from leading Shiite scholars and from the Sunni school of thought are presented and reviewed. The status of abortion in Muslim countries is reviewed, with special emphasis on the therapeutic abortion law passed by the Iranian Parliament in 2003. This law approved therapeutic abortion before 16?weeks of gestation under limited circumstances, including medical conditions related to fetal and maternal health. Recent measures in Iran provide an opportunity for the Muslim scholars in other countries to review their traditional stance on abortion. PMID:17074823

Hedayat, K M; Shooshtarizadeh, P; Raza, M

2006-01-01

296

Theorizing waste in abortion and fetal ovarian tissue use.  

PubMed

This article explores the theoretical implications of the concept of waste as it specifically relates to arguments in favour of fetal ovarian tissue use as a source of donor eggs. The author begins by discussing medico-scientific constructions of women's reproductive bodies as wasteful. The article explores the works of Drucilla Cornell on bodily borders, Julia Kristeva on abjection, and Mary Douglas on pollution to develop a nuanced understanding of the relations between waste, women's reproductivity, and abortion in North American mainstream and medico-scientific cultures. This layered reading of waste and abortion deconstructs a significant assumption of arguments in favour of fetal ovarian tissue use as ethical--that such tissue is just "waste." The author suggests that theorizing waste this way may contribute to ethical analyses of uses of other reproductive materials (that is, embryos) that are supported, in part, by an assumption that those materials would otherwise be "wasted." PMID:16506333

Arris, Rachel

2003-01-01

297

Religious perspectives on abortion and a secular response.  

PubMed

This paper concerns the medical, religious, and social discourse around abortion. The primary goal of this paper is to better understand how seven of the world's major religious traditions (Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Jewish, Islamic, Buddhist, Confucian, and Hindu) address abortion 'in the clinic'. We do not aim to critique these commentaries but to draw out some of the themes that resonate through the commentaries and place these within complex social contexts. We consider the intersection of ontology and morality; the construction of women's selfhood; the integration of religious beliefs and practices in a secular world. We suggest that for many women, religious doctrine may be balanced with secular logic as both are important and inextricably linked determinants of decision making about the termination of pregnancy. PMID:19641993

Stephens, Moira; Jordens, Christopher F C; Kerridge, Ian H; Ankeny, Rachel A

2010-12-01

298

Bill restricts abortion blockades. Clinic violence is target of action.  

PubMed

On November 16, 1993, the US Senate voted approval, by 69 to 30 members, to impose stiff penalties on those obstructing access to abortion clinics. The penalties include up to 1 year in jail and a $100,000 fine for first violent offenses. Obstruction without violence would lead to a fine of $10,000 and 6 months in jail. The legislation was deemed necessary after the murder of a doctor in Florida and the wounding of another doctor in Kansas. Democratic Senator Edward Kennedy said that those who do not obstruct access have nothing to fear. Support came not only from abortion rights advocates, but from those against lawlessness in the pro-life movement. Maryland's Democratic Senators Mikulski and Sarbanes and California's Democratic Senator Barbara Boxes supported the bill, as well as Attorney General Janet Reno and President Clinton. House Speaker Thomas S. Foley announced that the House would consider its version of the bill on November 18, 1993. The original version was changed to reduce fines for nonviolent offenders from $100,000 to $10,000. Opponents argued that the legislation treated peaceful protesters as felons, and was directed in a singular=sided way with no regard to civil disobedience by animal rights activists, antinuclear protesters, and AIDS activists. North Carolina Republican Senator Jesse Helms thought that the Supreme Court would find the bill unconstitutional. Other arguments were that civil disobedience should be allowed for anti-abortion protesters, as it was allowed for civil rights protesters such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Senator Kennedy pointed out the Dr. King was trying to secure a constitutional right, unlike anti-abortion protesters who were trying to deny a constitutional right. PMID:12287159

1993-11-17

299

LHC Abort Gap Cleaning Studies During Luminosity Operation  

SciTech Connect

The presence of significant intensities of un-bunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC. Procedures using damper kickers for cleaning both the Abort Gap (AG) and the buckets targeted for injection, are currently in operation at flat bottom. Recent observations of relatively high population of the AG during physics runs brought up the need for AG cleaning during luminosity operation. In this paper the results of experimental studies performed in October 2011 are presented.

Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; /Fermilab; Bartmann, W.; Boccardi, A.; Bracco, C.; Bravin, E.; Goddard, B.; Hofle, W.; Jacquet, D.; Jeff, A.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; /CERN

2012-05-11

300

Hypothyrodisim and spontaneous abortions among Hanford, Washington, downwinders  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous abortions occurred more than twice as frequently in hypothyroid women, compared with nonhypothyroid women. Both groups of women had lived in the same environment during the same period of time. The high incidence of hypothyroidism in a cohort of several hundred women who lived downwind of the Hanford, Washington, nuclear installation was likely associated with environmental contamination from deliberate releases of radioactive iodine from the facility. 8 refs.

Grossman, C.M.; Morton, W.E. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Nussbaum, R.H. [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

1996-05-01

301

Placenta percreta resulting in incomplete spontaneous abortion in first trimester.  

PubMed

Placenta percreta is a rare complication potentially fatal to fetus and the mother. We present here a 41-year-old female patient who underwent curettage for incomplete abortion at 6(th) week of pregnancy. She had persistent vaginal bleeding for 2 months after the curettage, for which she was treated with hysterectomy. Preoperative ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) made the diagnosis of placenta percreta. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed this diagnosis. PMID:25379165

Genc, Mine; Genc, Berhan; Solak, Aynur; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin

2014-10-01

302

Placenta Percreta Resulting in Incomplete Spontaneous Abortion in First Trimester  

PubMed Central

Placenta percreta is a rare complication potentially fatal to fetus and the mother. We present here a 41-year-old female patient who underwent curettage for incomplete abortion at 6th week of pregnancy. She had persistent vaginal bleeding for 2 months after the curettage, for which she was treated with hysterectomy. Preoperative ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) made the diagnosis of placenta percreta. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed this diagnosis. PMID:25379165

Genc, Mine; Genc, Berhan; Solak, Aynur; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin

2014-01-01

303

Prospective Educators' Knowledge of Children's Legal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospective educators' knowledge of children's legal rights in several areas was assessed. Results indicated limited legal knowledge and some misconceptions about the law. The need for colleges of education to adapt their curricula to include legal issues is discussed. (Author/DWH)

Mcloughlin, Caven S.; And Others

1983-01-01

304

An analysis of the ‘legal high’ mephedrone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal highs’ are compounds, plant or fungal material which can be readily bought from the internet without legal restriction and the single chemicals may be structurally related to illegal drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines. Several recent deaths in the UK have been attributed to these legal highs and unfortunately there is little chemical or biological literature on these

Simon Gibbons; Mire Zloh

2010-01-01

305

Same-Sex Couples: Legal Complexities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…

Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

2008-01-01

306

Language and Legal Speech Acts: Decisions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this essay argues specifically that legal speech acts are not statements but question/answer constructions. The focus in this section is on the underlying interrogative structure of the legal decision. The second part of the paper touches on significant topics related to the concept of legal speech acts, including the philosophic…

Kevelson, Roberta

307

APPEAL OF PARENTAL CONTRIBUTION: LEGAL GUARDIANSHIP REVIEW  

E-print Network

APPEAL OF PARENTAL CONTRIBUTION: LEGAL GUARDIANSHIP REVIEW For OSAP purposes, a Legal Guardian is dependent as defined by OSAP, the student can appeal to be reassessed as an independent student. If a Legal as defined by OSAP, can appeal to be reassessed as an independent student upon reaching the age of majority

308

Post-diagnostic abortion in Germany: reproduction gone awry, again?  

PubMed

Routine use of prenatal diagnostic technologies (PDTs) such as ultrasound and amniocentesis result in the detection of a small percentage of fetal anomalies. For those women faced with the diagnosis of fetal disability, a decision must be made to continue or terminate the pregnancy. When the diagnosis is merely hypothetical, the discursive specter of post-diagnostic abortion is shaped by social and historical contexts in which interested discourses (regional, political, ethical, and religious) weigh in with varying degrees of authority and influence. However, when the diagnosis is actual, in this sample population of women, an estimated minimum of 90% opt to terminate their pregnancies. Data collected at two German hospitals-one in former East Germany, one in former West Germany-illuminate rates of PDT use and provide data with which to discuss the specter of post-diagnostic abortion in relation to mainstream medical discourses, Germany's divided history, abortion politics, feminism, disability activism, and religion. These data demonstrate how reproductive discourses are shaped by ideological and historical contingencies, even when women's ultimate reproductive decisions are not. PMID:12650734

Erikson, Susan L

2003-05-01

309

Effective analgesic dose of dexamethasone after painless abortion  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Dexamethasone is known to produce analgesic effects, but the optimal analgesic dosage of dexamethasone remains unclear, especially in patients without postoperative use of other analgesics. The purpose of this study was to explore the effective analgesic dose of dexamethasone in day surgery patients undergoing painless abortion. Methods: 287 patients undergoing painless abortion were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control group receiving saline and dexamethasone groups receiving 0.1, 0.15, or 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone. Drugs were intravenously injected 30 min before induction of anesthesia. All patients underwent the same anesthesia procedure using propofol and remifentan. The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and occurrence of nausea, vomiting and drug-induced side effects were recorded at 1, 2 and 24 h after operation. Results: There were no significant differences in patient’s clinical characteristics, surgical features and frequency of occurrence of nausea and vomiting among the four groups (P > 0.05). The VAS scores at rest and during coughing at 2 h after operation (time of discharge from the hospital) were significantly lower in patients receiving 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone compared with control patients (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Intravenous injection of 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone before induction of anesthesia can significantly reduce the VAS scores at 2 h after painless abortion. PMID:25232399

Quan, Zhe-Feng; Tian, Ming; Chi, Ping; Li, Xin; He, Hai-Li

2014-01-01

310

Post-abortion contraception: care and practices1  

PubMed Central

Objective to analyze assistance regarding contraception methods received by women during hospitalization due to abortion, and contraceptive practices the month after this episode. Methods a longitudinal study of women hospitalized due to abortion in a public hospital in the city of Săo Paulo. Face-to-face interviews (n=170) followed by telephone interviews in the subsequent month (n=147) were conducted between May and December of 2011. Results a small number of women reported they received guidance on, and prescription for, contraceptive methods at hospital discharge. A trend of statistical significance was identified for prescription of contraceptive methods at discharge and its use in the following month, when adjusted for age. Most women reported sexual intercourse (69.4%) with the use of contraceptive method (82.4%), but no health professional guidance (63.1%). Conclusion despite the fact that post-abortion contraception assistance was lower than the recommended guidelines by public health policies, women demonstrated willingness to use contraceptive methods.

Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Monteiro, Renata Luciria; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Chofakian, Christiane Borges do Nascimento; dos Santos, Osmara Alves

2014-01-01

311

A case of equine abortion caused by Encephalitozoon sp.  

PubMed

A Lippizan mare aborted a male fetus a few days before the expected foaling date without showing any clinical sings. Focal lympho-histiocytic hepatitis in the foal and multiplex focal lympho-histiocytic villitis accompanied by villus necroses and marked hypertrophy of chorionic epithelial cells in the arcades were observed. Elongated nucleated organisms were seen in groups in vacuoles or solitarily located in the cytoplasm of the chorionic epithelial cells. The organisms were in large numbers and often extracellularly in areas of villitis and villus necroses. They were Gram-positive, stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Giemsa, weakly with Warthin-Starry silver stain but not with Gömöri's methenamine-silver stain. By ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examinations, the organisms were identified as microsporidia belonging to the genus Encephalitozoon. No Encephalitozoon organisms were detected in the fetal organs. This is the first reported case of equine abortion induced by Encephalitozoon sp. in Europe. Although abortion induced by Encephalitozoon is rare, microsporidia should be considered a differential diagnosis for intracellular organisms observed in the chorionic epithelial cells of horses. PMID:18277711

Szeredi, L; Pospischil, A; Dencsö, L; Mathis, A; Dobos-Kovács, M

2007-12-01

312

Prophylactic Antibiotics for Suction Curettage in Incomplete Abortion  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 200 mg of prophylactic doxycycline in preventing pelvic infection after curettage for spontaneous (incomplete) abortion. Methods: A randomized, prospective, double-blinded study was carried out involving 300 women with an incomplete abortion who were given either placebo or 200 mg of doxycycline orally 30–60 min prior to curettage. A hematocrit, WBC count, pregnancy test, syphilis serology, Neisseria gonorrhoeae culture, and Micro Trak (monoclonal antibody test, Syba, San Jose, CA) for Chlamydia trachomatis were performed. The patients were scheduled for follow-up 2 weeks later. Antibiotic administration for any reason as well as the postoperative infection rate in these women was assessed. Results: Eleven women were excluded from analysis, leaving 289 evaluable. N. gonorrhoeae was isolated from 6 (2%) women and C. trachomatis from 8 (3%) women, and the syphilis serology was serofast in 4 (1%) women. Endometritis complicated the procedure in 4 women who received placebo and in 1 woman who received doxycycline (P = 0.22). Conclusion: Prophylactic doxycycline is not effective in preventing pelvic infection after curettage for spontaneous (incomplete) abortion. PMID:18475395

Ramin, Kirk D.; Hemsell, Patricia G.; Nobles, Brenda J.; Heard, Molly C.; Johnson, Vivian B.; Hemsell, David L.

