These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Abortion - medical  

MedlinePLUS

Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

2

Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion  

PubMed Central

Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Kernéis, Solen

2014-01-01

3

Knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners in Calabar towards post-abortion care.  

PubMed

This study examined the knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners in Calabar on abortion, post-abortion case and post-abortion family planning. Forty eight private practitioners who were proprietors of private clinics in the city were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results showed that 22.9% of the doctors routinely terminate unwanted pregnancies when requested to do so by women, while 83.3% of them treat women who experience complications of unsafe abortion. The major reasons given by some of the doctors for not terminating unwanted pregnancies were religious, moral and ethical considerations rather than respect for the Nigerian abortion law. Only 18.2% of the doctors use standard procedures such as manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for the management of patients with abortion and abortion complications. A good number of them did not routinely practice integrated post-abortion family planning and STDs management. There is need for a comprehensive programme of retraining of private medical practitioners in Calabar on the principles and practices of safe abortion, post-abortion care and family planning. These aspects of reproductive health need to be integrated into the medical training curricula in Nigeria. It is believed that this approach would help reduce the present high rate of abortion-related morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. PMID:15055147

Etuk, S J; Ebong, I F; Okonofua, F E

2003-12-01

4

Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted  

PubMed Central

Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

2012-01-01

5

Medical versus surgical abortion: comparing satisfaction and potential confounders in a partly randomized study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ation. RESULTS: More women were very satisfied or satisfied after a surgical than a medical abortion both after choosing method (92% vs 82%, P< 0.0001), and after randomization (94% vs 68%, P< 0.001). Satisfaction was higher after choosing a medical procedure than after randomization to the same procedure; 82% and 68%, respectively, P< 0.05. Satisfaction with the medical procedure was

Christina Rørbye; Mogens Nørgaard; Lisbeth Nilas

6

Late Presentation of Unsafe Abortion after 5 Years of Procedure  

PubMed Central

A majority of the unsafe abortions are performed by untrained birth attendants or quacks leading to complications in a large proportion of these cases. Complications like bowel injury, bladder injury, uterine perforation, and septic abortion are mostly caused by unskilled hands and are detected immediately or within few days of the procedure, owing to the need for tertiary level care. Here we present a very interesting case of unsafe abortion induced by a Ryle's tube in a 32-year-old lady, which was diagnosed five years after the procedure. Considering its atypical presentation, it is the first case of its kind in the literature. The details of the case and its management are described along with appropriate pictures. PMID:24649386

Nayak, Prasanta Kumar; Mitra, Subarna; Padma, Alaganandam; Agrawal, Sarita

2014-01-01

7

Medication Abortion within a Student Health Care Clinic: A Review of the First 46 Consecutive Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol has been available in the United States since 2000. The authors reviewed the first 46 medication abortion cases conducted at a university-based student health care clinic to determine the safety and feasibility of medication abortion in this type of clinical setting. Participants:…

Godfrey, Emily M.; Bordoloi, Anita; Moorthie, Mydhili; Pela, Emily

2012-01-01

8

Private medical providers' knowledge and practices concerning medical abortion in Nigeria.  

PubMed

To investigate the knowledge and practices regarding medical abortion and postabortion care in northern Nigeria among private physicians--the principal providers of such services in the area--122 doctors operating separate clinics in five states--Bauchi, Borno, Kaduna, Niger, and Taraba--were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire. The results showed that 22 percent of the doctors reported that they terminate unwanted pregnancies, whereas nearly all reported that they manage complications of unsafe abortion. Manual vacuum aspiration and dilatation and curettage performed singly or in combination were the most common methods of abortion and postabortion care reported by the doctors. Only one doctor reported exclusive use of medical abortion in the first trimester, and three reported its exclusive use in the second trimester. Only 35 percent of the doctors listed misoprostol as a drug that they knew could be used for abortion and postabortion care, and only 12 percent listed mifepristone. By contrast, 49 percent listed inappropriate or dangerous drugs for use in abortion provision in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. We conclude that private practitioners in northern Nigeria have limited knowledge of medical abortion and postabortion care, and that a capacity-building program on the subject should be instituted for them. PMID:21500700

Okonofua, Friday E; Hammed, Afolabi; Abass, Tajudeen; Mairiga, Abdulkarim Garba; Mohammed, Abubakar Bako; Adewale, Adeniyi; Garba, Danjuma

2011-03-01

9

Changes in Service Delivery Patterns After Introduction of Telemedicine Provision of Medical Abortion in Iowa  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed the effect of a telemedicine model providing medical abortion on service delivery in a clinic system in Iowa. Methods. We reviewed Iowa vital statistic data and billing data from the clinic system for all abortion encounters during the 2 years prior to and after the introduction of telemedicine in June 2008 (n?=?17?956 encounters). We calculated the distance from the patient’s residential zip code to the clinic and to the closest clinic providing surgical abortion. Results. The abortion rate decreased in Iowa after telemedicine introduction, and the proportion of abortions in the clinics that were medical increased from 46% to 54%. After telemedicine was introduced, and with adjustment for other factors, clinic patients had increased odds of obtaining both medical abortion and abortion before 13 weeks’ gestation. Although distance traveled to the clinic decreased only slightly, women living farther than 50 miles from the nearest clinic offering surgical abortion were more likely to obtain an abortion after telemedicine introduction. Conclusions. Telemedicine could improve access to medical abortion, especially for women living in remote areas, and reduce second-trimester abortion. PMID:23153158

Grindlay, Kate; Buchacker, Todd; Potter, Joseph E.; Schmertmann, Carl P.

2013-01-01

10

Knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners towards abortion and post abortion care in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria, on abortion and post-abortion care. It was a cross-sectional study of private medical practitioners in the study area using self-administered structured questionnaires. The results showed that 32.3% of the doctors terminate unwanted pregnancies when requested to do so. The majority of them (51.6%) use D&C in combination with manual vacuum aspiration for the termination of pregnancies in the first trimester. A total of 61 (63.5%) respondents offered various types of post-abortal care (PAC) services, while 42 (43.8%) of them screened women with abortion complications for sexually transmitted infections. For the doctors who do not terminate unwanted pregnancies, their main reasons were religious and moral considerations rather than obedience to the Nigerian abortion laws. We conclude that the majority of private medical practitioners in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria, do not terminate unwanted pregnancies because of their religious beliefs. PMID:19603321

Onah, H E; Ogbuokiri, C M; Obi, S N; Oguanuo, T C

2009-07-01

11

Integration of post-abortion care: the role of township medical officers and midwives in Myanmar.  

PubMed

Complications of unsafe abortion are a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Myanmar, and are recognised by the Ministry of Health as a priority. The Department of Health developed a strategy to address the problem of abortion complications by integrating post-abortion care and contraceptive services into the existing township health system. The quality of post-abortion care was assessed by the Department of Health in 2000, using a baseline survey of health providers and post-abortion women in Bago Division. The integration of post-abortion care was led by the Township Medical Officers, who provided monthly in-service training and supervision of health care workers in each township. Hospital-based doctors and nurses, clinic midwives, village midwives and other volunteer health providers, including traditional birth attendants, were all trained. The role of the local clinic midwife was extended to make follow-up home visits to the women with post-abortion complications and provide them with contraception when requested. Preliminary results show positive outcomes. However, donor-funded projects may have a destabilizing effect on township services by diverting attention and resources; donors need to work with government to support its priorities for health care. The future nationwide integration of post-abortion care services into township services should be planned in consultation with Township Medical Officers and midwives, the key providers of these services. PMID:12800701

Htay, Thein Thein; Sauvarin, Josephine; Khan, Saba

2003-05-01

12

[Abortion in Colombia. Medical, legal and socioeconomic aspects].  

PubMed

Abortion is a social problem and criminal sanctions are very ineffective in limiting it and are seldom applied (133 legal actions vs. 65,600 cases of induced abortion in 1965). Abortion is a social disease, as are prostitution, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse, and so far has been an insoluble problem. Colombian laws should be modified to reflect reality. Sex education must be emphasized, because ignorance is one of the main causes of abortion. Leniency should be applied toward women who cooperate with the authorities in identifying the person who performed an abortion. Legalization of abortion and enforcement of strict laws against it are considered as possible solutions, but both are rejected. The former is regarded as morally unacceptable and as imposing an excessive burden on scarce health services, the latter as even worse, imposing an equivalent burden on the court system, without s olving either health or social problems. The best and probably only solution is to improve education in family planning, to promote knowledge and motivation to enable the population to make sound and responsible decisions. PMID:4804875

Umaña, A O

1973-01-01

13

Medical Liability Insurance as a Barrier to the Provision of Abortion Services in Family Medicine  

PubMed Central

Family physicians who wish to provide abortions have been subject to both denial of coverage by medical liability insurers and the imposition of large premium increases. These policy decisions by insurance companies raise questions about the role of family physicians in abortion care and about the autonomy of medical specialties in defining their scope of practice. We review the issues specific to abortion services in the primary care setting and examine the broader implications for the medical profession. Finally, we review how advocacy and improved regulation of the insurance industry could help to ensure that clinicians who are trained and willing to provide services to their patients are not limited by the decisions of medical liability insurers. PMID:18703433

Grumbach, Kevin

2008-01-01

14

Procedural abortion rights: Ireland and the European Court of Human Rights.  

PubMed

The Irish Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act seeks to clarify the legal ground for abortion in cases of risk to life, and to create procedures to regulate women's access to services under it. This article explores the new law as the outcome of an international human rights litigation strategy premised on state duties to implement abortion laws through clear standards and procedural safeguards. It focuses specifically on the Irish law reform and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, including A. B. and C. v. Ireland (2010). The article examines how procedural rights at the international level can engender domestic law reform that limits or expands women's access to lawful abortion services, serving conservative or progressive ends. PMID:25555760

Erdman, Joanna N

2014-11-01

15

An analytical procedure for evaluating shuttle abort staging aerodynamic characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineering analysis and computer code (AERSEP) for predicting Space Shuttle Orbiter - HO Tank longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics during abort separation has been developed. Computed results are applicable at Mach numbers above 2 for angle-of-attack between plus or minus 10 degrees. No practical restrictions on orbiter-tank relative positioning are indicated for tank-under-orbiter configurations. Input data requirements and computer running times are minimal facilitating program use for parametric studies, test planning, and trajectory analysis. In a majority of cases AERSEP Orbiter-Tank interference predictions are as accurate as state-of-the-art estimates for interference-free or isolated-vehicle configurations. AERSEP isolated-orbiter predictions also show excellent correlation with data.

Meyer, R.

1973-01-01

16

Peri-Abortion Contraceptive Choices of Migrant Chinese Women: A Retrospective Review of Medical Records  

PubMed Central

Background Migrant Asian women reportedly have low levels of contraceptive use and high rates of abortion in New Zealand. Chinese make up the largest proportion of migrant Asian in New Zealand. This study aimed to describe the contraceptive choices of Chinese women seeking abortion; to examine method choice in relation to demographic characteristics (including length of stay) and to determine whether Chinese women were over-represented among abortion clinic attendees. Methods Retrospective review of medical records at a public hospital abortion clinic involving 305 Chinese women. Previously collected data for European (n?=?277) and Maori women (n?=?128) were used for comparative analyses. Regression analyses explored correlates of contraceptive method choice. Population census data were used to calculate rates of clinic attendance across ethnic groups. Results Chinese women were not over-represented among clinic attendees, and had similar rates of contraceptive non-use pre-abortion as women in comparison groups. Use of the oral contraceptive pill by Chinese was lower pre-abortion than for other ethnic groups, but choice of this method post-abortion was similar for Chinese (46.9%, 95% CI 41–52.7) and European women (43.7%, 95% CI 37.8–49.7). Post-abortion choice of an intrauterine device did not differ significantly between Chinese (28.9%, 95% CI 23.8–34.3) and Maori women (37%, 95% CI 28.4–45.7), but was higher than uptake of this method by European women (21.7%, 95% CI 17–27.0). Age, parity and previous abortion were significant predictors of post-abortion method choice by Chinese women (p<0.05). Conclusions Following contraceptive counseling at the clinic, Chinese women chose more effective contraceptive methods for use post-abortion than they had used previously. As the population of migrant Chinese in New Zealand continues to increase, strategies are urgently needed to provide new arrivals with appropriate information and advice about contraception and where to access it, so women can be better prepared to avoid unplanned pregnancy. PMID:22768231

Rose, Sally B.; Wei, Zhang; Cooper, Annette J.; Lawton, Beverley A.

2012-01-01

17

'The trial the world is watching': the 1972 prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, abortion, and the regulation of the medical profession in apartheid South Africa.  

PubMed

After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman's life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country's newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary's stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their 'duty' to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites' attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa's extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430

Klausen, Susanne M

2014-04-01

18

‘Miscarriage or abortion?’ Understanding the medical language of pregnancy loss in Britain; a historical perspective  

PubMed Central

Clinical language applied to early pregnancy loss changed in late twentieth century Britain when doctors consciously began using the term ‘miscarriage’ instead of ‘abortion’ to refer to this subject. Medical professionals at the time and since have claimed this change as an intuitive empathic response to women's experiences. However, a reading of medical journals and textbooks from the era reveals how the change in clinical language reflected legal, technological, professional and social developments. The shift in language is better understood in the context of these historical developments, rather than as the consequence of more empathic medical care for women who experience miscarriage. PMID:23429567

Moscrop, Andrew

2013-01-01

19

Youth often risk unsafe abortions.  

PubMed

The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to seeking safe abortion. Some countries lack adequately trained medical personnel and supplies. Mortality and morbidity declines are considered possible with legalization, more trained health personnel, and family planning programs for youth and education for parents. PMID:12287144

Barnett, B

1993-10-01

20

[Pregnancy termination in Bulgaria – past, present and future perspectives. Drugs induced abortion – guidelines by WHO].  

PubMed

There are still too many unsafe abortions performed worldwide. Together with the efforts to reduce the abortion by choice, we note a rise in the need for mid trimester pregnancy termination for medical reasons. The article looks at the past present and future perspective of the abortion as a procedure in Bulgaria. States the fact that medical abortion is officially not widely performed. We reckon that with the existing guidelines by WHO and with Mifepriston and Misoprostol recently registered in Bulgaria, it is time for the medical abortion to become part of the clinical practice in Bulgaria. We believe that early medical abortion as well as mid trimester induced abortion is and adequate if not better alternative to the existing in Bulgaria procedures. PMID:24294758

Marinov, B; Andreeva, A

2013-01-01

21

Procedures offered in the medical spa environment.  

PubMed

Medical spas' menus of services vary widely and depend greatly on the medical director or owner's experience and predilection. Core services include: microdermabrasion, mild chemical peels, medical facials, laser hair removal, photorejuvenation, botulinum toxin, and injectable fillers. Common procedures include cellulite reduction, tissue tightening, and acne treatments. Less common procedures that are more likely to be performed in medical spas with direct on-site daily involvement of the medical director include: laser resurfacing, laser-assisted lipoplasty, sclerotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and cosmetic surgery. Multisite spas often use multi-platform devices to assist with uniformity in menu offerings and training. PMID:18555951

Taub, Amy F

2008-07-01

22

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and psychological distress following medical and surgical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Abortion can be a difficult event to cope with and can lead to the development of psychological disturbance. The aim of this prospective and longitudinal study was to assess and to predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms following abortion. Moreover, this study aimed to assess whether the type of abortion had an impact on women’s experience. Method: Eighty-six women

C. Rousset; C. Brulfert; N. Séjourné; N. Goutaudier; H. Chabrol

2011-01-01

23

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and psychological distress following medical and surgical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Abortion can be a difficult event to cope with and can lead to the development of psychological disturbance. The aim of this prospective and longitudinal study was to assess and to predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms following abortion. Moreover, this study aimed to assess whether the type of abortion had an impact on women’s experience. Method: Eighty-six women

C. Rousset; C. Brulfert; N. Séjourné; N. Goutaudier; H. Chabrol

2012-01-01

24

Availability of Medical Abortion Pills and the Role of Chemists: A Study from Bihar and Jharkhand, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical safety, efficacy and acceptability of mifepristone and misoprostol in the Indian context have been well studied, but little is known about how they are being used, who is using them, how women access them or how providers, chemists, women and their partners perceive medical abortion. This paper reports on part of a study on these issues, a survey

Bela Ganatra; Vinoj Manning; Suranjeen Prasad Pallipamulla

2005-01-01

25

Road map to scaling-up: translating operations research study’s results into actions for expanding medical abortion services in rural health facilities in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying unsafe abortion among the major causes of maternal deaths and respecting the rights to health of women, in 2002, the Nepali parliament liberalized abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy on request. However, enhancing women’s awareness on and access to safe and legal abortion services, particularly in rural areas, remains a challenge in Nepal despite a decade of the initiation of safe abortion services. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, an operations research study was carried out using quasi-experimental design to determine the effectiveness of engaging female community health volunteers, auxiliary nurse midwives, and nurses to provide medical abortion services from outreach health facilities to increase the accessibility and acceptability of women to medical abortion. This paper describes key components of the operations research study, key research findings, and follow-up actions that contributed to create a conducive environment and evidence in scaling up medical abortion services in rural areas of Nepal. Results It was found that careful planning and implementation, continuous advocacy, and engagement of key stakeholders, including key government officials, from the planning stage of study is not only crucial for successful completion of the project but also instrumental for translating research results into action and policy change. While challenges remained at different levels, medical abortion services delivered by nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives working at rural outreach health facilities without oversight of physicians was perceived to be accessible, effective, and of good quality by the service providers and the women who received medical abortion services from these rural health facilities. Conclusions This research provided further evidence and a road-map for expanding medical abortion services to rural areas by mid-level service providers in minimum clinical settings without the oversight of physicians, thus reducing complications and deaths due to unsafe abortion. PMID:24886393

2014-01-01

26

Serum Angiopoietin-2 and ?-hCG as Predictors of Prolonged Uterine Bleeding after Medical Abortion in the First Trimester  

PubMed Central

Objective The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol is an established method for induction of early first trimester abortion, but there is no consensus about the best evaluation of treatment outcome. We evaluate serum Angiopoietin-2(Ang-2) and ? human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) in women who had undergone a medical abortion as markers of prolonged uterine bleeding (PUB). Methods Prospective trial involving 2843 women attending an gynecology outpatient clinic who following a medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol, the study cohort was divided into women with duration of uterine bleeding >14 days (PUB) and women with duration of uterine bleeding ?14 days (normal uterine bleeding, NUB). Serum determinations of Ang-2 levels by ELISA and ?-hCG levels by electrochemiluminiscence immunoassay. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analyses were calculated and plotted for the diagnostic accuracy of serum ?-hCG and Ang-2 concentration to discriminate PUB and NUB. Results Baseline characteristics for both groups were similar, Only duration of bleeding showed a significant difference between the PUB group and NUB group. Ang-2 serum levels moderately correlated with serum ?-hCG levels with statistically significant correlation coefficients of 0.536. Serum ?-hCG and Ang-2 levels on day 7 and on day 14 after medical abortion were signifcantly higher in PUB group than in NUB group. Plotted as ROC curves, ?-hCG area under curve (AUC) was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.53–0.76) on day 7, rising to AUC?=?0.83 (95% CI, 0.75–0.92) on day 14. Using Ang-2 on day 7 and day 14 as predictive parameter resulted in an analogous AUC (AUC?=?0.61 on day 7, AUC?=?0.78 on day 14). Conclusions Both parameters are clinically useful as a diagnostic test in predicting PUB after medical abortion, and can be helpful in uncertain clinical situations, but should be considered as supplementary to a general clinical evaluation. PMID:23696855

Wang, Maofeng; Chen, Junqing; Ying, Jun; Yu, Jiong; Huang, Bifei; Ren, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Xianyu; Guo, Qiaoqiao; Wang, Yunlai; Qiu, Liuyi; Yu, Hongsheng; Wan, Rugen

2013-01-01

27

Attributes and perspectives of public providers related to provision of medical abortion at public health facilities in Vietnam: a cross-sectional study in three provinces  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate attributes of public service providers associated with the provision of medical abortion in Vietnam. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study via interviewer-administered questionnaire among abortion providers from public health facilities in Hanoi, Khanh Hoa, and Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam between August 2011 and January 2012. We recruited abortion providers at all levels of Vietnam’s public health service delivery system. Participants were questioned about their medical abortion provision practices and perspectives regarding abortion methods. Results A total of 905 providers from 62 health facilities were included, comprising 525 (58.0%) from Hanoi, 122 (13.5%) from Khanh Hoa, and 258 (28.5%) from Ho Chi Minh City. The majority of providers were female (96.7%), aged ?25 years (94%), married (84.4%), and had at least one child (89%); 68.9% of providers offered only manual vacuum aspiration and 31.1% performed both medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration. Those performing both methods included physicians (74.5%), midwives (21.7%), and nurses (3.9%). Unadjusted analyses showed that female providers (odds ratio 0.1; 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.30) and providers in rural settings (odds ratio 0.3; 95% confidence interval 0.08–0.79) were less likely to provide medical abortion than their counterparts. Obstetricians and gynecologists were more likely to provide medical abortion than providers with nursing/midwifery training (odds ratio 22.2; 95% confidence interval 3.81–129.41). The most frequently cited advantages of medical abortion for providers were that no surgical skills are required (61.7%) and client satisfaction is better (61.0%). Conclusion Provision of medical abortion in Vietnam is lower than provision of manual vacuum aspiration. While the majority of abortion providers are female midwives in Vietnam, medical abortion provision is concentrated in urban settings among physicians. Individuals providing medical abortion found that the method yields high client satisfaction. PMID:25152635

Ngo, Thoai D; Free, Caroline; Le, Hoan T; Edwards, Phil; Pham, Kiet HT; Nguyen, Yen BT; Nguyen, Thang H

2014-01-01

28

Integrating Mobile Phones into Medical Abortion Provision: Intervention Development, Use, and Lessons Learned From a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Medical abortion is legal in South Africa but access and acceptability are hampered by the current protocol requiring a follow-up visit to assess abortion completion. Objective To assess the feasibility and efficacy of information and follow-up provided via mobile phone after medical abortion in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods Mobile phones were used in three ways in the study: (1) coaching women through medical abortion using short message service (SMS; text messages); (2) a questionnaire to assess abortion completion via unstructured supplementary service data (USSD, a protocol used by GSM mobile telephones that allows the user to interact with a server via text-based menus) and the South African mobile instant message and social networking application Mxit; and (3) family planning information via SMS, mobisite and Mxit. A needs and context assessment was done to learn about women’s experiences undergoing medical abortion and their use of mobile phones. After development, the mobile interventions were piloted. Recruitment was done by field workers at the clinics. In the RCT, women were interviewed at baseline and exit. Computer logs were also analyzed. All study participants received standard of care at the clinics. Results In the RCT, 234 women were randomized to the intervention group. Eight did not receive the intervention due to invalid numbers, mis-registration, system failure, or opt-out, leaving 226 participants receiving the full intervention. Of the 226, 190 returned and were interviewed at their clinic follow-up visit. The SMSs were highly acceptable, with 97.9% (186/190) saying that the SMSs helped them through the medical abortion. In terms of mobile phone privacy, 86.3% (202/234) said that it was not likely or possible that someone would see SMSs on their phone, although at exit, 20% (38/190) indicated that they had worried about phone privacy. Having been given training at baseline and subsequently asked via SMS to complete the self-assessment questionnaire, 90.3% (204/226) attempted it, and of those, 86.3% (176/204) reached an endpoint of the questionnaire. For the family planning information, a preference for SMS was indicated by study clients, although the publicly available Mxit/mobisite was heavily used (813,375 pages were viewed) over the study duration. Conclusions SMS provided a good medium for timed, "push" information that guided and supported women through medical abortion. Women were able to perform a self-assessment questionnaire via mobile phones if provided training and prompted by SMS. Phone privacy needs to be protected in similar settings. This study may contribute to the successful expansion of medical abortion provision aided by mobile phones. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR): PACTR201302000427144; http://www.pactr.org/ATMWeb/appmanager/atm/atmregistry?dar=true&tNo=PACTR201302000427144 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6N0fnZfzm). PMID:25098569

Constant, Deborah

2014-01-01

29

17 CFR 200.305 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Special procedure: Medical records. 200.305 Section... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS...305 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...pertaining to him that include medical and/or...

2014-04-01

30

17 CFR 200.305 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Special procedure: Medical records. 200.305 Section... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS...305 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...pertaining to him that include medical and/or...

2012-04-01

31

17 CFR 200.305 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special procedure: Medical records. 200.305 Section... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS...305 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...pertaining to him that include medical and/or...

2013-04-01

32

17 CFR 200.305 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Special procedure: Medical records. 200.305 Section... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS...305 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...pertaining to him that include medical and/or...

2011-04-01

33

17 CFR 200.305 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Special procedure: Medical records. 200.305 Section... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS...305 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...pertaining to him that include medical and/or...

2010-04-01

34

32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2009-07-01 true Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40 Section 564.40...RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.40 Procedures for obtaining medical care. (a) When a...

2011-07-01

35

32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40 Section 564.40...RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.40 Procedures for obtaining medical care. (a) When a...

2014-07-01

36

32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40 Section 564.40...RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.40 Procedures for obtaining medical care. (a) When a...

2013-07-01

37

32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2009-07-01 true Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40 Section 564.40...RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.40 Procedures for obtaining medical care. (a) When a...

2012-07-01

38

ISS Medical Checklist Procedures Validation and Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Health Maintenance System (HMS) hardware will be used to support a medical contingency for the International Space Station (ISS). During two test flights, the procedures for performing Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) were evaluated to determine the required level of detail, assess the logic of the steps and division of tasks among crew members.

Marshburn, Tom; Goode, Julie

1999-01-01

39

Post legalisation challenge: minimizing complications of abortion.  

PubMed

Abortion has been legalized in Nepal since September 2002 by 11th amendment to the Muluki Ain. The present study was conducted in Paropakar Shree Panch Indra Rajya Laxmi Devi Maternity Hospital to assess the magnitude of induced abortion, its causes and the types of complications, in the post legalization phase. Prospective descriptive analyses of the patients who were admitted with history of induced abortion from 16th Dec 2003 to 13th March 2004 was carried out. A total of 305 cases of abortion complications were admitted during the three-month study period, which is 39.7% of the total gynaecological admissions (768). Of these 31 (10.25%) patients had history of induced abortion. Half of the induced abortion cases (52%) were of age group 21-29 yrs and 42% had three or more children. 39% of the cases had history of induced abortion at more than 12 weeks and almost half of the cases (48%) had history of family planning. The most common reason for seeking abortion was too many children (59%) followed by illegitimate pregnancy (16%). Twenty-one patients gave history of abortion being performed by doctors and the most common method used was D and C (75%). 77% of cases presented as incomplete abortion and one case presented with uterine perforation, bowel injury and peritonitis. Twenty patients had evacuation under sedation while five had manual vacuum aspiration (MVA); one patient required laparatomy. In two third of the patients intravenous fluid and antibiotics were used. Four patients required blood transfusion. Abortion complications constitute almost 40% of the total gynaecological admissions. Ten percent of the abortion cases had history of induced abortion. Medical persons, mainly doctors, performed most of the cases of induced abortion and D and C was the most commonly used method. However the patients had faced various types of complications. Untrained provider, resulting in serious life threatening injuries, performed more than a third of the cases of induced abortion at more than twelve weeks gestation. This points to the need for improved monitoring of the quality of services provided, and adherence to the criteria set by the procedural order. PMID:15821380

Ojha, N; Sharma, S; Paudel, J

2004-01-01

40

Making abortions safe: a matter of good public health policy and practice.  

PubMed Central

Globally, abortion mortality accounts for at least 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Preventing mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. This article examines the changes in policy and health service provision required to make abortions safe. It is based on a wide-ranging review of published and unpublished sources. In order to be effective, public health measures must take into account the reasons why women have abortions, the kind of abortion services required and at what stages of pregnancy, the types of abortion service providers needed, and training, cost and counselling issues. The transition from unsafe to safe abortions demands the following: changes at national policy level; abortion training for service providers and the provision of services at the appropriate primary level health service delivery points; and ensuring that women access these services instead of those of untrained providers. Public awareness that abortion services are available is a crucial element of this transition, particularly among adolescent and single women, who tend to have less access to reproductive health services generally. PMID:10859852

Berer, M.

2000-01-01

41

Children's anxious reactions to an invasive medical procedure: The role of medical and non-medical fears.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship of medical and non-medical fears to children's anxiety, pain, and distress during an invasive medical procedure, the voiding cystourethrogram. Parents of 34 children completed the Fear Survey Schedule-II prior to their child's procedure. Child distress behaviors during the procedure were audiotaped and coded using the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised. Ratings of child procedural anxiety and pain were obtained from children, parents, and examining technologists within minutes following the procedure. Associations were observed between medical fears, procedural anxiety (parent and staff reports), and coded distress behaviors. Findings may inform preparation efforts to reduce anxiety around invasive medical procedures. PMID:25465873

Fox, Jeremy K; Halpern, Leslie F; Dangman, Barbara C; Giramonti, Karla M; Kogan, Barry A

2014-12-01

42

5 CFR 2504.6 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...procedures for medical records. (a) When the...those official medical records which belong to the Office of Personnel Management and are described in...Federal Personnel Manual (medical records about entrance...

2010-01-01

43

Clinical issues in post-abortion care.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the clinical issues in post-abortion care, including types of abortion procedures, expected post-abortion course, possible complications, and the components of the post-abortion visit. By providing follow-up care to their patients, NPs can increase continuity of care and promote successful contraceptive use. PMID:21499066

Cappiello, Joyce D; Beal, Margaret W; Simmonds, Katherine E

2011-05-01

44

Abortion in the Caribbean commonwealth.  

PubMed

A team visit was made to Antigua, Barbados, St. Vincent, and Trinidad-Tobago to examine current abortion statutes and to determine liberalization prospects. In addition the team analyzed the abortion statutes in 15 English-speaking territories. The team found the laws forbid abortion except to save the life of the mother, although there has been some liberalizing to include granting abortions when the physicial or mental health of the mother is endangered and additional liberalization is anticipated. Other findings were that illegal abortion is widespread and public opinion generally favors abortion law reform. The visit came in the wake of a recommendation by the 4th Commonwealth Medical Conference, held in 1974, that the Commonwealth Secretariat collect information on laws concerning the medical termination of pregnancy. PMID:12335319

1977-12-01

45

Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedures--Bacteriology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents laboratory procedures for the differentiation and identification of disease agents from clinical materials. Included are procedures for the collection of specimens, preparation of culture media, pure culture methods, cultivation of the microorganisms in natural and simulated natural environments, and procedures in…

Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

46

Stigma in abortion care: application to a grounded theory study.  

PubMed

A recent research study found that being more directly involved in medical abortion places greater demands on the nurses. The demands required by nurses working in abortion care may be increased by the stigma attached to such an antisocial action. This paper presents an application of stigma theory, as espoused by Goffman, based on a qualitative research study on abortion. It is argued that women attending for abortion are stigmatised and nurses, although 'wise', have an affiliate stigma through their close association with the procedure. It is proposed that the situation can be ameliorated by addressing stigma at policy, local and personal levels. Examples from other areas of practice are outlined for possible application to practice. PMID:21692583

Lipp, Allyson

2011-02-01

47

Abortion law reform in Nepal.  

PubMed

Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

Upreti, Melissa

2014-08-01

48

"Abortion will deprive you of happiness!": Soviet reproductive politics in the post-Stalin era.  

PubMed

This article examines Soviet reproductive politics after the Communist regime legalized abortion in 1955. The regime's new abortion policy did not result in an end to the condemnation of abortion in official discourse. The government instead launched an extensive campaign against abortion. Why did authorities bother legalizing the procedure if they still disapproved of it so strongly? Using archival sources, public health materials, and medical as well as popular journals to investigate the antiabortion campaign, this article argues that the Soviet government sought to regulate gender and sexuality through medical intervention and health "education" rather than prohibition and force in the post-Stalin era. It also explores how the antiabortion public health campaign produced "knowledge" not only about the procedure and its effects, but also about gender and sexuality, subjecting both women and men to new pressures and regulatory norms. PMID:22145180

Randall, Amy E

2011-01-01

49

Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization.  

PubMed

According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. PMID:12293809

1998-07-01

50

Medical ectropion repair. A new procedure.  

PubMed

The lazy-T procedure described by Smith corrects medial ectropion of the lower lid by combining a horizontal full-thickness shortening of the lid with excision of conjunctiva and tarsus inferior to the punctum to invert the lid. However, some cases of senile medial ectropion involve an element of vertical traction on the skin as well as horizontal lid laxity. A new procedure is described that makes use of skin gained from horizontal lower lid shortening in the form of a medially based transposition flap to produce vertical skin lengthening. It is useful to treat medial ectropions that have horizontal laxity along with cicatricial components and has successfully relieved this condition in eight patients. PMID:2487218

Meltzer, M A

1989-01-01

51

[Legal regulation of special medical procedures].  

PubMed

Physicians in The Netherlands largely determine amongst themselves how they treat patients, whereas statutory regulations mostly concern indirect matters, such as qualifications of the treating persons, quality of care and patients' rights. Special items of service are currently reserved for special institutions. When the new Special Medical Services Act is passed, the minister is empowered to prohibit items of service if he/she considers these undesirable for social, ethical or legal reasons. More discussion is needed before such sensitive matters are to be regulated by law. PMID:9064545

Leenen, H J

1997-02-01

52

Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.  

PubMed

US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation. PMID:9328746

Stotland, N L

1997-09-01

53

Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion  

MedlinePLUS

... an abortion procedure? In an abortion procedure, the embryo or fetus is removed from a woman’s uterus . ... are removed with suction or other surgical instruments. Embryo: The developing organism from the time it implants ...

54

Medical Tourism: The Trend toward Outsourcing Medical Procedures to Foreign Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rising costs of medical treatment in the United States are fueling a movement to outsource medical treatment. Estimates of the number of Americans traveling overseas for treatment range from 50,000 to 500,000. Charges for common procedures such as heart bypass can be $11,000 in Thailand compared to $130,000 in the United States. Knee…

York, Diane

2008-01-01

55

Disposal of Hazardous Medical Waste Policy and Procedures Commencement Date: 27 November, 1996  

E-print Network

Disposal of Hazardous Medical Waste Policy and Procedures Commencement Date: 27 November, 1996 containing or used in work involving cytotoxic substances. Hazardous Medical Waste Means any substance staff, students and visitors against contamination from hazardous medical waste. 7. PROCEDURES 7

56

[Regional procedure of blood products transport by emergency medical services].  

PubMed

Transfusions are exceptional while patients are rushed to hospital for sanitary reasons. The quality of care requires the collaboration with different partners (samu, blood bank centre, haemovigilance correspondents…). In response to dysfunctions that occurred during transports for sanitary reasons we have drawn up a regional procedure, which specifies how to get and use blood products. This procedure harmonizes our medical practice, states the role of the different participants (traceability of blood samples of immunohaematology tests, etc.), including a part dedicated to identity vigilance. The expected impacts of this procedure are: the decrease of dysfunctions and of destructions of red blood cells, the improvement of security while patients are transfused. PMID:22885110

Lassale, B; Fournier, M; Dettori, I; Aullen, J-P

2012-11-01

57

Brazilian adolescents’ knowledge and beliefs about abortion methods: a school-based internet inquiry  

PubMed Central

Background Internet surveys that draw from traditionally generated samples provide the unique conditions to engage adolescents in exploration of sensitive health topics. Methods We examined awareness of unwanted pregnancy, abortion behaviour, methods, and attitudes toward specific legal indications for abortion via a school-based internet survey among 378 adolescents aged 12–21 years in three Rio de Janeiro public schools. Results Forty-five percent knew peers who had undergone an abortion. Most students (66.0%) did not disclose abortion method knowledge. However, girls (aOR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.2), those who had experienced their sexual debut (aOR1.76, 95% CI 1.1-3.0), and those attending a prestigious magnet school (aOR 2.7 95% CI 1.4-6.3) were more likely to report methods. Most abortion methods (79.3%) reported were ineffective, obsolete, and/or unsafe. Herbs (e.g. marijuana tea), over-the-counter medications, surgical procedures, foreign objects and blunt trauma were reported. Most techniques (85.2%) were perceived to be dangerous, including methods recommended by the World Health Organization. A majority (61.4%) supported Brazil’s existing law permitting abortion in the case of rape. There was no association between gender, age, sexual debut, parental education or socioeconomic status and attitudes toward legal abortion. However, students at the magnet school supported twice as many legal indications (2.7, SE.27) suggesting a likely role of peers and/or educators in shaping abortion views. Conclusions Abortion knowledge and attitudes are not driven simply by age, religion or class, but rather a complex interplay that includes both social spaces and gender. Prevention of abortion morbidity and mortality among adolescents requires comprehensive sexuality and reproductive health education that includes factual distinctions between safe and unsafe abortion methods. PMID:24521075

2014-01-01

58

How risky are second trimester clandestine abortions in Cameroon: a retrospective descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background Complications of clandestine abortions increase with gestational age. The aim of this study was to identify complications of second trimester clandestine abortions (STA) and those of first trimester clandestine abortions (FTA). Methods This retrospective descriptive study was conducted between March 1st and August 31st, 2012 in the University Teaching Hospital and the Central Hospital, Yaoundé (Cameroon). The files of women with clandestine abortions carried out outside our units, but received in our settings for some complications were reviewed. Variables studied were maternal age, parity, marital status, gestational age at the time of abortion, the abortion provider and the method used, the duration of antibiotic coverage, the time interval between abortion and consultation, the complications presented and the duration of hospital stay. Data of 20 women with STA (?13 weeks 1 day) and those of 74 women with FTA (?13 complete weeks) were analyzed and compared. The t-test was used to compare continuous variables. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Women with STA had high parities (P?=?0.0011). STAs were mostly performed by nurses and were usually done by dilatation and curettage or dilatation and evacuation, manual vacuum aspiration, intramuscular injection of an unspecified medication, transcervical foreign body insertion, amniotomy and misoprostol. STA complications were severe anemia, hypovolemic shock, uterine perforation and maternal death. Conclusions Clandestine abortions, especially second trimester abortions, are associated with risks of maternal morbidity and mortality especially when done by nurses. Therefore, women should seek for help directly from trained health personnel (Gynecologists & Obstetricians). Moreover, nurses should be trained in uterine evacuation procedures. They should also refer women who want to carry out STA to Gynecologists and Obstetricians. Finally, to reduce the prevalence of abortion in general, the government should make contraception available to all women, as well as use public media to sensitize women on the dangers of abortion and on the need to use family planning services. PMID:25199407

2014-01-01

59

Medical Certification Procedure Outline the procedure for operating vehicles at University of Michigan (U-M) that require  

E-print Network

Medical Certification Procedure Objective Outline the procedure for operating vehicles at University of Michigan (U-M) that require medical certification according to State of Michigan law. Medical than 10,000 pounds, you are required to have a current valid DOT medical card. 2. Or if you are towing

Kirschner, Denise

60

Advanced medical life support procedures in vitally compromised children by a helicopter emergency medical service  

PubMed Central

Background To determine the advanced life support procedures provided by an Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) for vitally compromised children. Incidence and success rate of several procedures were studied, with a distinction made between procedures restricted to the HEMS-physician and procedures for which the HEMS is more experienced than the EMS. Methods Prospective study of a consecutive group of children examined and treated by the HEMS of the eastern region of the Netherlands. Data regarding type of emergency, physiological parameters, NACA scores, treatment, and 24-hour survival were collected and subsequently analysed. Results Of the 558 children examined and treated by the HEMS on scene, 79% had a NACA score of IV-VII. 65% of the children had one or more advanced life support procedures restricted to the HEMS and 78% of the children had one or more procedures for which the HEMS is more experienced than the EMS. The HEMS intubated 38% of all children, and 23% of the children intubated and ventilated by the EMS needed emergency correction because of potentially lethal complications. The HEMS provided the greater part of intraosseous access, as the EMS paramedics almost exclusively reserved this procedure for children in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The EMS provided pain management only to children older than four years of age, but a larger group was in need of analgesia upon arrival of the HEMS, and was subsequently treated by the HEMS. Conclusions The Helicopter Emergency Medical Service of the eastern region of the Netherlands brings essential medical expertise in the field not provided by the emergency medical service. The Emergency Medical Service does not provide a significant quantity of procedures obviously needed by the paediatric patient. PMID:20211021

2010-01-01

61

Emergency Physician Awareness of Prehospital Procedures and Medications  

PubMed Central

Introduction Maintaining patient safety during transition from prehospital to emergency department (ED) care depends on effective handoff communication between providers. We sought to determine emergency physicians’ (EP) knowledge of the care provided by paramedics in terms of both procedures and medications, and whether the use of a verbal report improved physician accuracy. Methods We conducted a 2-phase observational survey of a convenience sample of EPs in an urban, academic ED. In this large ED paramedics have no direct contact with physicians for non-critical patients, giving their report instead to the triage nurse. In Phase 1, paramedics gave verbal report to the triage nurse only. In Phase 2, a research assistant (RA) stationed in triage listened to this report and then repeated it back verbatim to the EPs caring for the patient. The RA then queried the EPs 90 minutes later regarding their patients’ prehospital procedures and medications. We compared the accuracy of these 2 reporting methods. Results There were 163 surveys completed in Phase 1 and 116 in Phase 2. The oral report had no effect on EP awareness that the patient had been brought in by ambulance (86% in Phase 1 and 85% in Phase 2.) The oral report did improve EP awareness of prehospital procedures, from 16% in Phase 1 to 45% in Phase 2, OR=4.28 (2.5–7.5). EPs were able to correctly identify all oral medications in 18% of Phase 1 cases and 47% of Phase 2 cases, and all IV medications in 42% of Phase 1 cases and 50% of Phase 2 cases. The verbal report led to a mild improvement in physician awareness of oral medications given, OR=4.0 (1.09–14.5), and no improvement in physician awareness of IV medications given, OR=1.33 (0.15–11.35). Using a composite score of procedures plus oral plus IV medications, physicians had all three categories correct in 15% of Phase 1 and 39% of Phase 2 cases (p<0.0001). Conclusion EPs in our ED were unaware of many prehospital procedures and medications regardless of the method used to provide this information. The addition of a verbal hand-off report resulted in a modest improvement in overall accuracy. PMID:25035759

Waldron, Rachel; Sixsmith, Diane M.