1995-01-01

313

ALL ABOUT THE M.A. IN APPLIED LEGAL STUDIES The Applied Legal Studies Program  

E-print Network

1 ALL ABOUT THE M.A. IN APPLIED LEGAL STUDIES The Applied Legal Studies Program This professional. In the case of aspiring Notaries, the degree will prepare students for admission to practice, subject for admission to the applied legal studies program. #12;2 The M.A. in Applied Legal Studies: The Program

314

New Jersey Digital Legal Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rutgers University Library for the Center for Law & Justice hosts the New Jersey Digital Legal Library in order "to enhance scholarly, practitioner, and public access to the materials of New Jersey law and legal history." The materials in this prodigious online collection are divided into 16 different sections, including decisions and court documents related to affordable housing, the Attorney General's office, and executive orders issued by the governor. One particularly compelling area is the Supreme Court of New Jersey Oral Arguments Archive section. Here visitors can view the oral arguments offered before the court from 2005 to the present day. Visitors shouldn't miss the Chief Justice Joseph Weintraub Lecture Archive. Here they will find talks dating back to 1981 on topics such as "American History and the Study of Constitutional Law" and "Principled Decisions."

315

5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...writing that the legal process has been appealed, and...enforceability of the legal process. The notification must be accompanied by the documentation and citations to legal...Multiple qualifying legal processes relating to the same...

2012-01-01

316

5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...writing that the legal process has been appealed, and...enforceability of the legal process. The notification must be accompanied by the documentation and citations to legal...Multiple qualifying legal processes relating to the same...

2013-01-01

317

5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...writing that the legal process has been appealed, and...enforceability of the legal process. The notification must be accompanied by the documentation and citations to legal...Multiple qualifying legal processes relating to the same...

2011-01-01

318

5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...writing that the legal process has been appealed, and...enforceability of the legal process. The notification must be accompanied by the documentation and citations to legal...Multiple qualifying legal processes relating to the same...

2010-01-01

319

5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.  

...writing that the legal process has been appealed, and...enforceability of the legal process. The notification must be accompanied by the documentation and citations to legal...Multiple qualifying legal processes relating to the same...

2014-01-01

320

Legal aspects of satellite teleconferencing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of satellite communications for teleconferencing purposes is discussed. The legal framework within which such a system or series of systems could be developed is considered. The analysis is based on: (1) satellite teleconferencing regulation, (2) the options available for such a system, (3) regulatory alternatives, and (4) ownership and management aspects. The system is designed to provide a capability for professional education, remote medical diagnosis, business conferences, and computer techniques.

Smith, D. D.

1971-01-01

321

Factors influencing post abortion outcomes among high-risk patients in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Post abortion complications remain one of the major causes of mortality among women of child bearing age in Zimbabwe. Based on this problem, factors associated with mortalities due to abortion were investigated with the aim of improving post abortion outcomes for Zimbabwe's women, and possibly also for women of other African countries. Cases and controls were selected from 4895 post abortion records to conduct a retrospective case-control study. Significant risk factors identified for reducing mortalities due to post abortion complications included the administration of oxytocic drugs and evacuation of the uterus whilst anaemia and sepsis apparently reduced these women's chances of survival. Women who died (cases) from post abortion complications apparently received better reported quantitative care than controls. Recommendations based on this research report include improved education of health care workers and enhanced in-service training, regular audits of patients' records and changed policies for managing these conditions more effectively in Zimbabwe. PMID:16450562

Mudokwenuy-Rawdon, C; Ehlers, V J; Bezuidenhout, M C

2005-11-01

322

Launch Vehicle Abort Analysis for Failures Leading to Loss of Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launch vehicle ascent is a time of high risk for an onboard crew. There is a large fraction of possible failures for which time is of the essence and a successful abort is possible if the detection and action happens quickly enough. This paper focuses on abort determination based on data already available from the Guidance, Navigation, and Control system. This work is the result of failure analysis efforts performed during the Ares I launch vehicle development program. The two primary areas of focus are the derivation of abort triggers to ensure that abort occurs as quickly as possible when needed, but that false aborts are avoided, and evaluation of success in aborting off the failing launch vehicle.

Hanson, John M.; Hill, Ashley D.; Beard, Bernard B.

2013-01-01

323

Reproductive health and the question of abortion in Botswana: a review.  

PubMed

The complications of unsafe, illegal abortions are a significant cause of maternal mortality in Botswana. The stigma attached to abortion leads some women to seek clandestine procedures, or alternatively, to carry the fetus to term and abandon the infant at birth. I conducted research into perceptions of abortion in urban Botswana in order to understand the social and cultural obstacles to women's reproductive autonomy, focusing particularly on attitudes to terminating a pregnancy. I carried out 21 interviews with female and male urban adult Batswana. This article constitutes a review of the abortion issue in Botswana based on my research. Restrictive laws must eventually be abolished to allow women access to safe, timely abortions. My findings however, suggest that socio-cultural factors, not punitive laws, present the greatest barriers to women seeking to terminate an unwanted pregnancy. These factors must be addressed so that effective local solutions to unsafe abortion can be generated. PMID:24558779

Smith, Stephanie S

2013-12-01

324

A study on the discourse and reality of abortion in Korea: 1920s~1930s.  

PubMed

This paper tried to collect, classify and analyse the discourse about abortion in 1920~1930. In Korea, modern medical abortion operation started in 1920~30s. At that time abortion was prohibited by the Japanese Government-General of Korea, because the Japanese Government-General of Korea needed large population which was used for labor and exploitation. Hence, the Empire of Japan de-penalized Japanese criminal law related to birth control but Korean law was not revised between 1910~1945. Nevertheless, there were quite a few women who wanted abortion when they had children born in sin or they were too poor to raise their children, so they had abortion secretly. At that time the women generally had abortion through toxic drugs or foods and violence (dropping from a high place or beating their stomach). But high class women did it by medical operation. In 1920s, there was few Korean (modern) medical doctors who could operate for abortion, instead Japanese immigrant medical doctors did it--as the newspaper of that time showed(there were many pieces of news that Japanese doctor who helped abortion was arrested by the police). As time went by Korean doctors got their say about the technique and various knowledge of abortion in newspapers, magazines, and academic Journals; this was especially the case starting in 1930. It is worth noting that they were sometimes arrested for illegal abortion operations. Furthermore, from the late 1920s the insist that abortion should be permitted for women and poor people, appeared. This insist was affected by Japan, the Soviet Union and other countries which was generous with abortion. PMID:23695751

Lee, Young- Ah

2013-04-01

325

Reimbursement of hormonal contraceptives and the frequency of induced abortion among teenagers in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Reduction in costs of hormonal contraceptives is often proposed to reduce rates of induced abortion among young women. This study investigates the relationship between rates of induced abortion and reimbursement of dispensed hormonal contraceptives among young women in Sweden. Comparisons are made with the Nordic countries Finland, Norway and Denmark. Methods Official statistics on induced abortion and numbers of prescribed and dispensed hormonal contraceptives presented as “Defined Daily Dose/thousand women” (DDD/T) aged 15-19 years were compiled and related to levels of reimbursement in all Swedish counties by using public official data. The Swedish numbers of induced abortion were compared to those of Finland, Norway and Denmark. The main outcome measure was rates of induced abortion and DDD/T. Results No correlation was observed between rates of abortion and reimbursement among Swedish counties. Nor was any correlation found between sales of hormonal contraceptives and the rates of abortion. In a Nordic perspective, Finland and Denmark, which have no reimbursement at all, and Norway all have lower rates of induced abortion than Sweden. Conclusions Reimbursement does not seem to be enough in order to reduce rates of induced abortion. Evidently, other factors such as attitudes, education, religion, tradition or cultural differences in each of Swedish counties as well as in the Nordic countries may be of importance. A more innovative approach is needed in order to facilitate safe sex and to protect young women from unwanted pregnancies. PMID:24884539

2014-01-01

326

Women's perceptions about abortion in their communities: perspectives from western Kenya.  

PubMed

Unsafe abortion in Kenya is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In October 2012, we sought to understand the methods married women aged 24-49 and young, unmarried women aged ? 20 used to induce abortion, the providers they utilized and the social, economic and cultural norms that influenced women's access to safe abortion services in Bungoma and Trans Nzoia counties in western Kenya. We conducted five focus groups with young women and five with married women in rural and urban communities in each county. We trained local facilitators to conduct the focus groups in Swahili or English. All focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computerized, and coded for analysis. Abortion outside public health facilities was mentioned frequently. Because of the need for secrecy to avoid condemnation, uncertainty about the law, and perceived higher cost of safer abortion methods, women sought unsafe abortions from community midwives, drug sellers and/or untrained providers at lower cost. Many groups believed that abortion was safer at higher gestational ages, but that there was no such thing as a safe abortion method. Our aim was to inform the design of a community-based intervention on safe abortion for women. Barriers to seeking safe services such as high cost, perceived illegality, and fear of insults and abuse at public facilities among both age groups must be addressed. PMID:24908466

Marlow, Heather M; Wamugi, Sylvia; Yegon, Erick; Fetters, Tamara; Wanaswa, Leah; Msipa-Ndebele, Sinikiwe

2014-05-01

327

Temporal trends and spatial distribution of unsafe abortion in Brazil, 1996-2012  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze temporal trends and distribution patterns of unsafe abortion in Brazil. METHODS Ecological study based on records of hospital admissions of women due to abortion in Brazil between 1996 and 2012, obtained from the Hospital Information System of the Ministry of Health. We estimated the number of unsafe abortions stratified by place of residence, using indirect estimate techniques. The following indicators were calculated: ratio of unsafe abortions/100 live births and rate of unsafe abortion/1,000 women of childbearing age. We analyzed temporal trends through polynomial regression and spatial distribution using municipalities as the unit of analysis. RESULTS In the study period, a total of 4,007,327 hospital admissions due to abortions were recorded in Brazil. We estimated a total of 16,905,911 unsafe abortions in the country, with an annual mean of 994,465 abortions (mean unsafe abortion rate: 17.0 abortions/1,000 women of childbearing age; ratio of unsafe abortions: 33.2/100 live births). Unsafe abortion presented a declining trend at national level (R2: 94.0%, p < 0.001), with unequal patterns between regions. There was a significant reduction of unsafe abortion in the Northeast (R2: 93.0%, p < 0.001), Southeast (R2: 92.0%, p < 0.001) and Central-West regions (R2: 64.0%, p < 0.001), whereas the North (R2: 39.0%, p = 0.030) presented an increase, and the South (R2: 22.0%, p = 0.340) remained stable. Spatial analysis identified the presence of clusters of municipalities with high values for unsafe abortion, located mainly in states of the North, Northeast and Southeast Regions. CONCLUSIONS Unsafe abortion remains a public health problem in Brazil, with marked regional differences, mainly concentrated in the socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of the country. Qualification of attention to women’s health, especially to reproductive aspects and attention to pre- and post-abortion processes, are necessary and urgent strategies to be implemented in the country. PMID:25119946

Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Lima, Mauricélia da Silveira; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio Costa; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Heukelbach, Jorg

2014-01-01

328

Real-Time Trajectory Assessment and Abort Management for the X-33 Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 is a flying testbed to evaluate technologies and designs for a reusable Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) production vehicle. Although it is sub-orbital, it is trans-atmospheric. This paper will discuss the abort capabilities, both commanded and autonomous, available to the X-33. The cornerstone of the abort capabilities is the Performance Monitor (PM) and it's supporting software. PM is an on-board 3-DOF simulation, which evaluates the vehicle ability to execute the current trajectory. The Abort Manager evaluates the results from PM, and, when indicated, computes and implements an abort trajectory.

Moise, M. C.; McCarter, J. W.; Mulqueen, J.

2000-01-01

329

Measuring Unsafe Abortion-Related Mortality: A Systematic Review of the Existing Methods  

PubMed Central

Background The WHO estimates that 13% of maternal mortality is due to unsafe abortion, but challenges with measurement and data quality persist. To our knowledge, no systematic assessment of the validity of studies reporting estimates of abortion-related mortality exists. Study Design To be included in this study, articles had to meet the following criteria: (1) published between September 1st, 2000-December 1st, 2011; (2) utilized data from a country where abortion is “considered unsafe”; (3) specified and enumerated causes of maternal death including “abortion”; (4) enumerated ?100 maternal deaths; (5) a quantitative research study; (6) published in a peer-reviewed journal. Results 7,438 articles were initially identified. Thirty-six studies were ultimately included. Overall, studies rated “Very Good” found the highest estimates of abortion related mortality (median 16%, range 1–27.4%). Studies rated “Very Poor” found the lowest overall proportion of abortion related deaths (median: 2%, range 1.3–9.4%). Conclusions Improvements in the quality of data collection would facilitate better understanding global abortion-related mortality. Until improved data exist, better reporting of study procedures and standardization of the definition of abortion and abortion-related mortality should be encouraged. PMID:23341939

Gerdts, Caitlin; Vohra, Divya; Ahern, Jennifer

2013-01-01

330

Roles for non-physicians in fertility regulation: an international overview of legal obstacles and solutions.  

PubMed Central

For more than a decade the roles of non-physicians in fertility regulation have been expanding. The article discusses the relationship between law and the expansion of those roles. The laws and regulations which effect these roles fall into three basic categories: those controlling the medical and other health-related professions, those regulating drugs and devices, and those affecting specific fertility regulation services. These in turn may either inhibit or facilitate the expansion of roles for non-physicians. Where legal barriers arise, and no feasible legal solution is developed, expansion of roles is difficult, if not impossible, as the law invariably reflects the prevailing views on who should provide fertility regulation services. In many countries, however, as roles have been changing, the law has been changing too in a way which affords legal protection to non-physicians. The emphasis to date has been on permitting them to assume expanded roles in the provision of contraceptives. Non-physicians are authorized to prescribe the Pill in at least 10 countries and to re-supply the Pill after prescription in seven others. Non-physicians are permitted to insert IUDs in at least 10 countries. Pilot projects are presently testing the feasibility of permitting non-physicians to perform sterilizations and early abortions. The law has an impact, for good or ill, on all of these arrangements. PMID:7350821

Paxman, J M

1980-01-01

331

Are partners available for post-abortion contraceptive counseling? A pilot study in a Baltimore City clinic.  

PubMed

About half of the 1.2 million abortions each year in the United States are repeat abortions. While most abortion providers counsel women about contraception, one reason for the high repeat rate could be failure to take into account the social context of the women--in particular, the male partner. To assess whether there might be a window of opportunity for a contraceptive intervention that includes the male partner at the time of the abortion, we undertook a pilot study at an urban abortion clinic to examine the role of the male partner among women receiving abortions. Between May 2001 and August 2002, two questionnaires were administered to 109 women receiving abortions in a Baltimore City clinic. On the procedure day, women were more likely to be accompanied by a male partner upon arrival (30%) or when leaving (34%) than by any other individual. The majority of women receiving abortions reported that their partners played positive decision-making and support roles throughout the abortion process. A significant proportion of couples could be available for contraceptive counseling following an abortion, providing rationale for couples' post-abortion contraceptive counseling for women whose partners are already actively and positively involved in the abortion process. Such an intervention may help to reduce repeat abortions. PMID:15105066

Beenhakker, Britta; Becker, Stan; Hires, Stephanie; Molano Di Targiana, Nell; Blumenthal, Paul; Huggins, George

2004-05-01

332

How risky are second trimester clandestine abortions in Cameroon: a retrospective descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background Complications of clandestine abortions increase with gestational age. The aim of this study was to identify complications of second trimester clandestine abortions (STA) and those of first trimester clandestine abortions (FTA). Methods This retrospective descriptive study was conducted between March 1st and August 31st, 2012 in the University Teaching Hospital and the Central Hospital, Yaoundé (Cameroon). The files of women with clandestine abortions carried out outside our units, but received in our settings for some complications were reviewed. Variables studied were maternal age, parity, marital status, gestational age at the time of abortion, the abortion provider and the method used, the duration of antibiotic coverage, the time interval between abortion and consultation, the complications presented and the duration of hospital stay. Data of 20 women with STA (?13 weeks 1 day) and those of 74 women with FTA (?13 complete weeks) were analyzed and compared. The t-test was used to compare continuous variables. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Women with STA had high parities (P?=?0.0011). STAs were mostly performed by nurses and were usually done by dilatation and curettage or dilatation and evacuation, manual vacuum aspiration, intramuscular injection of an unspecified medication, transcervical foreign body insertion, amniotomy and misoprostol. STA complications were severe anemia, hypovolemic shock, uterine perforation and maternal death. Conclusions Clandestine abortions, especially second trimester abortions, are associated with risks of maternal morbidity and mortality especially when done by nurses. Therefore, women should seek for help directly from trained health personnel (Gynecologists & Obstetricians). Moreover, nurses should be trained in uterine evacuation procedures. They should also refer women who want to carry out STA to Gynecologists and Obstetricians. Finally, to reduce the prevalence of abortion in general, the government should make contraception available to all women, as well as use public media to sensitize women on the dangers of abortion and on the need to use family planning services. PMID:25199407

2014-01-01

333

Simulation Environment for Orion Launch Abort System Control Design Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and use of an interactive environment to perform control system design and analysis of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System is described. The environment, built using a commercial dynamic systems design package, includes use of an open-source configuration control software tool and a collaborative wiki to coordinate between the simulation developers, control law developers and users. A method for switching between multiple candidate control laws and vehicle configurations is described. Aerodynamic models, especially in a development program, change rapidly, so a means for automating the implementation of new aerodynamic models is described.

McMinn, J. Dana; Jackson, E. Bruce; Christhilf, David M.

2007-01-01

334

THE ETIOLOGICAL RELATION OF SPIRILLA (VIBRIO FETUS) TO BOVINE ABORTION  

PubMed Central

The isolation in pure culture of a definite morphological entity (vibrio or spirillum) with practically the same biological characters from a series of cases of the same clinical complex (abortion) establishes a presumption in favor of the specific identity of the organisms and also in favor of the inference that such organisms are etiologically related to the diseased condition. This presumption is strengthened by the fact that disease of the fetal membranes followed the injection of pure cultures of this organism in two out of four cases. PMID:19868361

Smith, Theobald

1919-01-01

335

Grid Fin Stabilization of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel tests were conducted by Nielsen Engineering & Research (NEAR) and Rose Engineering & Research (REAR) in conjunction with the NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) on a 6%-scale model of the Orion launch abort vehicle (LAV) configured with four grid fins mounted near the base of the vehicle. The objectives of these tests were to 1) quantify LAV stability augmentation provided by the grid fins from subsonic through supersonic Mach numbers, 2) assess the benefits of swept grid fins versus unswept grid fins on the LAV, 3) determine the effects of the LAV abort motors on grid fin aerodynamics, and 4) generate an aerodynamic database for use in the future application of grid fins to small length-to-diameter ratio vehicles similar to the LAV. The tests were conducted in NASA Ames Research Center's 11x11-foot transonic wind tunnel from Mach 0.5 through Mach 1.3 and in their 9x7-foot supersonic wind tunnel from Mach 1.6 through Mach 2.5. Force- and moment-coefficient data were collected for the complete vehicle and for each individual grid fin as a function of angle of attack and sideslip angle. Tests were conducted with both swept and unswept grid fins with the simulated abort motors (cold jets) off and on. The swept grid fins were designed with a 22.5deg aft sweep angle for both the frame and the internal lattice so that the frontal projection of the swept fins was the same as for the unswept fins. Data from these tests indicate that both unswept and swept grid fins provide significant improvements in pitch stability as compared to the baseline vehicle over the Mach number range investigated. The swept fins typically provide improved stability as compared to the unswept fins, but the performance gap diminished as Mach number was increased. The aerodynamic performance of the fins was not observed to degrade when the abort motors were turned on. Results from these tests indicate that grid fins can be a robust solution for stabilizing the Orion LAV over a wide range of operating conditions.

Pruzan, Daniel A.; Mendenhall, Michael R.; Rose, William C.; Schuster, David M.

2011-01-01

336

Serum Leptin Levels in Women with Immunological Recurrent Abortion  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recurrent abortion (RA) may be a consequence of aberrant expression of immunological factors during pregnancy. Although the relative importance of immunological factors in human reproduction remains controversial, substantial evidence suggests that autoantibodies contribute to reproductive failure. Production of such antibodies is under the control of cytokines; and leptin, besides its role in reproductive success, has a profound effect on directing the cytokine profile toward Th1 (cellular) pattern. Therefore, the present study was performed to assess serum leptin levels in women with immunological recurrent abortion. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 250 women who attended Avicenna Infertility Clinic with RA were screened for known causes of abortion from July to December 2008 in Tehran, Iran. Eighty-one patients with normal karyotypes and hormonal profile with normal ovaries and uterus and no signs of infection were categorized as patients with immunological (IRA, n = 39) or unexplained (URA, n = 42) recurrent abortion based on presence or absence of autoantibodies. After blood sampling, levels of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA), lupus anti-coagulant antibody (LACAb), anti-phospholipid antibody (APA), anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACA), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and anti-thrombin III antibody (ATIIIAb) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Results In IRA group, 9 (23.1%), 24 (61.5%), 25(64.1%) and 1 (2.6%) women were above the normal cut-off point for ANA, TgAbs, TPOAbs and AT-III Abs, respectively. IRA patients had normal values of LACAbs, APA and ACA. With normal level of fasting blood sugar (FBS), IRA and URA groups had similar serum leptin levels (23.7 ± 13.2 ng/ml vs. 22.7 ± 12.5 ng/ml, respectively). Serum leptin concentrations showed a positive correlation with weight and BMI in both groups. Conclusion This study suggests that serum leptin levels are higher in IRA and URA patients than normal women. The findings of this study suggest the need for a more comprehensive study and comparison of leptin levels in IRA and URA patients to women with no history of miscarriages. PMID:23926480

Zarei, Saeed; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh; Arefi, Soheila; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Idali, Farah; Tavangar, Banafsheh; Savadi Shiraz, Elham; Moshref Behzad, Narges; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

2010-01-01

337

Spontaneous abortions in female populations occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Exposure to radioisotopes of metals and halogen elements occurring in medical practice may cause spontaneous abortions. The\\u000a potential role of occupational exposure to X-rays and internal radioisotopes on pregnancy outcome in childbearing age women\\u000a employed in hospital departments were analyzed in order to estimate miscarriage risk.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Over a period of 16 years, the occurrence of miscarriages in 61 women exposed to

Aleksandra Fucic; Domenico Franco Merlo; Marcello Ceppi; Joe N. Lucas

2008-01-01

338

Coalition for Abortion Rights v. Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority.  

PubMed

The U.S. District Court, Western District of New York, prohibited a municipal transportation authority from denying advertising space on city buses to a group advocating a woman's right to reproductive choice. Denial of access to advertising space was a violation of the group's First and Fourteenth Amendment rights, because it was the only advertising rejected on the basis of content, and other advertisements about religion, abortion, and politics had appeared on public buses in the past. Public buses were not intrinsically a public forum, but the transportation authority had created a public forum by permitting other forms of constitutionally protected speech. PMID:11648359

1984-01-19

339

Guide to Foreign and International Legal Databases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Guide to Foreign and International Legal Databases is a compendium of useful online legal resources worldwide. Written and maintained by Mirela Roznovschi--Reference Librarian for Foreign and International Law at the New York University School of Law--the guide offers users an organized approach to the overwhelming amount of legal information available on the Internet. The searchable guide is divided conveniently into twenty topic areas related to foreign and international law. Within each topic section, a compilation of briefly annotated legal links direct users to relevant resources. In addition to the guide, the site provides a section entitled How to Evaluate a Legal Database on the Internet, which contains a detailed evaluation form for rating the usefulness of online legal resources.

340

Optimization study of a trans-Atlantic abort for the U.S. space shuttle using a pseudospectral Legendre method  

E-print Network

The problem of performance optimization for a trans-Atlantic shuttle abort is considered. At five points during the second stage of ascent, a failure of a main engine occurs, which necessitates an abort from the nominal ...

Taylor, Christine P. (Christine Pia), 1979-

2003-01-01

341

Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.  

PubMed

In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise. PMID:23079364

Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

2012-11-01

342

Planetary protection - some legal questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to examine: Protectionwhere, of whom andofwhat: On Earth: Humans, and nature, namely other life forms, air, water and soil, but also all man made things. On Other celestial bodies: Crew of manned Space Missions, Stations on C.B., possible alien life forms, or remnants of such, water, other environment on C.B. - even if completely barren? Protection of C.B. from becoming "an area of international conflict". Finally, we have to discuss overriding interests, such as deflection of Asteroids which threaten to hit Earth, then the legally permitted "Use" of C.B., also mining versus protection, then, too high costs of absolutely sterile Spacecraft, etc. With this, we have de lege ferenda to create an order of values of protection, whereby the protection of the higher category has priority over the lesser ones.

Fasan, E.

2004-01-01

343

Planetary protection - some legal questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then we have to examine: Protection where, of whom and of what: On Earth: Humans, other life forms, but also all man made things as well as air, water, soil. On Other celestial bodies: Crew of manned Space Missions, Stations on C.B., possible alien life forms, or remnants of such, water, other environment on C.B.- even if completely barren? Protection of C.B. from becoming "an area of international conflict" Finally we have to discuss overriding interests, such as deflection of Asteroids which threaten to hit Earth, then the legally permitted "Use" of C.B., also mining versus protection, and too high costs of absolutely sterile Spacecraft etc. With this we have de lege ferenda to create an order of values of protection as follows, whereby the protection of the higher category has priority over the lesser ones: 1)Human life, be it on Earth or beyond it, 2)Other terrestrial life, 3)Inanimate terrestrial environment, 4)Possible life forms or their remnants on the Moon or other C.B., 5)The natural environment of the Moon and other C.B., 6)Asteroids, Meteorites, Comets etc.

Fasan, E.

344

The Influence of the Environment and Other Exogenous Agents on Spontaneous Abortion Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that close to 30% of all pregnancies end in spontaneous abortion. Although about 60% of spontaneous abortions are thought to be due to genetic, infectious, hormonal, and immunological factors, the role of the environment remains poorly understood. Pregnancy involves a delicate balance of hormonal and immunological functions, which may be affected by environmental substances. Many toxic substances

Mandy Weselak; Tye E. Arbuckle; Mark C. Walker; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

345

THERAPEUTIC ABORTION ON ACCOUNT OF X-RAY EXAMINATION DURING PREGNANCY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Denmark in recent years, x-ray examination of pregnant women has in ; some instances been either the sole or a contributory indication for therapeutic ; abortion. The case histories are discussed of 11 pregnant women who had one or ; more abdominal x-ray examinations during the first 3 months of pregnancy. ; Therapeutic abortion was later performed in 8

Hammer-Jacobsen

1959-01-01

346

Scaling up post-abortion care in Guatemala: initial successes at national level.  

PubMed

This article describes a programme to scale up post-abortion care services in 22 of the 33 public sector district hospitals in Guatemala from July 2003 to December 2004. The main interventions included strengthening the knowledge and technical capacity of staff, expanding post-abortion care, enhancing related infrastructure, distributing informational materials and instituting an abortion surveillance system. A facilitator supported the work through week-long, monthly visits at each hospital. Attention was also devoted to building institutional consensus in support of post-abortion care at government, district hospital and hospital staff levels. During this period, 13,928 women with incomplete abortions were admitted to the 22 hospitals. Use of manual vacuum aspiration for treatment of incomplete first trimester abortion increased from 38% to 68% of cases (p<0.0001). Provision of family planning counselling also increased, from 31% to 78% of women (p<0.0001), and the proportion of women selecting a contraceptive method before leaving hospital from 20% to 49% (p<0.0001). Infection was associated with 71% of the incomplete abortions, of which 90% were septic. There were nine deaths and 768 women suffered severe complications, the level of which remained unchanged during the study period. Guatemala still has much to do to institutionalise post-abortion care fully and reduce deaths and complications, but our efforts to date will be valuable to others. PMID:16713888

Kestler, Edgar; Valencia, Linda; Del Valle, Vinicio; Silva, Alejandro

2006-05-01

347

Factors associated with choice of post-abortion contraception in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The high demand for abortion related services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicates a reliance on abortion to control fertility and highlights an opportunity to increase access to contraceptives and improve post-abortion care. We analyzed the medical records of 1,200 women seeking abortion related services. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with use of modern or long-acting contraceptive post-abortion. Multivariate results illustrate that women aged 40-44, students, employed women, receipt of services in private clinics, number of children, and number of previous abortions were significantly associated with the odds of adopting any modern contraceptive post-abortion. The odds of choosing a long-active contraceptive method were significantly and positively associated with being age 25-29, attaining secondary or higher education, and number of children. Improved services and information along with reliable access to modern and long-acting contraceptives can reduce the need to use abortion to control fertility among women in Addis. PMID:22574492

Prata, Ndola; Bell, Suzanne; Holston, Martine; Gerdts, Caitlin; Melkamu, Yilma

2011-09-01

348

Immediate post-abortion insertion of intrauterine contraceptives (IUC) in a diverse urban population.  