2014-01-01

62

Medical futility procedures: what more do we need to know?  

PubMed

Unilateral medical futility policies, which allow health-care providers to limit or withdraw life-sustaining treatment over patient or surrogate objections, are increasingly designed around a procedural approach. Medical or ethics committees follow a prespecified process, the culmination of which is a justified decision about whether ongoing treatment should be withheld or withdrawn. These procedures have three stages. First, health-care providers must decide to refer patients for consideration of whether ongoing treatment is futile. Second, the committees involved must decide whether ongoing treatment is actually futile. Third, there is a clinical outcome that often is, but not always, patient death. We review the available data on procedure-based futility policies, arguing that there is limited information on their potential harms and how these harms are distributed. We consider the ethical implications of policy-making under informational uncertainty, invoking the precautionary principle--in the absence of clear data, if a policy has significant risk of significant harm, the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those recommending the policy--as the guiding moral standard for hospitals and professional organizations considering whether to adopt a procedural approach to medical futility. On the basis of this principle, we argue that any new futility guideline must include a significant commitment to collecting prospective data on its application. PMID:24189864

Rubin, Emily; Courtwright, Andrew

2013-11-01

63

Medical devices and procedures in the hyperbaric chamber.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to present current controversies concerning the safety of medical devices and procedures under pressure in a hyperbaric chamber including: defibrillation in a multiplace chamber; implantable devices during hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) and the results of a recent European questionnaire on medical devices used inside hyperbaric chambers. Early electrical defibrillation is the only effective therapy for cardiac arrest caused by ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. The procedure of defibrillation under hyperbaric conditions is inherently dangerous owing to the risk of fire, but it can be conducted safely if certain precautions are taken. Recently, new defibrillators have been introduced for hyperbaric medicine, which makes the procedure easier technically, but it must be noted that sparks and fire have been observed during defibrillation, even under normobaric conditions. Therefore, delivery of defibrillation shock in a hyperbaric environment must still be perceived as a hazardous procedure. Implantable devices are being seen with increasing frequency in patients referred for HBOT. These devices create a risk of malfunction when exposed to hyperbaric conditions. Some manufacturers support patients and medical practitioners with information on how their devices behave under increased pressure, but in some cases an individual risk-benefit analysis should be conducted on the patient and the specific implanted device, taking into consideration the patient's clinical condition, the indication for HBOT and the capability of the HBOT facility for monitoring and intervention in the chamber. The results of the recent survey on use of medical devices inside European hyperbaric chambers are also presented. A wide range of non-CE-certified equipment is used in European chambers. PMID:25596835

Kot, Jacek

2014-12-01

64

Enablers of and Barriers to Abortion Training  

PubMed Central

Background Since the legalization of abortion services in the United States, provision of abortions has remained a controversial issue of high political interest. Routine abortion training is not offered at all obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) training programs, despite a specific training requirement by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Previous studies that described Ob-Gyn programs with routine abortion training either examined associations by using national surveys of program directors or described the experience of a single program. Objective We set out to identify enablers of and barriers to Ob-Gyn abortion training in the context of a New York City political initiative, in order to better understand how to improve abortion training at other sites. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 22 stakeholders from 7 New York City public hospitals and focus group interviews with 62 current residents at 6 sites. Results Enablers of abortion training included program location, high-capacity services, faculty commitment to abortion training, external programmatic support, and resident interest. Barriers to abortion training included lack of leadership continuity, leadership conflict, lack of second-trimester abortion services, difficulty obtaining mifepristone, optional rather than routine training, and antiabortion values of hospital personnel. Conclusions Supportive leadership, faculty commitment, and external programmatic support appear to be key elements for establishing routine abortion training at Ob-Gyn residency training programs. PMID:24404266

Guiahi, Maryam; Lim, Sahnah; Westover, Corey; Gold, Marji; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

2013-01-01

65

Simplified follow-up after medical abortion using a low-sensitivity urinary pregnancy test and a pictorial instruction sheet in Rajasthan, India – study protocol and intervention adaptation of a randomised control trial  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organisation suggests that simplification of the medical abortion regime will contribute to an increased acceptability of medical abortion, among women as well as providers. It is expected that a home-based follow-up after a medical abortion will increase the willingness to opt for medical abortion as well as decrease the workload and service costs in the clinic. Methods/Design This study protocol describes a study that is a randomised, controlled, non-superiority trial. Women screened to participate in the study are those with unwanted pregnancies and gestational ages equal to or less than nine weeks. The randomisation list will be generated using a computerized random number generator and opaque sealed envelopes with group allocation will be prepared. Randomization of the study participants will occur after the first clinical encounter with the doctor. Eligible women randomised to the home-based assessment group will use a low-sensitivity pregnancy test and a pictorial instruction sheet at home, while the women in the clinic follow-up group will return to the clinic for routine follow-up carried out by a doctor. The primary objective of the study this study protocol describes is to evaluate the efficacy of home-based assessment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test and a pictorial instruction sheet 10–14 days after an early medical abortion. Providers or research assistants will not be blinded during outcome assessment. To ensure feasibility of the self-assessment intervention an adaption phase took place at the selected study sites before study initiation. This resulted in an optimized, tailor-made intervention and in the development of the pictorial instruction sheet with a guide on how to use the low-sensitivity pregnancy test and the danger signs after a medical abortion. Discussion In this paper, we will describe the study protocol for a randomised control trial investigating the efficacy of simplified follow-up in terms of home-based assessment, 10–14 days after a medical abortion. Moreover, a description of the adaptation phase is included for a better understanding of the implementation of the intervention in a setting where literacy is low and the road-connections are poor. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01827995. Registered 04 May 2013. PMID:25127545

2014-01-01

66

First-trimester surgical abortion technique.  

PubMed

New data have emerged to support changes in first-trimester abortion practice in regard to antibiotic prophylaxis, cervical ripening, the use of manual vacuum aspiration, and pain management. This article addresses these new recommendations and reviews techniques in performing manual and electric vacuum uterine aspiration procedures before 14 weeks' gestation, including very early abortion (<7 weeks' gestation), technically difficult abortions, management of complications, and postabortal contraception. The information discussed also applies to miscarriage management. PMID:24286994

Yonke, Nicole; Leeman, Lawrence M

2013-12-01

67

49 CFR 390.115 - Procedure for removal from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners. 390.115 Section 390...GENERAL National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners § 390.115 Procedure for...from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners. (a) Voluntary...

2013-10-01

68

49 CFR 390.115 - Procedure for removal from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners. 390.115 Section 390...GENERAL National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners § 390.115 Procedure for...from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners. (a) Voluntary...

2012-10-01

69

Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.  

PubMed

Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA. PMID:24338232

Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

2014-02-01

70

ABORTION COUNSELLING AND THE INFORMED CONSENT DILEMMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTAn obstacle to abortion exists in the form of abortion ‘counselling’ that discourages women from terminating their pregnancies. This counselling involves providing information about the procedure that tends to create feelings of guilt, anxiety and strong emotional reactions to the recognizable form of a human fetus. Instances of such counselling that involve false or misleading information are clearly unethical and

SCOTT WOODCOCK

2011-01-01

71

Induced Abortion andSpontaneous Fetal Loss InSubsequent Pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theeffect ofinduced abortion onspon- taneous pregnancy loss insubsequent pregnancies was studied basedon3,416 pairs ofmatched dataina follow-up investigation. Pregnancy outcome wasex- amined alsoinrelation toabortion procedure, gesta- tion length attimeofabortion, andnumber ofprevious abortions. Ingeneral there wasnosignificant associa- tionbetween prior induced abortion andrisks of Induced abortion isconsidered themostcommonly usedsurgical procedure intheUnited States' andaccounts forabout 30percentofallknownpregnancies.2 Reported results ofstudies relating history ofinduced abortion to

PATRICIA G. STEINHOFF

1982-01-01

72

Creation of an Innovative Inpatient Medical Procedure Service and a Method to Evaluate House Staff Competency  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Training residents in medical procedures is an area of growing interest. Studies demonstrate that internal medicine residents are inadequately trained to perform common medical procedures, and program directors report residents do not master these essential skills. The American Board of Internal Medicine requires substantiation of competence in procedure skills for all internal medicine residents; however, for most procedures, standards of competence do not exist. OBJECTIVE 1) Create a new and standardized approach to teaching, performing, and evaluating inpatient medical procedures; 2) Determine the number of procedures required until trainees develop competence, by assessing both clinical knowledge and psychomotor skills; 3) Improve patient safety. DESIGN A Medical Procedure Service (MPS), consisting of select faculty who are experts at common inpatient procedures, was established to supervise residents performing medical procedures. Faculty monitor residents’ psychomotor performance, while clinical knowledge is taught through a complementary, comprehensive curriculum. After the completion of each procedure, the trainee and supervising faculty member independently complete online questionnaires. RESULTS During this pilot program, 246 procedures were supervised, with a pooled major complication rate of 3.7%. 123 thoracenteses were supervised, with a pneumothorax rate of 3.3%; this compares favorably with a pooled analysis of the literature. 87% of surveyed house staff felt the procedure service helped in their education of medical procedures. CONCLUSIONS The “see one, do one, teach one” model of procedure education is dangerously inadequate. Through the development of a Medical Procedure Service, and an associated procedure curriculum and a mechanism of evaluation, we hope to reduce the rate of complications and errors related to medical procedures and to determine at what point competency is achieved for these procedures. PMID:15109314

Smith, C Christopher; Gordon, Craig E; Feller-Kopman, David; Huang, Grace C; Weingart, Saul N; Davis, Roger B; Ernst, Armin; Aronson, Mark D

2004-01-01

73

International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.  

PubMed Central

During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126

Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

1988-01-01

74

Abortion Providers' Experiences with Medicaid Abortion Coverage Policies: A Qualitative Multistate Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the implementation of state Medicaid abortion policies and the impact of these policies on abortion clients and abortion providers. Data Source From 2007 to 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 70 abortion-providing facilities in 15 states. Study Design In-depth interviews focused on abortion providers' perceptions regarding Medicaid and their experiences working with Medicaid and securing reimbursement in cases that should receive federal funding: rape, incest, and life endangerment. Data Extraction Data were transcribed verbatim before being coded. Principal Findings In two study states, abortion providers reported that 97 percent of submitted claims for qualifying cases were funded. Success receiving reimbursement was attributed to streamlined electronic billing procedures, timely claims processing, and responsive Medicaid staff. Abortion providers in the other 13 states reported reimbursement for 36 percent of qualifying cases. Providers reported difficulties obtaining reimbursement due to unclear rejections of qualifying claims, complex billing procedures, lack of knowledgeable Medicaid staff with whom billing problems could be discussed, and low and slow reimbursement rates. Conclusions Poor state-level implementation of Medicaid coverage of abortion policies creates barriers for women seeking abortion. Efforts to ensure policies are implemented appropriately would improve women's health. PMID:22742741

Dennis, Amanda; Blanchard, Kelly

2013-01-01

75

Creation of an innovative inpatient medical procedure service and a method to evaluate house staff competency  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Training residents in medical procedures is an area of growing interest. Studies demonstrate that internal medicine residents\\u000a are inadequately trained to perform common medical procedures, and program directors report residents do not master these\\u000a essential skills. The American Board of Internal Medicine requires substantiation of competence in procedure skills for all\\u000a internal medicine residents; however, for most procedures, standards

C. Christopher Smith; Craig E. Gordon; David Feller-Kopman; Grace C. Huang; Saul N. Weingart; Roger B. Davis; Armin Ernst; Mark D. Aronson

2004-01-01

76

Abortions: A National Dilemma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses general attitudes towards unwanted pregnancies and abortions, the methods that students have resorted to in order to abort themselves, and the mental state of college women, who become pregnant with children they don't want. (RK)

Paulsen, James A.

1973-01-01

77

Abortion and fertility regulation.  

PubMed

To achieve their desired fertility, women use a combination of contraception and abortion, and some societies also place constraints on marriage and sexual activity. The degree to which these means are adopted varies considerably, but for the foreseeable future abortion will remain an important element of fertility regulation. Globally, complications of unsafe abortion affect hundreds of thousands of women each year, and account for as many as 100,000 deaths annually (about two in ten maternal deaths), mainly in poor countries, where abortion typically remains illegal. Access to safe abortion is both essential and technically feasible and should be provided in combination with good quality family planning services. PMID:8642962

Kulczycki, A; Potts, M; Rosenfield, A

1996-06-15

78

ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

2002-06-03

79

Factors associated with immediate abortion complications.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with increased risk of immediate complications from induced abortion. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a provincial database. SETTING: All Ontario general hospitals in which abortions are performed and all free-standing abortion clinics in Ontario. POPULATION: Women in Ontario aged 15 to 44 years who underwent an induced abortion in the province (without concurrent sterilization) between Jan. 1, 1992, and Dec. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: Recording of complications at the time of the procedure, gestational age, type of procedure, place of abortion (hospital or clinic), and patient's age, parity and history of previous abortion (spontaneous or induced). RESULTS: During the study period 83 469 abortions were performed that met our inclusion criteria. Immediate complications were reported in 571 cases (0.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, after other variables were controlled for, the patient's age, parity and history of previous abortions (spontaneous or induced) were not significant risk factors for immediate complications; however, gestational age, method of abortion and place of abortion were significant risk factors (p < 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) for having a complication from abortion was 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.63) between 9 and 12 weeks, compared with having one after abortion at 9 weeks or earlier, and increased to 3.3 (95% CI 2.23 to 5.00) after abortion between 17 and 20 weeks. Compared with surgical dilatation and curettage (D&C), instillation of saline and instillation of prostaglandins were more likely to be associated with immediate complications (OR 24.0, 95% CI 13.22 to 43.70, and OR 11.7, 95% CI 6.43 to 21.18, respectively), whereas both suction D&C and insertion of a laminaria tent were less likely to be associated with immediate complications (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.67, and OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.52, respectively). Compared with women who had an abortion in a free-standing clinic, the risk for immediate complications was greater among those who had an abortion in a hospital, especially a teaching hospital (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.58), a nonteaching hospital with 200 to 399 acute care beds (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.27 to 4.21) and a nonteaching hospital with fewer than 200 acute care beds (OR 5.9, 95% CI 4.04 to 8.64). CONCLUSION: The risk of immediate complications from induced abortion is very low. Unlike in previous studies, the woman's age, parity and history of previous spontaneous or induced abortions were not found to be risk factors. However, advancing gestational age and procedures involving instillation of saline or prostaglandins were predictive factors of immediate complications. PMID:8646655

Ferris, L E; McMain-Klein, M; Colodny, N; Fellows, G F; Lamont, J

1996-01-01

80

Abortion in early America.  

PubMed

This piece describes abortion practices in use from the 1600s to the 19th century among the inhabitants of North America. The abortive techniques of women from different ethnic and racial groups as found in historical literature are revealed. Thus, the point is made that abortion is not simply a "now issue" that effects select women. Instead, it is demonstrated that it is a widespread practice as solidly rooted in our past as it is in the present. PMID:10297561

Acevedo, Z

1979-01-01

81

Development of Website for the Operating Procedure of Software Contained in Medical Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault or failure of software contained in medical devices will seriously endanger users and should be considered to reduce\\u000a risk. In software development process, the risk analysis and risk control are very important for software contained in medical\\u000a devices. In order to promote the quality of software contained in medical devices, a website is designed to provide the operating\\u000a procedure

Yeou-Jiunn Chen; A. T. Liu; P. J. Chen; Y. T. Chen; U. Z. Hsieh; K. S. Cheng

82

Sensorless Planning for Medical Needle Insertion Procedures Ron Alterovitz and Ken Goldberg  

E-print Network

implantation during permanent seed prostate brachytherapy to minimize seed placement error in simulation in the context of permanent seed prostate brachytherapy, a minimally invasive medical procedure that is widely used for treating prostate cancer due to the excellent long-term outcomes. Before the implant procedure

Goldberg, Ken

83

Frequency and collective dose of medical procedures in Kenya.  

PubMed

The first comprehensive national survey on frequency and radiation dose imparted to the population from radiological procedures was carried out in Kenya and reported here. This survey involved assessment of frequency, typical patient radiation exposure, and collective effective dose from general radiography, fluoroscopy, interventional procedures (IPs), mammography, and computed tomography. About 300 x-ray facilities across the country were invited to participate in the survey, and a 31% response was recorded. The individual and collective radiation burdens of more than 62 types of pediatric and adult radiological examinations were quantified using effective and collective dose. The average effective dose for each radiological examination was assessed from the x-ray efficiency performance tests and patient data from over 30 representative radiological facilities. The results found indicated that over 3 million x-ray procedures were performed in 2011, resulting in an annual collective effective dose of 2,157 person-Sv and an annual effective dose per capita of 0.05 mSv. The most frequent examinations were general radiography (94%), computed tomography (3.3%), and fluoroscopy (2.5%). Although the contribution of computed tomography was small in terms of frequency, this procedure accounted for 36% of the effective dose per capita. General radiography was the most frequent type of examination with a contribution of 55% of the effective dose per capita. PMID:24162056

Korir, Geoffrey K; Wambani, Jeska S; Korir, Ian K; Tries, Mark; Kidali, Mike M

2013-12-01

84

Columbia University Medical Center Policies and Procedures Manual April 2013  

E-print Network

______________________________________________________________________________ TITLE: PHI10. PRIVACY AND INFORMATION SECURITY INCIDENT PROCEDURE AND BREACH NOTIFICATION POLICY POLICY Information (PHI), Personally Identifiable Information (PII), or the information systems that support and consistently use criteria to identify, track and make appropriate notifications, the CUMC Information Security

Columbia University

85

Post-abortion mania.  

PubMed

We describe case histories of three women with post-abortion mania, including two women who underwent a change in diagnosis from bipolar II to bipolar I disorder and another woman who had no prior history of psychiatric disturbance. It is argued that the study of post-abortion mania should provide an opportunity to better understand the aetiology of puerperal mania. PMID:23381493

Sharma, Verinder; Sommerdyk, Christina; Sharma, Sapna

2013-04-01

86

A six month prospective study on different aspects of abortion.  

PubMed

A six month prospective study on various aspects of abortion was conducted from April 1, 1991 to Sept. 30, 1991 in Sidamo Regional Hospital (Yirgalem). A total of 185 cases of abortion were seen. Of these, 64 (35%) were induced and 121 (65%) were spontaneous. There were 2 deaths in the illegally induced group abortion, 1 death in the other group. Induced abortion was higher in age group 20-24 (61%), single (65%), unemployed (70%), nulliparous (48%) and 7-12 grade educational level (67%). The pregnancy was unwanted in all cases of induced abortion and in 50 (41%) of the spontaneous cases. The common instruments used for inducing abortion were plastic catheters (58%) and metallic instruments (32%). The abortionists were mainly health workers (55%). The mean hospital stay was 6.3 days for illegally induced and 2.1 days for spontaneous abortions. The incidence of septic abortion was found to be statistically significantly higher in induced than in spontaneous abortion (p < 0.001) while haemorrhagic shock was not (p > 0.05). The type of anaesthesia and required procedure are also analyzed in this study. Eighty-eight percent of the study population did not use any type of contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is discussed. PMID:8404881

Madebo, T; G/Tsadic, T

1993-07-01

87

Polish parliament votes to reform harsh abortion law.  

PubMed

On June 30, the Polish senate voted to liberalize the country's abortion law, ratifying a provision adopted by the lower House of Parliament (Sejm) on June 10. Based on a model measure prepared by women deputies, the new proposal allows women facing economic or personal hardship to obtain legal abortions. In contrast, the current law only allows abortions when a woman's life is endangered or when the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest. Last year, the Polish anti-choice campaign successfully pressured members of Parliament to restrict abortion by appealing to Catholic doctrine and associating more liberal abortion laws with the Communist regime, which had left access to abortion essentially unfettered. Since enactment of the harsh law last year, Polish women have been forced to travel abroad for abortions, to resort to often unsafe procedures by providers operating illegally within the country, or to attempt self-abortion. Although President Walesa has indicated that he will veto the measure, his executive action could be overridden by a two-thirds vote of the Parliament. Poland is one of the many countries in Eastern and Central Europe that have experienced a surge in anti-choice organizing since the collapse of Communist governments. Groups seeking to impose additional restrictions on abortion in the region are often supported by US-based organizations. Human Life International, for example, recently sponsored a conference for anti-abortion activists in Moscow, Russia. For more information, contact Urszula Nowakowska, visiting attorney in CRLP's International Program. PMID:12287709

1994-07-01

88

It Is Time to Integrate Abortion Into Primary Care  

PubMed Central

The Roe v Wade decision made safe abortion available but did not change the reality that more than 1 million women face an unwanted pregnancy every year. Forty years after Roe v Wade, the procedure is not accessible to many US women. The politics of abortion have led to a plethora of laws that create enormous barriers to abortion access, particularly for young, rural, and low-income women. Family medicine physicians and advanced practice clinicians are qualified to provide abortion care. To realize the promise of Roe v Wade, first-trimester abortion must be integrated into primary care and public health professionals and advocates must work to remove barriers to the provision of abortion within primary care settings. PMID:23153160

2013-01-01

89

Office-Based Surgical and Medical Procedures: Educational Gaps  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, the number of procedures performed in office-based settings by a variety of practitioners—including surgeons, gastroenterologists, ophthalmologists, radiologists, dermatologists, and others—has grown significantly. At the same time, patient safety concerns have intensified and include issues such as proper patient selection, safe sedation practices, maintenance of facilities and resuscitation equipment, facility accreditation and practitioner licensing, and the office staff's ability to deal with emergencies and complications. An urgent need exists to educate practitioners about safety concerns in the office-based setting and to develop various educational strategies that can meet the continued growth of these procedures. This review outlines educational needs and possible solutions such as simulation exercises and education during residency training. PMID:23267269

Urman, Richard D.; Punwani, Nathan; Shapiro, Fred E.

2012-01-01

90

Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

1971-01-01

91

Abortion and the search for public policy.  

PubMed

The social policy towards abortion determined by the Roe vs. Wade decision can be overturned at any time depending upon how the US Supreme Court reacts to challenges to its earlier ruling. Roe vs. Wade was decided by a 7 to 2 vote, and the members of the Supreme Court appointed by Presidents Reagan and Bush were chosen to uphold a conservative (anti-abortion) ideology. Although more than half of the present Court was appointed by these presidents, President Clinton now has the opportunity to appoint 2 more Justices. The public policy positions which are currently available to the Supreme Court or to Congress can be ranked on a chart from liberal to conservative. In this article, 7 different positions are described in detail, and the public policy implications of the implementation of each position are described. The first position considered is the extreme conservative position of "no abortion; no exceptions" as defined by author and Roman Catholic theologian Gerald Kelly. The only procedures allowed which would end the life of a fetus would be those to remove an ovary or fallopian tube in the case of an extrauterine pregnancy (permissible under the doctrine of double effect). In the most extreme interpretation of this situation (which Kelly does not seem to hold), those who perform abortions would be prosecuted for murder. The next position considered is the most liberal position, which is espoused by Michael Tooley, and which holds that abortion and early infanticide are both permissible. The third position is that which allows no abortion but has limited exceptions in cases of rape or incest. The appropriate consideration for abortion presented next is that of the late Joseph Fletcher who believed that whatever love requires is the proper response to the situation. Philosopher Dan Callahan espouses the notion that abortion should be performed for compelling reasons only (after effective counseling). The trimester approach to the problem of abortion is that set forth by Justice Harry Blackmun in Roe vs. Wade. This approach gives a woman freedom to decide to have an abortion during the first 2 trimesters of her pregnancy only. This approach has essentially dictated public policy in the US since 1973. The last position considered is that which maintains that a woman's right to equality demands that she have sole control over whether or not to have an abortion. PMID:8118140

McIntyre, R L

1993-01-01

92

Test Procedure for 170.302.e Maintain active medication allergy list APPROVED Version 1.1 September 24, 2010  

E-print Network

Test Procedure for §170.302.e Maintain active medication allergy list APPROVED Version 1.1 September 24, 2010 1 Test Procedure for §170.302 (e) Maintain active medication allergy list This document and Human Services (HHS) on July 28, 2010. §170.302 (e) Maintain active medication allergy list. Enable

93

Developing Physiologic Models for Emergency Medical Procedures Under Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several technological enhancements have been made to METI's commercial Emergency Care Simulator (ECS) with regard to how microgravity affects human physiology. The ECS uses both a software-only lung simulation, and an integrated mannequin lung that uses a physical lung bag for creating chest excursions, and a digital simulation of lung mechanics and gas exchange. METI s patient simulators incorporate models of human physiology that simulate lung and chest wall mechanics, as well as pulmonary gas exchange. Microgravity affects how O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs. Procedures were also developed to take into affect the Glasgow Coma Scale for determining levels of consciousness by varying the ECS eye-blinking function to partially indicate the level of consciousness of the patient. In addition, the ECS was modified to provide various levels of pulses from weak and thready to hyper-dynamic to assist in assessing patient conditions from the femoral, carotid, brachial, and pedal pulse locations.

Parker, Nigel; O'Quinn, Veronica

2012-01-01

94

Developing Physiologic Models for Emergency Medical Procedures Under Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several technological enhancements have been made to METI's commercial Emergency Care Simulator (ECS) with regard to how microgravity affects human physiology. The ECS uses both a software-only lung simulation, and an integrated mannequin lung that uses a physical lung bag for creating chest excursions, and a digital simulation of lung mechanics and gas exchange. METI's patient simulators incorporate models of human physiology that simulate lung and chest wall mechanics, as well as pulmonary gas exchange. Microgravity affects how O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs. Procedures were also developed to take into affect the Glasgow Coma Scale for determining levels of consciousness by varying the ECS eye-blinking function to partially indicate the level of consciousness of the patient. In addition, the ECS was modified to provide various levels of pulses from weak and thready to hyper-dynamic to assist in assessing patient conditions from the femoral, carotid, brachial, and pedal pulse locations.

Parker, Nigel; OQuinn, Veronica

2012-01-01

95

Legal abortion: a painful necessity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to increase knowledge about the psychosocial background and current living conditions of Swedish women seeking abortion, along with their motives for abortion and their feelings towards pregnancy and abortion. Two hundred and eleven women answered a questionnaire when they consulted the gynaecologist for the first time. The study indicates that legal abortion may be sought by

A. Kero; U. Högberg; L. Jacobsson; A. Lalos

2001-01-01

96

Teen Motherhood and Abortion Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate the effect of abortion access on teen birthrates using county-level panel data. Past research suggested that prohibiting abortion led to higher teen birthrates. Perhaps surprisingly, the authors find that more recent restrictions in abortion access, including the closing of abortion clinics and restrictions on Medicaid funding, had the opposite effect. Small declines in access were related to

Thomas J Kane; Douglas Staiger

1996-01-01

97

Unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion in the Philippines: context and consequences.  

PubMed

Despite advances in reproductive health law, many Filipino women experience unintended pregnancies, and because abortion is highly stigmatized in the country, many who seek abortion undergo unsafe procedures. This report provides a summary of reproductive health indicators in the Philippines—in particular, levels of contraceptive use, unplanned pregnancy and unsafe abortion—and describes the sociopolitical context in which services are provided, the consequences of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion,and recommendations for improving access to reproductive health services. PMID:24006559

Hussain, Rubina; Finer, Lawrence B

2013-04-01

98

Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: a psychosocial study.  

PubMed

Despite its social, legal and medical importance, termination of pregnancy (TOP) (induced abortion) has rarely been the focus of psychosocial research. Of a total of 1329 women who consecutively attended the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Japan, 635 were expecting their first baby. Of these 635 women, 103 (16.2%) had experienced TOP once previously (first aborters), while 47 (7.4%) had experienced TOP two or more times (repeated aborters). Discriminant function analysis was performed using psychosocial variables found to be significantly associated with either first abortion or repeated abortion in bivariate analyses. This revealed that both first and repeated aborters could be predicted by smoking habits and an unwanted current pregnancy while the repeated aborters appear to differ from first aborters in having a longer pre-marital dating period, non-arranged marriages, smoking habits, early maternal loss experience or a low level of maternal care during childhood. These findings suggest that both the frequency of abortion and its repetition have psychosocial origins. PMID:9844843

Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, M

1998-09-01

99

Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance of concerted efforts to improve access. Other countries contemplating changes to abortion policy can draw on the evidence and implementation strategies observed in Nepal. PMID:23741391

Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.

2013-01-01

100

The Abortion Law Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This privately posted page offers extensive and highly credible information on legislation and jurisprudence relating to abortion in the US. The site offers thoroughly linked discussions of constitutional law, Roe v. Wade, Planned Parenthood v. Casey, state and federal abortion laws, including partial-birth abortion laws, and much more. The hypertext links are to primary documents including court decisions, texts of legislation, court briefs, and oral argument transcripts. There is also an index to primary documents for ease of access. We found the page to have no political agenda. As the author states, "this page is being constructed to help people, regardless of their political bent, understand the background and state of abortion law in America, and access related legal material--especially that which is less available and less well known."

101

Human Factors and ISS Medical Systems: Highlights of Procedures and Equipment Findings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering Critical Questions Roadmap, a three year Technology Development Project (TDP) was funded by NASA Headquarters to examine emergency medical procedures on ISS. The overall aim of the emergency medical procedures project was to determine the human factors issues in the procedures, training, communications and equipment, and to recommend solutions that will improve the survival rate of crewmembers in the event of a medical emergency. Currently, each ISS crew remains on orbit for six month intervals. As there is not standing requirement for a physician crewmember, during such time, the maintenance of crew health is dependant on individual crewmembers. Further, in the event of an emergency, crew will need to provide prolonged maintenance care, as well as emergency treatment, to an injured crewmember while awaiting transport to Earth. In addition to the isolation of the crew, medical procedures must be carried out within the further limitations imposed by the physical environment of the space station. For example, in order to administer care on ISS without the benefit of gravity, the Crew Medical Officers (CMOs) must restrain the equipment required to perform the task, restrain the injured crewmember, and finally, restrain themselves. Both the physical environment and the physical space available further limit the technology that can be used onboard. Equipment must be compact, yet able to withstand high levels of radiation and function without gravity. The focus here is to highlight the human factors impacts from our three year project involving the procedures and equipment areas that have been investigated and provided valuable to ISS and provide groundwork for human factors requirements for medical applications for exploration missions.

Byrne, V. E.; Hudy, C.; Smith, D.; Whitmore, M.

2005-01-01

102

Psychological Consequences of Abortion among the Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran  

PubMed Central

Objective Abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. Method 278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study. Results The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively. Conclusion Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women's health impact on family and population health. PMID:22952518

Pourreza, Abolghasem

2011-01-01

103

A Failure of Sleep-Dependent Procedural Learning in Chronic, Medicated Schizophrenia  

E-print Network

with the amount of stage 2 non-REM sleep in the latter quartile of the night (Smith and MacNeill 1994; Walker et al 2002), although one study found the improvement to be associated with REM sleep (Fischer et alA Failure of Sleep-Dependent Procedural Learning in Chronic, Medicated Schizophrenia Dara S

Manoach, Dara S.

104

Planning and Optimization Algorithms for Image-Guided Medical Procedures Ron Alterovitz  

E-print Network

is not known with certainty. Fourth, we consider dose optimization for high-dose-rate brachytherapy cancer. Results using prostate medical images indicate a statistically significant improvement in registration to a variety of minimally invasive 1 #12;procedures, from biopsies to cancer treatments such as cryotherapy

Alterovitz, Ron

105

The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

Medoff, Marshall H.

2008-01-01

106

Abortion a business hurdle for nation's Catholic hospitals.  

PubMed

Abortion is the foremost moral issue for 626 Catholic hospitals nationwide since church teachings prohibit the performance of elective abortions. This and the fact that Catholic hospitals can not do voluntary sterilizations can hinder their ability to get managed care contracts. In some cases a hospital will not join a network because abortions and sterilizations are done in other hospitals in the network. In other cases they have been in plans where abortions are performed in other contract facilities; this does not violate the Catholic church policy since the abortions are not performed in their facility. When a Catholic and secular hospital plan a merger, Catholic ideals seem to take precedence. A Catholic hospital that went bankrupt in Philadelphia, was turned over to investors, and was under no obligation to follow the Catholic church's directives, but did not perform abortions anyway. In Washington state there are merger talks going on between a secular facility and the Franciscan Health System. The cessation of abortion and sterilization services appear to be outweighed by the financial benefits. Besides, these procedures can be performed through other providers in the area. In Michigan similar merger talks may fail because of the abortion issue. The government justice system is investigating and is likely to challenge any merger there. PMID:10294510

Burda, D

1989-08-25

107

Time to follow guidelines, protocols, and structured procedures in medical care and time to leap out  

PubMed Central

Present medical practice encourages management according to written guidelines, protocols, and structured procedures (GPPs). Daily medical practice includes instances in which “leaping” from one patient management routine to another is a must. We define “frozen patient management”, when patient management leaping was required but was not performed. Frozen patient management may cause significant damage to patient safety and health and the treatment quality. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of GPP-guided medical practice and gives an explanation of the problem of frozen patient management in light of quality engineering, control engineering, and learning processes. Our analysis of frozen patient management is based on consideration of medical care as a process. By considering medical care processes as a closed-loop control process, it is possible to explain why, when an indication for deviation from the expected occurs, it does not necessarily attract the medical teams’ attention, thereby preventing the realization that leaping to an alternative patient management is needed. We suggest that working according to GPPs intensifies the frozen patient management problem since working according to GPPs relates to “exploitation learning behavior”, while leaping to new patient management relates to “exploration learning behavior”. We indicate practice routines to be incorporated into GPP-guided medical care, to reduce frozen patient management. PMID:25473321

Kobo-Greenhut, Ayala; Notea, Amos; Ruach, Meir; Onn, Erez; Hasin, Yehunatan

2014-01-01

108

Ready or Not, Here They Come: Acting Interns’ Experience and Perceived Competency Performing Basic Medical Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess acting interns’ (AI’s) experience with and perceived level of competency performing 6 basic medical procedures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Fourth-year medical students at the University of Cincinnati (UCCOM) are required to complete 2 AI rotations in Internal Medicine.\\u000a All AIs in 2003–2004 (n?=?150) and 2004–2005 (n?=?151) were asked to complete a survey about whether during each of their rotations they had performed

LeAnn Coberly; Linda M. Goldenhar

2007-01-01

109

Brazilian obstetrician-gynecologists and abortion: a survey of knowledge, opinions and practices  

PubMed Central

Background Abortion laws are extremely restrictive in Brazil. The knowledge, opinions of abortion laws, and abortion practices of obstetrician-gynecologists can have a significant impact on women's access to safe abortion. Methods We conducted a mail-in survey with a 10% random sample of obstetrician-gynecologists affiliated with the Brazilian Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. We documented participants' experiences performing abortion under a range of legal and illegal circumstances, and asked about which abortion techniques they had experience with. We used chi-square tests and crude logistic regression models to determine which sociodemographic, knowledge-related, or practice-related variables were associated with physician opinion. Results Of the 1,500 questionnaires that we mailed out, we received responses from 572 (38%). Less than half (48%) of the respondents reported accurate knowledge about abortion law and 77% thought that the law should be more liberal. One-third of respondents reported having previous experience performing an abortion, and very few of these physicians reported having experience with manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) or with misoprostol with either mifepristone or methotrexate. Physicians that favored liberalization of the law were more likely to have correct knowledge about abortion law, and to be in favor of public funding for abortion services. Conclusion Brazilian obstetrician-gynecologists need more information on abortion laws and on safe, effective abortion procedures. PMID:16288647

Goldman, Lisa A; García, Sandra G; Díaz, Juan; Yam, Eileen A

2005-01-01

110

Virtual Reality as an Adjunctive Non-pharmacologic Analgesic for Acute Burn Pain During Medical Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Excessive pain during medical procedures is a widespread problem but is especially problematic during daily wound care of\\u000a patients with severe burn injuries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Burn patients report 35–50% reductions in procedural pain while in a distracting immersive virtual reality, and fMRI brain\\u000a scans show associated reductions in pain-related brain activity during VR. VR distraction appears to be most effective for\\u000a patients

Hunter G. Hoffman; Gloria T. Chambers; Walter J. Meyer III; Lisa L. Arceneaux; William J. Russell; Eric J. Seibel; Todd L. Richards; Sam R. Sharar; David R. Patterson

2011-01-01

111

[Artificial abortion in Europe].  