PubMed

Ethnic minority women have a higher incidence of unintended pregnancy and abortion than Caucasian women, with significant individual and social implications. Post-abortion intrauterine contraceptive (IUC) use may reduce future unintended pregnancy. This was a retrospective review of 265 women undergoing abortion at a Los Angeles County Reproductive Options Clinic. Demographic factors, reproductive history, and post-abortion contraceptive choice were evaluated and analyzed. The population was predominantly Latina (73%) and single, with a mean age of 27. Immediate post-abortion IUC insertion was chosen by 48% overall and more frequently by Latinas (55%) than by African Americans (33%) or Asians (43%) (p = 0.02). IUC use increased with age, undesired future fertility, increasing gravidity, and history of previous abortion in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, IUC use increased with Latina ethnicity and increasing gravidity. In a clinic serving low-income urban women in Los Angeles, post-abortal IUC uptake is highest among Latinas and those with prior pregnancies. Future research should examine reasons for and barriers to IUC uptake in diverse communities and methods to improve post-abortion IUC uptake to prevent subsequent unintended pregnancies. PMID:23264187

Taylor, DeShawn; Connolly, Shannon; Ingles, Sue Ann; Watson, Carey; Segall-Gutierrez, Penina

2014-06-01

349

Post-Abortion Perceptions; A Comparison of Self-Identified Distressed and Nondistressed Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the 1973 Roe vs. Wade decision, the psychological impact of abortion has been a focus of research in the United States. This study investigated the experiences of 25 women who described themselves as responding in an emotionally distressed manner to abortion and a comparison group of 25 women reporting more relieving/neutral responses.…

Congleton, G. Kam; Calhoun, Lawrence G.

350

Integration of post-abortion care: the role of township medical officers and midwives in Myanmar.  

PubMed

Complications of unsafe abortion are a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Myanmar, and are recognised by the Ministry of Health as a priority. The Department of Health developed a strategy to address the problem of abortion complications by integrating post-abortion care and contraceptive services into the existing township health system. The quality of post-abortion care was assessed by the Department of Health in 2000, using a baseline survey of health providers and post-abortion women in Bago Division. The integration of post-abortion care was led by the Township Medical Officers, who provided monthly in-service training and supervision of health care workers in each township. Hospital-based doctors and nurses, clinic midwives, village midwives and other volunteer health providers, including traditional birth attendants, were all trained. The role of the local clinic midwife was extended to make follow-up home visits to the women with post-abortion complications and provide them with contraception when requested. Preliminary results show positive outcomes. However, donor-funded projects may have a destabilizing effect on township services by diverting attention and resources; donors need to work with government to support its priorities for health care. The future nationwide integration of post-abortion care services into township services should be planned in consultation with Township Medical Officers and midwives, the key providers of these services. PMID:12800701

Htay, Thein Thein; Sauvarin, Josephine; Khan, Saba

2003-05-01

351

The ratio of cervical fluid and serum human chorionic gonadotropin as a predictor of abortion  

PubMed Central

Background: Progressions in science and technology have generated several methods for delaying preterm delivery and abortion; therefore, discovering an easy, non-invasive, practical, and non-expensive predictive factor can help us to perform preventive methods in healthy pregnant women, without any risk factors. Objective: To indicate an appropriate index for predicting abortion in early pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, 73 pregnant women who had a singleton pregnancy, had no complications or history of abortion or disease, and were referred to Mahdieh and Taleghani Hospitals between 2007-2009, were evaluated. Blood and cervical fluid samples were obtained thrice from all patients: at the first visit, after 1 week, and 1-2 weeks later. They were followed up until the 12th week of gestation. Results: Using the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, 1.62 was obtained as the cut-off point for the cervical fluid: serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentration ratio; 14 patients (19.2%) experienced abortion, and 12 women (70.6%) had a ratio ?1.62. Of the pregnant women with a ratio of <1.62, 3.6% had an abortion. Conclusion: Pregnant women who do not show any signs of abortion and have a high cervical fluid: serum HCG concentration ratio are at risk of abortion; therefore, the cut-off point might be an appropriate index for predicting abortion in early pregnancy. PMID:25246914

Zadehmodares, Shahrzad; Baheiraei, Nafiseh; Sharafi, Afsar; Hedayati, Mehdi; Mousavi, Mansoureh

2012-01-01

352

The Choice of Second Trimester Abortion Method: Evolution, Evidence and Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decades after its introduction, dilatation and evacuation (D&E) is still not universally offered by gynaecologists who provide second trimester abortion. Three lines of evidence point to D&E as the preferred method for most women. First, the uterus has evolved to expel its contents early and late in pregnancy, not in the middle. Hence, induction of labour with medical abortion forces

David A Grimes

2008-01-01

353

3 CFR 13535 - Executive Order 13535 of March 24, 2010. Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for abortion services (except in cases of rape or incest, or when the life of the...abortion services (except in cases of rape or incest, or when the life of the...in exchange plans (except in cases of rape or incest, or when the life of...

2011-01-01

354

75 FR 15597 - Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...abortion services (except in cases of rape or incest, or when the life of the woman...abortion services (except in cases of rape or incest, or when the life of the woman...in exchange plans (except in cases of rape or incest, or when the life of the...

2010-03-29

355

Bubaline herpesvirus 1 associated with abortion in a Mediterranean water buffalo.  

PubMed

During routine analysis of water buffalo foetuses, one sample was positive for herpesvirus and negative to all the other abortive agents investigated. Sequencing of the herpesvirus glycoprotein E gene identified the virus as bubaline herpesvirus 1, showing few differences with the published sequences. This represents the first finding of bubaline herpesvirus in a water buffalo foetus associated with abortion. PMID:23332497

Amoroso, M G; Corrado, F; De Carlo, E; Lucibelli, M G; Martucciello, A; Guarino, A; Galiero, G

2013-06-01

356

Evidence for High Frequency of Chromosomal Mosaicism in Spontaneous Abortions Revealed by Interphase FISH Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical chromosomal imbalances are a common feature of spontaneous abortions. However, the incidence of mosaic forms of chromosomal abnormalities has not been evaluated. We have applied interphase multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization using original DNA probes for chromosomes 1, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, and Y to study chromosomal abnormalities in 148 specimens of spontaneous abortions.

Svetlana G. Vorsanova; Alexei D. Kolotii; Ivan Y. Iourov; Viktor V. Monakhov; Elena A. Kirillova; Ilia V. Soloviev; Yuri B. Yurov

2005-01-01

357

Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR?=?4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR?=?0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR?=?0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR?=?0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

2014-01-01

358

Clandestine Abortion in Mexico: A Question of Mental as Well as Physical Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on research carried out in Mexico City in 1995–1996 on the meaning of motherhood, contraception, an unwanted pregnancy or child, and the experience of illegal, clandestine abortion, as described by 12 women of different ages, class, education and marital status who had one or more clandestine abortions. A priest, two doctors from the public health system, a

Ana Amuchástegui Herrera; Marta Rivas Zivy

2002-01-01

359

Quality of post-abortion care in public health facilities in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Comprehensive quality Post Abortion Care (PAC) is one of the important strategies to save lives where access to safe abortion is restricted by Law and services are inaccessible. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the status of quality of PAC in health facilities of Amhara and Oromiya regional states. Methods: The study was cross-sectional by design

Solomon Kumbi; Yilma Melkamu; Hailu Yeneneh

360

Use of antidepressants during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The risk of relapse of depression or the diag- nosis of some other psychiatric disorders during pregnancy necessitates the use of antidepressants despite possible adverse effects. Whether such use increases the risk of spontaneous abortion is still being debated. We evaluated the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to the use of antidepressants during pregnancy. Methods: Using a nested

Hamid Reza Nakhai-Pour; Perrine Broy; A. Berard

2010-01-01

361

Induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR = 4.28, CI: (1.24-14.71)), age of 30-34 years (AOR = 0.15, CI: (0.04-0.55)), primary education (AOR = 0.26, CI: (0.13-0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR = 0.44, CI: (0.14-0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

2014-01-01

362

Factors associated with induced abortion at selected hospitals in the Volta Region, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Induced abortion rates remained persistently high in the Volta Region of Ghana in the 5 years from 2006 to 2011. Some hospitals, both rural and urban, report induced abortion-related complications as one of the top ten conditions in hospital admissions. This study explored demographic and other factors associated with induced abortion, and also assessed awareness of abortion-related complications among women of reproductive age in the Volta Region. Methods A quantitative, hospital-based, unmatched case-control study was performed. The Volta Region was stratified into two health administration zones, ie, north and south. For each zone, hospitals were stratified into government and private hospitals. Employing simple random sampling, one private and three government hospitals were selected from each zone. This study is therefore based on eight hospitals, ie, six government hospitals and two private hospitals. Results Marital status, employment status, number of total pregnancies, and knowledge about contraception were found to be associated with induced abortion. Multiple logistic regression showed a 4% reduction in the odds of induced abortion in married women compared with women who were single (odds ratio [OR] 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07–0.22). Unemployed women of reproductive age were found to be 0.35 times less likely to seek induced abortion compared with their employed counterparts (OR 0.35, CI 0.19–0.65). It was also observed that women with their second pregnancies were 3.8 times more likely to seek induced abortion and women with more than two pregnancies were 6.6 times more likely to do so (OR 3.81, CI 1.94–7.49 and OR 6.58, CI 2.58–16.79, respectively). Women with no knowledge of contraceptive methods were 4.6 times likely to seek induced abortion (OR 4.64, CI 1.39–15.4). Compared with women who had not had induced abortion, women with a high number of pregnancies and no contraceptive knowledge were more likely to have induced abortion. Conclusion It was found that lack of knowledge about contraceptives and being single or employed were associated with increased likelihood of induced abortion. It was also found that women with a higher number of pregnancies have a greater odds of induced abortion. No association was found between induced abortion and maternal age, education, contraceptive use, or religion. PMID:25187740

Klutsey, Ellen Eyi; Ankomah, Augustine

2014-01-01

363

Abortion in cattle due to infection with Staphylococcus lugdunensis.  

PubMed

An aborted fetus of 7 months gestation, the associated placenta, and a single blood sample from the dam were submitted for diagnostic investigation to the diagnostic laboratory of the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute in Parma, Italy. The serum was negative for Neospora caninum, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila abortus, Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Brucella abortus, and Brucella melitensis. Fetal tissues and placental cotyledons were pooled and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of BHV-1, Bovine herpesvirus 4, BVDV, N. caninum, C. burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Schmallemberg virus, and Leptospira interrogans. All PCR assays were negative. Bacteriological examinations performed on the fetal organs revealed a pure growth of Staphylococcus lugdunensis in all organs cultured. In human beings, S. lugdunensis is responsible for community-acquired and nosocomial infections, in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. In veterinary medicine, the pathogenic potential of S. lugdunensis has not been fully investigated. The incidence of S. lugdunensis is regarded as being underreported because it could be easily misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus. The current report documents the ability of S. lugdunensis to cause abortion in cattle, indicating the need for accurate diagnostic procedures to identify this emerging and zoonotic pathogen whose incidence is likely underestimated in both human and veterinary medicine. PMID:25292193

Ardigň, Paolo; D'Incau, Mario; Pongolini, Stefano

2014-11-01

364

Role of the infections in recurrent spontaneous abortion.  

PubMed

Embryo-fetal infections have been reported to cause recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSAs) at a rate lower than 4%. The possible mechanisms include production of toxic metabolic byproducts, fetal or placental infection, chronic endometrial infection, and chorio-amnionitis. Viruses appear to be the most frequently involved pathogens, since some of them can produce chronic or recurrent maternal infection. In particular, cytomegalovirus during pregnancy can reach the placenta by viremia, following both primary and recurrent infection, or by ascending route from the cervix, mostly following reactivation. Another herpesvirus, herpes simplex virus type 2, less frequently type 1, causes recurrent infections of the genital tract, which can involve the feto-placental unit. Parvoviruses have also been implicated in the development of repeated fetal loss. Among bacterial infections, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum,and Mycoplasma hominis have been mostly associated with occurrence of RSA. An increased risk of abortion among women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) during early pregnancy was also shown, but questions arise about the role of chronic BV in its occurrence. Although a definitive relationship between recurrently active infections and RSA is still lacking, mostly due to difficulties in demonstrating the pathogenic role of each individual isolated pathogen, diagnosis and therapy of RSA-related infections should be attempted. The diagnosis of infectious agents as a possible cause of RSA might lead to a therapeutic approach with antiviral drugs and antibiotics or using immunoglobulins, which can display both anti-infective neutralizing and immunomodulating properties. PMID:21261443

Nigro, Giovanni; Mazzocco, Manuela; Mattia, Elisabetta; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Carta, Gaspare; Anceschi, Maurizio M

2011-08-01

365

[Acute toxicity by methotrexate used for abortion purpose. Case report].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 16 years old female patient, with a pregnancy history of 11.4 weeks by ultrasound and intrauterine fetal death. In a private clinic were prescribed methotrexate 500 mg intramuscular single dose, and vaginal misoprostol. She had a clinical feature of five days of evolution characterized by fever of 39 degrees C, nausea, general attack and vomiting. The initial diagnosis was severe sepsis secondary to septic abortion, oral candidiasis and acute poisoning by methotrexate. After that, she was referred to the Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, where stayed with fever for four days, and was managed with hydration, antibiotics, folinic acid and alkalizing. Her recovery was gradual. She was discharged after 12 days with significant clinical improvement. The literature review describes that the use of methotrexate for abortion purpose with therapeutic-dose presents a similar adverse effects to those found in our patient, however there are no case reports that describe the use of this drug in macrodosis for the same purpose, and their cytotoxic effects. We present this case because the patient used a macrodosis of this antimetabolite and due to the premature and empirical management with folinic acid, joined with alkalinization of urine, is the ideal treatment and as it is illustrated in our case. PMID:21966782

Estrada-Altamirano, Ariel; Chacón-Solís, Rogerio Armando; Hernández-Pacheco, José Antonio; Belmont-Gómez, Aurora; Valenzuela-Jirón, Arlen; Carvajal-Valencia, Javier Andrés; Maya-Quińones, José Luis

2011-01-01

366

U.S. Adults' Pornography Viewing and Support for Abortion: A Three-Wave Panel Study.  