PubMed

The authors of the article review the state in various European nations and the possibilities for performance of induced interruption of pregnancy. In connection with this they describe the existing various forms of legislation. There are countries, in which induced abortions are absolutely band (Ireland). Legislation of socialistic countries is far more democratic in this respect. There are many factors, on which depend whether to legalize or not induced interruption of pregnancy. In Roman-catholic countries the religious motives are determinant, but in some other countries--the demographic policy of the government, ect. The practice however prove that induced abortions are widely distributes in Europe. The number of registered abortions is quite large in the socialistic countries. The data show that Bulgaria occupies one the first places (61.9% of women). Furthermore there are a series of problems in connection with the formation of high sexual culture of the population. Attention is paid to family planning all over the world. The question about contraception is an important and pressing problem. Good knowledge of current drugs and methods for prevention of unwanted pregnancy and their correct usage leads to a substantial reduction in the number of induced abortions and their unfavourable consequences. PMID:2252142

Ivanov, S; Boianov, B; Marinov, B

1990-01-01

112

Experiences of abortion: A narrative review of qualitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP) has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a narrative review of qualitative studies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods.

Mabel LS Lie; Stephen C Robson; Carl R May

2008-01-01

113

Contraceptive use among women seeking repeat abortion in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Limited access to modern contraceptives in populations that desire smaller families can lead to repeat unintended pregnancy and repeat abortions. We conducted an analysis of the medical records of 1,200 women seeking abortion-related services in public and private facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from October 2008 to February 2009. We examined the characteristics of initial and repeat abortion clients including prior contraceptive use and subsequent method selection. The incidence of repeat abortion was 30%. Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives and they were nearly twice as likely to leave the facility with a method. However, repeat abortion clients were significantly more likely to have ever used short-term reversible methods and to choose short-term methods post-abortion. Contraceptive counseling services for repeat abortion clients' should address reasons for previous contraceptive failure, discontinuation, or non-use. Post-abortion family planning services should be strengthened to help decrease repeat abortion. PMID:24558782

Prata, Ndola; Holston, Martine; Fraser, Ashley; Melkamu, Yilma

2013-12-01

114

A study on the discourse and reality of abortion in Korea: 1920s~1930s.  

PubMed

This paper tried to collect, classify and analyse the discourse about abortion in 1920~1930. In Korea, modern medical abortion operation started in 1920~30s. At that time abortion was prohibited by the Japanese Government-General of Korea, because the Japanese Government-General of Korea needed large population which was used for labor and exploitation. Hence, the Empire of Japan de-penalized Japanese criminal law related to birth control but Korean law was not revised between 1910~1945. Nevertheless, there were quite a few women who wanted abortion when they had children born in sin or they were too poor to raise their children, so they had abortion secretly. At that time the women generally had abortion through toxic drugs or foods and violence (dropping from a high place or beating their stomach). But high class women did it by medical operation. In 1920s, there was few Korean (modern) medical doctors who could operate for abortion, instead Japanese immigrant medical doctors did it--as the newspaper of that time showed(there were many pieces of news that Japanese doctor who helped abortion was arrested by the police). As time went by Korean doctors got their say about the technique and various knowledge of abortion in newspapers, magazines, and academic Journals; this was especially the case starting in 1930. It is worth noting that they were sometimes arrested for illegal abortion operations. Furthermore, from the late 1920s the insist that abortion should be permitted for women and poor people, appeared. This insist was affected by Japan, the Soviet Union and other countries which was generous with abortion. PMID:23695751

Lee, Young- Ah

2013-04-01

115

Abortion in Islamic countries--legal and religious aspects.  

PubMed

The debate over abortion is still controversial as ever. As one of every four people in the world is of the Muslim religion, it is important to learn more about the Islamic point of view toward this dilemma in medical ethics. The first part of this paper gives a general view of the sources of Islamic law and discusses modern developments in Islamic medical ethics regarding abortion. The second part focuses on the legal aspects of abortion in different Islamic states, dealing with the need to supply solutions to women who for different reasons wish to abort and at the same time enact laws that would not contradict Islamic principles. A study of three Muslim states (Egypt, Kuwait and Tunisia) demonstrates three different approaches toward legalizing abortion--a conservative approach, a more lenient approach, and a liberal one--all within Islamic oriented states. This leads to a conclusion that a more liberal attitude regarding abortion is possible in Islamic states, as long as traditional principles are taken into account. PMID:15163077

Asman, Oren

2004-01-01

116

The efficacy of immediate post-abortion intrauterine device insertion.  

PubMed

Ovulation returns soon after abortion, with half of the women ovulating by 21 days after the procedure. Immediate post-abortion insertion provides immediate contraceptive protection. Clinicians have feared that rates of uterine perforation due to intrauterine devices (IUDs) and expulsion of IUDs may be higher in the post-abortal uterus due to its softness and enlargement. This study was carried out to assess the safety and efficacy of IUD insertion immediately after induced abortion compared with insertion during the first menstrual cycle after abortion. All women were counseled about a method of contraception, particularly copper T-380A, and divided into two groups: Group 1 included 226 women who preferred immediate IUD insertion, and Group 2 included 100 women who opted for interval-IUD insertion during the first menstrual cycle after abortion. All women were followed-up at two and eight weeks after insertion of the IUDs. Severe bleeding was observed 10.62% in Group 1 and 6% in Group 2. Expulsion rate was 7.08% and 8% in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, which was not statistically significant. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) was observed in one case in Group 1. However uterine perforation was not noted in either group. In conclusion, insertion of an IUD immediately after an induced abortion is safe and if a woman asks for a modern contraceptive method it could be offered. PMID:12635744

Göçmen, A; Demirpolat, N; Ay?in, H

2002-01-01

117

The Politicization of Abortion and the Evolution of Abortion Counseling  

PubMed Central

The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation—head and heart counseling—departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade. PMID:23153144

2013-01-01

118

Denial of Abortion Because of Provider Gestational Age Limits in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the factors influencing delay in seeking abortion and the outcomes for women denied abortion care because of gestational age limits at abortion facilities. Methods. We compared women who presented for abortion care who were under the facilities’ gestational age limits and received an abortion (n?=?452) with those who were just over the gestational age limits and were denied an abortion (n?=?231) at 30 US facilities. We described reasons for delay in seeking services. We examined the determinants of obtaining an abortion elsewhere after being denied one because of facility gestational age limits. We then estimated the national incidence of being denied an abortion because of facility gestational age limits. Results. Adolescents and women who did not recognize their pregnancies early were most likely to delay seeking care. The most common reason for delay was having to raise money for travel and procedure costs. We estimated that each year more than 4000 US women are denied an abortion because of facility gestational limits and must carry unwanted pregnancies to term. Conclusions. Many state laws restrict abortions based on gestational age, and new laws are lowering limits further. The incidence of being denied abortion will likely increase, disproportionately affecting young and poor women. PMID:23948000

Weitz, Tracy A.; Jones, Rachel K.; Barar, Rana E.; Foster, Diana Greene

2014-01-01

119

An analysis of the differences between national and local coverage determinations of medical procedures in the US  

E-print Network

Medicare coverage policies of medical procedures can be promulgated at a national level by the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) as National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) or at a local level by Medicare ...

Díaz Treviño, Rafael

2010-01-01

120

[Validation of the sterilization procedure of medical and hospital devices according to different packaging types].  

PubMed

Safety in the processing of medical and hospital devices in healthcare organizations is an important measure of nosocomial infection control. This investigation aimed at establishing the period during which it is safe to use medical and hospital articles processed through sterilization by saturated steam under pressure using different types of packaging at a private hospital. The methodological procedure consisted of four phases: preparation of articles, evaluation of autoclave functioning, sterilization cycle and microbiological tests. Results showed bacterial growth on articles packed in surgical grade paper with and without film on the 21st day, in crepe paper on the 90th day and absence of growth when raw cotton packaging was used. In face of the results, a 21-day period was established for the use of articles after sterilization by saturated steam under pressure regardless of the type of packaging utilized, considering that storage conditions were also evaluated. PMID:12728807

Brito, Maria de Fátima Paiva; Galvão, Cristina Maria; Françolin, Lucilena; Rotta, Carmem Silvia Gabriel

2002-01-01

121

Locus of pain control associated with medication adherence behaviors among patients after an orthopedic procedure  

PubMed Central

Background Locus of pain control (LPC) is characterized by the behavior of people coping with their health problems, as a result of their own actions (internal control) or external factors or other people (external control). This parameter can be associated with medication adherence, in addition to other psychosocial factors that may also influence this behavior. This study was performed to investigate the influence of the LPC on medication adherence in patients undergoing an orthopedic procedure. Subjects and methods We conducted a prospective cohort study on patients who attended an orthopedic clinic for arthroscopy treatment. The patients’ LPC and pain intensity data were obtained on the day of admission through the use of the LPC scale and the visual analog scale (VAS), respectively, both being validated tools. After arthroscopic surgery, the patients received drug prescriptions and were reassessed after 15 days regarding treatment adherence, using the Morisky test. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results We assessed 79 individuals from both the internal LPC group (n=35) and external LPC group (n=44) and found that there were no group differences in sex, affected limb, cause of injury, repetitive strain injury, duration of pain, or pain intensity. However, there was a higher proportion of patients in the external LPC group that adhered to the prescribed medication compared with the internal LPC group (P<0.01). Conclusion The results showed that among patients who underwent an orthopedic procedure, there was a higher adherence rate to prescribed medication in the external LPC group compared with the internal LPC group. PMID:25075178

Porto, Thaisy Mendes; Machado, Daniele Caferatti; Martins, Rafael Olívio; Galato, Dayani; Piovezan, Anna Paula

2014-01-01

122

Are partners available for post-abortion contraceptive counseling? A pilot study in a Baltimore City clinic.  

PubMed

About half of the 1.2 million abortions each year in the United States are repeat abortions. While most abortion providers counsel women about contraception, one reason for the high repeat rate could be failure to take into account the social context of the women--in particular, the male partner. To assess whether there might be a window of opportunity for a contraceptive intervention that includes the male partner at the time of the abortion, we undertook a pilot study at an urban abortion clinic to examine the role of the male partner among women receiving abortions. Between May 2001 and August 2002, two questionnaires were administered to 109 women receiving abortions in a Baltimore City clinic. On the procedure day, women were more likely to be accompanied by a male partner upon arrival (30%) or when leaving (34%) than by any other individual. The majority of women receiving abortions reported that their partners played positive decision-making and support roles throughout the abortion process. A significant proportion of couples could be available for contraceptive counseling following an abortion, providing rationale for couples' post-abortion contraceptive counseling for women whose partners are already actively and positively involved in the abortion process. Such an intervention may help to reduce repeat abortions. PMID:15105066

Beenhakker, Britta; Becker, Stan; Hires, Stephanie; Molano Di Targiana, Nell; Blumenthal, Paul; Huggins, George

2004-05-01

123

Acp. Best practice no 155. Pathological investigation of deaths following surgery, anaesthesia, and medical procedures.  

PubMed Central

The pathological investigation of deaths following surgery, anaesthesia, and medical procedures is discussed. The definition of "postoperative death" is examined and the classification of deaths following procedures detailed. The review of individual cases is described and the overall approach to necropsy and interpretation considered. There are specific sections dealing with the cardiovascular system (including air embolism, perioperative myocardial infarction, cardiac pacemakers, central venous catheters, cardiac surgery, heart valve replacement, angioplasty, and vascular surgery); respiratory system (postoperative pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax); central nervous system (dissection of cervical spinal cord), hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal system; musculoskeletal system; and head and neck region. Deaths associated with anaesthesia are classified and the specific problems of epidural anaesthesia and malignant hyperthermia discussed. The article concludes with a section on the recording of necropsy findings and their communication to clinicians and medicolegal authorities. PMID:10655984

Start, R D; Cross, S S

1999-01-01

124

CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

DREES,A.FLILLER,R.III.FU,W.MICHNOFF,R.

2004-07-05

125

The Choice of Second Trimester Abortion Method: Evolution, Evidence and Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decades after its introduction, dilatation and evacuation (D&E) is still not universally offered by gynaecologists who provide second trimester abortion. Three lines of evidence point to D&E as the preferred method for most women. First, the uterus has evolved to expel its contents early and late in pregnancy, not in the middle. Hence, induction of labour with medical abortion forces

David A Grimes

2008-01-01

126

Complicated illegal induced abortions at a tertiary health institution in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: Globally it is estimated that 26-53 million induced abortions occur annually. An estimated 20 million of these are unsafe especially in countries with restrictive abortion laws. Approximately 48% of all abortions worldwide were unsafe and more than 97% of these are in developing countries. Our objective was to find out complications of illegal induced abortions in a tertiary care institution. Methods : All cases of complicated induced abortion, seen over a 5 year period were reviewed. Relevant data relating to the socio-demographic profile of the patients, clinical presentation, abortion service providers and facilities and mode of termination of pregnancy were extracted. Results: One hundred and nineteen patients, constituting 3.4% of gynaecological admissions were studied. The mean age of the patients was 23.5±6.6 years with over 80% single. The mean gestational age at abortion was 12.8± 4.1 weeks. Incomplete abortion and postabortal sepsis formed the major indication for admission. About a fifth of the cases had abdominal visceral involvement. Twenty (18%) had laparotomy and 10(9%) had renal dialysis. Over 75% of patients were discharged in stable state. Conclusion: This study highlights the pressing need for an organised program for reproductive health education especially for the adolescents and unmarried who were most affected by abortion complications. In addition training and continuing medical education for doctors favourably disposed to abortion services is highly indicated from this study.

Ikeanyi, Maduabuchi Eugene; Okonkwo, Chukwunwendu Anthony

2014-01-01

127

Therapeutic abortion in Islam: contemporary views of Muslim Shiite scholars and effect of recent Iranian legislation  

PubMed Central

Abortion is forbidden under normal circumstances by nearly all the major world religions. Traditionally, abortion was not deemed permissible by Muslim scholars. Shiite scholars considered it forbidden after implantation of the fertilised ovum. However, Sunni scholars have held various opinions on the matter, but all agreed that after 4?months gestation abortion was not permitted. In addition, classical Islamic scholarship had only considered threats to maternal health as a reason for therapeutic abortion. Recently, scholars have begun to consider the effect of severe fetal deformities on the mother, the families and society. This has led some scholars to reconsider the prohibition on abortion in limited circumstances. This article reviews the Islamic basis for the prohibition of abortion and the reasons for its justification. Contemporary rulings from leading Shiite scholars and from the Sunni school of thought are presented and reviewed. The status of abortion in Muslim countries is reviewed, with special emphasis on the therapeutic abortion law passed by the Iranian Parliament in 2003. This law approved therapeutic abortion before 16?weeks of gestation under limited circumstances, including medical conditions related to fetal and maternal health. Recent measures in Iran provide an opportunity for the Muslim scholars in other countries to review their traditional stance on abortion. PMID:17074823

Hedayat, K M; Shooshtarizadeh, P; Raza, M

2006-01-01

128

Contraception following abortion and the treatment of incomplete abortion.  

PubMed

Family planning counseling and the provision of postabortion contraception should be an integrated part of abortion and postabortion care to help women avoid another unplanned pregnancy and a repeat abortion. Postabortion contraception is significantly more effective in preventing repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion when it is provided before women leave the healthcare facility where they received abortion care, and when the chosen method is a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method. This article provides evidence supporting these two critical aspects of postabortion contraception. It suggests that gynecologists and obstetricians have an ethical obligation to do everything necessary to ensure that postabortion contraception, with a focus on LARC methods, becomes an integral part of abortion and postabortion care, in line with the recommendations of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and of several other organizations. PMID:24739476

Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp Kallner, Helena; Faúndes, Anibal

2014-07-01

129

Evaluation of the admission procedure and academic performance on the Medical Faculty in Ljubljana, Yugoslavia.  

PubMed

The data about the applicants and medical students who matriculated at the Medical Faculty of Ljubljana during the period from 1962-63 to 1969-70 by admission procedure were reviewed. A higher proportion of women than men was accepted, but men went on from year to year more regularly (P less than 0.05). Women graduated significantly later (P less than 0.05). More than half the students came from Ljubljana and its surrounding area. Academic success was correlated with general success in secondary school and with the raw scores at the admission examinations. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated and their values varied greatly between men and women, as well as among single cohorts. The multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictor for academic performance was the average success in secondary school (gymnasium) and in addition, the raw scores in biology and foreign language obtained at the admission examination. The results also showed the standardized regression coefficients beta and these variables should therefore be retained in the admission procedure in future. The cumulated coefficient of determination could explain about 11% to 15% of the variability of dependent variables--i.e., average academic success (mean mark of all examinations) and average academic success standardized to the duration of study. The psychological test was of the least importance and could be omitted in future admission procedures. The mean mark in mathematics in secondary school and the mean mark in somatology (the study of the anatomy and physiology of the body) at the admission examination correlated highly with other admission criteria and could also be omitted in future. PMID:6877106

Susec-Michieli, M; Kalisnik, M

1983-07-01

130

Abortion, Birthright and the Counselor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This transcript is the result of panel presentation given on the implications of liberalized abortion laws for counselors. A new law which went into effect in July, 1970, in New York State presented women with the option of obtaining a legal abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Counselors in New York State were, therefore, presented with new…

Fadale, Vincent E.; And Others

131

The stigmatisation of abortion: a qualitative analysis of print media in Great Britain in 2010  

PubMed Central

The media play a significant part in shaping public perceptions of health issues, and abortion attracts continued media interest. Detailed examination of media constructions of abortion may help to identify emerging public discourse. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine if and how the print media in contributes to the stigmatisation of abortion. Articles from seven British and five Scottish national newspapers from 2010 were analysed for overall framings of abortion and emergent themes, including potentially stigmatising discursive constructs and language. Abortion was found to be presented using predominantly negative language and discursive associations as ‘risky’, and in association with other ‘discredited’ social practices. Key perspectives were found to be absent or marginalised, including those of women who have sought abortion. Few articles framed abortion as a positive and legitimate choice. Negative media representations of abortion contribute to the stigmatisation of the procedure and of women who have it, and reflect a discrediting of women's reproductive decision-making. There is a need to challenge the notion that abortion stigma is inevitable, and to encourage positive framings of abortion in the media and other public discourse. PMID:25115952

Purcell, Carrie; Hilton, Shona; McDaid, Lisa

2014-01-01

132

The road to moderation: the significance of Webster for legislation restricting abortion.  

PubMed

They only certain outcomes of the Webster decision is that state legislatures will be stimulated to enact more legislation regulating abortion. However it is unlikely that the worst prochoice fears will be realized. A return to the 19th century abortion prohibition era is very unlikely because of trends in Western societal attitudes and laws. Since 1973 and the Roe decision there have been more than 300 bills or acts enacted by state legislatures that regulate abortion. Whether it is criminal prohibitions, licensing requirements, zoning restrictions, parental participation, spousal participation, informed consent, health and sanitation regulations, post viability regulations, laws protecting the right of health care workers not to participate in abortion, public funding restrictions, or regulations of fetal experimentation, abortion regulations have definitely been wide spread. The democratic process is going to produce a moderate position on abortion as a result of the Webster decision for 7 reasons: (1) the period before Roe was a time when abortion legislation was in a trend towards moderation. In 1962 abortion prohibitions were in place in all states. In 1967 4 states adopted an abortion reform position that allowed for abortion in the hard cases: (1) maternal health, (2) fetal defect, (3) rape/incest. Over the next 5 years 9 more states followed and 3 others went even farther by allowing unrestricted abortion during early pregnancy. (2) public opinion is consistent and strong in favoring abortion restrictions except for the hard cases. (3) the trend towards moderation in abortion regulations is closely related to other legal trends toward moderation. No fault divorce was a move towards moderation. The abortion experience in Western Europe was towards moderation. (5) Medical technological developments are putting the power of abortion in the hands of women. Abortificant drugs that can be used without medical assistance give women greater freedom. (6) The history of abortion law enforcement is very moderate. (7) Judicial power continues as all member of the Supreme Court have stated publicly that the Constitution does allow some room for abortion. PMID:2628653

Wardle, L D

1989-01-01

133

Reproductive health and the question of abortion in Botswana: a review.  

PubMed

The complications of unsafe, illegal abortions are a significant cause of maternal mortality in Botswana. The stigma attached to abortion leads some women to seek clandestine procedures, or alternatively, to carry the fetus to term and abandon the infant at birth. I conducted research into perceptions of abortion in urban Botswana in order to understand the social and cultural obstacles to women's reproductive autonomy, focusing particularly on attitudes to terminating a pregnancy. I carried out 21 interviews with female and male urban adult Batswana. This article constitutes a review of the abortion issue in Botswana based on my research. Restrictive laws must eventually be abolished to allow women access to safe, timely abortions. My findings however, suggest that socio-cultural factors, not punitive laws, present the greatest barriers to women seeking to terminate an unwanted pregnancy. These factors must be addressed so that effective local solutions to unsafe abortion can be generated. PMID:24558779

Smith, Stephanie S

2013-12-01

134

Third trimester abortion for fetal abnormality.  

PubMed

Developments in medical technology have increased the possibility of diagnosing severe structural abnormalties in the fetus. If these occur, a woman may request termination of her pregnancy. This raises serious ethical and legal questions, in particular if the anomalies are discovered in the third trimester when the fetus is considered viable. Should doctors be allowed to act upon a request for abortion in such a situation, and, if so, which safeguards should be in place? These questions are discussed with special reference to the Netherlands where a commission established by the government recently published a report on this matter. PMID:11657241

Gevers, Sjef

1999-07-01

135

[Management of chemical burns and inhalation poisonings in acute medical care procedures of the State Fire Service].  

PubMed

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) were founded by the government to perform tasks aimed at providing people with help in life-threatening conditions. The system comprises two constituent parts. The first one is public administrative bodies which are to organise, plan, coordinate and supervise the completion of the tasks. The other constituent is EMS units which keep people, resources and units in readiness. Supportive services, which include: the State Fire Service (SFS) and the National Firefighting and Rescue System (NFRS), are of great importance for EMS because they are eligible for providing acute medical care (professional first aid). Acute medical care covers actions performed by rescue workers to help people in life-threatening conditions. Rescue workers provide acute medical care in situations when EMS are not present on the spot and the injured party can be accessed only with the use of professional equipment by trained workers of NFRS. Whenever necessary, workers of supportive services can assist paramedics' actions. Cooperation of all units of EMS and NFRS is very important for rescue operations in the integrated rescue system. Time is a key aspect in delivering first aid to a person in life-threatening conditions. Fast and efficient first aid given by the accident's witness, as well as acute medical care performed by a rescue worker can prevent death and minimise negative effects of an injury or intoxication. It is essential that people delivering first aid and acute medical care should act according to acknowledged and standardised procedures because only in this way can the process of decision making be sped up and consequently, the number of possible complications following accidents decreased. The present paper presents an analysis of legal regulations concerning the management of chemical burn and inhalant intoxication in acute medical care procedures of the State Fire Service. It was observed that the procedures for rescue workers entitled to provide acute medical care should be correlated with the procedures for emergency medical teams. PMID:24466708

Chomoncik, Mariusz; Nitecki, Jacek; Ogonowska, Dorota; Ciso?-Apanasewicz, Urszula; Potok, Halina

2013-01-01

136

MEDICAL PHYSICISTS' IMPLICATION IN RADIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES: RESULTS AFTER 1 Y OF EXPERIENCE.  

PubMed

Since January 2008-de facto 2012-medical physics experts (MPEs) are, by law, to be involved in the optimisation process of radiological diagnostic procedures in Switzerland. Computed tomography, fluoroscopy and nuclear medicine imaging units have been assessed for patient exposure and image quality. Large spreads in clinical practice have been observed. For example, the number of scans per abdominal CT examination went from 1 to 9. Fluoroscopy units showed, for the same device settings, dose rate variations up to a factor of 3 to 7. Quantitative image quality for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations varied significantly depending on the local image reconstruction algorithms. Future work will be focused on promoting team cooperation between MPEs, radiologists and radiographers and on implementing task-oriented objective image quality indicators. PMID:25480839

Ryckx, Nick; Gnesin, Silvano; Meuli, Reto; Elandoy, Christel; Verdun, Francis R

2014-12-01

137

Under the knife: an analysis of the Medical Council of New Zealand's Statement on Cosmetic Procedures.  

PubMed

The lack of regulation in the field of appearance medicine has long been a cause for concern in New Zealand. As an industry, it has fallen outside the protective ambit of the regulatory framework that governs all other areas of medicine. This article examines the Medical Council of New Zealand's attempt to address some of the concerns that have existed by producing a Statement on Cosmetic Procedures. The author concludes that this statement goes a long way towards better ensuring consumer safety and wellbeing in this area. It also offers valuable guidance to practitioners in the areas of advertising and promotion, obtaining consent and providing care. The author does, however, propose and discuss several possible changes that could be made to improve the statement that has been produced. PMID:19297871

Scott, Kelly

2009-02-01

138

Monte Carlo calculations on extremity and eye lens dosimetry for medical staff at interventional radiology procedures.  

PubMed

There are many factors that can influence the extremity and eye lens doses of the medical staff during interventional radiology and cardiology procedures. Numerical simulations can play an important role in evaluating extremity and eye lens doses in correlation with many different parameters. In the present study, the first results of the ORAMED (Optimisation of Radiation protection of MEDical staff) simulation campaign are presented. The parameters investigated for their influence on eye lens, hand, wrist and leg doses are: tube voltage, filtration, beam projection, field size and irradiated part of the patient's body. The tube voltage ranged from 60 to 110 kV(p), filtration from 3 to 6 mm Al and from 0 to 0.9 mm Cu. For all projections, the results showed that doses received by the operator decreased with increasing tube voltage and filtration. The magnitude of the influence of the tube voltage and the filtration on the doses depends on the beam projection and the irradiated part of the patient's body. Finally, the influence of the field size is significant in decreasing the doses. PMID:21212075

Carinou, E; Ferrari, P; Koukorava, C; Krim, S; Struelens, L

2011-03-01

139

Contraceptive use among clients of the Atlanta Feminist Women's Health Center at three to five weeks post-abortion.  

PubMed

Little is known about women's contraceptive use and sexual activity in the immediate post-abortion period although effective contraceptive use is paramount during this time because fertility returns almost immediately. This study sought to learn more about women's contraceptive use and sexual behaviors to inform abortion providers and help them serve their clients better, potentially leading to a decline in the rates of unintended pregnancy and repeat abortion. Abortion clients of an Atlanta, GA clinic were surveyed over the telephone 3-5 weeks post-abortion. Background information was collected from clinic medical charts. Simple and stratified frequencies and logistic regression were used to describe women's sexual activity and contraceptive use in the immediate post-abortion period and to determine if variables known at the time of the abortion could predict contraceptive use 3-5 weeks post-abortion. 54.2% (n = 39) of women had engaged in sexual intercourse in the immediate post-abortion period. Of these, 30.8% (n = 12) were not using a contraceptive method or were not using it effectively. Women who said they did not want or need information about birth control on their medical history form were less likely to be using contraception 3-5 weeks post abortion. Emphasizing the rapid return of fertility and risk of conception in pre-abortion counseling sessions could prevent future unintended pregnancies among abortion clients. Further research could explore the interaction between a willingness to talk about contraceptive methods at the time of abortion and method use post-abortion. PMID:20602161

Moslin, Trisha A; Rochat, Roger W

2011-08-01

140

Induced abortion and contraception use  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine what proportion of women seeking induced abortion in the Calgary census metropolitan area were immigrants. Design For 2 months, eligible women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Women who refused were asked to provide their country of birth (COB) to assess for selection bias. Setting Two abortion clinics in Calgary, Alta. Participants Women presenting at or less than 15 weeks’ gestational age for induced abortion for maternal indications. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of women seeking induced abortion services who were immigrants. Secondary outcomes compared socioeconomic characteristics and contraception use between immigrant and Canadian-born women. Results A total of 752 women either completed a questionnaire (78.6%) or provided their COB (21.4%). Overall, 28.9% of women living in the Calgary census metropolitan area who completed the questionnaire were immigrants, less than the 31.2% background proportion of immigrant women of childbearing age. However, 46.0% of women who provided only COB were immigrants. When these data were combined, 34.2% of women presenting for induced abortion identified as immigrant, a proportion not significantly different from the background proportion (P = .127). Immigrant women presenting for induced abortion tended to be older, more educated, married with children, and have increased parity. They were similar to Canadian-born women in number of previous abortions, income status, and employment status. Conclusion This study suggests that immigrant women in Calgary are not presenting for induced abortion in disproportionately higher numbers, which differs from existing European literature. This is likely owing to differing socioeconomic characteristics among the immigrant women in our study from what have been previously described in the literature (typically lower socioeconomic status). Much still needs to be explored with regard to factors influencing the use of abortion services by immigrant women. PMID:25217694

du Prey, Beatrice; Talavlikar, Rachel; Mangat, Rupinder; Freiheit, Elizabeth A.; Drummond, Neil

2014-01-01

141

Men, Me, and AbortionOn Doing the Right Thing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author recounts his long personal involvement in the abortion drama of over 400,000 males annually found in the waiting rooms of over 400 clinics. He shares research findings from four waves of survey data from 1984 through 2004 involving 3,000 males. Highlights include the desire of almost all to stay with the clinic patient throughout the procedure and afterwards

Art Shostak

2008-01-01

142

Western juniper-induced abortions in beef cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective—To determine if the bark from western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) will induce late term abortions in cattle. Animals—6 two-year-old Angus heifers. Procedures—Bark from western juniper trees was collected, dried, and finely ground. Pregnant cows were dosed starting on day 250 of gesta...

143

A Foreign Body in the Cervix after Spontaneous Abortion: A Rare Case of a Traumatic Fetal Decapitation  

PubMed Central

Although incomplete spontaneous abortions are common in early pregnancy, fetal decapitation does not specifically appear in the medical literature as a known complication of spontaneous abortion. We present a rare and unusual case of an incomplete spontaneous abortion occurring at home with the mother presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a decapitated fetus and a retained fetal head in the cervical os. PMID:25180106

2014-01-01

144

Measuring Unsafe Abortion-Related Mortality: A Systematic Review of the Existing Methods  

PubMed Central

Background The WHO estimates that 13% of maternal mortality is due to unsafe abortion, but challenges with measurement and data quality persist. To our knowledge, no systematic assessment of the validity of studies reporting estimates of abortion-related mortality exists. Study Design To be included in this study, articles had to meet the following criteria: (1) published between September 1st, 2000-December 1st, 2011; (2) utilized data from a country where abortion is “considered unsafe”; (3) specified and enumerated causes of maternal death including “abortion”; (4) enumerated ?100 maternal deaths; (5) a quantitative research study; (6) published in a peer-reviewed journal. Results 7,438 articles were initially identified. Thirty-six studies were ultimately included. Overall, studies rated “Very Good” found the highest estimates of abortion related mortality (median 16%, range 1–27.4%). Studies rated “Very Poor” found the lowest overall proportion of abortion related deaths (median: 2%, range 1.3–9.4%). Conclusions Improvements in the quality of data collection would facilitate better understanding global abortion-related mortality. Until improved data exist, better reporting of study procedures and standardization of the definition of abortion and abortion-related mortality should be encouraged. PMID:23341939

Gerdts, Caitlin; Vohra, Divya; Ahern, Jennifer

2013-01-01

145

Psychological Sequelae of Elective Abortion  

PubMed Central

A mild, short, depressive and guilt ridden period following abortion is quite common, but a severe psychological reaction is rare. The indication for the abortion and the preabortal psychological state of the patient are the two most important factors. Almost all reported instances of postabortion psychoses have occurred in patients who had severe preabortal psychiatric problems. Women undergoing abortion for socioeconomic or psychosocial indications appear to be at minimal risk for long-term negative psychological sequelae. In contrast, women in whom abortion is carried out because of exposure to rubella and the risk of fetal malformation, maternal organic disease or the prenatal diagnosis of a genetically defective fetus are at greater risk and may need supportive psychotherapy. PMID:1099808

Blumberg, Bruce D.; Golbus, Mitchell S.

1975-01-01

146

[Abortion and misoprostol: health practices and scientific controversy].  

PubMed

This article puts into perspective the controversy between the association of the use of misoprostol for abortion and teratogenicity studies of the type found in a case report. The use of herbal medicinal drugs and the medical-obstetric and national and international norms governing the registration and circulation of pharmaceutical products were examined. Official documents of ANVISA, the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization on the use of misoprostol, as well as 68 articles such as case reports published in national journals, linking abortion, misoprostol and teratogenicity were reviewed, systematically filed and analyzed using the monographic method. The legal prohibition of abortion prevents the proper prescription and use of a drug such as misoprostol that is both safe and effective. Thus, the danger for the health of women is linked not to the intrinsic characteristics of the drug, but to the moral arguments that constitute negligence and disregard for the fundamental rights of women. PMID:22872339

Corrêa, Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela; Mastrella, Miryam

2012-07-01

147

Nurses’ perspectives on supporting children during needle-related medical procedures  

PubMed Central

Children state that among their worst fears during hospitalization are those related to various nursing procedures and to injections and needles. Nurses thus have a responsibility to help children cope with needle-related medical procedures (NRMP) and the potentially negative effects of these. The aim of the study is to describe the lived experience of supporting children during NRMP, from the perspective of nurses. Fourteen nurses took part in the study, six of whom participated on two occasions thus resulting in 20 interviews. A reflective lifeworld research approach was used, and phenomenological analysis was applied. The result shows that supporting children during NRMP is characterized by a desire to meet the child in his/her own world and by an effort to reach the child's horizon of understanding regarding these actions, based on the given conditions. The essential meaning of the phenomenon is founded on the following constituents: developing relationships through conversation, being sensitive to embodied responses, balancing between tact and use of restraint, being the child's advocate, adjusting time, and maintaining belief. The discussion focuses on how nurses can support children through various types of conversation and by receiving help from the parents’ ability to be supportive, and on whether restraint can be supportive or not for children during NRMP. Our conclusion is that nurses have to see each individual child, meet him/her in their own world, and decide on supportive actions while at the same time balancing their responsibility for the completion of the NRMP. This work can be described as “balancing on a tightrope” in an unpredictable situation. PMID:24646473

Karlsson, Katarina; Rydström, Ingela; Enskär, Karin; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim

2014-01-01

148

Nurses' perspectives on supporting children during needle-related medical procedures.  

PubMed

Children state that among their worst fears during hospitalization are those related to various nursing procedures and to injections and needles. Nurses thus have a responsibility to help children cope with needle-related medical procedures (NRMP) and the potentially negative effects of these. The aim of the study is to describe the lived experience of supporting children during NRMP, from the perspective of nurses. Fourteen nurses took part in the study, six of whom participated on two occasions thus resulting in 20 interviews. A reflective lifeworld research approach was used, and phenomenological analysis was applied. The result shows that supporting children during NRMP is characterized by a desire to meet the child in his/her own world and by an effort to reach the child's horizon of understanding regarding these actions, based on the given conditions. The essential meaning of the phenomenon is founded on the following constituents: developing relationships through conversation, being sensitive to embodied responses, balancing between tact and use of restraint, being the child's advocate, adjusting time, and maintaining belief. The discussion focuses on how nurses can support children through various types of conversation and by receiving help from the parents' ability to be supportive, and on whether restraint can be supportive or not for children during NRMP. Our conclusion is that nurses have to see each individual child, meet him/her in their own world, and decide on supportive actions while at the same time balancing their responsibility for the completion of the NRMP. This work can be described as "balancing on a tightrope" in an unpredictable situation. PMID:24646473

Karlsson, Katarina; Rydström, Ingela; Enskär, Karin; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim

2014-01-01

149

Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary design drivers for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is to ensure crew safety. Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of CEV systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage. These studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the CEV, driving requirements for abort scenarios, and an overview of current ascent abort modes. Example analysis results are then discussed. Finally, future areas for abort analysis are addressed.

Davidson, John B., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Burt, Richard; McFarland, Mike

2007-01-01

150

[Integrity of young abortion applicants is overestimated].  

PubMed

In 1995 an 11-year old North African girl underwent two abortions over the course of half a year without her mother/guardian or social service having been contacted beforehand in each case. The maternal health care center, the school nurse, and the Karolinska Hospital women's ward took care of the operations. The girl has consistently claimed that if her home had been contacted she would have been rejected by her family, and the health care personnel have accepted her assertion. The reasons for not contacting the home or social services are 1) that it has become established practice that a young woman's need for personal integrity takes precedence over the need of health care authorities for information, 2) that the social agency's general guidelines from 1989 concerning abortion do not specify a specific lower age limit for the right of a woman to have an abortion, 3) that the gynecological clinic of Karolinska Hospital also played a part by placing the medical need of the girl ahead of the social need, and 4) that there is a general tendency for authorities to take over the responsibility of parents. In September 1995 the girl was placed in a state home and later in a correctional facility because she escaped several times, had a boyfriend with whom she planned to be engaged, and had received various presents, leading to the suspicion that she had been exposed to sexual exploitation. A psychologist's examination has shown that she has pseudo- maturity and regressive tendency--evidence that she has suffered a strong childhood trauma. A mother's love and care may be the only thing that will ensure her a better future. PMID:10093436

Olsson, S

1999-03-01

151

Factors associated with choice of post-abortion contraception in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The high demand for abortion related services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicates a reliance on abortion to control fertility and highlights an opportunity to increase access to contraceptives and improve post-abortion care. We analyzed the medical records of 1,200 women seeking abortion related services. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with use of modern or long-acting contraceptive post-abortion. Multivariate results illustrate that women aged 40-44, students, employed women, receipt of services in private clinics, number of children, and number of previous abortions were significantly associated with the odds of adopting any modern contraceptive post-abortion. The odds of choosing a long-active contraceptive method were significantly and positively associated with being age 25-29, attaining secondary or higher education, and number of children. Improved services and information along with reliable access to modern and long-acting contraceptives can reduce the need to use abortion to control fertility among women in Addis. PMID:22574492

Prata, Ndola; Bell, Suzanne; Holston, Martine; Gerdts, Caitlin; Melkamu, Yilma

2011-09-01

152

Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR?=?4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR?=?0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR?=?0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR?=?0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

2014-01-01

153

Induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR = 4.28, CI: (1.24-14.71)), age of 30-34 years (AOR = 0.15, CI: (0.04-0.55)), primary education (AOR = 0.26, CI: (0.13-0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR = 0.44, CI: (0.14-0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

2014-01-01

154

Women's reproductive health needs in Russia: what can we learn from an intervention to improve post-abortion care?  