PubMed

Pornography consumption may affect judgments on a wide range of sexual and reproductive topics. The present study hypothesized that the consistent images projected in pornography affect sexual scripts related to abortion judgments. National, three-wave longitudinal data gathered from U.S. adults were employed to examine associations between earlier pornography consumption and subsequent support for abortion. The findings suggested that prior pornography consumption may lead to later support for abortion. This study provides additional evidence of pornography's socializing impact, particularly for the older White segment of the population, and adds to knowledge about what environmental factors influence judgments about abortion. Mechanisms that may explain how pornography viewing shapes support for abortion are discussed. PMID:25010599

Tokunaga, Robert S; Wright, Paul J; McKinley, Christopher J

2014-07-10

367

RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM COMMISSIONING EXPERIENCE AND REMAINING ISSUES.  

SciTech Connect

The RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems commissioning experience and the remaining issues will be reported in this paper. The RHIC Blue Ring Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply System initial commissioning took place in June 1999. Its identical system in Yellow Ring was brought on line during Spring 2000. Each of the RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems consists of five high voltage modulators and subsystems. These systems are critical devices for RHIC machine protection and environmental protection. They are required to be effective, reliable and operating with sufficient redundancy to safely abort the beam to its beam dump at the end of accumulation or at any time when they are commanded. To deflect 66 GeV ion beam to the beam absorbers, the RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems were operated at 22 kV level. The RHIC 2000 commissioning run was very successful.

ZHANG,W.; AHRENS,L.A.; MI,J.; OERTER,B.; SANDERS,R.; SANDBERG,J.

2001-06-18

368

No Exceptions: Documenting the Abortion Experiences of US Peace Corps Volunteers.  

PubMed

Since 1979, US federal appropriations bills have prohibited the use of federal funds from covering abortion care for Peace Corps volunteers. There are no exceptions; unlike other groups that receive health care through US federal funding streams, including Medicaid recipients, federal employees, and women in federal prisons, abortion care is not covered for volunteers even in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest. We interviewed 433 returned Peace Corps volunteers to document opinions of, perceptions about, and experiences with obtaining abortion care. Our results regarding the abortion experiences of Peace Corps volunteers, especially those who were raped, bear witness to a profound inequity and show that the time has come to lift the "no exceptions" funding ban on abortion coverage. PMID:25494207

Foster, Angel M; Arnott, Grady; Parniak, Simone; LaRoche, Kathryn J; Trussell, James

2015-01-01

369

Peri-abortion contraceptive use in the French islands of Guadeloupe and La Réunion: variation in the management of post-abortion care  

PubMed Central

Objectives The abortion rate varies greatly within the French overseas territories including the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe and La Réunion in the Indian Ocean. We compare women’s contraceptive paths surrounding an abortion in both territories. Methods The data for this study are part of a nationally representative survey of women undergoing abortion in France in 2007. The analysis included 1211women from Guadeloupe and 1531 from La Réunion. Results Results show differences in women’s use of contraception before the abortion by study location. Women in Guadeloupe were more likely not to have used contraception in the month they conceived (40% vs. 32%, p < 001). Among those using no contraception or less effective contraception before the abortion, 74% in Guadeloupe and 86% in La Réunion received a prescription for a very effective method such as a hormonal method or intrauterine device after the procedure. In both settings, women with no health insurance or a government health plan were 70% less likely to have received a prescription for a very effective method. Conclusions While this study shows a significant increase in the prescription of very effective methods, it also indicates the ineffectiveness of the health care system in closing the gap in the pre-abortion contraceptive disparities observed between Guadeloupe and La Réunion. PMID:20465401

Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James; Desfreres, Julie; Bajos, Nathalie

2013-01-01

370

Observations on abortions in cattle: a comparison of pathological, microbiological and immunological findings in aborted foetuses and foetuses collected at abattoirs.  

PubMed Central

Fifty nonaborted and 50 aborted bovine foetuses were examined utilizing histology, immunoelectrophoresis, bacteriology and the fluorescent antibody technique. Lesions were observed in 12 of the nonaborted foesuses and in four of these immunoglobulins were demonstrated. In addition, two of the nonaborted foetuses had immunoglobulins in the absence of observed lesions. Lesions were observed in 48 of the aborted foetuses and immunoglobulins were detected in 22 of these. An etiological diagnosis was arrived at in 24 of the 50 aborted foetuses. The tissues most frequently observed to have lesions of diagnostic significance were eyelid, intestine, liver, lung and placenta. Intestinal lesions were observed in several foetuses in association with a variety of agents including infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Foetuses diagnosed as aborting because of mycotic infection consistently displayed lesions in their eyelids. The value of taking eyelid sections in cases of suspected mycotic abortions, the significance of foetal intestinal lesions, the evaluation of abomasal aspirates and the diagnostic importance of immunoglobulin determinations in aborted foetuses are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. PMID:166738

Miller, R B; Quinn, P J

1975-01-01

371

What British women say matters to them about donating an aborted fetus to stem cell research: A focus group study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first investigation into what matters to British women when they think about donating an aborted fetus to research, and how stem cell research and therapies might influence their views. Tissue derived from the aborted fetus is considered “the right tool for the job” in some stem cell laboratories. Research using tissue derived from aborted fetuses is permitted

Naomi Pfeffer

2008-01-01

372

Rates of Spontaneous and Therapeutic Abortions Following Use of Antidepressants in Pregnancy: Results From a Large Prospective Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The use of antidepressants during pregnancy remains a controversial issue, and there is little information on the risk of spontaneous abortions following antidepressant exposure in early pregnancy. We sought to examine whether use of antidepressants increases the rates of spontaneous abortion (SA) and therapeutic abortion (TA) in women exposed in early pregnancy. Methods: In a cohort of women who

Adrienne Einarson; Jacqueline Choi; Thomas R. Einarson; Gideon Koren

373

Is there a higher prevalence of pregnancy complications in a live-birth preceding the appearance of recurrent abortions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of pregnancy complications in a live-birth preceding the appearance of recurrent abor- tions. Methods: A case-control study comparing women who had at least two consecutive spontaneous abortions after one live birth with matched controls, without recurrent abortions, was performed. Cases were recruited from the Recurrent Abortions Clinic. The women in

Adi Y. Weintraub; Eyal Sheiner; Asher Bashiri; Ilana Shoham-Vardi; Moshe Mazor

2005-01-01

374

By the London Post. The abortion law reviewed--free contraception--angry angels.  

PubMed

This article contains 3 news items from England: the report of the Lane Committee which reviewed the 1967 Abortion Act, the announcement that the National Health Service would provide free contraception to all, and the ultimatum presented by the Royal College of Nurses to the Department of Health. The Lane Committee was assigned to review how the liberalized Abortion Act was functioning in the light of recent complaints and to make recommendations. The report opened with a historical account of abortion since the Middle Assyrian Code and included anthropologic studies. The most influential events on the British law were: the Canon Law of the thirteenth century forbidding abortion; the Infant Life Preservation Act of 1929, permitting abortion only to save the mother's life; and the trial of Dr. Bourne, a gynecologist who aborted a 14-year-old rape victim. The 1967 law allows abortion for physical or mental health of the woman or her children or for possible abnormal fetus. The Lane Committee did not support the complaints of some that physicians' status was lessened or that geographical distribution of abortion was unfair, since the only alternative would be illegal abortion or unwanted children. They recommended stricter licensing of pregnancy referral agencies to prevent some doctors from making fortunes, strengthened certification of abortions, and more financial support by the National Health Service. The National Health Service will offer free contraception after April 1 to all regardless of age or marital status. Family doctors, hospital gynecologists, and those who believe that this policy encourages irresponsible sex have objected. The Royal College of Nursing has advised the National Health Service that their members would resign if salaries were not increased in 3 weeks, but after an inquiry was instituted in Parliament, they withdrew their immediate resignation threat. PMID:4599659

Lister, J

1974-07-25

375

Abortion of acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction after reperfusion: incidence, patients’ characteristics, and prognosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study the incidence and patient characteristics of aborted myocardial infarction in both prehospital and in-hospital thrombolysis. Design: Retrospective, controlled, observational study. Setting: Two cities in the Netherlands, one with prehospital thrombolysis, one with in-hospital treatment. Patients: 475 patients with suspected acute ST elevation myocardial infarction treated before admission to hospital, 269 patients treated in hospital. Main outcome measures: Aborted myocardial infarction, defined as the combination of subsiding of cumulative ST segment elevation and depression to < 50% of the level at presentation, together with a rise of creatine kinase of less than twice the upper normal concentration. A stepwise regression analysis was used to test independent predictors for aborted myocardial infarction. Results: After correction for “unjustified” thrombolysis, 17.1% of the 468 prehospital treated patients and 4.5% of the 264 in-hospital treated patients fulfilled the criteria for aborted myocardial infarction. There was no difference in age, sex, risk factors, haemodynamic status, and infarct location of aborted myocardial infarction compared with established myocardial infarction. Time to treatment was shorter in the patients with aborted myocardial infarction (86 versus 123 minutes, p = 0.05). A shorter time to treatment, lower ST elevation at presentation, and higher incidence of preinfarction angina were independent predictors for aborted myocardial infarction. Aborted myocardial infarction had a 12 month mortality of 2.2%, significantly less than the 11.6% of established myocardial infarction. Conclusion: Prehospital thrombolysis is associated with a fourfold increase of aborted myocardial infarction compared with in-hospital treatment. A shorter time to treatment, a lower ST elevation, and a higher incidence of preinfarction angina were predictors of aborted myocardial infarction. PMID:12695450

Lamfers, E J P; Hooghoudt, T E H; Hertzberger, D P; Schut, A; Stolwijk, P W J; Verheugt, F W A

2003-01-01

376

LegalTransformA Framework for making legal documents accessible to humans  

E-print Network

LegalTransformA Framework for making legal documents accessible to humans Emerson Murphy Hill, The Evergreen State College #12;In this day and age, we are required to understand legal documents. #12;Credit card agreements, local, state, and federal laws, mortgage agreements, child custody contracts, divorce

Murphy-Hill, Emerson

377

Guide to European Legal Databases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New York University (NYU) Law School Reference Librarian For International and Foreign Law, Mirela Roznovschi, has prepared this excellent Guide to European Legal Databases. The Guide offers recommendations for search engines and search tips/strategies for researching foreign law topics. Visitors will find the annotated list of European Websites useful for finding constitutional, copyright, and environmental laws (many laws listed by country). Also referenced in the Guide are sites covering the laws of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the Council of Europe, and the European Union. A section entitled Indices, Guides, Journals, Dictionaries, Library Catalogs covers consolidated resource guides and notable collections, to facilitate further research efforts.

378

Animal Legal & Historical Web Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With his colleague Rebecca Wisch, Professor David Favre at the Michigan State University College of Law has created this very helpful online resource designed to give the public and the legal community access to comprehensive explanations on the issues surrounding animal law and associated topics. From the homepage, visitors can peruse new material (such as an overview of French animal law), or move to the left-hand side of the homepage to select information about animal law in different states or by topic. One of the other recently added features is the full text of dog laws for all 50 states, along with a basic overview of state dog leash laws. Overall, the site is well-designed and will be of interest to those with a specific interest in this very broad topic.

379

Tuberculosis: Medico-Legal Aspects  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behaviour differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc.) that follow a classic epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli that is capable of spreading the bacteria by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb the bacteria are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor), not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, and not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90–95%) of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Furthermore, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—and in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behaviour of the disease in the early stages, targeted monitoring to identify other persons who may become ill is appropriate. PMID:24804006

Vetrugno, G.; De-Giorgio, F.; D’Alessandro, F.; Scafetta, I.; Berloco, F.; Buonsenso, D.; Abbate, F.; Scalise, G.; Pascali, V.L.; Valentini, P

2014-01-01

380

Marketing strategies for Chinese public legal services companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article defines legal services industry as private solicitor and barrister practices, patent attorney businesses and other organizations such as government solicitors, legal aid authorities and community legal centers, whose primary activity is the provision of legal services. This article scans three key environmental factors that have fundamental impact on the legal services industry. They include advances in information technology

Hualin Shen; Yong Han; Zhongyou Zhang; Zhiliu Zeng

2011-01-01

381

Legal realisms: on law and politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this work is the issue of whether, and to what extent, the nature of the law is affected by politics, has been taken up by the American and Scandinavian legal realists. By the very fact of their being products of?the socio-political conditions of the most recent century, the American and Scandinavian legal realisms are the movements that

Mauro Zamboni

2006-01-01

382

Legal issues associated with antimicrobial drug resistance.  

PubMed Central

An effective public health strategy against the development of antimicrobial drug resistance needs to be informed by legal as well as scientific analysis. This article describes some legal issues arising from current efforts against antimicrobial resistance and underscores the interdependence between law and public health in these efforts. PMID:9621187

Fidler, D. P.

1998-01-01

383

LEGAL ISSUES OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Legal issues are becoming as important as any other in promoting or limiting the development of GIS technology. Certainly legal considerations must now be kept in mind during the creation and implementation of large public and private GIS projects. Debate focuses on a number of...

384

The Jeffersonian Vision of Legal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the Jeffersonian vision of legal education. Examines methods of training lawyers in colonial America, noting that colleges offered no such instruction. Considers Jefferson's vision of the role of education in sustaining a republican form of government and describes the implementation of his vision of legal education first at the college…

Douglas, Davison M.

2001-01-01

385

American Legal Education and Professional Despair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lawyers are among the most unhappy, least respected wealthy people in America. There are, no doubt, many reasons for the morale crisis in the legal profession. After all, not many people like lawyers. Further, many aspects of legal work are objectively stressful. Litigation is rife with conflict even in the most courteous jurisdictions, and trials…

French, David

2011-01-01

386

LGBT Legal Issues in Jesuit Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues facing the LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) community can prove to be a legal nightmare for college and university administrators to address, particularly at religiously affiliated institutions like Jesuit colleges. Administrators have to walk a fine line between nondiscrimination statutes and the religious beliefs and teachings of the school's affiliation. This paper explores the main legal issues pertaining

Bryce Hughes

387

Weaponisation of Space - Some Legal Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will examine a current national initiative from the United States of America to achieve greater national security through the `weaponisation' of extra-atmospheric space. We will propose a synthesis of the current international legal framework pertaining to military activities in space. Based on the analysis of the legal regime and on some current national and regional political initiatives, we

C. Jolly

2002-01-01

388

Teaching the Legal Aspects of Business Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that the basic business communication course is the ideal course in which to discuss the legal aspects of business communication. Reviews some of the most important legal considerations: contract communications, credit and collections communication, employment communication, and other interpersonal communication. (SR)

Harcourt, Jules

1990-01-01

389

The Experience of becoming a Legal Professional  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students intent on a career as a legal professional prepare for this through university study. The research reported in this paper looks at the clear relationships described by law students between the focus of their university study and their perceptions of the nature of work as a legal professional. We suggest that the current approach to…

Reid, Anna; Nagarajan, Vijaya; Dortins, Emma

2006-01-01

390

Medical-legal partnerships: transforming primary care by addressing the legal needs of vulnerable populations.  

PubMed

Health care is undermined when patients don't receive the benefit of laws intended to address social determinants of health, such as housing and food. Medical-legal partnerships, which now exist in more than 200 clinical sites in the United States, integrate lawyers into health care to address legal problems that create and perpetuate poor health. This paper describes how such medical-legal partnerships can change clinical systems--for example, by adding legal form letters to electronic health records to help low-income patients rectify substandard housing conditions. We recommend the integration of medical-legal partnerships into federal health care programs. PMID:20820029

Sandel, Megan; Hansen, Mark; Kahn, Robert; Lawton, Ellen; Paul, Edward; Parker, Victoria; Morton, Samantha; Zuckerman, Barry

2010-09-01

391

Legal considerations when making a practice change.  

PubMed

Changes in medical practice, such as retiring, selling a practice, and switching employment, have significant legal impacts on physicians. These decisions should be carefully analyzed prior to being made. Physicians who do not make decisions in a well-considered manner may face economic penalties, licensure sanctions, and/or other legal issues. This article explores some key legal issues including (1) timing, (2) patient care continuity, (3) medical records retention, (4) licensure and board certification, (5) professional liability insurance, and (6) postemployment restrictions on practice. Within these topics, sources of physicians' legal and ethical obligations are examined, including possible resolutions to identified issues. Not all changes affect physicians in the same manner. This article further considers how these important legal issues may impact differently situated physicians, such as retiring physicians vs transitioning physicians and physicians employed by groups or hospital systems vs physicians in solo practice. PMID:25010964

Armon, Bruce D; Bayus, Karilynn

2014-07-01

392

Clinical evaluation of different applications of misoprostol and aglepristone for induction of abortion in bitches.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical and endocrinological effects of different applications of misoprostol (MIS) and aglepristone (AGL) for the induction of abortion in bitches. For this purpose, 28 healthy pregnant bitches from different breeds, ages, body weights (Body weigt, BWs, 10-40 kg), and between Days 25 to 35 of gestation were used. Bitches were randomly assigned to four groups. In group 1 (GI, n = 7), AGL (10 mg/kg BW, s.c. on 2 consecutive days); in group 2 (GII, n = 7), AGL (as in GI), intravaginal MIS (IVag, 200 ?g for bitches with ?20 kg BW, 400 ?g for bitches with >20 kg BW, daily intravaginally until completion of abortion); in group 3 (GIII, n = 7), AGL (as in GI), ICVag (as in GII), per os MIS (400 ?g for bitches with ?20 kg BW, 800 ?g for bitches with >20 kg BW, daily orally, until completion of abortion); in group 4 (GIV, n = 7), AGL (as in GI), per os MIS (as GIII) were used. Clinical, vaginal, and ultrasonographic examinations were performed daily until abortion was completed. For measurement of serum progesterone, blood samples were collected in all groups immediately after the first AGL administration and every other day until completion of abortion. No statistical differences were found between groups concerning the duration until completion of abortion after treatment (nonsignificant); however, in GII, one bitch completed abortion 2 days after the start of treatment. PMID:24576713

Agaoglu, A R; Aslan, S; Emre, B; Korkmaz, O; Ozdemir Salci, E S; Kocamuftuoglu, M; Seyrek-Intas, K; Schäfer-Somi, S

2014-04-15

393

Anxiety and depression in pregnant women with previous history of spontaneous abortion.  

PubMed

Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome, and stress has been suggested to be important factor. We hypothesized that those female pregnant women with previous spontaneous abortion will have higher anxiety and depression than female pregnant women without previous spontaneous abortion and controls (healthy non-pregnant women). Age and socio-demographic parameters did not differ significantly between the three groups of participants. Anxiety and depression levels were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. There were no significant differences in the scores on Beck Depression Inventory between three groups of participants at the week 10 of gestation-1st assessment and week 20 of gestation-2nd assessment. Contrary of these results, pregnant women with history of spontaneous abortion have had statistically significant higher anxiety score than pregnant women without history of spontaneous abortion and control group-non-pregnant women, on both assessment of anxiety. Negative correlations between months passed form the last spontaneous abortion and anxiety on both assessment, emphasize the role of psychological support for the women who have experienced spontaneous abortion. PMID:21648338

Marcinko, Vesna Medjedovi?; Marcinko, Darko; Dordevi?, Veljko; Oreskovi?, Slavko

2011-01-01

394

Placental thrombosis in acute phase abortions during experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep  

PubMed Central

After oral administration of ewes during mid gestation with 2000 freshly prepared sporulated oocysts of T. gondii isolate M4, abortions occurred between days 7 and 11 in 91.6% of pregnant and infected ewes. Afterwards, a further infection was carried out at late gestation in another group of sheep with 500 sporulated oocysts. Abortions happened again between days 9 and 11 post infection (pi) in 58.3% of the infected ewes. Classically, abortions in natural and experimental ovine toxoplasmosis usually occur one month after infection. Few experimental studies have reported the so-called acute phase abortions as early as 7 to 14 days after oral inoculation of oocysts, and pyrexia was proposed to be responsible for abortion, although the underline mechanism was not elucidated. In the present study, all placentas analysed from ewes suffering acute phase abortions showed infarcts and thrombosis in the caruncullar villi of the placentomes and ischemic lesions (periventricular leukomalacia) in the brain of some foetuses. The parasite was identified by PCR in samples from some placentomes of only one sheep, and no antigen was detected by immunohistochemical labelling. These findings suggest that the vascular lesions found in the placenta, and the consequent hypoxic damage to the foetus, could be associated to the occurrence of acute phase abortions. Although the pathogenesis of these lesions remains to be determined, the infectious dose or virulence of the isolate may play a role in their development. PMID:24475786

2014-01-01

395

Getting the story straight. The press and "partial-birth abortion".  

PubMed

This paper discusses the controversy of the banning of żpartial-birth abortionż in the state of Nebraska. This controversy arises as a result of how several major news sources described the Nebraska statute--that is, as a pre-viability abortion ban, and not a ban on late-term abortion procedures. This issue did not only occur in Nebraska, but also in Michigan when abortion opponents simultaneously initiated a publicity scheme to mislead the public into believing the ban was about żgruesomeż late-term procedures. The deceptive term żpartial-birth abortionż, also seemed to suggest abortions performed on viable fetuses and the language describing the ban was confusing and slippery. In response to this controversy, Janet Benshoof, the president of the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP) immediately made a statement to counteract the allegation imposed by abortion opponents. Also, CRLP Communications Deputy Director Margie Kelly spends a considerable amount of time informing the press of the extreme measures of the laws. PMID:12322529

Farmer, A

2000-06-01

396

Induced abortion patterns and determinants among married women in China: 1979 to 2010.  

PubMed

China has launched the one-child policy to control its rapidly expanding population since 1979. Local governments, tasked with limiting regional birth rates, commonly imposed induced abortions. After 1994, China's family planning policy was relatively loosened and mandatory induced abortion gradually gave way to client-centered and informed-choice contraceptive policy and the "Compensation" Fee policy. This study assesses trends in and determinants of induced abortion among married women aged 20-49 in China from 1979 to 2010, using data from national statistics and nationally representative sample surveys. The incidence of induced abortions among married women aged 20-49 began to decrease in the mid-1990s. The induced abortion rate reached its highest level in the early 1980s (56.07%) and its lowest level in the 2000s (18.04%), with an average annual rate of 28.95% among married women 20-49 years old. The likelihood of a pregnant woman undergoing an induced abortion during this period depended not only on individual characteristics (including ethnicity, age, education level, household registration, number of children, and sex of children), but also on the stringency of the family planning policy in place. The less stringent the family planning policy, the less likely married women were to undergo an induced abortion. PMID:24908467

Wang, Cuntong

2014-05-01

397

The Effect of Progesterone Suppositories on Threatened Abortion: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Threatened abortion is a common complication of pregnancy. In order to prevent miscarriage in the cases with threatened abortion, this study was conducted to determine whether progesterone suppository is effective in allowing pregnancy to proceed beyond week 20 in women with threatened abortion. Methods This single-blind clinical trial study was done on 60 pregnant women with threatened abortion. Pregnant women, who had vaginal bleeding until 20 weeks of their pregnancy, were assessed for inclusion. Participants were divided into two groups by random allocation; the control group, which did not undergo any treatment and the case group. The case group was given 400 mg of vaginal progesterone suppository (Cyclogest) each day until their bleeding stopped in less than one week. Participants were followed up until the end of their pregnancy. The treatment was considered successful if pregnancy continued beyond 20 weeks of gestation. Qualitative and quantitative variables were analyzed statistically by Chi Square and T- test respectively. The p-values of less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the case and the control groups in terms of background variables. The number of abortions in the case group (6 cases, 20%) was lower than the control group which had 10 abortions (33.3%). Conclusion The study demonstrated that the rate of abortion was reduced in women treated with progesterone suppositories. However, the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:25202672

Yassaee, Fakhrolmolouk; Shekarriz-Foumani, Reza; Afsari, Shabnam; Fallahian, Masoumeh

2014-01-01

398

Modeling the process leading to abortion: an application to French survey data.  

PubMed

In this study, we model women's recourse to induced abortion as resulting from a process that starts with sexual intercourse and contraceptive use (or nonuse), continues with the occurrence of an unintended pregnancy, and ends with the woman's decision to terminate the pregnancy and her access to abortion services. Our model includes two often-neglected proximate determinants of abortion: sexual practices and access to abortion services. We relate three sociodemographic characteristics--women's educational level, their relationship status, and their age--step by step to the stages of the abortion process. We apply our framework using data from the COCON survey, a national survey on reproductive health conducted in France in 2000. Our model shows that sociodemographic variables may have opposite impacts as the abortion process unfolds. For example, women's educational level can be positively linked to the probability of practicing contraception but negatively linked to the propensity to carry the unintended pregnancy to term. This conceptual framework brings together knowledge that is currently dispersed in the literature and helps to identify the source of abortion-rate differentials. PMID:17933290

Rossier, Clémentine; Michelot, François; Bajos, Nathalie

2007-09-01

399

Private medical providers' knowledge and practices concerning medical abortion in Nigeria.  

PubMed

To investigate the knowledge and practices regarding medical abortion and postabortion care in northern Nigeria among private physicians--the principal providers of such services in the area--122 doctors operating separate clinics in five states--Bauchi, Borno, Kaduna, Niger, and Taraba--were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire. The results showed that 22 percent of the doctors reported that they terminate unwanted pregnancies, whereas nearly all reported that they manage complications of unsafe abortion. Manual vacuum aspiration and dilatation and curettage performed singly or in combination were the most common methods of abortion and postabortion care reported by the doctors. Only one doctor reported exclusive use of medical abortion in the first trimester, and three reported its exclusive use in the second trimester. Only 35 percent of the doctors listed misoprostol as a drug that they knew could be used for abortion and postabortion care, and only 12 percent listed mifepristone. By contrast, 49 percent listed inappropriate or dangerous drugs for use in abortion provision in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. We conclude that private practitioners in northern Nigeria have limited knowledge of medical abortion and postabortion care, and that a capacity-building program on the subject should be instituted for them. PMID:21500700

Okonofua, Friday E; Hammed, Afolabi; Abass, Tajudeen; Mairiga, Abdulkarim Garba; Mohammed, Abubakar Bako; Adewale, Adeniyi; Garba, Danjuma

2011-03-01

400

The Max Launch Abort System - Concept, Flight Test, and Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.

Gilbert, Michael G.