PubMed

It has been well documented that abortion is a common means of controlling fertility in Russia. Women undergo repeat abortions throughout their reproductive lives, but recent studies of abortion trends in the Russian Federation suggest that abortion rates are on the decline, use of modern contraceptives is increasing, and women dislike abortion as a method of fertility control. Using data collected during 1999-2003 in women's health facilities in three Russian cities, this paper reports the results of an evaluation of interventions to improve post-abortion care, which show an impressive increase in post-abortion contraceptive counselling but no reduction in the rate at which women present at clinics for repeat abortions. The findings indicate a discrepancy between women's stated preferences for modern medical contraceptive methods and their abortion-seeking behaviour. Further exploration of these data suggests that certain women resort to abortion with greater frequency than others, and points to the need for a more focused investigation of these women. These results indicate the complexities associated with changing what has been a relatively common and long-standing practice, and have implications for improving reproductive health services. Meeting the reproductive health needs of Russian women requires not only improved provider and client knowledge but may also demand a more focused delivery of client-centred care than may be the case in other settings. PMID:17299022

David, P H; Reichenbach, L; Savelieva, I; Vartapetova, N; Potemkina, R

2007-03-01

155

The politics of unsafe abortion in Burkina Faso: The interface of local norms and global public health practice  

PubMed Central

In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how Burkina Faso's PAC policy emerged at the interface of political and moral negotiations between public health professionals, national bureaucrats and international agencies and NGOs. Burkinabè decision-makers and doctors, who are often hostile to induced abortion, have been convinced that PAC is ‘life-saving care’ which should be delivered for ethical medical reasons. Moreover, by supporting PAC they not only demonstrate compliance with international standards but also, importantly, do not have to contend with any change in abortion legislation, which they oppose. Rights-based international NGOs, in turn, tactically focus on PAC as a ‘first step’ towards their broader institutional objective to secure safe abortion and abortion rights. Such negotiations between national and international actors result in widespread support for PAC but stifled debate about further legalisation of abortion. PMID:25132157

Storeng, Katerini T.; Ouattara, Fatoumata

2014-01-01

156

Using Functional Analysis Procedures To Monitor Medication Effects in an Outpatient and School Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional analysis methods were used to monitor medication used to reduce vocal and physical tics of a child with Tourettes Syndrome. Post-medication results demonstrated a reduced level of tics by the participant. Although preliminary, the findings suggest that functional analysis methods can be used to monitor the effects of medication in…

Anderson, Mark T.; Vu, Chau; Derby, K. Mark; Goris, Mary; McLaughlin, T. F.

2002-01-01

157

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Procedures 25.99.09.V0.01 Cellular Communication Devices and Services  

E-print Network

&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 25.99.09.V0.01 Cellular Communication DevicesTexas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Procedures 25.99.09.V0.01 Cellular Communication Devices and Services Approved: December 28, 2012 Next Scheduled Review: December 28, 2014 Texas A

158

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.01.03.V1.01 Financial Conflict of Interest in Research  

E-print Network

of Interest in Research Page 1 of 3 PROCEDURE STATEMENT Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic LaboratoryTexas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.01.03.V1.01 Financial Conflict of Interest in Research Approved: February 2, 2012 Revised: August 1, 2012 Next Scheduled Review: August 1

159

Minnesota court overturns ban on Medicaid coverage for abortion.  

PubMed

Hennipin County District Court Judge William Posten issued a decision on June 16 striking down Minnesota's near ban on abortion coverage for low-income women. Ruling in Women of the State of Minnesota vs. Haas-Steffen, Judge Posten found that the state Constitution's rights of privacy and equality are more protective of women's reproductive choices than the corresponding federal rights. Holding that "the state's selective funding of childbirth over abortion impinges on an indigent woman's fundamental right to decide for herself whether to continue or terminate her pregnancy," the state district court permanently enjoined enforcement of the measure. Minnesota must now cover all medically necessary abortions for women receiving Medicaid. For more than 15 years, the statutes and regulations invalidated by Judge Posten have limited abortion coverage to cases of life endangerment or reported rape or incest. State officials have indicated that they will seek a stay and expedited review of Judge Posten's decision from the Minnesota Supreme Court. Filed on March 8, 1993, the Minnesota case is one of 5 such lawsuits brought by CRLP. Last December, in a similar case, the West Virginia Supreme Court struck down that state's ban on Medicaid coverage for abortions. Similar CRLP cases are still pending in Florida, Texas, and Montana. Plaintiffs--a class of Minnesota Medicaid-eligible women seeking abortions, Dr. Jane Hodgson, Pro-Choice Resources, Women's Health Center, Midwest Health Center for Women, and Meadowbrook Women's Clinic, on behalf of themselves and the women they serve--are represented by CRLP's Simon Heller, Janet Benshoof, and Lenora Lapidus, along with Minnesota attorney Linda Ojala. PMID:12345511

1994-06-24

160

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...551.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

2012-07-01

161

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...551.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

2013-07-01

162

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...551.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

2011-07-01

163

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...551.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

2010-07-01

164

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...551.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility...

2014-07-01

165

Texas A&M AgriLife Research Procedures 31.03.05.A0.01 Family and Medical Leave  

E-print Network

Texas A&M AgriLife Research Procedures 31.03.05.A0.01 Family and Medical Leave Approved: September, 2014 Texas A&M AgriLife Research Procedures 31.03.05.A0.01 Family and Medical Leave Page 1 of 2 as confidential medical records and kept separate from personnel records, in accordance with AgriLife Research

166

Continuous Improvements to East Coast Abort Landings for Space Shuttle Aborts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvement initiatives in the areas of guidance, flight control, and mission operations provide increased capability for successful East Coast Abort Landings (ECAL). Automating manual crew procedures in the Space Shuttle's onboard guidance allows faster and more precise commanding of flight control parameters needed for successful ECALs. Automation also provides additional capability in areas not possible with manual control. Operational changes in the mission concept allow for the addition of new landing sites and different ascent trajectories that increase the regions of a successful landing. The larger regions of ECAL capability increase the safety of the crew and Orbiter.

Butler, Kevin D.

2003-01-01

167

Unsafe Abortion: Worldwide Estimates for 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsafe abortion is preventable and yet remains a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in much of the developing world. Over the last decade, the World Health Organization has developed a systematic approach to estimate the regional and global incidence of unsafe abortion. Estimates based on figures around the year 2000 indicate that 19 million unsafe abortions take place

Elisabeth Åhman; Iqbal Shah

2002-01-01

168

Necessity is the mother of invention: video recording firsthand perspectives of critical medical procedures to make simulated training more effective.  

PubMed

The traditional apprenticeship model for training doctors requires ample opportunities in the clinic for trainees to learn core procedures under the supervision of skilled doctors. In this issue, Kyser and colleagues document that the learning opportunities for residents to master certain core procedures, such as forceps and vacuum deliveries, are insufficient in many teaching hospitals. To address this serious problem, this author argues that learning techniques (i.e., deliberate practice and simulator use) from other domains of expertise, such as chess, music, and sports, must be adapted for use in medicine. For example, medical procedures should be videotaped and indexed for access over the Internet. Trainees then could view recordings of rare emergency procedures and complications and practice their decision-making skills. Evidence suggests that training outside the constraints of the clinic could be more effective in improving performance because trainees are able to engage in deliberate practice and focus on their individual weaknesses in executing procedures and making decisions. For example, with video and simulator training, trainees have the opportunity to repeatedly perform only the parts of a procedure that they find challenging until they have attained a level of acceptable speed and control. More generally, training could be structured around the particular needs of individual learners and scheduled when the learners are rested and able to concentrate fully on learning. Training also should include opportunities for learners to practice repeatedly with different patient descriptions requiring the same or different, yet related, procedures to teach trainees effective discrimination and execution. PMID:24280862

Ericsson, K Anders

2014-01-01

169

Getting the story straight. The press and "partial-birth abortion".  

PubMed

This paper discusses the controversy of the banning of ¿partial-birth abortion¿ in the state of Nebraska. This controversy arises as a result of how several major news sources described the Nebraska statute--that is, as a pre-viability abortion ban, and not a ban on late-term abortion procedures. This issue did not only occur in Nebraska, but also in Michigan when abortion opponents simultaneously initiated a publicity scheme to mislead the public into believing the ban was about ¿gruesome¿ late-term procedures. The deceptive term ¿partial-birth abortion¿, also seemed to suggest abortions performed on viable fetuses and the language describing the ban was confusing and slippery. In response to this controversy, Janet Benshoof, the president of the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP) immediately made a statement to counteract the allegation imposed by abortion opponents. Also, CRLP Communications Deputy Director Margie Kelly spends a considerable amount of time informing the press of the extreme measures of the laws. PMID:12322529

Farmer, A

2000-06-01

170

Achievements of the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences in South-Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Since 2008, the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences has contributed to ensuring the substitution of sharp curettage by manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and medical abortion in selected hospitals in participating countries of South-Southeast Asia. This initiative facilitated the registration of misoprostol in Pakistan and Bangladesh, and the approval of mifepristone for "menstrual regulation" in Bangladesh. The Pakistan Nursing Council agreed to include MVA and medical abortion in the midwifery curriculum. The Bangladesh Government has approved the training of nurses and paramedics in the use of MVA to treat incomplete abortion in selected cases. The Sri Lanka College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, in collaboration with partners, has presented a draft petition to the relevant authorities appealing for them to liberalize the abortion law in cases of rape and incest or when lethal congenital abnormalities are present. Significantly, the initiative has introduced or strengthened the provision of postabortion contraception. PMID:24743025

Zaidi, Shahida; Begum, Ferdousi; Tank, Jaydeep; Chaudhury, Pushpa; Yasmin, Haleema; Dissanayake, Mangala

2014-07-01

171

Knowledge and Attitudes of a Number of Iranian Policy-makers towards Abortion  

PubMed Central

Introduction Unsafe and illegal abortions are the third leading cause of maternal death. It affects physical, emotional and social health of women and their families. Abortion is a multi-dimensional phenomenon with several social, legal, and religious implications. The views of policy-makers affect the approach to abortion in every society. Understanding the attitudes and knowledge of high-ranking decision makers towards abortion was the purpose of this study. Materials and Methods A qualitative research was implemented by carrying out individual interviews with 29 out of a selection of 80 presidents of medical sciences universities, senior executive managers in the legal system, forensic medicine and decision-makers in the health system and a number of top Muslim clerics, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. Content analysis revealed the results. Results There were considerable unwillingness and reluctance among the interviewees to participate in the study. The majority of participants fairly knew about the prevalence of illegal abortions and their complications. There was strong agreement on abortion when health of the mother or the fetus was at risk. Abortion for reproductive health reasons was supported by a minority of the respondents. The majority of them disagreed with abortion when pregnancy was the result of a rape, temporary marriage or out of wedlock affairs. Making decision for abortion by the pregnant mother, as a matter of her right, did not gain too much approval. Conclusion It seemed that physical health of the mother or the fetus was of more importance to the respondents than their mental or social health. The mother's hardship was not any indication for induced abortion in the viewpoints of the interviewed policy-makers. Strengthening family planning programs, making appropriate laws in lines with religious orders and advocacy programs targeting decision makers are determined as strategies for improving women's health rights. PMID:23926489

Shamshiri-Milani, Hourieh; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Akbari, Feizollah

2010-01-01

172

Consensus on abortion unlikely at U.N. conference, Gore says.  

PubMed

US Vice President Al Gore is pessimistic about the likelihood of consensus on abortion and contraception at the 1994 World Population Conference given opposition on the part of the Vatican, governments of nations with large Roman Catholic populations, and Muslim fundamentalists. Although the Clinton Administration is advocating safe, legal abortion and accessible contraception, it does not intent to push for abortion rights in countries where the procedure is illegal. On the other hand, Gore has expressed confidence that the Cairo conference will forge a new approach to population and development based on improvements in women's status. PMID:12319073

1994-08-26

173

Second-Trimester Abortion Overview  

MedlinePLUS

... income (33% are at 100% or less of poverty line as compared with 26% of women who have a first-trimester abortion); and Are more likely to be African-American (31% of first-trimester patients are African-American ...

174

ABORTION AND CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the 2004 Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church first fell into my hands some months before its promulgation, one pleasant surprise was the text's spe- cific treatment and forthright condemnation of abortion in the context of human rights and, also, of the family as the sanctuary of life. The disconcerting fact is that, more commonly, the topic

Thomas D. Williams

175

Evaluating newly acquired authority of nurse practitioners and physician assistants for reserved medical procedures in the Netherlands: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Aim The study protocol is designed to evaluate the effects of granting independent authorization for medical procedures to nurse practitioners and physician assistants on processes and outcomes of health care. Background Recent (temporarily) enacted legislation in Dutch health care authorizes nurse practitioners and physician assistants to indicate and perform specified medical procedures, i.e. catheterization, cardioversion, defibrillation, endoscopy, injection, puncture, prescribing and simple surgical procedures, independently. Formerly, these procedures were exclusively reserved to physicians, dentists and midwives. Design A triangulation mixed method design is used to collect quantitative (surveys) and qualitative (interviews) data. Methods Outcomes are selected from evidence-based frameworks and models for assessing the impact of advanced nursing on quality of health care. Data are collected in various manners. Surveys are structured around the domains: (i) quality of care; (ii) costs; (iii) healthcare resource use; and (iv) patient centredness. Focus group and expert interviews aim to ascertain facilitators and barriers to the implementation process. Data are collected before the amendment of the law, 1 and 2·5 years thereafter. Groups of patients, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, supervising physicians and policy makers all participate in this national study. The study is supported by a grant from the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport in March 2011. Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained in July 2011. Conclusion This study will provide information about the effects of granting independent authorization for medical procedures to nurse practitioners and physician assistants on processes and outcomes of health care. Study findings aim to support policy makers and other stakeholders in making related decisions. The study design enables a cross-national comparative analysis. PMID:24684631

De Bruijn-Geraets, Daisy P; Van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne JL; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM

2014-01-01

176

Contesting the cruel treatment of abortion-seeking women.  

PubMed

This article draws on legal arguments made by civil society organisations to challenge the legal reasoning that apparently produced the decision in the Ms Y case in Ireland in August 2014. I show how legal standards of reasonableness and practicality ought to be interpreted in ways that are respectful of the patient's wishes and rights. The case concerned a decision by the Health Service Executive, the Irish public health authority, to refuse an abortion to a pregnant asylum seeker and rape survivor on the grounds that a caesarean section and early live delivery were practicable and reasonable alternatives justified by the need to protect fetal life. I argue that the abortion refusal may not have been a reasonable decision, as required by the terms of relevant legislation, for four different reasons. First, the alternative of a caesarean section and early live delivery was not likely to avert the risk of suicide, and in fact did not do so. Second, the consent to the caesarean section alternative may not have been a real consent in the legal sense if it was not voluntary. Third, an abortion refusal and forcible treatment fall below the norms of good medical practice as interpreted through a patient-centred perspective. Fourth, an abortion refusal that entails forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment ought not to be a reasonable action under the legislation. PMID:25555759

Fletcher, Ruth

2014-11-01

177

Post-abortion syndrome: creating an affliction.  

PubMed

The contention that abortion harms women constitutes a new strategy employed by the pro-life movement to supplement arguments about fetal rights. David C. Reardon is a prominent promoter of this strategy. Post-abortion syndrome purports to establish that abortion psychologically harms women and, indeed, can harm persons associated with women who have abortions. Thus, harms that abortion is alleged to produce are multiplied. Claims of repression are employed to complicate efforts to disprove the existence of psychological harm and causal antecedents of trauma are only selectively investigated. We argue that there is no such thing as post-abortion syndrome and that the psychological harms Reardon and others claim abortion inflicts on women can usually be ascribed to different causes. We question the evidence accumulated by Reardon and his analysis of data accumulated by others. Most importantly, we question whether the conclusions Reardon has drawn follow from the evidence he cites. PMID:19594725

Dadlez, E M; Andrews, William L

2010-11-01

178

Estimating the Annual Incidence of Abortions in Iran Applying a Network Scale-up Approach  

PubMed Central

Background: Abortions are of major public health concern in developing countries. In settings in which abortion is highly prohibited, the direct interview is not a reliable method to estimate the abortion rate. The indirect estimation methods to measure the rate of abortion might overcome this dilemma; They are practical methods to estimate the size of the hidden group who do not agree to participate in a direct interview. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the practicality of an indirect method for estimating the abortion rate , Known as Network Scale-up, and to provide an estimate about the episode of abortion with and without medical indications (AWMI+ and AWMI-) in Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 31 provinces of Iran in 2012. A random sample between 200 and 1000 was selected in each province by the multistage sampling method that 75% of the data were collected from the capital and 25% from one main city. We selected samples from urban people more than 18 years old (12960) and we asked them about the number of abortion in women they knew who had experienced the medical and non-medical abortions in the past year. A range for the transparency factor was estimated based on the expert opinion. Results: The range of the transparency factors for AWMI+ and AWOMI- were 0.43-0.75 and 0.2-0.34, respectively. Regarding the AWMI+, our minimum and maximum estimations (per 1000 pregnancies) were 70.54 and 116.9, respectively. The corresponding figures for AWMI- were 93.18, and 148.7. Conclusions: The frequency rates for AWMI+ and AWMI- were relatively high. Therefore, the system has to address to this hidden problem using the appropriate preventive policies.

Rastegari, Azam; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Haji-maghsoudi, Saiedeh; Nakhaee, Nowzar; Eslami, Mohammad; Malekafzali, Hossein; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

179

Sufficiency of Clinical Literature on the Appropriate Uses of Six Medical and Surgical Procedures  

PubMed Central

We reviewed the English-language clinical literature on carotid endarterectomy, cholecystectomy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy, coronary angiography and coronary artery bypass graft procedure to identify the appropriateness of using these procedures in 1981. Most of the 803 relevant articles and textbooks were published after 1975; about 10% of the 571 research studies were randomized, controlled trials, while two thirds were retrospective studies. Incomplete or contradictory information was available on the indications for and efficacy of using the procedures; almost no data were available on costs and use; data on complications failed to specify patients' symptoms or the relationship between complications and reasons for doing the procedure. PMID:3501201

Fink, Arlene; Brook, Robert H.; Kosecoff, Jacqueline; Chassin, Mark R.; Solomon, David H.

1987-01-01

180

LHC Abort Gap Cleaning Studies During Luminosity Operation  

SciTech Connect

The presence of significant intensities of un-bunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC. Procedures using damper kickers for cleaning both the Abort Gap (AG) and the buckets targeted for injection, are currently in operation at flat bottom. Recent observations of relatively high population of the AG during physics runs brought up the need for AG cleaning during luminosity operation. In this paper the results of experimental studies performed in October 2011 are presented.

Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; /Fermilab; Bartmann, W.; Boccardi, A.; Bracco, C.; Bravin, E.; Goddard, B.; Hofle, W.; Jacquet, D.; Jeff, A.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; /CERN

2012-05-11

181

Automated construction of three dimensional image processing procedures by pictorial example with application to medical images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents an expert system for three dimensional image processing. In analyzing three dimensional gray images, e.g. CT images, a process for extraction of interest regions from each image is frequently required. However, it is difficult to construct all extinction procedure with parameters optimized for each purpose. The proposed system can automatically construct a three dimensional object extraction procedure based on

A. Shimizu; Xiang-Rong Zhou; J. Hasegawa; J. Toriwaki

1996-01-01

182

Religion and abortion: Roman Catholicism lost in the pelvic zone.  

PubMed

The Roman Catholic Church has held the most absolute and extreme position against abortion taken by any religious group. Opposition to abortion by US Catholic bishops has been unflagging since Roe vs. Wade was decided. The current strategy embraced by the bishops is to restrict access to abortion as a prelude to attaining a complete ban on the procedure. The bishops, of course, have a political and constitutional right to champion public policy issues. This ability is limited only by the laws regarding tax-exempt status which make it impossible for the bishops to endorse political candidates. Opponents of the positions of the bishops, in turn, have a right to challenge their positions. The bishops, acting jointly as the United States Catholic Conference (USCC), express their own opinions, not the opinions of the 53 million US Catholics and have been criticized by both conservative and progressive groups in the church. Since women can not become Catholic bishops, or even priests, they are excluded from meetings of the USCC. Catholic lay groups have expressed the view that there is more than one legitimate Catholic position regarding abortion and have even filed briefs in favor of retaining the decision reached in Roe vs. Wade. The bishops, however, are able to draw on a multitude of institutions to further their view and have enhanced the operations of their 28 statewide lobbying offices as the abortion battle has shifted to the states. The Webster decision signaled a return of the bishops to a prominent position in the anti-abortion campaign. Prior to Webster, they kept their distance from the Protestant religious right. With Webster, the bishops felt the time was right to press hard to further restrictions to access to abortion. As they began to apply pressure, a pro-choice backlash developed, with leading Catholic politicians adopting strong pro-choice positions. The bishops reacted by taking such aggressive actions as denouncing certain politicians by name. This behavior caused even more alienation of middle-of-the-road Catholics from the bishops' position. The bishops tried to recover by hiring a professional public relations firm and the pollster used by the Reagan administration. The public relations firm was dismissed within a year. Religious observers wonder why the church is so adamantly against abortion in every circumstance, despite the beliefs of its members. In fact, in 1974, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith noted the church's opposition to abortion but fell short of calling it murder and was honest about the church's ambiguity over the personhood of a fetus or at what stage in development the creator endows a fetus with a soul. This question has been debated by theologians since the early centuries of the church. Even the current Pope favors the term "that which is in the process of becoming" when discussing a fetus. In addition, church history and positions regarding the possibility of a "just war" make the church's adherence to the impossibility of a "just abortion" hard to justify. This hard-line position has removed the church from a position in which it could help women and society understand the values which must underly every decision to have an abortion. PMID:8274867

Kissling, F

1993-01-01

183

Abortion Provision Among Practicing Obstetrician–Gynecologists  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate prevalence and correlates of abortion provision among practicing obstetrician–gynecologists in the United States. Methods We conducted a national probability sample mail survey of 1,800 practicing obstetrician–gynecologists. Key variables included whether respondents ever encountered patients seeking abortion in their practice, and whether they provided abortion services. Correlates of providing abortion included physician demographic characteristics, religious affiliation, religiosity, and the religious affiliation of the facility in which a physician primarily practices. Results Among practicing obstetrician–gynecologists, 97% encountered patients seeking abortions, while 14% performed them. Young female physicians were the most likely to provide abortions (18.6% vs. 10.6%, adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.57–4.08), as were those in the Northeast or West, those in highly urban zip codes, and those who identify as Jewish. Catholics, Evangelical Protestants, non–Evangelical Protestants, and physicians with high religious motivation were less likely to provide abortions. Conclusion The proportion of U.S. obstetrician–gynecologists who provide abortion may be lower than estimated in previous research. Access to abortion remains limited by the willingness of physicians to provide abortion services, particularly in rural communities and in the South and Midwest. PMID:21860290

Stulberg, Debra B.; Dude, Annie M.; Dahlquist, Irma; Curlin, Farr A.

2011-01-01

184

The Onset of Enhanced Intestinal Permeability and Food Sensitivity Triggered by Medication Used in Dental Procedures: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Enhanced intestinal permeability and food sensitivity are two of the many proven causes of gastrointestinal disorders. This present report describes a woman with no previous gastrointestinal (GI) complaints, who underwent dental root canal, bone graft, and implant procedures. Postsurgery she experienced an allergic reaction to the combined medications. In the weeks that followed, she presented with multiple food intolerances. Four weeks after the final dental procedure, she was assessed serologically for mucosal immune function, salivary, and blood-gluten reactivity, intestinal permeability, and other food sensitivities. Compared to her test reports from two months prior to her first dental procedure, the patient's results showed high total secretory IgA (SIgA) and elevated salivary antibodies to alpha-gliadin, indicating abnormal mucosal immunity and loss of tolerance to gluten. Her serologic assessments revealed immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies to a range of wheat/gluten proteins and peptides, gut bacterial endotoxins and tight junction proteins. These test results indicate gut dysbiosis, enhanced intestinal permeability, systemic gluten-reactivity, and immune response to other dietary macromolecules. The present case suggests that patients who experience severe allergic or pseudoallergic reactions to medication should be assessed and monitored for gut dysfunction. If left untreated this could lead to autoimmune reactions to self tissues. PMID:23008786

Vojdani, Aristo; Lambert, Jama

2012-01-01

185

An obligation to provide abortion services: what happens when physicians refuse?  

PubMed Central

Access to abortion services in the United States continues to decline. It does so not because of significant changes in legislation or court rulings but because fewer and fewer physicians wish to perform abortions and because most states now have "conscientious objection" legislation that makes it easy for physicians to refuse to do so. We argue in this paper that physicians have an obligation to perform all socially sanctioned medical services, including abortions, and thus that the burden of justification lies upon those who wish to be excused from that obligation. That is, such persons should have to show how requiring them to perform abortions would represent a serious threat to their fundamental moral or religious beliefs. We use current California law as an example of legislation that does not take physicians' obligations into account and thus allows them too easily to declare conscientious objection. PMID:8731539

Meyers, C; Woods, R D

1996-01-01

186

Contraceptive knowledge and attitudes among women seeking induced abortion in Kathmandu, Nepal  

PubMed Central

Objective To map the knowledge about and attitudes toward birth control methods among women in Kathmandu, Nepal, and to compare the results between women seeking an induced abortion and a control group. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study with matched controls. Women aged 15–49 years seeking medical care at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Kathmandu Medical College were included and interviewed. A case was defined as a woman who sought an elective medical or surgical abortion. A control was defined as a woman who sought medical care at the outpatient department or had already been admitted to the ward for reasons other than elective abortion. A questionnaire developed for the study – dealing with different demographic characteristics as well as knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives – was filled out based on the interview. Results A total of 153 women were included: 64 women seeking an abortion and 89 controls. Women seeking an abortion had been pregnant more times than the control group and were more likely to have been informed about contraceptives. Women with higher education were less likely to seek an abortion than women with lower education. There was no significant difference in knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives between cases and controls. The women considered highest possible effectiveness to be the most important feature when deciding on a birth control method. Conclusion Women seeking abortion in Kathmandu had shorter education and a history of more pregnancies and deliveries than women in the control group. Education and counseling on sex and reproduction as well as on contraceptive methods probably need to be improved in Nepal to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Attitudes about contraceptives need to be further investigated to develop better and more effective methods to educate women about family planning in order to increase reproductive health. PMID:24672261

Berin, Emilia; Sundell, Micaela; Karki, Chanda; Brynhildsen, Jan; Hammar, Mats

2014-01-01

187

Peri-abortion contraceptive use in the French islands of Guadeloupe and La Réunion: variation in the management of post-abortion care  

PubMed Central

Objectives The abortion rate varies greatly within the French overseas territories including the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe and La Réunion in the Indian Ocean. We compare women’s contraceptive paths surrounding an abortion in both territories. Methods The data for this study are part of a nationally representative survey of women undergoing abortion in France in 2007. The analysis included 1211women from Guadeloupe and 1531 from La Réunion. Results Results show differences in women’s use of contraception before the abortion by study location. Women in Guadeloupe were more likely not to have used contraception in the month they conceived (40% vs. 32%, p < 001). Among those using no contraception or less effective contraception before the abortion, 74% in Guadeloupe and 86% in La Réunion received a prescription for a very effective method such as a hormonal method or intrauterine device after the procedure. In both settings, women with no health insurance or a government health plan were 70% less likely to have received a prescription for a very effective method. Conclusions While this study shows a significant increase in the prescription of very effective methods, it also indicates the ineffectiveness of the health care system in closing the gap in the pre-abortion contraceptive disparities observed between Guadeloupe and La Réunion. PMID:20465401

Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James; Desfreres, Julie; Bajos, Nathalie

2013-01-01

188

Canine and feline abortion diagnostics.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the causes of canine or feline pregnancy loss is limited and the success rate for making a definitive diagnosis is disappointingly low. Although these facts are discouraging, there are some things that can be done to improve success rates. This paper will address limitations and explore ways for improvement. For abortions caused by microbial infections, there are many reasons why it may not possible to identify the agents. "Non-infectious" causes are much more difficult to diagnose, and their relative importance is unknown. These include endocrine failure, underlying endometrial disease, genetic abnormalities, nutritional deficiencies, and toxicosis from drugs or environmental sources. Genetic abnormalities are a major cause of human pregnancy loss, yet we have little specific information about genetic diseases leading to abortion in animals. This paper addresses ways clinicians and diagnosticians can work together to improve diagnostic success. Necropsy techniques for fetal and placental examination and sampling are briefly reviewed. It is hoped that this series of papers will stimulate discussion on the causes and pathogenesis of pregnancy failure, and focus attention on areas where abortion diagnostics can be improved. PMID:18541293

Schlafer, D H

2008-08-01

189

Ocular cytotoxicity evaluation of medical devices such as contact lens solutions and benefits of a rinse step in cleaning procedure.  

PubMed

Contact lens care solutions are known to have toxic effects on the ocular surface. The ISO 10993-5 standard describes test methods to assess the cytotoxicity of medical devices, but it needs some improvements to discriminate contact lens care multipurpose solutions. First we evaluated the biological hazards associated with the use of ophthalmic solutions, running a collaborative study with the French medical agency to propose adapted tools to study contact lens care solutions' ocular cytotoxicity (human cell line, short incubation times, and no dilution of solutions to test). Then we took into account the potential risk of these ophthalmic solutions adsorbed on contact lenses and released on the ocular surface, highlighting the addition of a rinse step with unpreserved marine solution in the contact lens cleaning procedure to avoid side effects of contact lens care solutions. PMID:23338805

Dutot, Mélody; Vincent, Jacques; Martin-Brisac, Nicolas; Fabre, Isabelle; Grasmick, Christine; Rat, Patrice

2013-01-01

190

Religious perspectives on abortion and a secular response.  

PubMed

This paper concerns the medical, religious, and social discourse around abortion. The primary goal of this paper is to better understand how seven of the world's major religious traditions (Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Jewish, Islamic, Buddhist, Confucian, and Hindu) address abortion 'in the clinic'. We do not aim to critique these commentaries but to draw out some of the themes that resonate through the commentaries and place these within complex social contexts. We consider the intersection of ontology and morality; the construction of women's selfhood; the integration of religious beliefs and practices in a secular world. We suggest that for many women, religious doctrine may be balanced with secular logic as both are important and inextricably linked determinants of decision making about the termination of pregnancy. PMID:19641993

Stephens, Moira; Jordens, Christopher F C; Kerridge, Ian H; Ankeny, Rachel A

2010-12-01

191

Acceptability of aversive procedures and medication as treatment alternatives for deviant child behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation evaluated the acceptability of alternative treatments for deviant child behavior. Clinical cases of children who displayed severe behavioral problems at home and at school were described along with three different treatments. The treatments, time-out from reinforcement, locked seclusion, and medication, were rated by psychiatric inpatient children and parents in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin-square design. The

Alan E. Kazdin

1984-01-01

192

Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.  

PubMed

In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

Kumar, Ramya

2013-03-01

193

Specific Disgust Sensitivities Differentially Predict Interest in Careers of Varying Procedural-Intensity among Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mismatches between the needs of public health systems and student interests have led to renewed study on the factors predicting career specializations among medical students. While most work examines career and lifestyle values, emotional proclivities may be important; disgust sensitivity may help explain preferences for careers with greater and…

Consedine, Nathan S.; Windsor, John A.

2014-01-01

194

Psychotherapy and antidepressant medication: Scope, procedure and interaction: A survey of psychotherapists’ experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two opinion surveys, a total of 130 psychotherapists and psychotherapy students were asked to respond to questions about different aspects of treatment with psychotherapy combined with antidepressant medication. Their answers show that, at psychotherapy units belonging to regional psychiatry, an average of half the patients and at non-regional psychotherapy units nearly a quarter of the patient group were prescribed

Johan Schubert

2007-01-01

195

32 CFR Appendix C to Part 57 - Procedures for the Provision of Related Services by the Military Medical Departments to DoDDS...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Procedures (1) Upon request by a DoDDS CSC, the responsible EDIS shall ensure that...verifies a medical evaluation for use by the CSC in determining the medically related...the areas addressed in the referral by the CSC. (2) EDIS shall provide a summary...

2014-07-01

196

32 CFR Appendix C to Part 57 - Procedures for the Provision of Related Services by the Military Medical Departments to DoDDS...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Procedures (1) Upon request by a DoDDS CSC, the responsible EDIS shall ensure that...verifies a medical evaluation for use by the CSC in determining the medically related...the areas addressed in the referral by the CSC. (2) EDIS shall provide a summary...

2011-07-01

197

32 CFR Appendix C to Part 57 - Procedures for the Provision of Related Services by the Military Medical Departments to DoDDS...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Procedures (1) Upon request by a DoDDS CSC, the responsible EDIS shall ensure that...verifies a medical evaluation for use by the CSC in determining the medically related...the areas addressed in the referral by the CSC. (2) EDIS shall provide a summary...

2013-07-01

198

32 CFR Appendix C to Part 57 - Procedures for the Provision of Related Services by the Military Medical Departments to DoDDS...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Procedures (1) Upon request by a DoDDS CSC, the responsible EDIS shall ensure that...verifies a medical evaluation for use by the CSC in determining the medically related...the areas addressed in the referral by the CSC. (2) EDIS shall provide a summary...

2012-07-01

199

Learning the facts in medical school is not enough: which factors predict successful application of procedural knowledge in a laboratory setting?  

PubMed Central

Background Medical knowledge encompasses both conceptual (facts or “what” information) and procedural knowledge (“how” and “why” information). Conceptual knowledge is known to be an essential prerequisite for clinical problem solving. Primarily, medical students learn from textbooks and often struggle with the process of applying their conceptual knowledge to clinical problems. Recent studies address the question of how to foster the acquisition of procedural knowledge and its application in medical education. However, little is known about the factors which predict performance in procedural knowledge tasks. Which additional factors of the learner predict performance in procedural knowledge? Methods Domain specific conceptual knowledge (facts) in clinical nephrology was provided to 80 medical students (3rd to 5th year) using electronic flashcards in a laboratory setting. Learner characteristics were obtained by questionnaires. Procedural knowledge in clinical nephrology was assessed by key feature problems (KFP) and problem solving tasks (PST) reflecting strategic and conditional knowledge, respectively. Results Results in procedural knowledge tests (KFP and PST) correlated significantly with each other. In univariate analysis, performance in procedural knowledge (sum of KFP+PST) was significantly correlated with the results in (1) the conceptual knowledge test (CKT), (2) the intended future career as hospital based doctor, (3) the duration of clinical clerkships, and (4) the results in the written German National Medical Examination Part I on preclinical subjects (NME-I). After multiple regression analysis only clinical clerkship experience and NME-I performance remained independent influencing factors. Conclusions Performance in procedural knowledge tests seems independent from the degree of domain specific conceptual knowledge above a certain level. Procedural knowledge may be fostered by clinical experience. More attention should be paid to the interplay of individual clinical clerkship experiences and structured teaching of procedural knowledge and its assessment in medical education curricula. PMID:23433202

2013-01-01

200

Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration.Methods: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified

Weijin Zhou; Henrik Toft Sørensen; Jørn Olsen

1999-01-01

201

Exposure to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation from Medical Imaging Procedures in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Growing use of imaging procedures in the United States has raised concerns about exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation in the general population. Methods We identified 952,420 non-elderly adults in 5 healthcare markets across the United States between July 1, 2005 and December 31, 2007. Utilization data were used to determine cumulative effective doses of radiation from imaging procedures in millisieverts (mSv) and to calculate population-based rates of “moderate” (>3 to 20 mSv per year), “high” (>20 to 50 mSv per year) and “very-high” (>50 mSv per year) doses. Results During the study period, 655,613 (68.8%) individuals underwent at least 1 imaging procedure associated with radiation exposure. The mean effective dose from imaging procedures was 2.4 mSv per person per year (std dev, 6.0 mSv); however, a wide distribution was noted with a median effective dose of 0.1 mSv per person per year (interquartile range, 0.0 to 1.7). Overall, the annual rate for moderate effective doses in the study population was 193.8 per 1000 enrollees, while high and very-high doses occurred at annual rates of 18.6 per 1000 enrollees and 1.9 per 1000 enrollees, respectively. In general, effective doses of radiation from imaging procedures increased with advancing age and were higher in women. Computed tomography and nuclear medicine scans accounted for 75.4% of the total effective dose and 81.8% occurred in non-hospitalized settings. Conclusions Imaging procedures are an important source of ionizing radiation in the United States and can lead to high radiation doses in patients. PMID:19710483

Fazel, Reza; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Wang, Yongfei; Ross, Joseph S.; Chen, Jersey; Ting, Henry H.; Shah, Nilay D.; Nasir, Khurram; Einstein, Andrew J.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.

2013-01-01

202

Women's self-reported responses to abortion.  

PubMed

The legalization of abortion in many states has allowed an alternative for women with unplanned or unwanted pregnancies who do not wish to deliver and raise their children or to place them for adoption. Of 158 women asked to recall their responses to the experience, 21% reported psychosocial satisfaction at the time of abortion, and 45% reported satisfaction several months later; over half reported an improved outlook on life, and nearly half found abortion preferable to other alternatives for future unplanned pregnancies. It may prove important to make counseling or therapy available to about 10% of women who report negative responses (guilt and confusion) to the abortion. PMID:3572835

Burnell, G M; Norfleet, M A

1987-01-01

203

Attitude toward contraception and abortion among Curaçao women. Ineffective contraception due to limited sexual education?  

PubMed Central

Background In Curaçao is a high incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. Most of the induced abortions in Curaçao are on request of the woman and performed by general practitioners. In Curaçao, induced abortion is strictly prohibited, but since 1999 there has been a policy of connivance. We present data on the relevance of economic and socio-cultural factors for the high abortion-rates and the ineffective use of contraception. Methods Structured interviews to investigate knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality, contraception and abortion and reasons for ineffective use of contraceptives among women, visiting general practitioners. Results Of 158 women, 146 (92%) participated and 82% reported that their education on sexuality and about contraception was of good quality. However 'knowledge of reliable contraceptive methods' appeared to be - in almost 50% of the cases - false information, misjudgements or erroneous views on the chance of getting pregnant using coitus interruptus and about the reliability and health effects of oral contraceptive pills. Almost half of the interviewed women had incorrect or no knowledge about reliability of condom use and IUD. 42% of the respondents risked by their behavior an unplanned pregnancy. Most respondents considered abortion as an emergency procedure, not as contraception. Almost two third experienced emotional, physical or social problems after the abortion. Conclusions Respondents had a negative attitude toward reliable contraceptives due to socio-cultural determined ideas about health consequences and limited sexual education. Main economic factors were costs of contraceptive methods, because most health insurances in Curaçao do not cover contraceptives. To improve the effective use of reliable contraceptives, more adequate information should be given, targeting the wrong beliefs and false information. The government should encourage health insurance companies to reimburse contraceptives. Furthermore, improvement of counseling during the abortion procedure is important. PMID:21699701

2011-01-01

204

Procedural wound geometry and blood flow generation for medical training simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient application of wound treatment procedures is vital in both emergency room and battle zone scenes. In order to train first responders for such situations, physical casualty simulation kits, which are composed of tens of individual items, are commonly used. Similar to any other training scenarios, computer simulations can be effective means for wound treatment training purposes. For immersive and high fidelity virtual reality applications, realistic 3D models are key components. However, creation of such models is a labor intensive process. In this paper, we propose a procedural wound geometry generation technique that parameterizes key simulation inputs to establish the variability of the training scenarios without the need of labor intensive remodeling of the 3D geometry. The procedural techniques described in this work are entirely handled by the graphics processing unit (GPU) to enable interactive real-time operation of the simulation and to relieve the CPU for other computational tasks. The visible human dataset is processed and used as a volumetric texture for the internal visualization of the wound geometry. To further enhance the fidelity of the simulation, we also employ a surface flow model for blood visualization. This model is realized as a dynamic texture that is composed of a height field and a normal map and animated at each simulation step on the GPU. The procedural wound geometry and the blood flow model are applied to a thigh model and the efficiency of the technique is demonstrated in a virtual surgery scene.

Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong; Li, Jiang

2012-02-01

205

J-2X Abort System Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

2008-01-01

206

[Emergency procedures for taking care of the victims of bomb attacks: logistical and medical aspects].  

PubMed

In The Netherlands the threat of terrorist attacks also exist. Both doctors and hospitals alike should be prepared for such attacks both on the logistical as well as the medical level. Most terrorist attacks are carried out with explosives. This results in many victims and in cases of explosions in closed or semi-closed areas, often results in complex medical problems in many of the victims. An explosion that occurs as the result ofa bomb detonating can result in 4 patterns of injury: the primary explosion injury caused by the pressure of the blast, the secondary injuries caused by flying debris, the tertiary injuries caused by the explosion wind, and the quaternary caused by heat and fire. Common injuries seen following an explosion include: lung damage, neurological damage, abdominal injuries, bone fractures and skeletal damage and crush-syndrome. The triage occurs at the site of the explosion as well as on arrival in hospital. One especially important aspect of this is the sorting and selecting between victims who are likely to develop complex problems and who therefore need to receive aggressive treatment in a specially equipped centre and those patients for whom the nearest emergency department will suffice their needs. The triage should be repeated considering the possibility that initial estimates on these points may have been wrong. Epidemiological research should be carried out for each attack in order to make an inventory of the number of victims, the injuries incurred, the assessment of the effects of the medical help received and an assessment of the effectiveness of the total aid received. PMID:16892611

Giard, R W M; Overbeke, A J P M

2006-07-01

207

[Guide for establishing and maintaining procedures for review of contracts between the medical laboratory and clients].  

PubMed

The medical laboratory is providing services to the patients and clinicians, is a costumer for providers as manufacturers and partner for tierce parties as well. Contracts have to be established with the clients to define agreements and to ensure that the laboratory is able to meet the requirements of the regulation and of the standards. Contracts with partners involved in the processes shall be formally established (collaborative contract). This article includes different types of contracts to establish and control within a contract review. PMID:23765018

Roubille, M; Maurellet-Evrard, S

2013-06-01

208

Abortion legislation: exploring perspectives of general practitioners and obstetrics and gynaecology clinicians.  

PubMed

Abortion legislation remains a contentious topic in the UK, which receives much attention from politicians, clinicians and professional bodies alike. In this study, the perspectives of general practitioners and obstetrics and gynaecology clinicians on the Abortion Act 1967 was explored. To this end, a short electronic questionnaire was distributed to all 211 GP and obstetrics and gynaecology clinicians affiliated with the University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine. Of the 100 anonymous responses collected, a significant majority felt that abortion law in Northern Ireland should be changed in line with the rest of the UK. The respondents' votes, however, were either opposed to or divided over any other changes to the Abortion Act, including altering the 24 week time limit, clarifying the legal definition of fetal abnormalities, introducing abortion purely on the woman's request, and modifying the requirement for two clinicians to approve any request for abortion. These perspectives were not entirely aligned with the recommendations of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee, or with current medical evidence and demographic data. PMID:25498561

Theodosiou, Anastasia A; Mitchell, Oliver R

2015-02-01

209

A case of toxic shock due to clandestine abortion by misoprostol self-administration.  

PubMed

Maternal mortality and morbidity are the leading causes of death and illness, respectively, among women of reproductive age in many countries throughout the world. Of all maternal deaths, those related to unsafe abortions are the most widely underestimated, but they are also the most largely preventable. Medical abortion is a safe and reliable method for termination of a pregnancy in early gestation, although it is important to be aware of signs and symptoms of severe infection and toxic shock syndrome after the medical termination of pregnancy; case studies in literature are rarely fatal events. We report the first case of septic shock syndrome following a clandestine pregnancy termination with a misoprostol-only regimen (12 tablets 200 ?g each). Autopsy findings and histopathological examination proved that the woman died from septic shock. This case suggests to improve the forensic investigations in case of unsafe, often clandestine, abortion is suspected. PMID:25041279

Cittadini, Francesca; Loyola, Giovanni; Caradonna, Letizia; Minelli, Natalia; Rossi, Riccardo

2014-11-01

210

STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 6: Abort analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The abort analysis for the cycle 3 Operational Flight Profile (OFP) for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) is defined, superseding the abort analysis previously presented. Included are the flight description, abort analysis summary, flight design groundrules and constraints, initialization information, general abort description and results, abort solid rocket booster and external tank separation and disposal results, abort monitoring displays and discussion on both ground and onboard trajectory monitoring, abort initialization load summary for the onboard computer, list of the key abort powered flight dispersion analysis.

1980-01-01

211

A review article on the benefits of early mobilization following spinal surgery and other medical/surgical procedures  

PubMed Central

Background: The impact of early mobilization on perioperative comorbidities and length of stay (LOS) has shown benefits in other medical/surgical subspecialties. However, few spinal series have specifically focused on the “pros” of early mobilization for spinal surgery, other than in acute spinal cord injury. Here we reviewed how early mobilization and other adjunctive measures reduced morbidity and LOS in both medical and/or surgical series, and focused on how their treatment strategies could be applied to spinal patients. Methods: We reviewed studies citing protocols for early mobilization of hospitalized patients (day of surgery, first postoperative day/other) in various subspecialties, and correlated these with patients’ perioperative morbidity and LOS. As anticipated, multiple comorbid factors (e.g. hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, hypothyroidism, obesity/elevated body mass index hypothyroidism, osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease and other factors) contribute to the risks and complications of immobilization for any medical/surgical patient, including those undergoing spinal procedures. Some studies additionally offered useful suggestions specific for spinal patients, including prehabilitation (e.g. rehabilitation that starts prior to surgery), preoperative and postoperative high protein supplements/drinks, better preoperative pain control, and early tracheostomy, while others cited more generalized recommendations. Results: In many studies, early mobilization protocols reduced the rate of complications/morbidity (e.g. respiratory decompensation/pneumonias, deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, urinary tract infections, sepsis or infection), along with the average LOS. Conclusions: A review of multiple medical/surgical protocols promoting early mobilization of hospitalized patients including those undergoing spinal surgery reduced morbidity and LOS. PMID:24843814

Epstein, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

212

Pattern and Outcome of Induced Abortion in Abakaliki, Southeast of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Unsafe abortion accounts for a greater proportion of maternal deaths, yet it is often not adequately considered in discussions around reducing maternal mortality. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of unsafe abortion and the extent to which unsafe abortion contributes to maternal morbidity and mortality in our setting as well as assess the impact of post-abortion care. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive study of patients who were admitted for complications following induced abortions between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2008 at the Federal Medical Center, Abakaliki South East of Nigeria with data obtained from case records. Results: Out of the 1,562 gynecogical admissions, a total of 83 patients presented with the complications arising from induced abortion. The age group 20-24 years was mostly affected and adolescents constituted 32.5% (27/83). Nearly 15.7% (13/83) of these patients died while the remaining 84.3% (70/83) had various complications, which were mainly septicemia 59.0% (49/83), anemia 47.0% (39/83), peritonitis 41.0% (34/83), hemorrhages 34.9% (29/83) and uterine perforation 30.1% (25/83). During the study, there were 38 gynecological deaths and abortion related death accounted for 34.2% (13/38) of these gynecological deaths. 84.3% (70/83) of the patients had no documented evidence of counseling on family planning and 59.0% (49/83) were not aware of the different methods of contraception. Conclusion: Unsafe abortion remains one of the most neglected sexual and reproductive health problems in developing countries today despite its significant contribution to maternal mortality and morbidity. Solutions and remedies include prevention of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies by sex education and access to safe and sustainable family planning methods. PMID:24971223

Ikeako, LC; Onoh, R; Ezegwui, HU; Ezeonu, PO

2014-01-01

213

Abortion: The Viewpoint of Potential Consumers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A college survey showed strong support by a majority for legalized abortion, governmental support of abortion and family planning services, voluntary sterilization, and sex education and birth control information and/or services in the schools. Important differences of opinion among subgroups were, however, indicated. (Author/MJB)

Hamrick, Michael H.; And Others

1977-01-01

214

An update in recurrent spontaneous abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses prior to the 20th week of gestation. The etiology of recurrent spontaneous abortion is often unclear and may be multifactorial, with much controversy regarding diagnosis and treatment. Reasonably accepted etiologic causes include, genetics, anatomical, endocrine, placental anomalies, hormonal problems, infection, smoking and alcohol consumption, exposure to environmental

Manoj Kumar Pandey; Reena Rani; Suraksha Agrawal

2005-01-01

215

Adolescents and Abortion: Choice in Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication seeks to explain the many facets of adolescent abortion: teenagers' need for access to safe abortion; the need for confidentiality in order to ensure safety; the real intent and effect of parental involvement laws; and the roles of parents and the state in safeguarding the health of pregnant teenagers. The first section looks at…

Stone, Rebecca

216

Post-diagnostic abortion in Germany: reproduction gone awry, again?  

PubMed

Routine use of prenatal diagnostic technologies (PDTs) such as ultrasound and amniocentesis result in the detection of a small percentage of fetal anomalies. For those women faced with the diagnosis of fetal disability, a decision must be made to continue or terminate the pregnancy. When the diagnosis is merely hypothetical, the discursive specter of post-diagnostic abortion is shaped by social and historical contexts in which interested discourses (regional, political, ethical, and religious) weigh in with varying degrees of authority and influence. However, when the diagnosis is actual, in this sample population of women, an estimated minimum of 90% opt to terminate their pregnancies. Data collected at two German hospitals-one in former East Germany, one in former West Germany-illuminate rates of PDT use and provide data with which to discuss the specter of post-diagnostic abortion in relation to mainstream medical discourses, Germany's divided history, abortion politics, feminism, disability activism, and religion. These data demonstrate how reproductive discourses are shaped by ideological and historical contingencies, even when women's ultimate reproductive decisions are not. PMID:12650734

Erikson, Susan L

2003-05-01

217

Muslim women having abortions in Canada  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To improve understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of Muslim patients presenting for abortion. Design Exploratory study in which participants completed questionnaires about their attitudes, beliefs, and experiences. Setting Two urban, free-standing abortion clinics. Participants Fifty-three self-identified Muslim patients presenting for abortion. Main outcome measures Women’s background, beliefs, and attitudes toward their religion and toward abortion; levels of anxiety, depression, and guilt, scored on a scale of 0 to 10; and degree of pro-choice or anti-choice attitude toward abortion, assessed by having respondents identify under which circumstances a woman should be able to have an abortion. Results The 53 women in this study were a diverse group, aged 17 to 47 years, born in 17 different countries, with a range of beliefs and attitudes toward abortion. As found in previous studies, women who were less pro-choice (identified fewer acceptable reasons to have an abortion) had higher anxiety and guilt scores than more pro-choice women did: 6.9 versus 4.9 (P = .01) and 6.9 versus 3.6 (P = .004), respectively. Women who said they strongly agreed that abortion was against Islamic principles also had higher anxiety and guilt scores: 9.3 versus 5.9 (P = .03) and 9.5 versus 5.3 (P = .03), respectively. Conclusion Canadian Muslim women presenting for abortion come from many countries and schools of Islam. The group of Muslim women that we surveyed was so diverse that no generalizations can be made about them. Their attitudes toward abortion ranged from being completely pro-choice to believing abortion is wrong unless it is done to save a woman’s life. Many said they found their religion to be a source of comfort as well as a source of guilt, turning to prayer and meditation to cope with their feelings about the abortion. It is important that physicians caring for Muslim women understand that their patients come from a variety of backgrounds and can have widely differing beliefs. It might be helpful to be aware that patients who hold more anti-choice beliefs are likely to experience more anxiety and guilt related to their abortion than pro-choice patients do. PMID:21626898

Wiebe, Ellen; Najafi, Roya; Soheil, Naghma; Kamani, Alya

2011-01-01

218

Induced illegal abortions in Benin City, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Abortions of all types constitute about 25% of our gynaecological admissions. In 8 months period between July 1974 and February 1975, 59 patients admitted into our unit with confirmed illegally induced abortions were studied personally by the author. It was found that most patients with this type of abortion were single, young schoolgirls. Most of the patients were 12 weeks pregnant or more at the time of the attempted termination. Most of the people who carried out these 'operations' by instrumentation were usually unskilled personnel. The complications in these patients which included one death are discussed. It is concluded that sex education including the use of contraceptive devices will help in reducing the high incidence of this 'social evil'. It is also thought that the liberalization of abortion laws in this country will also be helpful in reducing the complications associated with induced abortions. PMID:20352

Okojie, S E

1976-01-01

219

Clandestine abortion in Mexico: a question of mental as well as physical health.  

PubMed

This paper reports on research carried out in Mexico City in 1995-1996 on the meaning of motherhood, contraception, an unwanted pregnancy or child, and the experience of illegal, clandestine abortion, as described by 12 women of different ages, class, education and marital status who had one or more clandestine abortions. A priest, two doctors from the public health system, a group of gynaecologists and nurses and a health social worker were also interviewed. The data show that it is the illegal and clandestine nature of abortion that has a negative effect on women in Mexico. Although terminating a pregnancy can also be a difficult experience in itself, it became traumatic for most (though not all) of the women interviewed due to the dominant Catholic church doctrine that abortion is a sin, and because of the criminal law punishing those who have abortions, which forces women to have the procedure in high risk conditions, all of which adversely affected their mental and physical health. In spite of this, all the women considered abortion a personal decision that they had to make. Even those who believed that termination of pregnancy was the transgression of a divine commandment also believed that it was a rightful and necessary decision, given their circumstances. PMID:12369336

Amuchástegui Herrera, Ana; Rivas Zivy, Marta

2002-05-01

220

Extremity and eye lens dosimetry for medical staff performing vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty procedures.  

PubMed

Measurements of doses to hands, legs and eyes are reported for operators in four different hospitals performing vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. The results confirm that occupational doses can be high for interventional spine procedures. Extremity and eye lens doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters positioned on the ring fingers, wrists, legs and near the eyes of interventional radiologists and neurosurgeons, over a period of 15 months. Doses were generally larger on the left side for all positions monitored. The median dose to the left finger was 225 ?Sv per procedure, although a maximum of 7.3 mSv was found. The median dose to the right finger was 118 ?Sv, but with an even higher maximum of 7.7 mSv. A median left eye dose of 34 ?Sv (maximum 836 ?Sv) was found, while the legs received the lowest doses with a median of 13 ?Sv (maximum 332 ?Sv) to the left leg. Annual dose to the hand assessed by the cumulated doses almost reached the annual dose limit of 500 mSv, while annual dose to the eyes exceeded the eye lens dose limit of 20 mSv yr(-1). Different x-ray systems and radiation protection measures were tested, like the use of lead gloves and glasses, tweezers, cement delivery systems and a magnetic navigation system. These measurements showed that doses can be significantly reduced. The use of lead glasses is strongly recommended for protection of the eyes. PMID:23803582

Struelens, L; Schoonjans, W; Schils, F; De Smedt, K; Vanhavere, F

2013-09-01

221

Fetal exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and spontaneous abortions  

PubMed Central

Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common complication of pregnancy. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used during pregnancy. Published data are inconsistent regarding the risk of spontaneous abortion following exposure to NSAIDs. Methods: We performed a historical cohort study involving all women who conceived between January 2003 and December 2009 and who were admitted for delivery or spontaneous abortion at Soroka Medical Center, Clalit Health Services, Israel. A computerized database of medication dispensation was linked with 2 computerized databases containing information on births and spontaneous abortions. We constructed time-varying Cox regression models and adjusted for maternal age, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, obesity, hypercoagulation or inflammatory conditions, recurrent miscarriage, in vitro fertilization of the current pregnancy, intrauterine contraceptive device, ethnic background, tobacco use and year of admission. Results: The cohort included 65 457 women who conceived during the study period; of these, 58 949 (90.1%) were admitted for a birth and 6508 (9.9%) for spontaneous abortion. A total of 4495 (6.9%) pregnant women were exposed to NSAIDs during the study period. Exposure to NSAIDs was not an independent risk factor for spontaneous abortion (nonselective cyclooxygenase [COX] inhibitors: adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99–1.22; selective COX-2 inhibitors: adjusted HR 1.43, 95% CI 0.79–2.59). There was no increased risk for specific NSAID drugs, except for a significantly increased risk with exposure to indomethacin (adjusted HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.70–4.69). We found no dose–response effect. Interpretation: We found no increased risk of spontaneous abortion following exposure to NSAIDs. Further research is needed to assess the risk following exposure to selective COX-2 inhibitors. PMID:24491470

Daniel, Sharon; Koren, Gideon; Lunenfeld, Eitan; Bilenko, Natalya; Ratzon, Ronit; Levy, Amalia

2014-01-01

222

If war is "just," so is abortion.  

PubMed

Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians. PMID:12178844

Kissling, F

1991-01-01

223

Posttraumatic stress among women after induced abortion: a Swedish multi-centre cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Induced abortion is a common medical intervention. Whether psychological sequelae might follow induced abortion has long been a subject of concern among researchers and little is known about the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and induced abortion. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of PTSD and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) before and at three and six months after induced abortion, and to describe the characteristics of the women who developed PTSD or PTSS after the abortion. Methods This multi-centre cohort study included six departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Sweden. The study included 1457 women who requested an induced abortion, among whom 742 women responded at the three-month follow-up and 641 women at the six-month follow-up. The Screen Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD) was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS, and anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Measurements were made at the first visit and at three and six months after the abortion. The 95% confidence intervals for the prevalence of lifetime or ongoing PTSD and PTSS were calculated using the normal approximation. The chi-square test and the Student’s t-test were used to compare data between groups. Results The prevalence of ongoing PTSD and PTSS before the abortion was 4.3% and 23.5%, respectively, concomitant with high levels of anxiety and depression. At three months the corresponding rates were 2.0% and 4.6%, at six months 1.9% and 6.1%, respectively. Dropouts had higher rates of PTSD and PTSS. Fifty-one women developed PTSD or PTSS during the observation period. They were young, less well educated, needed counselling, and had high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. During the observation period 57 women had trauma experiences, among whom 11 developed PTSD or PTSS and reported a traumatic experience in relation to the abortion. Conclusion Few women developed PTSD or PTSS after the abortion. The majority did so because of trauma experiences unrelated to the induced abortion. Concomitant symptoms of depression and anxiety call for clinical alertness and support. PMID:24364878

2013-01-01

224

Effective analgesic dose of dexamethasone after painless abortion  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Dexamethasone is known to produce analgesic effects, but the optimal analgesic dosage of dexamethasone remains unclear, especially in patients without postoperative use of other analgesics. The purpose of this study was to explore the effective analgesic dose of dexamethasone in day surgery patients undergoing painless abortion. Methods: 287 patients undergoing painless abortion were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control group receiving saline and dexamethasone groups receiving 0.1, 0.15, or 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone. Drugs were intravenously injected 30 min before induction of anesthesia. All patients underwent the same anesthesia procedure using propofol and remifentan. The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and occurrence of nausea, vomiting and drug-induced side effects were recorded at 1, 2 and 24 h after operation. Results: There were no significant differences in patient’s clinical characteristics, surgical features and frequency of occurrence of nausea and vomiting among the four groups (P > 0.05). The VAS scores at rest and during coughing at 2 h after operation (time of discharge from the hospital) were significantly lower in patients receiving 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone compared with control patients (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Intravenous injection of 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone before induction of anesthesia can significantly reduce the VAS scores at 2 h after painless abortion. PMID:25232399

Quan, Zhe-Feng; Tian, Ming; Chi, Ping; Li, Xin; He, Hai-Li

2014-01-01

225

Prophylactic Antibiotics for Suction Curettage in Incomplete Abortion  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 200 mg of prophylactic doxycycline in preventing pelvic infection after curettage for spontaneous (incomplete) abortion. Methods: A randomized, prospective, double-blinded study was carried out involving 300 women with an incomplete abortion who were given either placebo or 200 mg of doxycycline orally 30–60 min prior to curettage. A hematocrit, WBC count, pregnancy test, syphilis serology, Neisseria gonorrhoeae culture, and Micro Trak (monoclonal antibody test, Syba, San Jose, CA) for Chlamydia trachomatis were performed. The patients were scheduled for follow-up 2 weeks later. Antibiotic administration for any reason as well as the postoperative infection rate in these women was assessed. Results: Eleven women were excluded from analysis, leaving 289 evaluable. N. gonorrhoeae was isolated from 6 (2%) women and C. trachomatis from 8 (3%) women, and the syphilis serology was serofast in 4 (1%) women. Endometritis complicated the procedure in 4 women who received placebo and in 1 woman who received doxycycline (P = 0.22). Conclusion: Prophylactic doxycycline is not effective in preventing pelvic infection after curettage for spontaneous (incomplete) abortion. PMID:18475395

Ramin, Kirk D.; Hemsell, Patricia G.; Nobles, Brenda J.; Heard, Molly C.; Johnson, Vivian B.; Hemsell, David L.

1995-01-01

226

Validation of a clinically useful measure of children’s state anxiety before medical procedures  

PubMed Central

Purpose Assessment of children’s anxiety in busy clinic settings is an important step in developing tailored interventions. This article describes the construct validation of the Children’s Anxiety Meter-State (CAM-S), a brief measure of state anxiety. Design and Methods Existing data were used to investigate the associations between child self-reports of anxiety, parent reports of child anxiety, and observed child distress during an intravenous procedure. Results Children’s (n = 421) CAM-S scores were significantly associated with all parent measures and observed distress ratings. Practice Implications Findings support the use of the CAM-S for assessment of child anxiety in clinical settings. PMID:24094126

Ersig, Anne L.; Kleiber, Charmaine; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Hanrahan, Kirsten

2014-01-01

227

Responding to allegations of scientific misconduct: the procedure at the French National Medical and Health Research Institute.  

PubMed

Institutions in France are not yet well prepared to respond to allegations of scientific misconduct. Following a serious allegation in late 1997, INSERM, the primary organization for medical and health-related research in France, began to reflect on this subject, aided by scientists and jurists. The conclusions have resulted in establishing a procedure to be followed in cases of alleged misconduct, and also in reinforcing the application of good laboratory practices within each laboratory. Guidelines for authorship practices and scientific assessment must also be considered. Even though each institution must remain responsible for responding to allegations of scientific misconduct within its doors, INSERM would like to see national, European, and international co-ordination about the methods of such response. PMID:11273435

Breittmayer, J P; Bungener, M; De The, H; Eschwege, E; Fougereau, M; Guedj, G; Kordon, C; Philippe, O; Postel-Vinay, M C; Schaffar-Esterle, L

2000-01-01

228

Spontaneous abortions in female populations occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Exposure to radioisotopes of metals and halogen elements occurring in medical practice may cause spontaneous abortions. The\\u000a potential role of occupational exposure to X-rays and internal radioisotopes on pregnancy outcome in childbearing age women\\u000a employed in hospital departments were analyzed in order to estimate miscarriage risk.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Over a period of 16 years, the occurrence of miscarriages in 61 women exposed to

Aleksandra Fucic; Domenico Franco Merlo; Marcello Ceppi; Joe N. Lucas

2008-01-01

229

Impact of Counseling on Repeated Unplanned Pregnancy and Contraceptive Behavior in Low SES Abortion Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High numbers of repeat abortions at a medical school clinic prompted clinic personnel to develop an experimental fertility control counseling program. Counseling objectives included the following: (1) to engender rapport and trust; (2) to assess the patient's past contraceptive use and psychosocial history; (3) to improve patient's knowledge of…

Burnhill, Michael S.; And Others

230

Evaluation of a multi-pronged intervention to improve access to safe abortion care in two districts in Jharkhand  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the adoption of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act in 1972, access to safe abortion services remains limited in India. Awareness of the legality of abortion also remains low, leading many women to seek services outside the health system. Medical abortion (MA) is an option that has the potential to expand access to safe abortion services. A multi-pronged intervention covering a population of 161,000 in 253 villages in the Silli and Khunti blocks of Jharkhand was conducted between 2007 and 2009, seeking to improve medical abortion services and create awareness at the community level by providing information through community intermediaries and creating an enabling environment through a behavior change communication campaign. The study evaluates the changes in knowledge about abortion-related issues, changes in abortion care-seeking, and service utilization as a result of this intervention. Methods A baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted pre-intervention (n?=?1,253) followed by an endline survey (n?=?1,290) one year after the completion of the intervention phase. In addition, monitoring data from intervention facilities was collected monthly over the study period. Results Nearly 85% of respondents reported being exposed to safe abortion messaging as a result of the intervention. Awareness of the legality of abortion increased significantly from 19.7% to 57.6% for women, as did awareness of the specific conditions for which abortion is allowed. Results were similar for men. There was also a significant increase in the proportion of men and women who knew of a legal and safe provider and place from where abortion services could be obtained. Multivariate analysis showed positive associations between exposure to any component of the intervention and increased knowledge about legality and gestational age limits, however only interpersonal communication was associated with a significant increase in knowledge of where to obtain safe services (OR 4.8, SE 0.67). Utilization of safe abortion services, and in particular MA, increased at all intervention sites over the duration of the intervention with a shift towards women seeking care earlier in pregnancy. Conclusion The evaluation demonstrates the success of the intervention and its potential for replication in similar contexts within India. PMID:24886273

2014-01-01

231

Chronic daily headache and medication overuse headache: clinical read-outs and rehabilitation procedures.  

PubMed

The impact of headache on the person and society represents a public health issue. Recently a study evaluated 51% of headache's prevalence in Europe, of which 14% is affected by migraine. Besides, 4% of adult population is affected by chronic forms, which constitute therefore an even more relevant problem in terms of health and social policies. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, II version (ICHD-II) recognises 24 types of chronic headache and states primary episodic headaches as chronic when attacks appear for more than 15 days per month, for at least three months. Headache given by drugs overuse, defined by ICDH-II in 2004 (and revised in 2005) as Medication Overuse Headache (MOH), is associated with overuse of a combination of analgesics, barbiturates, opioids, ergot alkaloids, aspirin, AINS, caffeine and triptans. Patients affected by MOH present a reduced work performance and a significant alteration in the quality of life. Furthermore, some psychological and behavioural states seem particularly important in promoting and sustaining drug abuse. The management and rehabilitation of patients affected by CDH, abusing symptomatic drugs, consists in the withdrawal and/or gradual reduction of their assumption, because of tolerance and addiction possibilities. PMID:17953286

de Filippis, S; Salvatori, E; Farinelli, I; Coloprisco, G; Martelletti, P

2007-01-01

232

Unsuccessful prior attempts to terminate pregnancy among women seeking first trimester abortion at registered facilities in Bihar and Jharkhand, India.  

PubMed

Many abortion seekers in India attempt to induce abortion on their own, by accessing oral medication/preparations from a chemist without a prescription or from an unauthorized provider, and present at registered facilities if these attempts fail. However, little is known about those whose efforts fail or the ways in which programmes and policies may address the needs of such women. This paper explores the experiences of women whose efforts failed, including their socio-demographic profile, the preparations they used, and the extent to which they experienced serious complications, delayed seeking care from an authorized provider, or delayed abortion until the second trimester of pregnancy. Data come from a larger study assessing the feasibility of the provision of medical abortion by non-physicians; a total of 3394 women who sought medical abortion from selected clinical settings in Bihar and Jharkhand between 2008 and 2010 constitute the sample. Prior to visiting the clinic, nearly a third of these women (31%) had made at least one unsuccessful attempt to terminate the unwanted pregnancy by using a range of oral medications/preparations available over-the-counter in medical shops. Logistic regression analysis suggests that educated women (OR 1.6-1.7), those from urban areas (OR 6.2) and those from Bihar (OR 1.6) were significantly more likely than women with no education, rural women and those from Jharkhand to have used such medication. Also notable is that the average gestational age of women who had made a previous attempt to terminate their pregnancy was almost identical to that of women who had not done so when they presented at the registered facility. These findings may inform policies and programmes that seek to identify and reduce the potential risks associated with unauthorized abortion-seeking practices, and highlight the need to fully inform women, chemists and providers about oral medications, what works and what does not, and how effective medication must be taken. PMID:22938870

Kumar, Rajesh; Zavier, A J Francis; Kalyanwala, Shveta; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J

2013-03-01

233

Just another reproductive technology? The ethics of human reproductive cloning as an experimental medical procedure  

PubMed Central

Human reproductive cloning (HRC) has not yet resulted in any live births. There has been widespread condemnation of the practice in both the scientific world and the public sphere, and many countries explicitly outlaw the practice. Concerns about the procedure range from uncertainties about its physical safety to questions about the psychological well?being of clones. Yet, key aspects such as the philosophical implications of harm to future entities and a comparison with established reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are often overlooked in discussions about HRC. Furthermore, there are people who are willing to use the technology. Several scientists have been outspoken in their intent to pursue HRC. The importance of concerns about the physical safety of children created by HRC and comparisons with concerns about the safety of IVF are discussed. A model to be used to determine when it is acceptable to use HRC and other new assisted reproductive technologies, balancing reproductive freedom and safety concerns, is proposed. Justifications underpinning potential applications of HRC are discussed, and it is determined that these are highly analogous to rationalisations used to justify IVF treatment. It is concluded that people wishing to conceive using HRC should have a prima facie negative right to do so. PMID:17012502

Elsner, D

2006-01-01

234

[Comparison of noninvasive MRT procedures for temperature measuremnt for the application of medical heat therapies].  

PubMed

Novel methods for hyperthermia tumor therapy, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), require accurate non-invasive temperature monitoring. Non-invasive temperature measurement using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is based on the analysis of changes in longitudinal relaxation time (T1), diffusion coefficient (D), or water proton resonance frequency (PRF). The purpose of this study was the development and comparative analysis of the three different approaches of MRI temperature monitoring (T1, D, and PRF). Measurements in phantoms (e.g., ultrasound gel) resulted in the following percent changes: T1-relaxation time: 1.98%/degree C; diffusion coefficient: 2.22%/degree C; and PRF: -0.0101 ppm/degree C. All measurements were in good agreement with the literature. Temperature resolutions could also be measured from the inverse correlation of the data over the whole calibration range: T1: 2.1 +/- 0.6 degrees C; D: 0.93 +/- 0.2 degree C; and PRF: 1.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C. The diffusion and PRF methods were not applicable in fatty tissue. The use of the diffusion method was restricted due to prolonged echo time and anisotropic diffusion in tissue. Initial tests with rabbit muscle tissue in vivo indicated that MR thermometry via T1 and PRF procedures is feasible to monitor the local heating process induced by HIFU. The ultrasound applicators in the MR scanner did not substantially interfere with image quality. PMID:14562541

Rademaker, Guido; Jenne, Jürgen W; Rastert, Ralf; Röder, Daniel; Schad, Lothar

2003-01-01

235

Effective Crew Operations: An Analysis of Technologies for Improving Crew Activities and Medical Procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's vision for space exploration (February 2004) calls for development of a new crew exploration vehicle, sustained lunar operations, and human exploration of Mars. To meet the challenges of planned sustained operations as well as the limited communications between Earth and the crew (e.g., Mars exploration), many systems will require crews to operate in an autonomous environment. It has been estimated that once every 2.4 years a major medical issue will occur while in space. NASA's future travels, especially to Mars, will begin to push this timeframe. Therefore, now is the time for investigating technologies and systems that will support crews in these environments. Therefore, this summer two studies were conducted to evaluate the technology and systems that may be used by crews in future missions. The first study evaluated three commercial Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS) (Versus, Ekahau, and Radianse) that can track equipment and people within a facility. While similar to Global Positioning Systems (GPS), the specific technology used is different. Several conclusions can be drawn from the evaluation conducted, but in summary it is clear that none of the systems provides a complete solution in meeting the tracking and technology integration requirements of NASA. From a functional performance (e.g., system meets user needs) evaluation perspective, Versus performed fairly well on all performance measures as compared to Ekahau and Radianse. However, the system only provides tracking at the room level. Thus, Versus does not provide the level of fidelity required for tracking assets or people for NASA requirements. From an engineering implementation perspective, Ekahau is far simpler to implement that the other two systems because of its wi-fi design (e.g., no required runs of cable). By looking at these two perspectives, one finds there was no clear system that met NASA requirements. Thus it would be premature to suggest that any of these systems are ready for implementation and further study is required.

Harvey, Craig

2005-01-01

236

Ascent abort capability for the HL-20  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HL-20 has been designed with the capability for rescue of the crew during all phases of powered ascent from on the launch pad until orbital injection. A launch-escape system, consisting of solid rocket motors located on the adapter between the HL-20 and the launch vehicle, provides the thrust that propels the HL-20 to a safe distance from a malfunctioning launch vehicle. After these launch-escape motors have burned out, the adapter is jettisoned and the HL-20 executes one of four abort modes. In three abort modes - return-to-launch-site, transatlantic-abort-landing, and abort-to-orbit - not only is the crew rescued, but the HL-20 is recovered intact. In the ocean-landing-by-parachute abort mode, which occurs in between the return-to-launch-site and the transatlantic-abort-landing modes, the crew is rescued, but the HL-20 would likely sustain damage from the ocean landing. This paper describes the launch-escape system and the four abort modes for an ascent on a Titan III launch vehicle.

Naftel, J. C.; Talay, T. A.

1993-10-01

237

Utah's ban on abortion coverage for low-income women challenged.  

PubMed

On January 30 (1995) two women's health care providers, a rape crisis center, and a YWCA-run battered women's shelter asked the federal district court in Utah to declare invalid and enjoin enforcement of the state's virtual ban on abortion coverage for Medicaid-eligible women. The plaintiffs argue that Utah's criminal prohibition on state Medicaid coverage for abortion--except when the procedure is necessary to prevent a woman's death--violates federal Medicaid law because it does not cover abortions for survivors of rape or incest. The Hyde Amendment has provided federal Medicaid funds for abortions in cases of rape and incest since 1993, and federal courts have since ruled against eight other states that refused to cover those procedures. In late December, Utah was one of seven states notified by the federal Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) that the state is "out of compliance" with federal Medicaid law. With nearly 46 rapes per 100,000 people, Utah has one of the highest rates of rape in the country. CRLP (Center for Reproductive Law and Policy) has previously filed lawsuits in Utah challenging the state's 1991 abortion ban and a 1993 mandatory delay and biased counseling requirement. Plaintiffs in Utah Women's Clinic v. Graham are represented by CRLP's Eve Gartner, with Salt Lake City attorneys Howard Lundgren and Jeffrey Oritt. PMID:12319148

1995-02-10

238

The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

Medoff, Marshall

2010-01-01

239

Abortion stigma: a reconceptualization of constituents, causes, and consequences.  

PubMed

Stigmatization is a deeply contextual, dynamic social process; stigma from abortion is the discrediting of individuals as a result of their association with abortion. Abortion stigma is under-researched and under-theorized, and the few existing studies focus only on women who have had abortions. We build on this work, drawing from the social science literature to describe three groups whom we posit are affected by abortion stigma: Women who have had abortions, individuals who work in facilities that provide abortion, and supporters of women who have had abortions, including partners, family, and friends, as well as abortion researchers and advocates. Although these groups are not homogeneous, some common experiences within the groups--and differences between the groups--help to illuminate how people manage abortion stigma and begin to reveal the roots of this stigma itself. We discuss five reasons why abortion is stigmatized, beginning with the rationale identified by Kumar, Hessini, and Mitchell: The violation of female ideals of sexuality and motherhood. We then suggest additional causes of abortion stigma, including attributing personhood to the fetus, legal restrictions, the idea that abortion is dirty or unhealthy, and the use of stigma as a tool for anti-abortion efforts. Although not exhaustive, these causes of abortion stigma illustrate how it is made manifest for affected groups. Understanding abortion stigma will inform strategies to reduce it, which has direct implications for improving access to care and better health for those whom stigma affects. PMID:21530840

Norris, Alison; Bessett, Danielle; Steinberg, Julia R; Kavanaugh, Megan L; De Zordo, Silvia; Becker, Davida

2011-01-01

240

Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2  

E-print Network

To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 ?s long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

2015-01-01

241

Triangular Assessment of the Etiology of Induced Abortion in Iran: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background About 46 million induced abortions occur in the world annually. The studies have reported 80000 cases of induced abortions in Iran annually. Objectives This qualitative study was conducted to identify the causes of unsafe abortion in Iran from the standpoint of three groups of experts, women with a history of abortion or unwanted pregnancy and service providers. Patients and Methods A total of 72 in-depth semi structured interviews were conducted in 2012 in Tehran and Shahroud. After coordination with 8 experts, sampling from them was done using the Snowballing method in their offices. Sampling from 28 married and 10 engaged women with a history of unwanted pregnancy or unsafe abortion and 12 providers was done in health care centers and a in number of gynecologists’ and midwives’ offices. Sampling from women with a history of unwanted pregnancy or unsafe abortion such as single women, HIV positive women and drug users, and women who had sexual intercourse for money was started by referring to the social rehabilitation center for women and continued using the snowballing method due to difficulties in accessing them. Participants were from different ethnic groups including Fars, Gilaks, Mazandarani, Arab, Azerbaijani, and Lor. Content analysis was performed on collected data. Results Based on the results of the interviews, participants have abortion for following reasons: 1. Wanted pregnancy (sub categories: fetal abnormalities, Concern about fetal health and lack of trust to prenatal diagnostic methods, Fetal sex, Lack of independent and free decision making regarding pregnancy in women, 2. Unwanted pregnancy (sub-categories: Socio-economic factors, Beliefs and feelings, Lack of information about family planning) 3. Predisposing factors (sub-categories: Lack of information on religious aspects of abortion, Easy access to easy abortion methods). Some people, despite having unwanted pregnancy due to social, economic, cultural and family grounds, continued their pregnancy and did not have an abortion for the following reasons: Religious beliefs, Beliefs (fear of punishment in the afterlife and believing in fate) , Attachment to the unborn baby, Influence of the other people’s opinions (physician, mother or spouse) Late diagnosis of pregnancy, Unsuccessful abortion attempts (Self-treatment, Unsuccessful medical abortion), Economic weakness and arbitrary treatment. Conclusions In the present study, women who continued their pregnancy despite being unwanted were also interviewed. Although they had the same social, economic, cultural, and family problems as women with a history of unsafe abortion and had easy access to abortion, analysis showed that the difference in religious beliefs between the two groups was the most important factor that led women to choose two different approaches. The authors believe that in-depth analysis of people’s beliefs and opinions in this regard and correction of false beliefs plays a crucial role in decreasing the rate of unsafe abortion. PMID:24719694

Motaghi, Zahra; Keramat, Afsaneh; Shariati, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud

2013-01-01

242

TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been studied include, for example, spontaneous abortions, congenital defects, low birt...