2014-01-01

401

Design of fast kickers for the ISABELLE beam abort system  

SciTech Connect

The ISA beam abort (extraction) system must be highly efficient, in the sense of producing minimum beam loss, and reliable to prevent serious damage to accelerator components by the circulating high-energy beams. Since the stored beams will be debunched, the low-loss requirement can be met only with ultra-thin extraction septa and/or fast-acting kickers. This paper examines the design of the ISA extraction kickers subject to a set of extraction channel constraints and a given maximum working voltage. Expressions are derived for determining system parameters for both a lumped parameter magnet and a delay-line magnet. Using these relationships, design parameters are worked out for several possible system configurations. The paper also describes the construction of a full-scale prototype module of the kicker and summarizes the preliminary test results obtained with the module.

Nawrocky, R.J.; Montemurro, P.A.; Baron, J.

1981-01-01

402

First Operation of the Abort Gap Monitor for LHC  

SciTech Connect

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam-dump system relies on extraction kickers that need 3 microseconds to rise to their nominal field. Since particles transiting the kickers during the rise will not be dumped properly, the proton population in this interval must always remain below quench and damage limits. A specific monitor to measure the particle population of this gap has been designed based on the detection of synchrotron radiation using a gated photomultiplier. Since the quench and damage limits change with the beam energy, the acceptable population in the abort gap and the settings of the monitor must adapt accordingly. This paper presents the design of the monitor, the calibration procedure and the detector performance with beam.

Lefevre, Thibaut; /CERN; Bart Pedersen, Stephane; /CERN; Boccardi, Andrea; /CERN; Bravin, Enrico; /CERN; Goldblatt, A.; /CERN; Jeff, Adam; /CERN; Roncarolo, Federico; /CERN; Fisher, Alan; /SLAC

2012-07-06

403

An analytical procedure for evaluating shuttle abort staging aerodynamic characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineering analysis and computer code (AERSEP) for predicting Space Shuttle Orbiter - HO Tank longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics during abort separation has been developed. Computed results are applicable at Mach numbers above 2 for angle-of-attack between plus or minus 10 degrees. No practical restrictions on orbiter-tank relative positioning are indicated for tank-under-orbiter configurations. Input data requirements and computer running times are minimal facilitating program use for parametric studies, test planning, and trajectory analysis. In a majority of cases AERSEP Orbiter-Tank interference predictions are as accurate as state-of-the-art estimates for interference-free or isolated-vehicle configurations. AERSEP isolated-orbiter predictions also show excellent correlation with data.

Meyer, R.

1973-01-01

404

78 FR 25795 - Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...procures the services of retained legal counsel. Litigation means a...or an arbitrator. Retained legal counsel means a licensed attorney working in the private sector who is retained by a contractor or the Department to provide legal services. Retrospective...

2013-05-03

405

76 FR 81408 - Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...which the Contractor retains legal counsel, including but not...or an arbitrator. Retained legal counsel means a licensed attorney working in the private sector who is retained by a Contractor or the Department to provide legal services. Retrospective...

2011-12-28

406

5 CFR 582.202 - Service of legal process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Service of legal process. 582.202 Section 582...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...EMPLOYEES' PAY Service of Legal Process § 582.202 Service of legal process. (a) A person...

2010-01-01

407

5 CFR 582.305 - Honoring legal process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Honoring legal process. 582.305 Section 582...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...PAY Compliance With Legal Process § 582.305 Honoring legal process. (a) The agency...

2010-01-01

408

32 CFR 516.17 - SJA or legal adviser procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true SJA or legal adviser procedures. 516.17 Section 516.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.17 SJA or legal adviser procedures. (a)...

2010-07-01

409

Psychological distress and post-abortion contraceptive method effectiveness level chosen at an urban clinic  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated whether more psychological distress before an abortion is associated with the effectiveness of contraception selected (low, moderate, or high effectiveness) at an abortion clinic visit. Method Using data from 253 women attending an urban abortion clinic that primarily serves low-income women, we tested the association between pre-abortion psychological distress and the effectiveness level of post-abortion contraceptive choice. Based on typical use failure rates, we classified effectiveness of contraceptive choice into three levels—low, moderate, and high effectiveness. We measured psychological distress with four validated measures of depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms, and negative affect, as well as with a global measure comprised of these four measures. We used multivariable ordinal logistic regression to measure the association of each psychological distress measure with post-abortion contraceptive method effectiveness level, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, pregnancy history, trimester of abortion, and importance of avoiding pregnancy in the next year. Results We found that compared to women experiencing less stress symptoms, negative affect, and global psychological distress, women experiencing more stress symptoms [AOR = 1.028, 95% CI: 1.001-1.050], negative affect [AOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.09], and global psychological distress [AOR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.95] were more likely to choose more effective versus less effective methods, ps < .05, in adjusted models. Using dichotomous psychological measures we found similar results. Conclusions Women experiencing more psychological distress before an abortion selected more effective contraceptive methods after their abortions. Future research should examine whether this distress is associated with subsequent contraceptive use or continuation. Implications The current study suggests that contraceptive providers should not assume that women experiencing more psychological distress prefer to use less effective contraceptive methods. PMID:24094755

Steinberg, Julia R.; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Henderson, Jillian T.; Drey, Eleanor A.; Steinauer, Jody E.; Harper, Cynthia C.

2013-01-01

410

AN ENGINEERING SOLUTION TO THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER UPGRADE.  

SciTech Connect

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is the world largest superconducting accelerator for nuclear energy research. Particle beams traveling in opposite directions in two accelerator rings, Blue and Yellow, collide at six interaction regions to create phenomena of the early universe. There are more than 1700 superconducting magnets and very sophisticate and delicate large detectors inside the RHIC tunnel. With high beam intensity and ultra high beam energy, an inadvertent loss of beam can result severe damage to the superconducting magnets and detectors. Beam abort kickers are used to remove beam safely from the ring. The large inductive load, high current capability, short beam gap, and high reliability are the challenging issues of this system design. With high intensity and high momentum beam operation, it is desirable to have all high voltage modulators located outside of RHIC tunnel. However, to generate 22 kA output current per modulator with fast rise time, a conventional low impedance PFN and matched transmission cable design can push the operation voltage easily into 100 kV range. The large quantity of high voltage pulse transmission cables required by conventional design is another difficult issue. Therefore, the existing system has all ten high voltage modulators located inside RHIC tunnel. More than a hundred plastic packaged mineral oil filled high voltage capacitors raise serious concerns of fire and smoking threats. Other issues, such as kicker misfire, device availability in the future, and inaccessibility during operation, also demand an engineering solution for the future upgrade. In this paper, we investigate an unconventional approach to meet the technical challenges of RHIC beam abort system. The proposed design has all modulators outside of the RHIC tunnel. It will transmit output pulse through high voltage cables. The modulators will utilize solid-state switches, and operate at a maximum voltage in 30 to 50 kV range.

ZHANG,W.ROSER,T.SANDBERG,J.TAN,Y.ET AL.

2004-05-23

411

Effects of legal termination on subsequent pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and eleven patients who had undergone vaginal termination and were pregnant again were investigated; 43-2% had become pregnant within one year of termination. The overall fetal loss in the 211 patients was 17-5% compared with 7-5% in a group matched for parity but consisting of patients who were pregnant after a spontaneous abortion. Altogether 4-3% of pregnancies after

J A Richardson; G Dixon

1976-01-01

412

The Incidence of Spontaneous Abortion in Mothers with Blood Group O Compared with other Blood Types  

PubMed Central

Although ABO incompatibility between mother and fetus has long been suspected as cause of spontaneous abortion in man, its precise contribution has not been completely resolved. In spite of reports in which the incompatible mating was recognized to be a cause of habitual abortion, and which eventually results in infertility or a reduction in the number of living children compared with the number in compatible matings, such effects were not observed in other studies. The aim of this review article was to show some evidence of relationship between ABO incompatibility and spontaneous abortion. PMID:24551765

Hassanzadeh-Nazarabadi, Mohammad; Shekouhi, Sahar; Seif, Najmeh

2012-01-01

413

Fetal tissue transplantation and abortion decisions: a survey of urban women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe women's attitudes and predicted behaviour regarding the potential for fetal tissue transplantation (FTT) to influence abortion decisions. DESIGNS: Self-administered questionnaire survey by mail. SETTING: Academic family practice in Toronto. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 475 women 18 to 40 years of age selected from the family practice registry of an urban teaching hospital. Family physicians were blind to their patients' participation, and investigators were blind to the subjects' identity. Forty questionnaires were undeliverable. Of the remaining 435, 272 (62.5%) were completed. Six of the women were over 40 years of age or did not indicate their age and were excluded, which left 266 (61.1%) questionnaires for analysis. OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of women who would (a) be more likely to have an abortion if they could donate tissue for FTT and (b) feel better or worse about choosing abortion if FTT were an option, and open-ended comments about the potential for FTT to influence abortion decisions. RESULTS: Of the 266 respondents 32 (12.0%) reported that they would be more likely to have an abortion if they could donate tissue for FTT, 178 (66.9%) stated that they would not be more likely to do so, and 56 (21.1%) were uncertain. Of the 122 who indicated that they would consider an abortion if they were pregnant, 21 (17.2%) stated that they would be more likely to have an abortion if they could donate tissue for FTT, 77 (63.1%) replied that they would not be more likely to do so, and 24 (19.7%) were uncertain. The women 25 to 33 years of age were more likely to be influenced by FTT than the younger or older women, and the women 18 to 24 years were more uncertain about the influence of FTT on abortion decisions than the older women. In written responses some of the women felt that FTT might make abortion decisions easier; many were troubled that FTT might be used to justify a morally problematic abortion decision and felt that FTT should not be used to justify abortion. CONCLUSION: The data, the first of their kind gathered from from women, suggest that some women's abortion decisions may be influenced by the option to donate tissue for FTT. Further research is necessary to explore the mechanism of influence. PMID:7641152

Martin, D K; Maclean, H; Lowy, F H; Williams, J I; Dunn, E V

1995-01-01

414

[An uncommon complication of unsafe induced abortion: bowel prolapse through uterine perforation].  

PubMed

The authors report one case of bowel prolapse through uterus following induced abortion. The eviscerated bowel was completely gangrenous, devoided from its mesentery and entrapped in the uterus wall. The treatment was a bowel resection and ileo-ileum anastomosis; the uterus was evacuated of retained products of conception and then sutured. The patient recovered uneventfully; fertility prognosis is expected to be poor because of abortion sequelae. If the abortion law still remains in Ivory Coast, more effort should be directed at reducing the incidence of unwanted pregnancy. This could be best archived by a better information on contraception and better health education programs. PMID:22301199

Lebeau, R; Guié, P; Bohoussou, É; Akpa-Bédi, É S A; Loukou, Y; Kouassi, J-C; Anongba, S

2013-03-01

415

Contraceptive use among clients of the Atlanta Feminist Women's Health Center at three to five weeks post-abortion.  

PubMed

Little is known about women's contraceptive use and sexual activity in the immediate post-abortion period although effective contraceptive use is paramount during this time because fertility returns almost immediately. This study sought to learn more about women's contraceptive use and sexual behaviors to inform abortion providers and help them serve their clients better, potentially leading to a decline in the rates of unintended pregnancy and repeat abortion. Abortion clients of an Atlanta, GA clinic were surveyed over the telephone 3-5 weeks post-abortion. Background information was collected from clinic medical charts. Simple and stratified frequencies and logistic regression were used to describe women's sexual activity and contraceptive use in the immediate post-abortion period and to determine if variables known at the time of the abortion could predict contraceptive use 3-5 weeks post-abortion. 54.2% (n = 39) of women had engaged in sexual intercourse in the immediate post-abortion period. Of these, 30.8% (n = 12) were not using a contraceptive method or were not using it effectively. Women who said they did not want or need information about birth control on their medical history form were less likely to be using contraception 3-5 weeks post abortion. Emphasizing the rapid return of fertility and risk of conception in pre-abortion counseling sessions could prevent future unintended pregnancies among abortion clients. Further research could explore the interaction between a willingness to talk about contraceptive methods at the time of abortion and method use post-abortion. PMID:20602161

Moslin, Trisha A; Rochat, Roger W

2011-08-01

416

The legal authority of mature minors to consent to general medical treatment.  

PubMed

The nature and scope of mature adolescents' legal authority to consent to general medical treatment without parental involvement is often misrepresented by commentators. This state of affairs is further complicated by the law itself, which has developed a broad "mature minor exception" to the general requirement of parental consent in abortion cases and which has additionally carved out numerous specific status-based and condition-based exceptions to that requirement. In these circumstances, it is not always a simple matter for physicians and other medical professionals who treat adolescents to ascertain the applicable law. In this article, we discuss the underlying differences between medical ethics and law, which have caused some of the confusion in this area, and we set out the most current legal rules governing adolescent decision-making authority in general medical settings. A comprehensive analysis of both statutory and common law demonstrates that in such settings, parental consent continues to be required by most jurisdictions, even when the minor can be considered cognitively "mature." PMID:23530175

Coleman, Doriane Lambelet; Rosoff, Philip M

2013-04-01

417

Victim advocates' perceptions of legal work.  

PubMed

Past scholarship has weighed the risks and rewards of legal remedies for victims of domestic violence and sexual assault. Missing from this debate, however, is an analysis of the social incentives for victim advocates to offer legal options to their clients. Preliminary findings show that victim advocates perceive that outsiders respect legal work more than their care work with clients (listening, caring, and empathizing). This study offers three explanations for this phenomenon: (1) the devaluation of women's care work in general, (2) the confidentiality constraints on communicating the value of their care work, and (3) popular assumptions that care work requires professional credentials in order to be legitimate. PMID:22410771

Kolb, Kenneth H

2011-12-01

418

Effects of Parental Notification and Consent Laws on Teenage Births and Abortions in Texas  

E-print Network

variety of related political, clinical, social, and economic concerns. To make effective recommendations regarding contraception, teenage pregnancy, abortion, and sexual education programs, researchers must produce empirical evidence, which accurately...

Wills, Laura Jean

2014-08-04

419

REPLICATION OF STUDY ON SPONTANEOUS ABORTION AND DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT (DBP) EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been reported include spontaneous abortions, congenital defe...

420

Fast Calculation of Abort Return Trajectories for Manned Missions to the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to support the anytime abort requirements of a manned mission to the Moon, the vehicle abort capabilities for the translunar and circumlunar phases of the mission must be studied. Depending on the location of the abort maneuver, the maximum return time to Earth and the available propellant, two different kinds of return trajectories can be calculated: direct and fly-by. This paper presents a new method to compute these return trajectories in a deterministic and fast way without using numerical optimizers. Since no simplifications of the gravity model are required, the resulting trajectories are very accurate and can be used for both mission design and operations. This technique has been extensively used to evaluate the abort capabilities of the Orion/Altair vehicles in the Constellation program for the translunar phase of the mission.

Senent, Juan S.

2010-01-01

421

Abortion and foetal lesions induced by Neospora caninum in experimentally infected water buffalos (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an important species in several countries for its milk and meat production, as well as for transport and other agricultural activities. It is, in general, considered more resistant than cattle to different parasitic diseases, also less demanding for forage quality. It has been postulated that buffalo may be resistant to abortion caused by neosporosis, because of high serological prevalences found in buffalo herds from different localities, with no description of Neospora caninum-related abortion. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential impact of neosporosis in pregnant water buffalo cows. In this work, three pregnant buffalo cows were experimentally infected with Nc-1 strain of N. caninum, and abortion was detected 35 days post-infection. Molecular and histopathological results found in post-mortem tissues are described and discussed, confirming the susceptibility of water buffalos to abortion caused by N. caninum. PMID:25324135

Chryssafidis, Andreas L; Cantón, Germán; Chianini, Francesca; Innes, Elisabeth A; Madureira, Ed H; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gennari, Solange M

2015-01-01

422

Prenatal screening and pregnant women's attitudes toward the abortion of defective fetuses.  

PubMed

We studied the attitudes of 490 pregnant women toward the abortion of defective fetuses. Three hundred of these women were participating in a prenatal screening program for neural tube defects. Although theoretical accounts of the effects of behavior on attitude would suggest that participation in a screening program would affect abortion attitudes, evidence in support of such an association was weak. The overwhelming majority of women, regardless of whether they had participated in the screening program, believed that women are justified in having an abortion in the face of fetal abnormality. There was a sharp increase in the number of screening program participants who said they would have an abortion when the probability of the fetus being affected with a neural tube defect rose from 95 per cent to 100 per cent. PMID:3812832

Faden, R R; Chwalow, A J; Quaid, K; Chase, G A; Lopes, C; Leonard, C O; Holtzman, N A

1987-03-01

423

A High Dose Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy for Women with Four or More Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions  

PubMed Central

Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) may have immunological etiology. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (HIVIg) therapy, in which 20?g of intact type immunoglobulin was infused daily for 5 days during early gestation, for women who had a history of four or more consecutive spontaneous abortions of unexplained etiology. A total of 60 pregnant RSA women underwent HIVIg therapy, and the pregnancy outcome was assessed. The live birth rate was 73.3% (44/60). Fifteen pregnancies ended in spontaneous abortion, and one ended in intrauterine fetal death. In 11 of the 15 spontaneous abortions, fetuses had abnormal chromosome karyotype. When the 11 pregnancies with abnormal chromosome karyotype were excluded, the live birth rate was as high as 89.8% (44/49). The HIVIg therapy may be effective for severe cases of unexplained RSA. PMID:22997588

Yamada, Hideto; Takeda, Masamitsu; Maezawa, Yoko; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Hazama, Ryoichi; Tanimura, Kenji; Wakui, Yukio; Shimada, Shigeki

2012-01-01

424

An obligation to provide abortion services: what happens when physicians refuse?  

PubMed Central

Access to abortion services in the United States continues to decline. It does so not because of significant changes in legislation or court rulings but because fewer and fewer physicians wish to perform abortions and because most states now have "conscientious objection" legislation that makes it easy for physicians to refuse to do so. We argue in this paper that physicians have an obligation to perform all socially sanctioned medical services, including abortions, and thus that the burden of justification lies upon those who wish to be excused from that obligation. That is, such persons should have to show how requiring them to perform abortions would represent a serious threat to their fundamental moral or religious beliefs. We use current California law as an example of legislation that does not take physicians' obligations into account and thus allows them too easily to declare conscientious objection. PMID:8731539

Meyers, C; Woods, R D

1996-01-01

425

Abortion: magnitude, management and prevention. The dark side of the moon.  

PubMed

An estimated 25-50% of the 500,000 maternal deaths that occur in the world each year are associated with unsafe abortion. In Latin America, illegal abortion is the most common cause of maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion has devastating consequences for both the individual women who risk mortality or long-term damage such as infertility, but also for the distribution of resources within overburdened health care systems. Fundamental to this phenomenon is the low economic and social status of women. As a result of poverty and sex discrimination, women's reproductive health is given low priority. The trauma associated with unsafe abortion is part of a chain of injustice that characterizes the lives of poor women in developing countries. PMID:12319579

Romero, S Q

1994-12-01

426

The legal status of Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working in this direction since 1992 (L. 225/92). An example of this effort is clearly given by the Prime Minister Decree (DPCM 20/12/2001 "Linee guida relative ai piani regionali per la programmazione delle attivita' di previsione, prevenzione e lotta attiva contro gli incendi boschivi - Guidelines for regional plans for the planning of prediction, prevention and forest fires fighting activities") that, already in 2001, emphasized "the most appropriate approach to pursue the preservation of forests is to promote and encourage prediction and prevention activities rather than giving priority to the emergency-phase focused on fire-fighting". 2 Supreme Court of the United States, In re Winship (No. 778), No. 778 argued: 20 January 1970, decided: 31 March 1970: Proof beyond a reasonable doubt, which is required by the Due Process Clause in criminal trials, is among the "essentials of due process and fair treatment" 3 In Kessler and McClellan (1996): "Defensive medicine is a potentially serious social problem: if fear of liability drives health care providers to administer treatments that do not have worthwhile medical benefits, then the current liability system may generate inefficiencies much larger than the costs of compensating malpractice claimants".

Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.

2011-03-01

427

Legal Issues of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Home » Learn » Library Legal Issues of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder January 21, 2010 Overview Health insurance Child custody Allegations of abuse The juvenile justice system Consent for treatment Disclosure of medical information Finding ...

428

40 CFR 52.1074 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1074 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...of this chapter are not met, since section 698(f) of the Maryland Air Quality Control Act could, in some circumstances,...

2012-07-01

429

40 CFR 52.1074 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1074 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...of this chapter are not met, since section 698(f) of the Maryland Air Quality Control Act could, in some circumstances,...

2010-07-01

430

40 CFR 52.1074 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1074 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...of this chapter are not met, since section 698(f) of the Maryland Air Quality Control Act could, in some circumstances,...

2011-07-01

431

40 CFR 52.1074 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1074 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...of this chapter are not met, since section 698(f) of the Maryland Air Quality Control Act could, in some circumstances,...

2013-07-01

432

40 CFR 52.1379 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1379 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...of this chapter are not met, since section 69-3918 of the Montana Clean Air Act could, in some circumstances prohibit...

2010-07-01

433

40 CFR 52.1379 - Legal authority.  

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1379 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...of this chapter are not met, since section 69-3918 of the Montana Clean Air Act could, in some circumstances prohibit...

2014-07-01

434

40 CFR 52.1379 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1379 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...of this chapter are not met, since section 69-3918 of the Montana Clean Air Act could, in some circumstances prohibit...

2013-07-01

435

40 CFR 52.1379 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1379 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...of this chapter are not met, since section 69-3918 of the Montana Clean Air Act could, in some circumstances prohibit...

2012-07-01

436

40 CFR 52.1379 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1379 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...of this chapter are not met, since section 69-3918 of the Montana Clean Air Act could, in some circumstances prohibit...

2011-07-01

437

Managing Legal Texts in Requirements Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laws and regulations are playing an increasingly important role in requirements engineering and systems development. Monitoring systems for requirements and policy compliance has been recognized in the requirements engineering community as a key area for research. Similarly, legal compliance is critical in systems development, especially given that non-compliance can result in both financial and criminal penalties. Working with legal texts can be very challenging, however, because they contain numerous ambiguities, cross-references, domain-specific definitions, and acronyms, and are frequently amended via new statutes, regulations, and case law. Requirements engineers and compliance auditors must be able to identify relevant legal texts, extract requirements and other key concepts, and monitor compliance. This chapter surveys research efforts over the past 50 years in handling legal texts for systems development. This survey can aid requirements engineers and auditors to better specify, test, and monitor systems for compliance.

Otto, Paul N.; Antón, Annie I.

438

Planning Ahead - Health, Legal, and Financial Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... Use Guide from the National Institute on Aging Planning Ahead—Health, Legal, and Financial Issues Update health ... that they are up to date: Information on Planning Contact the Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) ...

439

40 CFR 52.1575 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1575 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...chapter are not met, since section 26:2C-9 of the New Jersey Air Pollution Control Law could, in some...

2010-07-01

440

40 CFR 52.1575 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1575 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...chapter are not met, since section 26:2C-9 of the New Jersey Air Pollution Control Law could, in some...

2012-07-01

441

40 CFR 52.1575 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1575 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...chapter are not met, since section 26:2C-9 of the New Jersey Air Pollution Control Law could, in some...

2011-07-01

442

40 CFR 52.1575 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1575 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...chapter are not met, since section 26:2C-9 of the New Jersey Air Pollution Control Law could, in some...

2013-07-01

443

40 CFR 52.2373 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2373 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met. Vermont does not have the authority to make emissions data...

2013-07-01

444

40 CFR 52.2373 - Legal authority.  

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2373 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met. Vermont does not have the authority to make emissions data...

2014-07-01

445

40 CFR 52.2373 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2373 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met. Vermont does not have the authority to make emissions data...

2010-07-01

446

40 CFR 52.2373 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2373 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met. Vermont does not have the authority to make emissions data...

2011-07-01

447

40 CFR 52.2373 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2373 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met. Vermont does not have the authority to make emissions data...

2012-07-01

448

20 CFR 410.391 - Legal impediment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.391 Legal impediment. For purposes of this subpart C,...

2011-04-01

449

40 CFR 52.2333 - Legal authority.  

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2333 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...of this chapter are not met since section 26-24-16 of the Utah Code Annotated (1953), may preclude the release of...

2014-07-01

450

40 CFR 52.2333 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2333 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...of this chapter are not met since section 26-24-16 of the Utah Code Annotated (1953), may preclude the release of...

2012-07-01

451

40 CFR 52.2333 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2333 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...of this chapter are not met since section 26-24-16 of the Utah Code Annotated (1953), may preclude the release of...

2011-07-01

452

40 CFR 52.2333 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2333 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...of this chapter are not met since section 26-24-16 of the Utah Code Annotated (1953), may preclude the release of...

2013-07-01

453

40 CFR 52.2333 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2333 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...of this chapter are not met since section 26-24-16 of the Utah Code Annotated (1953), may preclude the release of...

2010-07-01

454

40 CFR 52.1275 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Mississippi § 52.1275 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...this chapter are not met, since section 7106-117 of the Mississippi Code could, in some circumstances, prohibit the...

2011-07-01

455

40 CFR 52.1275 - Legal authority.  

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Mississippi § 52.1275 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...this chapter are not met, since section 7106-117 of the Mississippi Code could, in some circumstances, prohibit the...

2014-07-01

456

40 CFR 52.1275 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Mississippi § 52.1275 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...this chapter are not met, since section 7106-117 of the Mississippi Code could, in some circumstances, prohibit the...

2013-07-01

457

40 CFR 52.1275 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Mississippi § 52.1275 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...this chapter are not met, since section 7106-117 of the Mississippi Code could, in some circumstances, prohibit the...

2010-07-01

458

40 CFR 52.1275 - Legal authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Mississippi § 52.1275 Legal authority. (a) The requirements...this chapter are not met, since section 7106-117 of the Mississippi Code could, in some circumstances, prohibit the...

2012-07-01

459

Choices on contraceptive methods in post-abortion family planning clinic in the northeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background In Brazil, a Ministry of Health report revealed women who underwent an abortion were predominantly in the use of contraceptive methods, but mentioned inconsistent or erroneously contraceptive use. Promoting the use of contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies is one of the most effective strategies to reduce abortion rates and maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, providing post-abortion family planning services that include structured contraceptive counseling with free and easy access to contraceptive methods can be suitable. So the objective of this study is to determine the acceptance and selection of contraceptive methods followed by a post-abortion family planning counseling. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to October 2008, enrolling 150 low income women to receive post-abortion care at a family planning clinic in a public hospital located in Recife, Brazil. The subjects were invited to take part of the study before receiving hospital leave from five different public maternities. An appointment was made for them at a family planning clinic at IMIP from the 8th to the 15th day after they had undergone an abortion. Every woman received information on contraceptive methods, side effects and fertility. Counseling was individualized and addressed them about feelings, expectations and motivations regarding contraception as well as pregnancy intention. Results Of all women enrolled in this study, 97.4% accepted at least one contraceptive method. Most of them (73.4%) had no previous abortion history. Forty of the women who had undergone a previous abortion, 47.5% reported undergoing unsafe abortion. Slightly more than half of the pregnancies (52%) were unwanted. All women had knowledge of the use of condoms, oral contraceptives and injectables. The most chosen method was injectables, followed by oral contraceptives and condoms. Only one woman chose an intrauterine device. Conclusion The acceptance rate of post-abortion contraceptive methods was greater and the most chosen method was the best-known one. Implementing a specialized family planning post abortion service may promote an acceptance, regardless of the chosen method. Most important is they do receive contraception if they do not wish for an immediate pregnancy. PMID:20459754