243

Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... NCI Publications Español RSS Feed Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk Reviewed: January 12, 2010 Introduction A woman’s ... that may influence a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer later in life. As a result, over several ...

244

Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.  

PubMed

This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity." PMID:12178893

Hisel, L M

1998-01-01

245

SocioEconomic Determinants of Abortion Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abortion rates are increasing all around the world, especially for young women. Our proposals for public policies to reduce\\u000a unwanted pregnancies are based on an analysis of the socio-economic determinants of abortion rates. Special attention is paid\\u000a to regional levels of alcohol consumption, living conditions, and public spending on health and education. We carry out estimations\\u000a using data on regions

Ana I. Gil-Lacruz; Marta Gil-Lacruz; Estrella Bernal-Cuenca

246

A framework for analyzing sex-selective abortion: the example of changing sex ratios in Southern Caucasus.  

PubMed

The paper proposes a socioeconomic framework of supply, demand, and regulation to explain the development of sex-selective abortion in several parts of the world. The framework is then applied to three countries of southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) where sex-selective abortion has developed since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The authors argue that sex-selective abortion cannot be explained simply by patriarchal social systems, sex discrimination, or son preference. The emphasis is put on the long-term acceptability of abortion in the region, on acceptability of sex-screening by both the medical establishment and by the population, on newly imported techniques of sex-screening, and on the changing demand for children associated with the major economic and social changes that followed the dismantlement of the Soviet Union. PMID:25349481

Hohmann, Sophie A; Lefèvre, Cécile A; Garenne, Michel L

2014-01-01

247

A framework for analyzing sex-selective abortion: the example of changing sex ratios in Southern Caucasus  

PubMed Central

The paper proposes a socioeconomic framework of supply, demand, and regulation to explain the development of sex-selective abortion in several parts of the world. The framework is then applied to three countries of southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) where sex-selective abortion has developed since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The authors argue that sex-selective abortion cannot be explained simply by patriarchal social systems, sex discrimination, or son preference. The emphasis is put on the long-term acceptability of abortion in the region, on acceptability of sex-screening by both the medical establishment and by the population, on newly imported techniques of sex-screening, and on the changing demand for children associated with the major economic and social changes that followed the dismantlement of the Soviet Union. PMID:25349481

Hohmann, Sophie A; Lefèvre, Cécile A; Garenne, Michel L

2014-01-01

248

Delivering post-abortion care through a community-based reproductive health volunteer programme in Pakistan.  

PubMed

This qualitative study was conducted in May-June 2010 with women using post-abortion care (PAC) services provided by the Marie Stopes Society in Pakistan during the six month period preceding the study, more than 70% of whom had been referred to the clinics by reproductive health volunteers (RHVs). The aim of the study was to establish the socio-demographic profile of clients, determine their preferred method of treatment, explore their perceptions of the barriers to accessing post-abortion services and to understand the challenges faced by RHVs. The sample women were selected from six randomly selected districts of Sindh and Punjab. Eight focus group discussions were conducted with PAC clients and fifteen in-depth interviews with RHVs. In addition, a quantitative exit interview questionnaire was administered to 76 clients. Medical, rather than surgical, treatment for incomplete and unsafe abortions was preferred because it was perceived to 'cause less pain', was 'easy to employ' and 'having fewer complications'. Household economics influence women's decision-making on seeking post-abortion care. Other restraining factors include objection by husbands and in-laws, restrictions on female mobility, the views of religious clerics and a lack of transport. The involvement of all stakeholders could secure social approval and acceptance of the provision of safe post-abortion care services in Pakistan, and improve the quality of family planning services to the women who want to space their pregnancies. PMID:22652308

Azmat, Syed Khurram; Shaikh, Babar T; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hameed, Waqas; Bilgrami, Mohsina

2012-11-01

249

Image analysis and processing methods in verifying the correctness of performing low-invasive esthetic medical procedures  

PubMed Central

Background Efficacy and safety of various treatments using fractional laser or radiofrequency depend, to a large extent, on precise movement of equipment head across the patient’s skin. In addition, they both depend on uniform distribution of emitted pulses throughout the treated skin area. The pulses should be closely adjacent but they should not overlap. Pulse overlapping results in amplification of irradiation dose and carries the danger of unwanted effects. Methods Images obtained in infrared mode (Flir SC5200 thermovision camera equipped with photon detector) were entered into Matlab environment. Thermal changes in the skin were forced by CO2RE laser. Proposed image analysis and processing methods enable automatic recognition of CO2RE laser sites of action, making possible to assess the correctness of performed cosmetic procedures. Results 80 images were acquired and analyzed. Regions of interest (ROI) for the entire treatment field were determined automatically. In accordance with the proposed algorithm, laser-irradiated Li areas (ROI) were determined for the treatment area. On this basis, error values were calculated and expressed as percentage of area not covered by any irradiation dose (?o) and as percentage area which received double dose (?z). The respective values for the analyzed images were ?o=17.87±10.5% and ?z=1.97±1.5%, respectively. Conclusions The presented method of verifying the correctness of performing low-invasive esthetic medical (cosmetic) procedures has proved itself numerous times in practice. Advantages of the method include: automatic determination of coverage error values ?o and ?z, non-invasive, sterile and remote-controlled thermovisual mode of measurements, and possibility of assessing dynamics of patient’s skin temperature changes. PMID:23758786

2013-01-01

250

Investigation of the launch pad abort capabilities of the HL-20 lifting body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability of the HL-20 lifting body spacecraft to perform an abort maneuver from the launch pad to a horizontal landing was studied at NASA Langley Research Center. This study involved both piloted and batch simulation models of the vehicle. A point-mass model of the vehicle was used for trajectory optimization studies. The piloted simulation was performed in the Visual Motion Simulator in fixed-base mode. A candidate maneuver was developed and refined for the worst-case launch-pad-to-landing-site geometry using an iterative procedure of off-line maneuver analysis followed by piloted evaluations and heuristic improvements to the candidate maneuver. The resulting maneuver demonstrates the launch site abort capability of the HL-20 and dictates requirements for nominal abort motor performance. The sensitivity of the maneuver to variations in several design parameters was documented.

Jackson, E. B.; Rivers, Robert A.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.; Ragsdale, W. A.; Geyer, David W.

1993-01-01

251

Launch-pad abort capabilities of the HL-20 lifting body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability of the HL-20 lifting body to perform an abort maneuver from the launch pad to a horizontal landing was studied. The study involved both piloted and batch simulation models of the vehicle. A point-mass model of the vehicle was used for trajectory optimization studies. The piloted simulation was performed in the Langley Visual/Motion Simulator in the fixed-base mode. A candidate maneuver was developed and refined for the worst-case launch-pad-to-landing-site geometry with an iterative procedure of off-line maneuver analysis followed by piloted evaluations and heuristic improvements to the candidate maneuver. The resulting maneuver demonstrates the launch-site abort capability of the HL-20 and dictates requirements for nominal abort-motor performance. The sensitivity of the maneuver to variations in several design parameters was documented.

Jackson, E. Bruce; Rivers, Robert A.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.; Ragsdale, W. A.; Geyer, David W.

1994-01-01

252

Estimates of illegal abortions in Israel, 1980-83.  

PubMed

Since the legalization of abortion in Israel in the late 1970s, only aggregate information on legal abortions has been available. A brief history of the public debate and relevant legislation concerning induced abortions in Israel is presented in the first part of this report. The second part presents estimates of the extent of illegal abortions in Israel during the years 1980-83. These estimates were obtained through standardization based on data for selected countries where the abortion law is similar to or more liberal than that in Israel, the system of abortion registration is more reliable and detailed, and the prevailing contraceptive habits and attitudes of women are known. Estimates indicate that: a) the total number of abortions in Israel is about half that quoted by the media from nonscientific sources, and b) the annual number of illegal abortions constitutes between 25 and 30% of the estimated total number of abortions. PMID:2347687

Sabatello, E F

1990-04-01

253

Navigating Social and Institutional Obstacles: Low-Income Women Seeking Abortion.  

PubMed

Nearly half of all women in the United States will have at least one abortion during their lifetime, and many will encounter economic, logistical, and/or social obstacles while attempting to undergo the procedure. The purpose of this project was to examine the abortion-seeking experiences of a volunteer sample of Oregon women, to identify key barriers and the strategies women employed to overcome them. Using a mixed-methods approach combining survey and interview data with participant observation, we found that low-income women experienced structural and economic barriers to abortion even though abortion is covered by the state Medicaid program in Oregon. Social support helped women overcome obstacles, and a lack of support was itself experienced as an obstacle. Women of lower socioeconomic status also encountered more barriers and had a more difficult time overcoming them. Our findings indicate the need for improved advocacy to reduce structural delay, and to improve access to social support and other resources needed for timely abortion care. PMID:24970251

Ostrach, Bayla; Cheyney, Melissa

2014-06-16

254

A simplified method for differential staining of aborted and non-aborted pollen grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability to use chemical staining to discriminate aborted from non-aborted pollen grains has well-known practical applications in agriculture. A commonly used technique for assessing pollen vitality, Alexander’s stain, uses chloral hydrate, phenol and mercuric chloride, all of which are highly to...

255

Anxiety Around Medical Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... game starts. What do you think listening to music does for them — make them more tense? Probably ... things that normally relax and soothe your child — music, reading, etc. These things can help keep your ...

256

Paternal exposure to mercury and spontaneous abortions.  

PubMed Central

The potential reproductive toxicity of mercury vapour was investigated by comparing the rate of spontaneous abortions among the wives of 152 workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour with the rate among the wives of 374 controls in the same plant. The results indicate an increase in the rate of spontaneous abortions with an increasing concentration of mercury in the fathers' urine before pregnancy. At concentrations above 50 micrograms/l the risk of spontaneous abortion doubles (odds ratio (OR) = 2.26; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.99-5.23). Special care was taken to avoid bias in reporting abortions and known risk factors of spontaneous abortions do not seem to explain the results. Several biological mechanisms might account for them including, in particular, direct action of mercury on the paternal reproductive system and indirect toxicity to the mother or embryo through transport of mercury from the father. These indications could be of practical importance and should therefore be further documented. PMID:2064975

Cordier, S; Deplan, F; Mandereau, L; Hemon, D

1991-01-01

257

Women's experiences in connection with induced abortion - a feminist perspective.  

PubMed

Although abortions are common, few researchers have explored the experiences of women related to abortions. The aim of this qualitative study was to analyse women's experiences of induced abortion from a feminist perspective. Five women aged 19-33 years were interviewed about 1 month after their abortion. The interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis from which the following themes were identified: experiences connected with the decision-making process, experiences connected with the abortion and experiences after the abortion. Childhood experiences of divided families, financial problems, being too young, and an insecure partnership influenced the women's decision to have an abortion. Ambivalence about abortion was strongly expressed throughout the process. Despite positive attitudes towards abortion in general, the women had negative attitudes towards their own abortion. They described receiving most support from their mothers and friends, in the decision-making process, and least from their partners. After the abortion the women gained a feeling of maturity and experience although their ambivalence persisted. One conclusion drawn from our study is that nurses and midwives need to be aware of women's complex experiences with abortions in order to support and empower women who seek an abortion. PMID:15147479

Aléx, Lena; Hammarström, Anne

2004-06-01

258

Restricted access to abortion in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: exploring abortion tourism and barriers to legal reform.  

PubMed

Access to abortion remains a controversial issue worldwide. In Ireland, both north and south, legal restrictions have resulted in thousands of women travelling to England and Wales and further afield to obtain abortions in the last decade alone, while others purchase the 'abortion pill' from Internet sources. This paper considers the socio-legal context in both jurisdictions, the data on those travelling to access abortion and the barriers to legal reform. It argues that moral conservatism in Ireland, north and south, has contributed to the restricted access to abortion, impacting on the experience of thousands of women, resulting in these individuals becoming 'abortion tourists'. PMID:24617662

Bloomer, Fiona; O'Dowd, Kellie

2014-01-01

259

Knowledge and perception of abortion and the abortion law in Trinidad and Tobago.  

PubMed

As for most of its Caribbean neighbours, Trinidad and Tobago's leading cause of maternal morbidity is unsafe abortion. Yet activism to introduce public policy and legislation that effectively address this aspect of women's reproductive rights and health has been met with public outcry. With almost hysterical opposition coming from certain religious quarters, there is the unsubstantiated impression that Trinidadians are overwhelmingly opposed to abortion law reform. A national survey was therefore carried out of people's knowledge and views on the current abortion law in Trinidad and Tobago. The survey found that although almost half of respondents had an unfavourable perception of abortion, more than half of them were in favour of broadening the legal grounds for accessing terminations. Incest, rape and danger to a woman's life were cited as the most significant circumstances under which abortions should be permitted. The vast majority of respondents agreed that voting on abortion law reform by members of the legislature should not be based on personal beliefs. The findings demonstrate that there is not the degree of opposition to abortion law reform that is widely assumed. On the other hand, given the wide variance of views and perceptions, we argue that public health concerns and human rights should always trump public opinion. PMID:17512381

Martin, Cedriann J; Hyacenth, Glennis; Suite, Lynette Seebaran

2007-05-01

260

Diagnostic categorization of post-abortion syndrome.  

PubMed

Some psychopathological characteristics are frequently observed in women who have voluntarily aborted. However, some resistance currently remains to their recognition as a differentiated nosological category, known as Post-Abortion Syndrome (PAS). We tried to assign a diagnostic category to women with PAS by determining the extent by which they fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of international classifications. Criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were met in the ten PAS cases studied. In addition, patients also showed other non-specific symptoms such as repeated and persistent dreams and nightmares related with the abortion, intense feelings of guilt and the "need to repair". PAS should be considered as an additional type of PTSD. It also has some specific characteristics that could help to understand the patient's life experience and to establish a psychotherapeutic intervention. PMID:15999304

Gómez Lavín, C; Zapata García, R

2005-01-01

261

42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for the purchase of health benefits coverage...section affects the expenditure by a State, locality...abortion services or for health benefits coverage...

2013-10-01

262

42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for the purchase of health benefits coverage...section affects the expenditure by a State, locality...abortion services or for health benefits coverage...

2014-10-01

263

42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for the purchase of health benefits coverage...section affects the expenditure by a State, locality...abortion services or for health benefits coverage...

2012-10-01

264

42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...abortion is necessary to save the life of the mother. (2) Rape or incest. FFP is available in expenditures for abortion services performed to terminate a pregnancy resulting from an act of rape or incest. (c) Partial Federal funding...

2011-10-01

265

42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...abortion is necessary to save the life of the mother. (2) Rape or incest. FFP is available in expenditures for abortion services performed to terminate a pregnancy resulting from an act of rape or incest. (c) Partial Federal funding...

2010-10-01

266

The Road to Pad Abort 1 - Duration: 6:55.  

NASA Video Gallery

At the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, N.M., engineers and technicians are preparing for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The Launch Abort System is a sophisticated new rocket tower designed t...

267

Catholic options in the abortion debate.  

PubMed

The little-known Roman Catholic theological doctrine of probabilism, an ethical system explicated in all manuals of moral theology, is explained using as an example the dilemma of abortion. Probabilism is based on the notion that a doubtful moral obligation may not be imposed as though it were certain. "Ubi dubium, ibi libertas," means where there is doubt, there is freedom. There are 2 types of moral probability, intrinsic probability, where the individual, without the help of moral theologians, perceives the inapplicability of a particular moral teaching; and extrinsic probability, which involves reliance on the findings of 5 or 6 reputable moral theologians, who may hold a liberal view. Probabilism implies a reasonable doubt, and one's reasons must be cogent, but not necessarily conclusive. Today's abortion debate is an example of a respectable debate, where the liberal view has been endorsed by a number of reputable religious or other humanitarian bodies that in some cases abortion is not always immoral. Other examples in history are the view once taught by the church that taking interest on loans was immoral, that depriving slaves and women of civil rights on non-Catholics of religious or political freedom was moral. For today's legislators, there is a precedent throughout theological history for the state permitting an evil: both St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that prostitution, although evil, should not be outlawed, because worse evils would occur with prohibition. Legislators who personally find abortion always immoral can support a Roe V. Wade decision because 1) it does not require anyone to have an abortion, and 2) the abortion debate, among Catholics, and non-Catholics is not settled. PMID:12178838

Maguire, D C

1990-01-01

268

RHIC ABORT KICKER WITH REDUCED COUPLING IMPEDANCE.  

SciTech Connect

Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without external resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit.

HAHN,H.; DAVINO,D.

2002-06-02

269

Abortion in cattle due to infection with Staphylococcus lugdunensis.  

PubMed

An aborted fetus of 7 months gestation, the associated placenta, and a single blood sample from the dam were submitted for diagnostic investigation to the diagnostic laboratory of the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute in Parma, Italy. The serum was negative for Neospora caninum, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila abortus, Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Brucella abortus, and Brucella melitensis. Fetal tissues and placental cotyledons were pooled and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of BHV-1, Bovine herpesvirus 4, BVDV, N. caninum, C. burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Schmallemberg virus, and Leptospira interrogans. All PCR assays were negative. Bacteriological examinations performed on the fetal organs revealed a pure growth of Staphylococcus lugdunensis in all organs cultured. In human beings, S. lugdunensis is responsible for community-acquired and nosocomial infections, in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. In veterinary medicine, the pathogenic potential of S. lugdunensis has not been fully investigated. The incidence of S. lugdunensis is regarded as being underreported because it could be easily misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus. The current report documents the ability of S. lugdunensis to cause abortion in cattle, indicating the need for accurate diagnostic procedures to identify this emerging and zoonotic pathogen whose incidence is likely underestimated in both human and veterinary medicine. PMID:25292193

Ardigò, Paolo; D'Incau, Mario; Pongolini, Stefano

2014-11-01

270

Sex Selective Abortions, Fertility and Birth Spacing Claus C Portner  

E-print Network

Sex Selective Abortions, Fertility and Birth Spacing Claus C P¨ortner Department of Economics under the title "The Determinants of Sex Selective Abortions." #12;Abstract Previous research on sex selective abortions has ignored the interactions between fertility, birth spacing and sex selection

Silver, Whendee

271

Abortion, Adoption, and Marriage: Alternative Resolutions of an Unwanted Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to previous article by Stolley and Hall (this issue) on presentation of adoption and abortion in undergraduate marriage and family textbooks. Contends that Stolley and Hall have constructed the issue as involving but two options (abortion and adoption). Asserts that abortion and adoption are but two of several related topics. Considers…

Nock, Steven L.

1994-01-01

272

U of A Policies and Procedures On-Line Supervision of Medical Students on Clinical Rotations Policy  

E-print Network

, supervision at all times must ensure patient and medical student safety. Purpose Clinical supervision and competence, assume supervised responsibility and enhance patient safety in complex clinical situations. To ensure patient safety and medical student safety, the three main functions of clinical supervision

MacMillan, Andrew

273

Increasing Compliance with Medical Examination Requests Directed to Children with Autism: Effects of a High-Probability Request Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a high-probability (high-"p") request sequence as a means of increasing compliance with medical examination tasks. Participants were children who had been diagnosed with autism and who exhibited noncompliance during general medical examinations. The inclusion of the high-"p" request…

Riviere, Vinca; Becquet, Melissa; Peltret, Emilie; Facon, Bruno; Darcheville, Jean-Claude

2011-01-01

274

The Psychological and Emotional Effects of Abortion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological and emotional effects of abortion on women who terminated their pregnancies for social, economic, or personal reasons. These effects were determined, in part, by an analysis of the woman's concept of self, the external support given, and the various coping mechanisms utilized in the…

Arafat, Ibtihaj S.; Chireau, Ruby M.

275

Abortion, Capital Punishment, and the Politics of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In her paper, Professor Kimberly J. Cook uses statistics to illustrate the role the Christian Right plays in the public discourse over two issues permeated with religious overtones: abortion and the death penalty. She shows how the Christian Right's approach to these issues is based on an ideological notion of 'Justice \\

Kimberly J. Cook

2000-01-01

276

The RHIC beam abort kicker system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy stored in the RHIC beam is about 200 kJ per ring at design energy and intensity. To prevent quenching of the superconducting magnets or material damage, the beam will be safely disposed of by an internal beam abort system, which includes the kicker magnets, the pulsed power supplies, and the dump absorber. Disposal of heavy ions, such as

H. Hahn; A. Dunbar; C. I. Pai; R. T. Sanders; N. Tsoupas; J. E. Tuozzolo

1999-01-01

277

An update in recurrent spontaneous abortion.  

PubMed

Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses prior to the 20th week of gestation. The etiology of recurrent spontaneous abortion is often unclear and may be multifactorial, with much controversy regarding diagnosis and treatment. Reasonably accepted etiologic causes include, genetics, anatomical, endocrine, placental anomalies, hormonal problems, infection, smoking and alcohol consumption, exposure to environmental factors, psychological trauma and stressful life event, certain coagulation and immunoregulatory protein defects. Detection of an abnormality in any of these areas may result into specific therapeutic measures, with varying degrees of success. However, the majority of cases of RSA remains unexplained and is found to be associated with certain autoimmune (APA, ANA, ACA, ATA, AECA) and alloimmune (APCA, Ab2, MLR-Bf) antibodies that may play major role in the immunologic failure of pregnancy and may lead to abortion. Alteration in the expression of HLA-G molecules, T-helper-1 (Th-1) pattern of cytokines and natural killer (NK) cells activity may also induce abortion. Various forms of treatment like antithrombotic therapies such as aspirin and heparin, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy, immunotherapy with paternal lymphocytes and vitamin D3 therapy are effective mode of treatment for unexplained cause of fetal loss in women with RSA. PMID:15906053

Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Rani, Reena; Agrawal, Suraksha

2005-07-01

278

A Collaborative Approach to Building a Terminology for Medical Procedures using a Web-based Application : From Specifications to daily use  

PubMed Central

The MAOUSSC (Model for Assistance in the Orientation of a User within Coding Systems) Web server supports a collaborative work on the description of medical procedures. The specifications for the MAOUSSC application are conceptual modeling, definition of semantically fully described procedures, re-use of an existing vocabulary, the UMLS, and sharability. This paper reports on some difficulties in applying those principles in a networked building and updating of the terminology. The users are physicians who have to represent procedure terms in the MAOUSSC formalism. They must apply the constraints of the underlying model, and re-use the representation of the UMLS knowledge base. In our experience, we found that the implementation of syntactic and semantic constraints was not sufficient. Guidelines for pragmatical aspects in representation are required to make a collaborative approach in terminology building more operational. PMID:10384524

Burgun, Anita; Bodenreider, Olivier; Denier, Patrick; Delamarre, Denis; Botti, Geneviève; Oberlin, Philippe; Lévêque, Jean-Michel; Brémond, Marc; Fieschi, Mario; Beux, Pierre Le

2015-01-01

279

Periconceptional Over-the-Counter Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Exposure and Risk for Spontaneous Abortion  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the association between over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure during the early first-trimester and risk for spontaneous abortion (gestation prior to 20 weeks) in a prospective cohort. Methods Women were enrolled in the Right from the Start study (2004–2010). Exposure data regarding over-the-counter NSAID use from the last menstrual period through the 6th week of pregnancy were obtained from intake and first-trimester interviews. Pregnancy outcomes were self-reported and verified by medical records. Gestational age was determined from last menstrual period. Stage of development prior to loss was determined from study ultrasound. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between NSAID exposure and pregnancy outcome, taking into account candidate confounders. Results Among 2,780 pregnancies, 367 women (13%) experienced an spontaneous abortion. NSAID exposure was reported by 1,185 (43%) women. NSAID exposure was not associated with spontaneous abortion risk in unadjusted models (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82, 1.24) or models adjusted for maternal age (adjusted [aHR] = 1.00, 95% CI 0.81, 1.23). Conclusions Our findings suggest that use of non-prescription over-the-counter NSAIDs in early pregnancy does not put women at increased risk of spontaneous abortion. PMID:22914399

Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Aldridge, Tiara; Baird, Donna D.; Funk, Michele Jonsson; Savitz, David A.; Hartmann, Katherine E.

2012-01-01

280

Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.

2007-01-01

281

First Operation of the Abort Gap Monitor for LHC  

SciTech Connect

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam-dump system relies on extraction kickers that need 3 microseconds to rise to their nominal field. Since particles transiting the kickers during the rise will not be dumped properly, the proton population in this interval must always remain below quench and damage limits. A specific monitor to measure the particle population of this gap has been designed based on the detection of synchrotron radiation using a gated photomultiplier. Since the quench and damage limits change with the beam energy, the acceptable population in the abort gap and the settings of the monitor must adapt accordingly. This paper presents the design of the monitor, the calibration procedure and the detector performance with beam.

Lefevre, Thibaut; /CERN; Bart Pedersen, Stephane; /CERN; Boccardi, Andrea; /CERN; Bravin, Enrico; /CERN; Goldblatt, A.; /CERN; Jeff, Adam; /CERN; Roncarolo, Federico; /CERN; Fisher, Alan; /SLAC

2012-07-06

282

29 CFR 1913.10 - Rules of agency practice and procedure concerning OSHA access to employee medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...purposes for which the information was obtained. (4) The protective measures established by this section apply to all worksheets, duplicate copies, or other agency documents containing personally identifiable employee medical information....

2014-07-01

283

29 CFR 1913.10 - Rules of agency practice and procedure concerning OSHA access to employee medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...purposes for which the information was obtained. (4) The protective measures established by this section apply to all worksheets, duplicate copies, or other agency documents containing personally identifiable employee medical information....

2011-07-01

284

29 CFR 1913.10 - Rules of agency practice and procedure concerning OSHA access to employee medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...purposes for which the information was obtained. (4) The protective measures established by this section apply to all worksheets, duplicate copies, or other agency documents containing personally identifiable employee medical information....

2013-07-01

285

Recent developments in abortion law in industrialized countries.  

PubMed

An effort to bring new insights into the US abortion debate, this article reviews recent legal developments concerning abortion in 7 other industrialized countries. In addition to the US, the author examines developments in Canada, England, Ireland, France, Belgium, Romania, and Bulgaria. In the US, the Supreme Court has become the battleground for an increasingly bitter abortion debate. The 1989 ruling in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services has setback the 1973 Roe v. Wade ruling which guaranteed a woman's right to an abortion. Although the Webster did not overturn Roe, it did significantly weaken the trimester approach to abortion regulation and open the door to further restrictions. In Canada, however, the court has overturned a previously burdensome abortion law. The abortion debate in England has centered around the standard that says that an abortion may not take place when the fetus is "capable of being born alive." Conforming to present scientific knowledge, English law now allows abortions on demand during the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy -- bringing England closer to the practice of other European countries. Belgium has also recently approved of unimpeded abortions during the 1st 12 weeks. In France, the governments has ordered the manufacturer of RU486 to make the abortifacient available to French women. Ireland, however, remains the only industrialized country in the world where abortion is still illegal. The cases of Bulgaria and Romania show what can happen when abortion becomes the pawn of social policy and ideology. Romania is the extreme case. Prior to his downfall in 1989, President Ceaucescu had instituted one of the most restrictive abortion laws as part of a pronatalist policy. This resulted in widespread misery for women and created a great number of unwanted children, which the author warns is the result of restrictive abortions laws. PMID:2089193

Boland, R

1990-01-01

286

Aerodynamic Testing of the Orion Launch Abort Tower Separation with Jettison Motor Jet Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic database for the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) was developed largely from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The LAS contains three solid rocket motors used in various phases of an abort to provide propulsion, steering, and Launch Abort Tower (LAT) jettison from the Crew Module (CM). This paper describes a pair of wind tunnel experiments performed at transonic and supersonic speeds to determine the aerodynamic effects due to proximity and jet interactions during LAT jettison from the CM at the end of an abort. The tests were run using two different scale models at angles of attack from 150deg to 200deg , sideslip angles from -10deg to +10deg , and a range of powered thrust levels from the jettison motors to match various jet simulation parameters with flight values. Separation movements between the CM and LAT included axial and vertical translations as well as relative pitch angle between the two bodies. The paper details aspects of the model design, nozzle scaling methodology, instrumentation, testing procedures, and data reduction. Sample data are shown to highlight trends seen in the results.

Rhode, Matthew N.; Chan, David T.; Niskey, Charles J.; Wilson, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

287

Ugandan opinion-leaders' knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion.  

PubMed

While laws in Uganda surrounding abortion remain contradictory, a frequent interpretation of the law is that abortion is only allowed to save the woman's life. Nevertheless abortion occurs frequently under unsafe conditions at a rate of 54 abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age annually, taking a large toll on women's health. There are an estimated 148,500 women in Uganda who experience abortion complications annually. Understanding opinion leaders' knowledge and perceptions about unsafe abortion is critical to identifying ways to address this public health issue. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 41 policy-makers, cultural leaders, local politicians and leaders within the health care sector in 2009-10 at the national as well as district (Bushenyi, Kamuli and Lira) level to explore their knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion and the potential for policy to address this issue. Only half of the sample knew the current law regulating abortion in Uganda. Respondents understood that the result of the current abortion restrictions included long-term health complications, unwanted children and maternal death. Perceived consequences of increasing access to safe abortion included improved health as well as overuse of abortion, marital conflict and less reliance on preventive behaviour. Opinion leaders expressed the most support for legalization of abortion in cases of rape when the perpetrator was unknown. Understanding opinion leaders' perspectives on this politically sensitive topic provides insight into the policy context of abortion laws, drivers behind maintaining the status quo, and ways to improve provision under the law: increase education among providers and opinion leaders. PMID:24064047

Moore, Ann M; Kibombo, Richard; Cats-Baril, Deva

2014-10-01

288

[A glossary for discussion about abortion].  

PubMed

Abortion and its diverse possible legal regulations is one of the major and toughest social controversies. This debate is even more problematic due to biases, prejudgments, different ideologies, beliefs, religious doctrines and political pressures. Chile has recently begun a new national discussion with an evident confusion, both in juridical and clinical terminology, which makes very difficult to achieve the necessary plural debate for a social and political consensus. The authors structured an academic collaborative project to create a glossary as a contribution for a discussion based on clearly defined notions about the different terms used in the abortion debate. Twenty-two concepts were selected and their definitions were reviewed and discussed by more than 50 different specialists. The final version of this glossary in Spanish language is presented. PMID:25694291

Astete A, Carmen; Beca I, Juan Pablo; Lecaros U, Alberto

2014-11-01

289

The health system cost of post-abortion care in Uganda  

PubMed Central

This article presents estimates based on the research conducted in 2010 of the cost to the Ugandan health system of providing post-abortion care (PAC), filling a gap in knowledge of the cost of unsafe abortion. Thirty-nine public and private health facilities were sampled representing three levels of health care, and data were collected on drugs, supplies, material, personnel time and out-of-pocket expenses. In addition, direct non-medical costs in the form of overhead and capital costs were also measured. Our results show that the average annual PAC cost per client, across five types of abortion complications, was $131. The total cost of PAC nationally, including direct non-medical costs, was estimated to be $13.9 million per year. Satisfying all demand for PAC would raise the national cost to $20.8 million per year. This shows that PAC consumes a substantial portion of the total expenditure in reproductive health in Uganda. Investing more resources in family planning programmes to prevent unwanted and mistimed pregnancies would help reduce health systems costs. PMID:23274438

Vlassoff, Michael; Mugisha, Frederick; Sundaram, Aparna; Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela; Amanya, Leo; Kiggundu, Charles; Mirembe, Florence

2014-01-01

290

The health system cost of post-abortion care in Uganda.  

PubMed

This article presents estimates based on the research conducted in 2010 of the cost to the Ugandan health system of providing post-abortion care (PAC), filling a gap in knowledge of the cost of unsafe abortion. Thirty-nine public and private health facilities were sampled representing three levels of health care, and data were collected on drugs, supplies, material, personnel time and out-of-pocket expenses. In addition, direct non-medical costs in the form of overhead and capital costs were also measured. Our results show that the average annual PAC cost per client, across five types of abortion complications, was $131. The total cost of PAC nationally, including direct non-medical costs, was estimated to be $13.9 million per year. Satisfying all demand for PAC would raise the national cost to $20.8 million per year. This shows that PAC consumes a substantial portion of the total expenditure in reproductive health in Uganda. Investing more resources in family planning programmes to prevent unwanted and mistimed pregnancies would help reduce health systems costs. PMID:23274438

Vlassoff, Michael; Mugisha, Frederick; Sundaram, Aparna; Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela; Amanya, Leo; Kiggundu, Charles; Mirembe, Florence

2014-01-01

291

The health system cost of post-abortion care in Rwanda.  

PubMed

Based on research conducted in 2012, we estimate the cost to the Rwandan health-care system of providing post-abortion care (PAC) due to unsafe abortions, a subject of policy importance not studied before at the national level. Thirty-nine public and private health facilities representing three levels of health care were randomly selected for data collection from key care providers and administrators for all five regions. Using an ingredients approach to costing, data were gathered on drugs, supplies, material, personnel time and hospitalization. Additionally, direct non-medical costs such as overhead and capital costs were also measured. We found that the average annual PAC cost per client, across five types of abortion complications, was $93. The total cost of PAC nationally was estimated to be $1.7 million per year, 49% of which was expended on direct non-medical costs. Satisfying all demands for PAC would raise the national cost to $2.5 million per year. PAC comprises a significant share of total expenditure in reproductive health in Rwanda. Investing more resources in provision of contraceptive services to prevent unwanted or mistimed pregnancies would likely reduce health systems costs. PMID:24548846

Vlassoff, Michael; Musange, Sabine F; Kalisa, Ina R; Ngabo, Fidele; Sayinzoga, Felix; Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola

2014-02-17

292

Miscarriage, abortion or criminal feticide: understandings of early pregnancy loss in Britain, 1900-1950.  

PubMed

This paper explores the close links in medical understandings of miscarriage and abortion in the first half of the twentieth century in Britain. In the absence of a clear legal framework for abortion, and the secrecy surrounding the practice, medical literature suggests contradictory and confused views about women presenting with clinical signs of pregnancy loss. On one hand, there was a lack of clarity as to whether pregnancy loss was natural or induced, with a clear tendency to assume that symptoms of miscarriage were the result of criminal interference gone wrong. On the other hand, women who did not present for treatment when miscarriage was underway were accused of neglecting their unborn children. The paper suggests that discourses around pregnancy loss were class-based, distrustful of female patients, and shaped by the wider context of fertility decline and concerns about infant mortality. The close historical connection between miscarriage and abortion offers some insight into why both the pro-life movement and miscarriage support advocates today draw on similar imagery and rhetoric about early fetal loss. PMID:24594057

Elliot, Rosemary

2014-09-01

293

[Immunologic characteristics of repeated spontaneous abortions].  

PubMed

In 28 couples with spontaneous abortions, data of immunological investigations revealed an elevated frequency of HLA DR compatibility and immunological characteristics defining distinct patterns of immune responsiveness. In the half of women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) we observed a failure to develop a recognition response to paternal inherited fetal antigens expressed by the lack of classical evidence of in vivo allo-immunization such as antipaternal antibodies, and the absence of the inhibitors of cell-mediated immunity found in maternal blood during pregnancy. In few cases, the paternal cells are inefficient to elicit in vitro maternal cell-mediated lympholysis. In most women with a normal pregnancy occurring after spontaneous abortions or prior to RSA, an immune recognition response was evidenced by the presence of antipaternal antibodies and/or blocking factor acting on in vitro cell-mediated lympholysis. These observations support the hypothesis that immunological process could be the cause of some fetal losses of unknown etiology, through a defective or unsuitable maternal immune response. PMID:2963993

Genetet, N; Fauchet, R; Philippe, H J; Vialard, J; Grall, J Y; Giraud, J R; Genetet, B

1987-12-01

294

Operator coil monitoring Acceptance Test Procedure  

SciTech Connect

The readiness of the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide monitoring and control of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) abort coils from the Master and RSS stations will be systematically tested during performance of this procedure. It should be noted that these are not physical abort coils but software coils controlled by the software`s ladder logic. The readiness of the DACS to properly interface with the ENRAF wire level gauge installed in the SY-101 storage tank will also be tested. During this test, a verification of all abort coil indications will be conducted at the DACS Development Facility in the 306E Building by injecting an input signal for each DACS sensor that has an associated abort coil until the abort coil actuates, and then ensuring that the status of the abort coil indicated at the Master and RSS stations is correct. Each abort coil will also be tested to ensure that the ``ENABLE`` and ``DISABLE`` controls from the Master and RSS stations function correctly, and only with the use of proper passwords.

Erhart, M.F.

1995-05-16

295

Abortion discourse in Bolivian hospital contexts: doctors' repertoire conflicts and the Saving Women device.  

PubMed

The author proposes going Beyond attitudes (Potter and Wetherell 1987) to a more nuanced assessment of doctors' discursive variations. Through an application of Gilbert and Mulkay's (1984) interpretative repertoires, she defined three voices--technical, normative and pragmatic--in which Bolivian doctors spoke of abortion. In State and social security hospital contexts, doctors hastened to express compliance with government policy and institutional norms regulating abortion and postabortion care. Technical and pragmatic considerations, however, often entered into conflict with established rules. When contradictions became apparent in their own discourse, doctors regularly drew on the Saving Women device. This accounting strategy enabled them to save face as up-to-date professionals through justifying temporary deviance from norms in terms of benefit to women treated. The author describes her development of the repertoires, their validation with different medical audiences, and doctors' critical appropriation of the model to explain their own discursive variations. PMID:15787775

Rance, Susanna

2005-03-01

296

Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

2014-01-01

297

U.S. tries to defuse abortion debate.  

PubMed

In an apparent attempt to defuse acrimony at the International Conference on Population and Development, underway in Cairo, the US delegation is softening its stance on abortion decriminalization. US Vice President Al Gore, the head of the delegation, has stated, "The United States does not seek to establish a new international right to abortion, and we do not believe that abortion should be encouraged as a method of family planning." The Vatican and Muslim fundamentalists remain concerned, however, that the Cairo gathering represents an opportunity for the US to impose its abortion rights agenda on other countries. The draft prepared for presentation to the conference makes no explicit mention of legal abortion. Rather, it advocates safe motherhood, complete reproductive health care, and fertility control-- phrases the Vatican insists mask an intent to promote the use of abortion for family planning. PMID:12318927

Struck, D

1994-09-01

298

Abortion care in Ghana: a critical review of the literature.  

PubMed

The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25508038

Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

2014-09-01

299

Abortion care in Ghana: a critical review of the literature.  

PubMed

The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25438507

Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

2014-09-01

300

A case of Candida guilliermondii abortion in an Arab mare  

PubMed Central

Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species. PMID:24707460

Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

301

Induced Abortions Among Adolescent Women in Rural Maharashtra, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study in rural Maharashtra, India, adolescents constituted 13.1% of the 1717 married women who had an induced abortion during an 18-month period in 1996–1998. The 197 adolescents who were subsequently interviewed had a lesser role in the decision-making process on abortion than women older than them. Most abortions were obtained in the private sector. Though spacing was the

Bela Ganatra; Siddhi Hirve

2002-01-01

302

DO PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT LAWS REDUCE ADOLESCENT ABORTION RATES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the impact of parental involvement laws on adolescent abortion rates and pregnancy rates. The analysis estimates abortion rate and pregnancy rate models using state-level data pooled over time for adolescents aged 15-17 compared to older teens aged 18-19 and adults aged 20-44. The results indicate that parental involvement laws reduce adolescent abortion rates and may, to a

ROBERT L. OHSFELDT; STEPHAN F. GOHMANN

1994-01-01

303

Proceedings 2003 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2003), Las Vegas, NV, 2003, pp. 3337-3343. Sensorless Planning for Medical Needle Insertion Procedures  

E-print Network

apply the method to seed implantation during permanent seed prostate brachytherapy to minimize seed of permanent seed prostate brachytherapy, a minimally invasive medical procedure that is widely used for treating prostate cancer due to the excellent long-term outcomes. Before the implant procedure

Alterovitz, Ron

304

Launch Architecture Impact on Ascent Abort and Crew Survival  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was performed to assess the effect of booster configuration on the ascent abort process. A generic abort event sequence was created and booster related risk drivers were identified. Three model boosters were considered in light of the risk drivers: a solid rocket motor configuration, a side mount combination solid and liquid configuration, and a stacked liquid configuration. The primary risk drivers included explosive fireball, overpressure, and fragment effects and booster-crew module re-contact. Risk drivers that were not specifically booster dependent were not addressed. The solid rocket configuration had the most benign influence on an abort while the side mount architecture provided the most challenging abort environment.

Mathias, Donovan L.; Lawrence, Scott L.

2006-01-01

305

Severe morbidities associated with induced abortions among misoprostol users and non-users in a tertiary public hospital in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Misoprostol has become a popular over the counter self-administered abortifacient in Ghana. This study aimed to compare the socio-demographic characteristics and clinical complications associated with misoprostol and non-misoprostol induced abortions among patients admitted to a tertiary public health facility in Ghana. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted at the gynaecological ward of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), over a four-month period using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analysed using Chi-square, Fisher’s exact and student t-tests. Factors associated with severe morbidity were examined using Poisson regression with robust error variance to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Overall, 126 misoprostol users and 126 misoprostol non-users were recruited into the study. About 71% of the clients had self-induced abortions. Misoprostol users were more likely to be younger (p < 0.001), single (p < 0.001), nulliparous (p = 0.001), of higher educational background (p = 0.001), and unemployed (p < 0.001), than misoprostol non-users. Misoprostol users were more likely than non-users to undergo termination of pregnancy because they wanted to continue schooling (p < 0.001) or were not earning regular income to support a family (p = 0.001). Overall, 182 (72.2%) of the women (79.4% misoprostol users vs. 65.1% misoprostol non-users; p = 0.01) suffered severe morbidity. Nulliparous women (adjusted RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.52) and those who had induced abortion after 12 weeks’ gestation (adjusted RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.18-1.57) were at increased risks of experiencing severe morbidity. The association between mode of abortion induction and severe morbidity was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Conclusion Self-induced abortions using misoprostol is a common practice among women in this study; nearly three quarters of them suffered severe morbidity. Nonetheless, severe morbidity among misoprostol users and non-users did not differ significantly but was directly related to the gestational age at which the induced abortions occurred. Health education on the dangers of self-induced abortions and appropriate use of medication abortion could help reduce complications associated with induced abortions in Ghana. PMID:25074294

2014-01-01

306

[Reporting of induced abortions in 1994. A comparison between the data in the Registry of Legally Induced Abortions and the National Patient Registry].  

PubMed

Up to 31st December 1994 all cases of legally induced abortions were notified by the physician responsible for the operation to the National Board of Health and recorded in the Register of Induced Abortions. Following this data, abortion statistics will rely on data concerning induced abortions in the Danish National Patient Register, which includes information based upon the unique personal number of all patients admitted to hospitals. The completeness of the Register of Induced Abortions and the National Patient Register as to induced abortions in 1994 was assessed to evaluate the impact of the change in method of monitoring on trends in the national and regional abortion rate. The complete number of induced abortions was estimated to be the sum of the number recorded in both registers, cases recorded only in the Register of Induced Abortions, cases recorded only in the National Patient Register, and the missing number of registration of induced abortions calculated by capture-recapture methods. Of these 18,429 abortions 96.4% were registered in the National Patient Register and 93.5% in the Register of Induced Abortions. There were some regional variations. In some counties more abortions were registered in the Register of Induced Abortions and in others in the National Patient Register. Considering the change from 1995 in sources of the statistics of induced abortions, analyses of trends in the abortion rate in the early 1990s in Denmark must be evaluated with prudence. PMID:9092143

Krebs, L; Johansen, A M; Helweg-Larsen, K

1997-03-10

307

[I. Induced abortions and spontaneous abortions. Psychopathological aspects apropos of a preliminary sample of 411 requests for pregnancy interruption].  

PubMed

Since 1975 (17th January), abortion is free and legal in France. The authors analyse 411 first cases of women requiring for an abortion (seen over a period of 11 weeks). Most of them are young women, single, many begin their sexual life. Unwanted pregnancy indicates absence of contraception by ignorance, refusal or ambivalence (never used = 184 cases). 105 women used archaic and inefficient contraceptive means. Modern contraceptive means was used by 154 women but ill applied, ill tolerated and/or discarded (pill = 103 cases, I.U.D. = 14, diaphragme = 2, condoms = 35). Unwanted pregnancy and abortion signify failure of contraception. We compare psychologic and psychopathologic features of women requiring repeated induced abortion with those of women suffering of repeated spontaneous abortion and infertility. These women have frequently (same) problems of feminine identity, bad maternal imago, absence of father, unhappy, and conflictive childhood, immature sexuality and personnality. Contradiction between conscious and unconscious wishes create the two opposite situations and intrapsychic conflicts (spontaneous abortion = conscious willing of pregnancy + unconscious rejection of unbearable pregnancy; induced abortion = strong but unconscious wish of pregancy + conscious and volontary rejection of maternity). Psychotherapy should improve sexual and affective life and in both cases. The authors compare infanticide and abortion behaviors, contraceptive means, and psychological problems of doctors who are asked abortion. PMID:1233904

Bourgeois, M; Labrousse, D

1975-07-01

308

An Analysis of Student Choices in Medical Ethical Dilemmas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…

Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman

309

[Abortion in unsafe conditions. Concealment, illegality, corruption and negligence].  

PubMed

"Abortion practiced under conditions of risk" is a phrase used to refer to illegal abortion. The phrase does not highlight the disappearance of risk when legislation changes. Rather, it calls attention to the fact that legal restrictions significantly increase dangers while failing to discourage women determined to terminate pregnancies. The International Planned Parenthood Federation defines abortion under conditions of risk as the use of nonoptimal technology, lack of counseling and services to orient the woman's decision and provide postabortion counseling, and the limitation of freedom to make the decision. The phrase encompasses concealment, illegality, corruption, and negligence. It is designed to impose a reproductive health perspective in response to an unresolved social conflict. Steps have been developed to improve the situation of women undergoing abortion even without a change in its legal status. Such steps include training and purchase of equipment for treatment of incomplete abortions and development of counseling and family planning services. The central difficulty of abortion induced in conditions of risk derives from the laws imposing the need for secrecy. In Mexico, the abortion decision belongs to the government and the society, while individual absorb the consequences of the practice of abortion. Public decision making about abortion is dominated by the concept that the female has an obligation to carry any pregnancy to term. Women who interfere with male descendency and practice a sexuality distinct from reproduction are made to pay a price in health and emotional balance. Resolution of the problem of abortion will require new concepts in terms of legal status, public health issues, and the rights of women. The problem becomes more pressing as abortion becomes more common in a country anxious to advance in the demographic transition. Only a commitment to the reproductive health of women and the full development of their rights as citizens will permit a favorable outcome to the problem. PMID:12158053

Ortiz Ortega, A

1993-01-01

310

[Myocardial infarction during post-abortion DIC].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 40 year old woman admitted for dilatation and curettage at 12 weeks of amenorrhoea with post-abortion partial placental retention. Clinically she had developed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) complicated by an acute coronary syndrome with persistent ST elevation in the inferior leads. Management of her myocardial ischaemia was symptomatic, due to the underlying complex coagulation disorder making coronary reperfusion techniques impossible. After treatment for the cause of DIC, coronary angiography revealed no detectable angiographic lesion or spasm. In this context, the most likely aetiological hypothesis is a thrombus related to the DIC in an otherwise healthy heart, which was spontaneously lysed. PMID:16555703

Bonello, L; Fourcade, L; Com, O; Quilici, J; Bonnet, J L

2006-02-01

311

After-birth abortion: the intuition argument.  

PubMed

The argument advanced by Giubilini and Minerva is an important one, but it suffers from some shortcomings. I briefly criticise their reasoning and method and argue that after birth abortion should be limited largely to infants with disabilities. My argument is based not on solid scientific evidence or cold rational reasoning but on intuition, something that has long been discounted as irrelevant in biomedical discourse. I end with a recommendation to all of us: in order to make a change, one should not only choose one's battles, but also one's weapon and mode of attack. PMID:23637457

Lederman, Zohar

2013-05-01

312

Midtrimester medical termination of pregnancy: a review of 1002 consecutive cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the effectiveness, safety and factors that affected the outcome of midtrimester medical termination of pregnancy at 13–21 weeks gestation. Of the 1002 women, 3 took mifepristone and decided to continue with the pregnancy, with 999 women being compliant with the regimen. Of these, 2 women aborted prior to administration of misoprostol and 970 (97.1%) aborted successfully within five

P. W. Ashok; A. Templeton; P. T. Wagaarachchi; G. M. M. Flett

2004-01-01

313

Context and Conscience: Public Attitudes Toward Abortion in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, abortion has become a salient issue in Mexican politics. In this study, we intend to use data from the World Values Surveys to acertain the correlates of attitudes toward abortion among Mexican mass publics. We will examine the effects of attitudinal variables (respect for life, attitudes toward sexual morality, feminism, ideology), religious variables (Catholicism, doctrinal orthodoxy, church

John Tuman; Danielle Roth-Johnson; Ted Jelen

314

Plasma diamine oxidase levels in pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma diamine oxidase levels were assayed in 66 patients who presented with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. Levels within the normal range were associated with continuing pregnancies, whereas levels below the normal range were associated with subsequent abortion. Among those patients in whom gestation was greater than eight weeks, 66.6% of diamine oxidase levels correctly predicted the pregnancy outcome. Assay

M Legge; G B Duff

1981-01-01

315

Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access  

MedlinePLUS

... United States: Incidence and access to services, 2005. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 40(1), 2008. 14 Guttmacher Institute. Bans on “partial-birth” abortions. State Policies in Brief, 2008. 15 Gostin LO. Abortion politics: Clinical freedom, trust in the Judiciary, and the ...

316

Day of Launch Profile Selection for Pad Abort Guidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A day of launch selection approach that involves choosing from an array of pitch profiles of varying loft was analyzed with the purpose of reducing the risk of a land landing failure during a pad abort. It was determined that selecting from three pitch profiles can reduce the number of waterline abort performance requirement failures approximately in half without compromising other performance metrics.

Whitley, Ryan J.

2010-01-01

317

Selective Seed Abortion Increases Offspring Survival in Cynoglossum officinale (Boraginaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective embryo abortion is one of the evolutionary explanations for the surplus of ovules found in many plant species. To manipulate the level of embryo abortion, we removed ovules and applied nutrients to plants of Cynoglossum officinale(Boraginaceae) after they started to flower. From these two treatments and a control series, seeds were collected, germinated, and transplanted in the field to

Chantal Melser; Peter G. L. Klinkhamer

2001-01-01

318

Mourning and Guilt among Greek Women Having Repeated Abortions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted clinical study concerning bereavement process of Greek women after abortion. Found strong identificatory tendencies on both mother and father images. Argues that, in cases of repeated abortion, mourning and guilt do not only refer to murdered and lost "person-fetus" but principally to death and loss of object of ambiguous desire.…

Naziri, D.; Tzavaras, A.

1993-01-01

319

The Prevalence of Positive Serum Anticardiolipin Antibodies and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Women with Recurrent Abortions  

PubMed Central

Objective The asymptomatic colonization of the urinary tract in pregnant women may result in severe medical and obstetric complications. The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in cases of elevated levels of the anticardiolipin antibody in women who experience spontaneous abortions. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 women were enrolled in this case control study, including 60 patients with a history of three or more abortions and 60 healthy pregnant women. All participants were screened for ACL (IgG) and with a urine culture. Results: Overall, 19 (31.7%) patients and seven (11.7%) healthy pregnant women were positive for ACL. The mean concentrations were 67.1±27.2 IU/mL in the patients and 17.41±6.12 IU/mL in the healthy controls (p?0.05). In the 60 patients, only 17 (28.3%) had significant bacteriuria, whereas 5 (8.3%) women in the control group had significant bacteriuria. The statistical analysis revealed a highly significant difference. Of the 19 patients with a positive elevation of ACL, 11 (57.9%) had significant bacteriuria, and eight (42.1%) had non-significant bacteriuria. Six patients had ACL-negative results associated with significant bacteriuria. The statistical analysis revealed a highly significant difference. Conclusion: A high serum anticardiolipin level was prevalent in women who experienced recurrent abortions associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

Yaseen Al-khayat, Zakarea Abdullah; Waheda, Nabeel Elia; Shaker, Nabaz Faisal

2013-01-01

320

Conscientious objection and induced abortion in Europe.  

PubMed

The issue of conscientious objection (CO) arises in healthcare when doctors and nurses refuse to have any involvement in the provision of treatment of certain patients due to their religious or moral beliefs. Most commonly CO is invoked when it comes to induced abortion. Of the EU member states where induced abortion is legal, invoking CO is granted by law in 21 countries. The same applies to the non-EU countries Norway and Switzerland. CO is not legally granted in the EU member states Sweden, Finland, Bulgaria and the Czech Republic. The Icelandic legislation provides no right to CO either. European examples prove that the recommendation that CO should not prevent women from accessing services fails in a number of cases. CO puts women in an unequal position depending on their place of residence, socio-economic status and income. CO should not be presented as a question that relates only to health professionals and their rights. CO mainly concerns women as it has very real consequences for their reproductive health and rights. European countries should assess the laws governing CO and its effects on women's rights. CO should not be used as a subtle method for limiting the legal right to healthcare. PMID:23848269

Heino, Anna; Gissler, Mika; Apter, Dan; Fiala, Christian

2013-08-01

321

A demand function for the New York City abortion market.  

PubMed

The 1970 abortion law in New York State made abortion on request legal. A sudden increase in demand for abortions was anticipated. In order to plan for the development of free-standing abortion clinics in New York City to meet this anticipated demand, the nature of their demand function was calculated. The clients of these free-standing clinics were mainly white, high-income women from outside New York City. Surprisingly enough, given the urgency of need situation of many of the prospective clients, the demand was found to be highly elastic. In other words, higher prices caused a lowering of demand for the abortion services. It is assumed that alternative services were used instead. PMID:12309937

Lackman, C L

1979-01-01

322

Use of psychotropic drugs before pregnancy and the risk for induced abortion: population-based register-data from Finland 1996-2006  

PubMed Central

Background Some, though not all studies have reported an increased risk for mental health problems after an induced abortion. Problems with design and data have compromised these studies and the generalisation of their results. Methods The Finnish Medication and Pregnancy database (N = 622 671 births and 114 518 induced abortions for other than fetal reasons) in 1996-2006 was utilised to study the use of psychotropic drugs in the three months before a pregnancy ending in a birth or an induced abortion. Results In total 2.1% of women with a birth and 5.1% of women with an induced abortion had used a psychotropic medicine 0-3 months before pregnancy. Psychotropic drug users terminated their pregnancies (30.9%) more often than other pregnant women (15.5%). Adjustment for background characteristics explained one third of this elevated risk, but the risk remained significantly increased among users of psychotropic medicine (OR 1.94, 95% confidence intervals 1.87-2.02). A similar risk was found for first pregnancies (30.1% vs. 18.9%; adjusted OR 1.53, 95% confidence intervals 1.42-1.65). The rate for terminating pregnancy was the highest for women using hypnotics and sedatives (35.6% for all pregnancies and 29.1% for first pregnancies), followed by antipsychotics (33.9% and 36.0%) and antidepressants (32.0% and 32.1%). Conclusions The observed increased risk for induced abortion among women with psychotropic medication highlighs the importance to acknowledge the mental health needs of women seeking an induced abortion. Further studies are needed to establish the impact of pre-existing differences in mental health on mental health outcomes of induced abortions compared to outcomes of pregnancies ending in a birth. PMID:20591182

2010-01-01

323

Use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth: population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion or stillbirth. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Register based study in Denmark, 1997-2008. Participants 983?305 pregnancies identified in the Danish medical birth register and the Danish national hospital discharge register from 1 February 1997 to 31 December 2008 were linked to the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics to obtain information on use of antiepileptic drugs. Main outcome measures Risk ratio of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth after use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy, estimated by using binomial regression adjusting for potential confounders of maternal age, cohabitation, income, education, history of severe mental disorder, and history of drug misuse. Results Antiepileptic drugs were used in a total of 4700 (0.5%) pregnancies. 16 out of 100 pregnant women using antiepileptics and 13 out of 100 pregnant women not using antiepileptics experienced a spontaneous abortion. After adjusting for potential confounders pregnant women using antiepileptics had a 13% higher risk of spontaneous abortions than pregnant women not using antiepileptics (adjusted risk ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.24). However, the risk of spontaneous abortion was not increased in women with an epilepsy diagnosis (0.98, 0.87 to 1.09), only in women without a diagnosis of epilepsy (1.30, 1.14 to 1.49). In an analysis including women with at least two pregnancies with discordant antiepileptic drug use (for example, use in the first pregnancy but not in the second), the adjusted hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion was 0.83 (0.69 to 1.00) for exposed pregnancies compared with unexposed pregnancies. Stillbirth was identified in 18 women who used antiepileptic drugs (unadjusted risk ratio 1.29, 0.80 to 2.10). Conclusion Among women with epilepsy and when analysing the risk in antiepileptic drug discordant pregnancies in the same woman, we found no overall association between the use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and spontaneous abortions. Therefore unmeasured confounding may explain the slight increased risk for spontaneous abortion with any antiepileptic drug use (among women both with and without epilepsy). We found no association between antiepileptic drug use during pregnancy and stillbirth, but the statistical precision was low. PMID:25150301

Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Howards, Penelope P; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Vestergaard, Mogens; Christensen, Jakob

2014-01-01

324

The effectiveness of neuroendoscopic versus non-neuroendoscopic procedures in the treatment of lateral ventricular cysts: a retrospective medical record review study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of neuroendoscopy compared with non-neuroendoscopic procedures for treating patients with arachnoid membrane cysts in the lateral ventricles. Methods The medical records of 28 patients with arachnoid membrane cysts in the lateral ventricles who were treated with neuroendoscopy and 39 such patients treated with non-neuroendoscopic techniques using classic treatment procedures were reviewed. The neuroendoscopic approach combined craniotomy, corticectomy, lesion resection and cyst ventriculostomy or cyst cisternostomy to restore normal cerebrospinal fluid circulation. The non-neuroendoscopic techniques included craniotomy, corticectomy, and lesion resection performed under a microscope. Clinical outcomes of symptoms and cyst size change on imaging were compared between the two treatment groups during follow-up (range: 1–5 years). Results Patients in the neuroendoscopy group had significantly less blood loss (P?procedures in treating patients with arachnoid cysts in the lateral ventricles. PMID:23763938

2013-01-01

325

Effectiveness of Family Planning Policies: The Abortion Paradox  

PubMed Central

Objective The relation between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion remains a topic of heated debate. Many of the contradictions are likely due to the fact that abortion is the end point of a process that starts with sexual activity, contraceptive use (or non-use), followed by unwanted pregnancy, a decision to terminate, and access to abortion. Trends in abortion rates reflect changes in each step of this process, and opposing trends may cancel each other out. This paper aims to investigate the roles played by the dissemination of contraception and the evolving norms of motherhood on changes in abortion rates. Methods Drawing data from six national probability surveys that explored contraception and pregnancy wantedness in France from 1978 through 2010, we used multivariate linear regression to explore the associations between trends in contraceptive rates and trends in (i) abortion rates, (ii) unwanted pregnancy rates, (iii) and unwanted birth rates, and to determine which of these 3 associations was strongest. Findings The association between contraceptive rates and abortion rates over time was weaker than that between contraception rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p?=?0.003). Similarly, the association between contraceptive rates and unwanted birth rates over time was weaker than that between contraceptive rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p?=?0.000). PMID:24670784

Bajos, Nathalie; Le Guen, Mireille; Bohet, Aline; Panjo, Henri; Moreau, Caroline

2014-01-01

326

Space shuttle (ATP configuration) abort staging investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel test conducted in a 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel to determine the force and moment characteristics of the ATP Orbiter and modified ATP External Tank/SRB combination during abort staging conditions is discussed. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded for the orbiter and ET/SRB combination. Pitch polars were obtained for an angle of attack range from minus 10 to plus 10 degrees and orbiter incidence angles (orbiter relative to the ET/SRB combination) of 0 and 2 degrees. A limited amount of yaw data were obtained at 0 degree angle of attack and beta range from minus 10 to plus 10 degrees. In addition, orbiter pitch control effectiveness was determined at several grid points. These force and moment data were obtained for Mach numbers of 0.9, 1.2 and 2.0.

Rampy, J. M.; Blackwell, K. L.; Allen, E. C., Jr.; Fossler, I.

1973-01-01

327

Spectrum of antibodies to reproductive hormones in threatened abortion.  

PubMed

The spectrum of antibodies to reproductive hormones and the diagnostic significance of their measurements in threatened abortion during trimester I were studied. Enhanced production of antibodies to hormones was detected by ELISA in patients with threatened abortion (N=44) in comparison with women with normal gestation (N=30). These antibodies were detected more often than antiphospholipid antibodies (p<0.05). Antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin (IgM, IgG) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (IgG) were associated with threatened abortion. According to ROC analysis, their measurements were diagnostically significant in this pathology (AUC>0.8). Subclasses IgG1 and IgG2 predominated among IgG to chorionic gonadotropin. Presumably, antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone could serve as independent factors of threatened abortion risk during trimester I. PMID:25348563

Menzhinskaya, I V; Van'ko, L V; Kiryushchenkov, P A; Tambovtseva, M A; Kashentseva, M M; Sukhikh, G T

2014-10-01

328

Incidence of post-abortion psychosis: a prospective study.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-one cunsultant psychiatrists participated in a prospective study of post-abortion psychosis among a population of 1 333 000 people. During the 15-month study only a single case was reported, concerning a woman who had a history of two previous attacks of puerperal psychosis. The incidence of post-abortion psychosis was 0-3 per 1000 legal abortions. The incidence of puerperal psychosis, which was also studied as an index of validity, was 1-7 per 1000 deliveries. This conforms with currently accepted figures and indicates that the study population was representative. I suggest that physiological changes, which are probably more profound after childbirth than after abortion, may be responsible for the higher incidence of puerperal psychosis. PMID:837169

Brewer, C

1977-01-01

329

The spread of 'Post Abortion Syndrome' as social diagnosis.  

PubMed

This paper examines the content of Post Abortion Syndrome (PAS) claims, the social actors involved and how this social diagnosis bypassed professional dissent and diffused into public policy in the United States. Previous works on the spread of PAS focus on almost exclusively on anti-abortion think tanks and policymakers. Missing from these analyses, however, is an emphasis on the grassroots-level actions undertaken by evangelical crisis pregnancy center (CPC) activists in introducing and circulating PAS claims. The CPC movement introduced PAS claims and provided the fodder for anti-abortion think tanks to construct evidence of pro-life claims. Despite dissent from health professionals and academic researchers, CPC PAS claims successfully diffused into federal and state abortion policy. I draw upon Brown et al.'s social diagnosis framework and Armstrong's five-stage model of diagnosis development to frame this account. PMID:24565137

Kelly, Kimberly

2014-02-01

330

Commercial Crew Program: Launch Abort Systems - Duration: 5:36.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's work in the next generation of launch abort systems (LAS) is significantly different from past programs. Instead of designing a specific system for a given spacecraft or rocket, engineers ar...

331

Integrated Flight Performance Analysis of a Launch Abort System Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes initial flight performance analyses conducted early in the Orion Project to support concept feasibility studies for the Crew Exploration Vehicle s Launch Abort System (LAS). Key performance requirements that significantly affect abort capability are presented. These requirements have implications on sizing the Abort Motor, tailoring its thrust profile to meet escape requirements for both launch pad and high drag/high dynamic pressure ascent aborts. Additional performance considerations are provided for the Attitude Control Motor, a key element of the Orion LAS design that eliminates the need for ballast and provides performance robustness over a passive control approach. Finally, performance of the LAS jettison function is discussed, along with implications on Jettison Motor sizing and the timing of the jettison event during a nominal mission. These studies provide an initial understanding of LAS performance that will continue to evolve as the Orion design is matured.

Tartabini, Paul V.

2007-01-01

332

Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival - Duration: 1:48.  

NASA Video Gallery

The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

333

21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine cavity, inflated, and slowly extracted. The extraction of the balloon from the uterus causes dilation of the cervical os. This generic type of device may include pressure sources and pressure controls....

2014-04-01

334

21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to aspirate transcervically the products of conception or menstruation from the uterus by using a cannula connected to a suction source. This device is used for pregnancy termination or menstrual...

2014-04-01

335

21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine cavity, inflated, and slowly extracted. The extraction of the balloon from the uterus causes dilation of the cervical os. This generic type of device may include pressure sources and pressure controls....

2013-04-01

336

21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to aspirate transcervically the products of conception or menstruation from the uterus by using a cannula connected to a suction source. This device is used for pregnancy termination or menstrual...

2013-04-01

337

With everything exposed: cruelty in post-abortion care in Rosario, Argentina.  

PubMed

At the suggestion of a social worker who witnessed abusive post-abortion care at a public hospital in Rosario, Argentina, two human rights NGOs collaborated to investigate women's experiences seeking treatment for abortion complications at area public hospitals. During the year-long enquiry, more than 300 women took part. Role play was successfully used to surmount women's initial reluctance to reveal pervasive discriminatory and humiliating mistreatment. Thirty-one women later gave personal testimonies about their experiences, which were contained in the report of the research and later dramatised in a public meeting and video. The report, Con Todo al Aire (With Everything Exposed), was disseminated widely, including to the media, and a formal complaint was made to the local Ombudsman, who called for high-level action to resolve the problems. Initial denial by some health professionals that there was a serious problem was replaced by critical self-assessment within the provincial government, hospitals and medical and nursing schools, who made commitments to reform hospital practices and the medical school curriculum. Women participants also gained an understanding of their right to appropriate and humane health care. The findings from Rosario are not isolated. They are now being shored with activists and researchers in other provinces of Argentina and other countries. PMID:15938156

Steele, Cynthia; Chiarotti, Susana

2004-11-01

338

Hobi-Like Pestivirus in Aborted Bovine Fetuses  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivirus control/eradication programs in cattle herds. PMID:22162547

Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

2012-01-01

339

[Aspergillus terreus as a cause of mycotic abortion in cows].  

PubMed

The fungus Aspergillus terreus Thom et Church was subjected to microscopic and cultivation study in the organs of an aborted foetus and was demonstrated to be the causative agent of abortion in cattle. The culture of the isolated organism is described and brief data reporting on its ecology are presented. Attention is drawn to the probable source of infection and to the insufficiently known aspects of the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:6782741

Adámková, A; Otcenásek, M; Lávicka, M

1981-01-01

340

"After birth" abortion: a biomedical and conceptual nonsense.  

PubMed

Recently, two authors suggested that killing a healthy newborn might be morally permissible, subsuming it under the heading of 'after birth abortion'. Their proposed new definition implies that infanticide should be permitted whenever II trimester abortion for social reasons is. The suggestion stirred public outcry; nonetheless it needs to be analyzed since some 20% of countries allow II trimester abortion for social reasons and 5% do this on demand. A proper delimitation of the definition of "abortion" is thus very important to ensure careful application; for this reason we have attempted a critical analysis of their arguments. In the area of pregnancy termination different moral standards are apparently applied in different countries, but many reasons exist why the equation between II trimester abortion for social reasons and the killing of healthy neonates is to be morally rejected in all cases. The "inversed reification" of the concept of infanticide as a more abstract, euphemistic 'after birth abortion' blurs the fundamental difference between a non-viable fetus and a viable neonate. The best-known and most widely utilized (although illegal) "social reason" for "late abortion" and "infanticide" is a pregnancy with a female fetus or neonate. If infanticide for neonates were to be considered morally permissible, specifically it is this practice that would be applied. And this should be rejected on two levels: conceptual, through a critique of the exclusive use of one specific notion of personhood, and pragmatic through refusal of gender-discriminatory forms of infanticide (the killing of female neonates). In conclusion, having investigated the new concept we have concluded that the term "after birth abortion" is biologically and conceptually nonsensical. PMID:23495749

Benagiano, Giuseppe; Landeweerd, Laurens; Brosens, Ivo

2013-07-01

341

Vatican is lone opponent of world conference's compromises on abortion.  

PubMed

Three years in the making, the draft program of action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development sets nonbinding policy guidelines to contain the world's population at 7.27 billion in 2015. Although the Vatican was pleased to see Pakistan put forward a compromise formula developed to appease Catholic and Muslim objectors of abortion, the Church was unprepared to accept the compromise immediately and requested further discussion. The Vatican's rejection drew a strong chorus of vocal disapproval from other conference delegates. Even Iran accepted the draft as a "perfect text," while Sweden grudgingly accepted it as a "rock-bottom compromise." With no Catholic countries objecting to the compromise, the Vatican stood alone in its refusal to compromise with the rest of the world's leaders and peoples. Germany, speaking for the European Union, warned that enough concessions had already been made. The rationale for Vatican opposition was unclear since the section explicitly rejects abortion as a means of family planning and urges countries to minimize both the incidence of unsafe abortion and abortion overall by improving family planning. Prevention of unwanted pregnancies must be given highest priority and women should have ready access to compassionate counselling, with abortion never promoted as a means of family planning. Moreover, there is no longer a reference to sexual health education, a plea to governments to review their laws and policies on abortion, and a call to consider women's health rather than relying upon criminal codes and punitive measures. Participants said the Vatican objected to a phrase stating that abortions, where legal, should be safe, while the Church representative argued that any suggestion that abortion is safe contradicts church doctrine on the sanctity of life. PMID:12345662

1994-09-01

342

Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

2011-01-01

343

Five-Segment Booster (FSB) Abort to Orbit (ATO) Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Five Segment Booster (FSB) concept has been evolving for a number of years as a means to enhance the overall safety and reliability of the Space Shuttle system by minimizing the need to fly the more challenging Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) abort profiles. The initial evaluation of the FSB concept was conducted in 1996 to determine the feasibility of the FSB in achieving transatlantic abort leading TAL from the pad, thus eliminating the return to launch site (RTLS) abort mode. The initial study was conducted by ATK Thiokol and did show the potential for the FSB to eliminate the RTLS abort mode. Later Rockwell (now Boeing) conducted a similar study utilizing FSB performance characteristics and verified that the FSB could indeed achieve TAL from the pad, thereby eliminating the necessity for the RTLS abort. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the details of the enhancements achieved through the internally funded study conducted by Boeing and ATK Thiokol. To better understand the enhancements that were addressed as part of this follow-on study, some background on what was achieved in the Phase A study is appropriate.

Tobias, Mark; Sauvageau, Donald R.; Hines, Mark; Geiser, Norman L.; Cash, Steve (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

344

Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.  

PubMed

This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. PMID:25555764

Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

2014-11-01

345

Refractory status epilepticus due to acute hepatic porphyria in a pregnant woman: induced abortion as the sole therapeutic option?  

PubMed

A 22-years old, 55 kg female patient in the twelfth week of pregnancy developed neuropsychiatric syndromes and in the following status epilepticus. Raised porphyrines and porphyrine precursors were found in the patient's urine. Despite intravenous glucose infusions and appropriate medication no reduction in seizure-frequency and neuropsychiatric syndromes was observed. An abortion was induced. After the interruption and starting of haem arginate therapy, seizure activity stopped and porphyrine precursors returned to normal levels, and after 6 weeks the patient was discharged in excellent clinical condition. This report describes a status epilepticus caused by acute hepatic porphyria, triggered by pregnancy, in a 22-years old woman. To our knowledge this is the first report of induced abortion as successful treatment in acute hepatic porphyria induced status epilepticus. PMID:15469454

Engelhardt, K; Trinka, E; Franz, G; Unterberger, I; Spiegel, M; Beer, R; Pfausler, B; Kampfl, A; Schmutzhard, E

2004-10-01

346

Small-area variations in utilization of abortion services in Ontario from 1985 to 1992.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess interregional differences in the utilization of abortion services in Ontario from 1985 to 1992. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of provincial therapeutic abortion database. SETTING: All hospitals conducting abortions between 1985 and 1992 and all free-standing abortion clinics conducting abortions between 1990 and 1992. POPULATION: All women in Ontario aged 15 to 44 years who underwent a therapeutic abortion in Ontario during the study period. OUTCOME MEASURES: Utilization of abortion services by county and age-specific abortion rates by county of residence. RESULTS: From 1985 to 1989, when only hospital data were gathered, the mean therapeutic abortion rate increased by 11.2%. From 1990 to 1992, when data from hospitals and free-standing clinics were collected, the mean rate increased by 26.5%. Logistic regression analysis showed significant variation in the age-standardized abortion rates between counties in each study year (p < 0.0001). The counties with age-standardized rates below the 25th percentile had the highest proportions of women who sought abortion services outside their county of residence; in some of these counties no abortions were performed in local facilities. CONCLUSION: There are interregional variations in the utilization of abortion services in Ontario. These disparities raise questions about the accessibility of abortion services and need to be further investigated. PMID:7773896

Ferris, L E; McMain-Klein, M

1995-01-01

347

[Sexual violence in Congo-Kinshasa: necessity of decriminalizing abortion].  

PubMed

The sexual violence's committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are from their scales and consequences on women, real public health, politico-legal, and socio-economical challenges. More than a million of women have been victims of sexual violence on a period of less than fifteen years. Systematic rapes of women were used as war weapon by different groups involved in the Congolese war. Sexual violence against women has impacted public health by spreading sexually transmissible diseases including HIV/AIDS, causing unwanted pregnancies, leading to the gynaecological complications of rape-related injuries, and inflicting psychological trauma on the victims. Despite high level of unwanted pregnancies observed, the Congolese law is very restrictive and interdict induced abortion. This paper presents three arguments which plead in favour of legalizing abortion in DRC: 1) a restrictive law on abortion forces women to use unsafe abortion and increase incidence of injuries and maternal mortality ; 2) DRC has ratified the universal Declaration of human rights, the African union charter, and has than to promote equality between sexes, in this is included women reproductive rights; 3) an unwanted birth is an additional financial charge for a woman, a factor increasing poverty and psychologically unacceptable in case of rape. From the politico-legal point of view, ending rape impunity and decriminalizing abortion are recommended. Decriminalizing abortion give women choice and save victims and pregnant women from risks related to the pregnancy, a childbirth, or an eventual unsafe abortion. These risks increase the maternal mortality already high in DRC (between 950 and 3000 for 100000 live births). PMID:23167138

Kalonda, J C Omba

2012-01-01

348

Exploring abortion knowledge and opinion among lawyers, an important yet overlooked stakeholder group in Mexico.  

PubMed

Lawyers are important actors shaping the abortion debate in Mexico. Of 250 private and public sector criminal lawyers surveyed from four regions, the majority knew about abortion laws in their states. At least 80% agreed with abortion in cases of rape, risk to a woman's life or health, and fetal malformations. Overall, 61% agreed with the Mexico City law and 84% would defend a woman denied a legal abortion. In multivariate analysis, being very knowledgeable of abortion laws was a significant predictor of more "progressive" abortion opinions, support for the Mexico City law, and support for the health indication. PMID:23066966

Wilson, Kate S; Garcia, Sandra G; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; McMurtrie, Stephanie M; Valencia, Jorge Armando; Diaz de Leon, Fernanda; Sanchez Fuentes, Maria Luisa

2012-01-01

349

Open Tracheostomy after Aborted Percutaneous Approach due to Tracheoscopy Revealing Occult Tracheal Wall Ulcer  

PubMed Central

Tracheostomy is a common procedure for intensive care patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. In this case report, we describe a 78-year-old female patient admitted for an aneurysm of the cerebral anterior communicating artery. Following immediate endovascular coiling, she remained ventilated and was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit. On postoperative day ten, a percutaneous tracheostomy (PCT) was requested; however, a large ulcer or possible tracheoesophageal fistula was identified on the posterior tracheal wall following bronchoscopic assessment of the trachea. Therefore, the requested PCT procedure was aborted. An open tracheostomy in the operating room was completed; however, due to the position and depth of the ulcer, a reinforced endotracheal tube (ETT) was placed via the tracheostomy. Four days later, the reinforced ETT was replaced with a Shiley distal extended tracheostomy tube to bypass the ulceration. Careful inspection and evaluation of the tracheostomy site before PCT prevented a potentially life-threatening issue in our patient. PMID:23956883

Schweiger, John; Mangar, Devanand; Pullakhandam, Naga; Camporesi, Enrico M.

2013-01-01

350

Open Tracheostomy after Aborted Percutaneous Approach due to Tracheoscopy Revealing Occult Tracheal Wall Ulcer.  

PubMed

Tracheostomy is a common procedure for intensive care patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. In this case report, we describe a 78-year-old female patient admitted for an aneurysm of the cerebral anterior communicating artery. Following immediate endovascular coiling, she remained ventilated and was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit. On postoperative day ten, a percutaneous tracheostomy (PCT) was requested; however, a large ulcer or possible tracheoesophageal fistula was identified on the posterior tracheal wall following bronchoscopic assessment of the trachea. Therefore, the requested PCT procedure was aborted. An open tracheostomy in the operating room was completed; however, due to the position and depth of the ulcer, a reinforced endotracheal tube (ETT) was placed via the tracheostomy. Four days later, the reinforced ETT was replaced with a Shiley distal extended tracheostomy tube to bypass the ulceration. Careful inspection and evaluation of the tracheostomy site before PCT prevented a potentially life-threatening issue in our patient. PMID:23956883

Schweiger, John; Sprenker, Collin; Mangar, Devanand; Karlnoski, Rachel; Pullakhandam, Naga; Camporesi, Enrico M

2013-01-01

351

The prevalence of posttraumatic stress among women requesting induced abortion  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the prevalence and pattern of traumatic experiences, to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), to identify risk factors for PTSD and PTSS, and to analyse the association of PTSD and PTSS with concomitant anxiety and depressive symptoms in women requesting induced abortion. Methods A Swedish multi-centre study of women requesting an induced abortion. The Screen Questionnaire – Posttraumatic Stress Disorder was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results Of the 1514 respondents, almost half reported traumatic experiences. Lifetime- and point prevalence of PTSD were 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8–8.5) and 4% (95% CI: 3.1–5.2), respectively. The prevalence of PTSS was 23% (95% CI: 21.1–25.4). Women who reported symptoms of anxiety or depression when requesting abortion were more likely to have ongoing PTSD or PTSS. Also single-living women and smokers displayed higher rates of ongoing PTSD. Conclusions Although PTSD is rare among women who request an induced abortion, a relatively high proportion suffers from PTSS. Abortion seeking women with trauma experiences and existing or preexisting mental disorders need more consideration and alertness when counselled for termination. PMID:23978220

2013-01-01

352

Selective seed abortion increases offspring survival in Cynoglossum officinale (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

Selective embryo abortion is one of the evolutionary explanations for the surplus of ovules found in many plant species. To manipulate the level of embryo abortion, we removed ovules and applied nutrients to plants of Cynoglossum officinale (Boraginaceae) after they started to flower. From these two treatments and a control series, seeds were collected, germinated, and transplanted in the field to assess the quality of the resulting offspring. Nutrient addition did not increase the number of seeds per flower significantly. Fewer embryos were aborted in the ovule removal treatment. The seeds produced in the ovule removal treatment had a significantly greater mass and significantly lower survival than the offspring from the control group. This difference in survival indicates that offspring of lower quality are selectively aborted in the control group. Offspring from the nutrient addition treatment survived longer. The offspring of the treatments did not differ significantly from the control group in growth. Simple mathematical calculations, based on the differences in offspring quality that we found, indicate that the selective abortion hypothesis can be an important factor explaining the advantage of the "surplus production" of ovules. PMID:11410467

Melser, C; Klinkhamer, P G

2001-06-01

353

Mid-trimester abortion by extraamniotic Emcredil versus normal saline.  

PubMed

Data is presented for 40 mid-trimester abortions, induced by 0.1% Emcredil (Group 1--20 cases) and normal saline (Group 2--20 cases) by instillation in the extraamniotic space. It was observed that the 2 groups were comparable for age, parity and period of gestation. The mean induction-abortion interval was 18 hours 9 minutes in Group 1 and 19 hours 19 minutes in Group 2. Abortion was complete in 45% and 65% in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. With a cutoff time of 30 hours, there were 3 failures, 1 in Group 1 and 2 in Group 2. The induction-abortion interval was significantly less in the more advanced pregnancies in the saline group. There was no complication in either of the 2 groups. It is hypothesized that normal saline also acts by damage of the decidual cells with liberation of prostaglandins locally. Also since normal saline is a cheap and easily available commodity with no contraindication for its use and no side-effects, it seems to hold a lot of promise for induction of mid-trimester abortion. PMID:2515847

Zauva, B L; Gupta, I; Dhall, G I

1989-08-01

354

Congress agrees to abortion language in some 1996 spending bills; others stall.  

PubMed

Democratic President Bill Clinton on November 19, 1995, signed a temporary spending bill allocating funds to keep the government running through December 15. That was the second continuing resolution to be approved since fiscal year 1996 began October 1. Only two of the thirteen appropriations bills have been finalized. A previous temporary funding measure expired November 13, causing the US government to suspend much of its operations for six days until agreement could be reached with the Republican Congressional leaders. Another continuing resolution will be needed if Congress fails to pass the remaining fiscal year 1996 appropriations by December 15. As this issue of the journal went to press, President Clinton had signed six of the seven spending bills approved by Congress. This report updates recent Congressional action on those and other spending measures affecting reproductive health care issues. The report notes that the recent government spending bill limits abortion coverage for federal employees, but does not restrict advocacy; both houses adopted a truce upon language restricting abortion services at overseas medical facilities; and the foreign appropriations bill was still in limbo over aid to international family planning and population groups. PMID:12346864

1995-11-24

355

Reverse Launch Abort System Parachute Architecture Trade Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study investigated a potential Launch Abort System (LAS) Concept of Operations and abort parachute architecture. The purpose of the study was to look at the concept of jettisoning the LAS tower forward (Reverse LAS or RLAS) into the free-stream flow rather than after reorienting to a heatshield forward orientation. A hypothesized benefit was that due to the compressed timeline the dynamic pressure at main line stretch would be substantially less. This would enable the entry parachutes to be designed and sized based on entry loading conditions rather than the current stressing case of a Pad Abort. Ultimately, concerns about the highly dynamic reorientation of the CM via parachutes, and the additional requirement of a triple bridle attachment for the RLAS parachute system, overshadowed the potential benefits and ended this effort.

Litton, Daniel K.; O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Winski, Richard G.

2011-01-01

356

Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort Controller Performance Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper covers the simulation and evaluation of a controller design for the Crew Module (CM) Launch Abort System (LAS), to measure its ability to meet the abort performance requirements. The controller used in this study is a hybrid design, including features developed by the Government and the Contractor. Testing is done using two separate 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computer simulation implementations of the LAS/CM throughout the ascent trajectory: 1) executing a series of abort simulations along a nominal trajectory for the nominal LAS/CM system; and 2) using a series of Monte Carlo runs with perturbed initial flight conditions and perturbed system parameters. The performance of the controller is evaluated against a set of criteria, which is based upon the current functional requirements of the LAS. Preliminary analysis indicates that the performance of the present controller meets (with the exception of a few cases) the evaluation criteria mentioned above.

Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Raney, David L.

2007-01-01

357

Campylobacter jejuni abortions in two beef cattle herds in Saskatchewan  

PubMed Central

Abortions, accompanied by placental retention and weight loss, occurred during February and March in 19% of 120 and 10% of 108 beef cows and heifers on two neighboring ranches in southern Saskatchewan. A diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni abortion was made based on lesions of necrotizing and suppurative placentitis and fetal bronchopneumonia in association with the culture of large numbers of C. jejuni from placentas and fetal tissues. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated with variable frequency from fecal samples of aborting and healthy cows, and scouring and healthy calves. Campylobacter jejuni serotype 2 (Lior) was isolated from fetal tissues and feces of a scouring calf, whereas C. jejuni serotypes 1, 4, 5 and 99 were isolated from feces of in-contact cattle. We hypothesized that the source and mode of transmission of C. jejuni was fecal contamination of water supplies and feeding grounds by carrier cows or wildlife. PMID:17423586

Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Janzen, Eugene D.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Berry, Catherine; Clark, Edward G.; Haines, Deborah M.

1990-01-01

358

Two challenges to the double effect doctrine: euthanasia and abortion.  

PubMed

The validity of the double effect doctrine is examined in euthanasia and abortion. In these two situations killing is a method of treatment. It is argued that the doctrine cannot apply to the care of the dying. Firstly, doctors are obliged to harm patients in order to do good to them. Secondly, patients should make their own value judgments about being mutilated or killed. Thirdly, there is little intuitive moral difference between direct and indirect killing. Nor can the doctrine apply to abortion. Doctors kill fetuses as a means of treating the mother. They also kill them as an inevitable side effect of other treatment. Drawing a moral distinction between the direct and the indirect killing gives counterintuitive results. It is suggested that pragmatic rules, not ethics, govern practices around euthanasia and cause it to be more restricted than abortion. PMID:11934939

Shaw, A B

2002-04-01

359

The challenges procuring of safe abortion care in Botswana.  

PubMed

Botswana's national healthcare system has experienced substantial investment as a result of a growing economy and stable government, and improvements in quality and access are notable. Despite these advances, women's reproductive health continues to suffer as a result of unsafe abortion. The personal, financial, and health costs of women seeking dangerous illegal terminations, or crossing national borders to procure a legal abortion, are evident. Twenty-one in-depth, qualitative interviews with Batswana were conducted to gain some insight into the factors which make terminating an unwanted pregnancy difficult in Botswana. This small study demonstrates that there are important socio-cultural constraints, in addition to the legal barriers, that make abortion problematic. These constraints are entrenched in the wider issue of women's rights and status in society. PMID:24558781

Smith, Stephanie Samantha

2013-12-01

360

Measuring the impact of health policies using Internet search patterns: the case of abortion  

PubMed Central

Background Internet search patterns have emerged as a novel data source for monitoring infectious disease trends. We propose that these data can also be used more broadly to study the impact of health policies across different regions in a more efficient and timely manner. Methods As a test use case, we studied the relationships between abortion-related search volume, local abortion rates, and local abortion policies available for study. Results Our initial integrative analysis found that, both in the US and internationally, the volume of Internet searches for abortion is inversely proportional to local abortion rates and directly proportional to local restrictions on abortion. Conclusion These findings are consistent with published evidence that local restrictions on abortion lead individuals to seek abortion services outside of their area. Further validation of these methods has the potential to produce a timely, complementary data source for studying the effects of health policies. PMID:20738850

2010-01-01

361

Studies on the mechanisms of abortion induction by Trichosanthin.  

PubMed

Radix trichosanthis, an abortifacient drug of mid-gestation, is extracted from the root tuber of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim, Cucurbitaceae. Its purified effective principle is a basic protein of molecular weight of approximately 18,000 and is named trichosanthin. By authorization it has been proved to be very effective in abortion induction of mid-gestation, particularly effective in curing ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole, and invasive mole, and it has also some therapeutic action on choriocarcinoma. From the analysis of the experimental results on its initial site of action, the morphological and functional injury of trophoblast cells of placenta and of cultures in vitro and the effect on prostaglandin synthesis, the following conclusions are drawn concerning the mechanisms of abortion induction by trichosanthin: (1) Trichosanthin exerts its action directly on the placental trophoblasts and possesses a certain degree of specificity; (2) It selectively causes the necrotic denaturation of the syncytiotrophoblasts of placental villi, which makes fragments of the disintegrated cells clumped in the blood sinus, hence the coagulation of blood and the circulation hindrance, and tissue necrosis over large areas follows. The necrosis of placental villi is the primary response, and circulation hindrance secondary; (3) Structural injuries have been reflected on the impairment of functional activities; the concentrations of HCG and steroid hormones fall rapidly below the threshold values of threatened abortion. Serious structural and functional injuries bring about destructive disturbances on the normal endocrine relationship between the mother and the fetus and on metabolic exchanges. It is further postulated that through certain unknown mechanism the synthesis of prostaglandins increases, uterine contraction is initiated and abortion ensues. In summary, trichosanthin, a plant protein discovered from Chinese medicinal herbs, is a drug effective in abortion induction and against trophoblastic neoplasms. Preliminary elucidation of the mechanisms of abortion induction by trichosanthin has afforded a basis for the clinical application with better efficacy and its possible abortifacient use in early pregnancy and for the discovery of newer cancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:193179

1976-01-01

362

Ki-67 Expression in Hydatidiform Moles and Hydropic Abortions  

PubMed Central

Background Differential diagnosis of hydatidiform moles from non-molar specimens as well as their sub-classification such as complete and partial hydatidiform moles are important for clinical management and accurate risk assessment for persistent gestational trophoblastic disease, but diagnosis based solely on histomorphology suffers from poor interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility. Objectives This study was undertaken to determine whether the expression of Ki-67 protein could differentiate these entities. Materials and Methods We performed Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining in 19 molar (8 partial and 11 complete moles) and 10 non-molar (hydropic abortions) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Ploidy analysis using flow cytometry had confirmed diploidy in hydropic abortions and complete moles and triploidy in partial moles. Results Ki-67 immunoreactivity was assessed in villous cytotrophoblasts, syncytiotrophoblasts and stromal cells. Positive cells were found to be restricted mostly to the villous cytotrophoblasts, while syncytiotrophoblasts showed an absence of immunostaining for Ki-67, and occasional weak nuclear staining was seen in the stromal cells. There was a significant difference in Ki-67 immunoreactivity of cytotrophoblastic cells between hydropic abortions and complete moles (P < 0.001), hydropic abortions and partial moles (P = 0.002) and also between complete and partial moles (P < 0.001). On the other hand, there is significant overlap in the Ki-67 immunoreactivity between complete and partial moles (++ staining category) and between partial moles and hydropic abortions (+ staining category). Conclusions Despite the significant differences , Ki-67 immunostaining could not be helpful in distinguishing molar placentas from hydropic abortions as well as partial from complete hydatidiform moles, because there are considerable overlaps between results in different categories. PMID:24396579

Khooei, Alireza; Atabaki Pasdar, Fatemeh; Fazel, Alireza; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Nikravesh, Mohammad Reza; Khaje Delui, Mohammad; Pourheydar, Bagher

2013-01-01

363

Risk of Spontaneous Abortion among Women Exposed to Polybrominated Biphenyls  

PubMed Central

Accidental contamination of livestock in Michigan in 1973 with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) led to the establishment of a registry of exposed individuals in 1976. At the time of enrollment, serum was collected and analyzed for PBBs and polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs. In 1997, women aged 18 years or older and active in the registry were invited to participate in a telephone interview about their health. Using generalized estimating equations to account for correlated outcomes within the same woman, we assessed the risk of spontaneous abortion among 529 women with 1344 potentially exposed pregnancies. PBB and PCB exposure were not associated with risk of spontaneous abortion after adjusting for maternal age at conception, age at menarche, and prior infertility. Compared to pregnancies with PBB exposure below the limit of detection, those with levels above 2.9 ppb had a non-significant reduced odds of spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR=0.73; 95% CI= 0.47-1.13). Compared to pregnancies with PCB exposure below the limit of detection, those with levels above 6.5 ppb had little difference in risk (adjusted OR=0.91; 95% CI= 0.59-1.41). Maternal age at conception above 34 years was significantly associated with elevated risk of spontaneous abortion (OR=2.46; 95% CI= 1.10-5.49). The effect of prior infertility was of borderline significance (OR=1.52; 95% CI= 0.98-2.38). Older age at menarche was associated with decreased risk of spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.38-0.89, comparing menarche at 12-13 with menarche <12). Our results do not support an association between exposure to PBBs or PCBs and risk of spontaneous abortion. PMID:17239850

Small, Chanley M.; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Terrell, Metrecia; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Tolbert, Paige; Rubin, Carol; Henderson, Alden; Marcus, Michele

2008-01-01

364

Medical Instrumentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the sorts of devices designed by biomedical engineers and the many other engineering specialties that are required in their design of medical diagnostics, therapeutic aids, surgical devices and procedures, and replacement parts. They discuss the special considerations that must be made when dealing with the human body, such as being minimally invasive, biocompatible, keeping sterile, lightweight, corrosion resistant, long lasting and electrically safe. They also explore how "form fits function." Students gain an appreciation for the amazing devices that improve our quality of life. This lesson serves as a starting point for students to begin to ponder how the medical devices in their everyday lives work.

Techtronics Program,

365

Effect of aspirin on bleeding time during elective abortion.  

PubMed

The template bleeding time, indicative of a predictable measure of potential blood loss due to altered platelet function, is unaffected by pregnancy or by the first stage of labor. Two tablets of aspirin (650 mg), but not sodium salicylate or acetaminophen, significantly prolongs the template bleeding time for at least 26 hours after consumption in patients undergoing first or second trimester induced abortion. Patients anticipating induced pregnancy interruption should refrain from any aspirin consumption for at least 26 hours prior to abortion. PMID:934566

Waltman, R; Tricomi, V; Tavakoli, F M

1976-07-01

366

Equine abortion and premature birth associated with Cellulosimicrobium cellulans infection.  

PubMed

During the 2002 and 2003 foaling seasons, Cellulosimicrobium (Cellumonas) cellulans (formerly Oerskovia xanthineolytica) was the principal microorganism isolated from fetal tissues or placentas from cases of equine abortion, premature birth, and term pregnancies. Significant pathologic findings included chronic placentitis and pyogranulomatous pneumonia. In addition, microscopic and macroscopic alterations in the allantochorion from 4 of 7 cases of placentitis were similar to those caused by Crossiella equi and other nocardioform bacteria. This report confirms a causative role of C. cellulans infection in equine abortion. PMID:15305747

Bolin, David C; Donahue, James M; Vickers, Mary L; Giles, Ralph C; Harrison, Lenn; Jackson, Carney; Poonacha, K B; Roberts, John E; Sebastian, Manu M; Sells, Steve E; Tramontin, Robert; Williams, Neil M

2004-07-01

367

Dynamic Modeling of Ascent Abort Scenarios for Crewed Launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the last 30 years, the United States's human space program has been focused on low Earth orbit exploration and operations with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs. After nearly 50 years, the U.S. is again working to return humans beyond Earth orbit. To do so, NASA is developing a new launch vehicle and spacecraft to provide this capability. The launch vehicle is referred to as the Space Launch System (SLS) and the spacecraft is called Orion. The new launch system is being developed with an abort system that will enable the crew to escape launch failures that would otherwise be catastrophic as well as probabilistic design requirements set for probability of loss of crew (LOC) and loss of mission (LOM). In order to optimize the risk associated with designing this new launch system, as well as verifying the associated requirements, NASA has developed a comprehensive Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the integrated ascent phase of the mission that includes the launch vehicle, spacecraft and ground launch facilities. Given the dynamic nature of rocket launches and the potential for things to go wrong, developing a PRA to assess the risk can be a very challenging effort. Prior to launch and after the crew has boarded the spacecraft, the risk exposure time can be on the order of three hours. During this time, events may initiate from either of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, or the ground systems, thus requiring an emergency egress from the spacecraft to a safe ground location or a pad abort via the spacecraft's launch abort system. Following launch, again either the spacecraft or the launch vehicle can initiate the need for the crew to abort the mission and return to the home. Obviously, there are thousands of scenarios whose outcome depends on when the abort is initiated during ascent as to how the abort is performed. This includes modeling the risk associated with explosions and benign system failures that require aborting a spacecraft under very dynamic conditions, particularly in the lower atmosphere, and returning the crew home safely. This paper will provide an overview of the PRA model that has been developed of this new launch system, including some of the challenges that are associated with this effort. Key Words: PRA, space launches, human space program, ascent abort, spacecraft, launch vehicles

Bigler, Mark; Boyer, Roger L.

2015-01-01

368

A suborbital abort guidance scheme for orbital returns to the launch site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A suborbital abort guidance scheme is presented for returning the orbiter vehicle to the launch site in the event of a booster malfunction. The guidance scheme described, referred to as FBGUID, represents a simple closed-form technique to the flyback abort problem. In addition to returning to the launch site, objectives of the formulation are to preclude excessive structural and heating loads. A demonstration of the feasibility of this abort guidance concept is included for a 150-second abort time.

Lacy, W. R.

1971-01-01

369

78,000 women die each year from unsafe abortions worldwide. It is estimated that there are 20 million unsafe abortions per year on a global basis.  

PubMed

At February's Cairo+5 proceedings at the Hague, the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP) called a press conference to discuss changes in abortion laws around the world since the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. According to the director of CRLP's International Program, 9 countries have modified their abortion laws since Cairo. Of those, 7 liberalized their laws, while Poland and El Salvador further restricted legislation. The CRLP supports the liberalization of abortion laws for all women in all countries. Abortion law has been liberalized in South Africa since Cairo, with the enactment in 1997 of the Termination of Pregnancy Act. In contrast, however, anti-choice groups in Poland successfully challenged the legality of abortion in 1996 by declaring it against the Polish Constitution. Abortion is prohibited in Chile in all circumstances, even to save the life of the woman. However, despite the illegality of abortion in that country, half of all pregnancies in Chile end in abortion. Unsafe abortion contributes to the 50% maternal mortality rate in Nepal. Abortion in the country is punishable by a 20-year prison sentence, regardless of the age of the woman. PMID:12294838

Becker, B

1999-03-01

370

Reasons for ineffective pre-pregnancy contraception use in patients seeking abortion services  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to better understand reasons for not obtaining desired contraception among women presenting for a pregnancy termination. Study design A survey was completed by women prior to having an abortion procedure. Reasons for lack of access were categorized as institutional, individual and compliance issues. Descriptive statistics were calculated and variables compared using chi-square tests. Results Participants (n=298) ranged in age from 18–48 years. One third reported contraceptive use prior to pregnancy (37%). Approximately 72% of women reported some reason for not obtaining desired contraception, while 34% reported 2 or more. The distribution of reported individual, institutional, and compliance reasons were 44%, 28%, and 24%, respectively. Report of at least one reason was associated with a 35% increase in non-use (RR=1.35, 95% CI 1.02–1.80) after adjusting for age, race, education, parity and prior abortion. Conclusions Many reasons for not obtaining desired contraception exist and are associated with non-use of contraception. Removing these reasons may help reduce unintended pregnancies and rates of pregnancy termination. PMID:19913152

Homco, Juell B.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.; Secura, Gina M.; Lewis, Vanessa A.; Allsworth, Jenifer E.

2011-01-01

371

Motion management within two respiratory-gating windows: feasibility study of dual quasi-breath-hold technique in gated medical procedures.  

PubMed

A dual quasi-breath-hold (DQBH) technique is proposed for respiratory motion management (a hybrid technique combining breathing-guidance with breath-hold task in the middle). The aim of this study is to test a hypothesis that the DQBH biofeedback system improves both the capability of motion management and delivery efficiency. Fifteen healthy human subjects were recruited for two respiratory motion measurements (free breathing and DQBH biofeedback breathing for 15?min). In this study, the DQBH biofeedback system utilized the abdominal position obtained using an real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) to audio-visually guide a human subject for 4?s breath-hold at EOI and 90% EOE (EOE90%) to improve delivery efficiency. We investigated the residual respiratory motion and the delivery efficiency (duty-cycle) of abdominal displacement within the gating window. The improvement of the abdominal motion reproducibility was evaluated in terms of cycle-to-cycle displacement variability, respiratory period and baseline drift. The DQBH biofeedback system improved the abdominal motion management capability compared to that with free breathing. With a phase based gating (mean ± std: 55? ± ?5%), the averaged root mean square error (RMSE) of the abdominal displacement in the dual-gating windows decreased from 2.26?mm of free breathing to 1.16?mm of DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.007). The averaged RMSE of abdominal displacement over the entire respiratory cycles reduced from 2.23?mm of free breathing to 1.39?mm of DQBH biofeedback breathing in the dual-gating windows (p-value = 0.028). The averaged baseline drift dropped from 0.9?mm?min(-1) with free breathing to 0.09?mm?min(-1) with DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.048). The averaged duty-cycle with an 1?mm width of displacement bound increased from 15% of free breathing to 26% of DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.003). The study demonstrated that the DQBH biofeedback system has the potential to significantly reduce the residual respiratory motion with the improved duty cycle during the respiratory gating procedure. PMID:25321091

Kim, Taeho; Kim, Siyong; Park, Yang-Kyun; Youn, Kaylin K; Keall, Paul; Lee, Rena

2014-11-01

372

Exploring Abortion Knowledge and Opinion Among Lawyers, an Important yet Overlooked Stakeholder Group in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawyers are important actors shaping the abortion debate in Mexico. Of 250 private and public sector criminal lawyers surveyed from four regions, the majority knew about abortion laws in their states. At least 80% agreed with abortion in cases of rape, risk to a woman's life or health, and fetal malformations. Overall, 61% agreed with the Mexico City law and

Kate S. Wilson; Sandra G. García; Claudia Díaz Olavarrieta; Stephanie M. McMurtrie; Jorge Armando Valencia; Fernanda Diaz de Leon; Maria Luisa Sanche Fuentes

2011-01-01

373

Reduction of the abortion rate due to Toxoplasma in 3 goat herds following administration of sulfadimidine  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of sulfadimidine (4 doses of 33 mg/kg body weight, IM, q48h) against Toxoplasma abortion was assessed in 3 dairy goat herds suffering from Toxoplasma abortions during the 4th month of gestation. This protocol was very effective for the control of Toxoplasma abortions (P < 0.01). PMID:24179245

Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Lafi, Shawkat Q.; Ioannidou, Evi; Papadopoulos, Elias; Terpsidis, Konstantinos; Karanikolas, George; Petridou, Evanthia J.; Brozos, Christos; Karatzias, Harilaos

2013-01-01

374

Choices on contraceptive methods in post-abortion family planning clinic in the northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Brazil, a Ministry of Health report revealed women who underwent an abortion were predominantly in the use of contraceptive methods, but mentioned inconsistent or erroneously contraceptive use. Promoting the use of contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies is one of the most effective strategies to reduce abortion rates and maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, providing post-abortion family planning

Ana Laura CG Ferreira; Ariani I Souza; Raitza A Lima; Cynthia Braga

2010-01-01

375

Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... Register About Us Contact Us My Cart Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to ... Dating Violence Affects Health Later in Life Healthy Children Radio: Improving Kids' Health and Behavior in 2012 (Audio) Infant CPR ... Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young ...

376

Post-Abortion Counseling: Helping To Heal the Grief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A university health center has experienced an increase in the number of women undergoing elective abortion which resulted in their seeking counseling services to assist them in dealing with overwhelming feelings of guilt and grief. The loss of a pregnancy is often followed by a typical grief reaction that occurs after any bereavement. In working…

Tentoni, Stuart C.

377

Post-abortion endometritis-myometritis and HIV infection.  

PubMed

The objective was to explore if HIV-1 infection is a risk factor for post-abortion endometritis-myometritis (PAEM) in an urban hospital in Kampala, Uganda. HIV-1 seroprevalence in women with and without post-abortion infection was established using two standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Fifty-two women with PAEM and 106 without PAEM infection were recruited. The HIV-1 seroprevalence was 17 (32.7%) among women with PAEM and 38 (36.5%) among women without post-abortion infection. HIV infection was not found to correlate with the risk for PAEM. HIV-1 seroprevalence in both groups was double that among antenatal clients in the same hospital, 14.6% in 1997. Life-threatening infections such as septicaemia, peritonitis and pelvic abscesses were observed among 12 cases (23%). HIV-1 infection was not shown to be a risk factor for PAEM, but women with abortions with and without PAEM have a higher prevalence of HIV-1 than antenatal clients. PMID:12437891

Okong, P; Biryahwaho, B; Bergström, S

2002-11-01

378

The Effect of Poisonous Range Plants on Abortions in Livestock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Natural toxins from plants and fungi, in addition to man-made toxicants, have been implicated with abortion, embryonic death, or neonatal loss in livestock. Plants causing reproductive problems for livestock can be found on most, if not all rangelands worldwide, thus exposing livestock at various t...

379

Social scripts and stark realities: Kenyan adolescents' abortion discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores students' narratives and discourses about adolescent pregnancy and abortion elicited via internet?based open?ended questions posed in response to a cartoon vignette. We report on content analysis of recommendations and strategies for how to manage the unplanned pregnancy of a fictional young couple and in their own personal lives. The responses of 614 young people were analysed. Strategies

Ellen M. H. Mitchell; Carolyn Tucker Halpern; Eva Muthuuri Kamathi; Shirley Owino

2006-01-01

380

A Study of Abortion and Problems in Decision-Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is directed to people who, sufficiently disturbed by complex realities of problem pregnancies, are prepared to think beyond the confines of ideology. It is a challenge to people who tend to reduce the problem of unwanted pregnancies either to "abortion on demand" or to "right to life" ideologies. (Author)

Cotroneo, Margaret; Krasner, Barbara R.

1977-01-01

381

The Russian-U.S. Experience with Development Joint Medical Support Procedures for Before and After Long-Duration Space Flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the Russian Space Agency (RSA) and the U.S. National Aviation and Space Administration (NASA) began in the mid 1990s to plan a preliminary cooperative flight program in anticipation of the International Space Station, programmatic and philosophical differences became apparent in the technical and medical approaches of the two agencies. This paper briefly describes some of these differences and the process by which the two sides resolved differences in their approaches to the medical selection and certification of Shuttle-Mir crew members. These negotiations formed the basis for developing policies on other aspects of the medical support function for international missions, including crew training, preflight and postflight data collection, and rehabilitation protocols. The experience gained through this cooperative effort has been invaluable for developing medical care capabilities for the International Space Station.

Morgun, V. V.; Voronin, L. I.; Kaspransky, R. R.; Pool, S. L.; Barratt, M. R.; Novinkov, O. L.

1999-01-01

382

Potential for violence causing fear among Canadian doctors who perform abortions.  

PubMed Central

The November shooting of a Vancouver physician has caused increased fear among doctors who perform abortions in British Columbia. There is also concern within the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists that the recent violence and ongoing harassment will drive doctors from the abortion field. Some anti-abortion advocates support violence against those who perform abortions but spokespersons for the movement say they represent "fringe" views. One BC anti-abortion coalition now requires people to sign a pledge of nonviolence before participating in its conferences or other events. Images p928-a p930-a PMID:7697583

LeBourdais, E

1995-01-01

383

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.99.01.V0.01 Human Participants in Research  

E-print Network

for TVMDL involving the use of human subjects in research. 2.3 Responsibility for ensuring that all research Services, the Human Subjects Protection Program (HSPP) at the TAMU Office of Research Compliance Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.99.01.V0.01 Human Participants in Research Page 1 of 2 PROCEDURE

384

Where We Stand—CMA Position Papers: • Abortion • Acupuncture • Chiropractic • Confidentiality • Cost of Care • Drug Abuse • Environmental Health • Health Education for the Public • Health in the United States • Health Quackery • Health Maintenance Organizations and Prepaid Health Plans • Health Manpower • National Health Insurance • Physician's Assistants • Physician Unions • Professional Standards Review Organizations • Quality Medical Care  

PubMed Central

To serve the interests of members and to function in the public interest, the California Medical Association must set policies and take positions on current issues affecting the health care of Californians. These policies then guide the activities of the Association in fulfilling its leadership role and its responsibility to the public. Delegates, elected by the membership of CMA's component medical societies, meet annually to deliberate and determine the policies and courses of action for the Association. Between meetings of these Delegates, the CMA Councilors, elected by their district membership, implement the directives of the Delegates and set interim policies. By this democratic process, the membership governs the CMA. Association members must be informed if they are to participate effectively in the affairs of their medical organizations. To disseminate better understanding of CMA's activities, position papers on current issues have been developed. They are based on House of Delegates resolutions and Council actions. Entitled “Where We Stand on Medical and Health Issues,” these papers represent the current policy positions of CMA. Each paper is annotated to give the reference source of the policy actions. As with any organization, CMA policies are subject to timely revision. When policies are amended or new policies are adopted, new papers will be developed. PMID:4148533

1973-01-01

385

28 CFR 549.51 - Approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Plastic Surgery § 549.51 Approval procedures... (a) In circumstances where plastic surgery is a component of the presently medically...the Clinical Director shall forward the surgery request to the Office of Medical...

2011-07-01

386

28 CFR 549.51 - Approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Plastic Surgery § 549.51 Approval procedures... (a) In circumstances where plastic surgery is a component of the presently medically...the Clinical Director shall forward the surgery request to the Office of Medical...

2013-07-01

387

28 CFR 549.51 - Approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Plastic Surgery § 549.51 Approval procedures... (a) In circumstances where plastic surgery is a component of the presently medically...the Clinical Director shall forward the surgery request to the Office of Medical...

2012-07-01

388

28 CFR 549.51 - Approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Plastic Surgery § 549.51 Approval procedures... (a) In circumstances where plastic surgery is a component of the presently medically...the Clinical Director shall forward the surgery request to the Office of Medical...

2014-07-01

389

28 CFR 549.51 - Approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Plastic Surgery § 549.51 Approval procedures... (a) In circumstances where plastic surgery is a component of the presently medically...the Clinical Director shall forward the surgery request to the Office of Medical...

2010-07-01

390

Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis reveals mechanisms of embryo abortion during chrysanthemum cross breeding  

PubMed Central

Embryo abortion is the main cause of failure in chrysanthemum cross breeding, and the genes and proteins associated with embryo abortion are poorly understood. Here, we applied RNA sequencing and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to analyse transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of normal and abortive embryos. More than 68,000 annotated unigenes and 700 proteins were obtained from normal and abortive embryos. Functional analysis showed that 140 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 41 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were involved in embryo abortion. Most DEGs and DEPs associated with cell death, protein degradation, reactive oxygen species scavenging, and stress-response transcriptional factors were significantly up-regulated in abortive embryos relative to normal embryos. In contrast, most genes and proteins related to cell division and expansion, the cytoskeleton, protein synthesis and energy metabolism were significantly down-regulated in abortive embryos. Furthermore, abortive embryos had the highest activity of three executioner caspase-like enzymes. These results indicate that embryo abortion may be related to programmed cell death and the senescence- or death-associated genes or proteins contribute to embryo abortion. This adds to our understanding of embryo abortion and will aid in the cross breeding of chrysanthemum and other crops in the future. PMID:25288482

Zhang, Fengjiao; Wang, Zhiquan; Dong, Wen; Sun, Chunqing; Wang, Haibin; Song, Aiping; He, Lizhong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi; Teng, Nianjun

2014-01-01

391

Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System Guidance and Control Analysis Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. Aborts from the launch pad to early in the flight of the CLV second stage are performed using the Launch Abort System (LAS). During this type of abort, the LAS Abort Motor is used to pull the Crew Module (CM) safely away from the CLV and Service Module (SM). LAS abort guidance and control studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the Orion CEV, an overview of the LAS ascent abort mode, and a summary of key LAS abort analysis methods and results.

Davidson, John B.; Kim, Sungwan; Raney, David L.; Aubuchon, Vanessa V.; Sparks, Dean W.; Busan, Ronald C.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.

2008-01-01

392

Design of Launch Abort System Thrust Profile and Concept of Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes how the Abort Motor thrust profile has been tailored and how optimizing the Concept of Operations on the Launch Abort System (LAS) of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) aides in getting the crew safely away from a failed Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Unlike the passive nature of the Apollo system, the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle will be actively controlled, giving the program a more robust abort system with a higher probability of crew survival for an abort at all points throughout the CLV trajectory. By optimizing the concept of operations and thrust profile the Orion program will be able to take full advantage of the active Orion LAS. Discussion will involve an overview of the development of the abort motor thrust profile and the current abort concept of operations as well as their effects on the performance of LAS aborts. Pad Abort (for performance) and Maximum Drag (for separation from the Launch Vehicle) are the two points that dictate the required thrust and shape of the thrust profile. The results in this paper show that 95% success of all performance requirements is not currently met for Pad Abort. Future improvements to the current parachute sequence and other potential changes will mitigate the current problems, and meet abort performance requirements.

Litton, Daniel; O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Winski, Richard G.; Davidson, John B.

2008-01-01

393

Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic profile and contraceptive behaviour in patients with abortion at Jimma Hospital, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

This is a descriptive prospective study on abortion patients admitted to Jimma Hospital, south west Ethiopia from September 1992 to August 1993. Forty four Percent (N = 285) of the patients admitted were interviewed using a questionnaire. Fifty three percent (N = 151) had induced while the remaining had spontaneous abortion. Patients with induced abortion were younger (P = 0.0000) and had smaller family size (P = 0.06283) than patients with spontaneous abortion. Induced abortion was more common among students (30.9%) and those with secondary education (71.8%) whereas spontaneous abortion was most common among housewives (64.4%). Almost 50% of the patients with induced abortion were married. Eighty two percent of all interviewed had unwanted pregnancies. The contraceptive methods most commonly used were the pill and abstinence. Fifty patients got pregnant while on the pill. The most common reason for not using contraceptives or discontinuation was the side effects associated with the pill. PMID:8997846

Abdella, A

1996-10-01

394

Some epidemiological data on spontaneous abortion in Hungary, 1971-80.  

PubMed Central

A population based survey of women who had spontaneous abortion in Hungary between 1971 and 1980 has been evaluated. Individual data sheets completed by specialists in obstetrical institutions were used. The ratio of spontaneous abortions was 13.1% during the whole period studied but declined during the decade. The maximum occurrence was in the fifth to eighth week of gestation, when more than 40% of all spontaneous abortions occurred. Thereafter spontaneous abortion ratios decreased gradually with duration of pregnancy. The distribution of spontaneous abortions by calendar month shows characteristic seasonal changes, the minimum values being found from April to July whereas the maximum values were from October to February. The spontaneous abortion ratios increased significantly with the age of mother, over age 40 it approached 50%. They also increased with the pregnancy order, a minimum figure being registered at the first pregnancy of women in their 20s. The risk for women with a history of spontaneous abortion was 33%. PMID:6747514

Czeizel, A; Bognár, Z; Rockenbauer, M

1984-01-01

395

Access to Safe Legal Abortion in Malaysia: Women's Insights and Health Sector Response.  

PubMed

Malaysia has an abortion law, which permits termination of pregnancy to save a woman's life and to preserve her physical and mental health (Penal Code Section 312, amended in 1989). However, lack of clear interpretation and understanding of the law results in women facing difficulties in accessing abortion information and services. Some health care providers were unaware of the legalities of abortion in Malaysia and influenced by their personal beliefs with regard to provision of abortion services. Accessibility to safer abortion techniques is also an issue. The development of the 2012 Guidelines on Termination of Pregnancy and Guidelines for Management of Sexual and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Health Clinics by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, is a step forward toward increasing women's accessibility to safe abortion services in Malaysia. This article provides an account of women's accessibility to abortion in Malaysia and the health sector response in addressing the barriers. PMID:25452590

Low, Wah-Yun; Tong, Wen-Ting; Wong, Yut-Lin; Jegasothy, Ravindran; Choong, Sim-Poey

2015-01-01

396

Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Diaminobenzidine (DAB) was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure. Of 27 aborted foetuses, an immunoperoxidase staining reaction was observed in 1 ovine and 5 bovine foetuses. The IHC procedure located BVD/MD viral antigen in a wide variety of foetal tissues including cerebral cortical neurons, the pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells lining the bronchi, alveolar lining cells and alveolar macrophages, hepatocytes, renal tubular lining cells and the Purkinje fibres in the myocardium. PMID:20458863

Njiro, S M; Nkosi, C M

2009-12-01

397

Abortion law in Muslim-majority countries: an overview of the Islamic discourse with policy implications.  

PubMed

Religion plays a significant role in a patient’s bioethical decision to have an abortion as well as in a country’s abortion policy. Nevertheless, a holistic understanding of the Islamic position remains under-researched. This study first conducted a detailed and systematic analysis of Islam’s position towards abortion through examining the most authoritative biblical texts (i.e. the Quran and Sunnah) as well as other informative factors (i.e. contemporary fatwas, Islamic mysticism and broader Islamic principles, interest groups, and transnational Islamic organizations). Although Islamic jurisprudence does not encourage abortion, there is no direct biblical prohibition. Positions on abortion are notably variable, and many religious scholars permit abortion in particular circumstances during specific stages of gestational development. It is generally agreed that the least blameworthy abortion is when the life of the pregnant woman is threatened and when 120 days have not lapsed; however, there is remarkable heterogeneity in regards to other circumstances (e.g. preserving physical or mental health, foetal impairment, rape, or social or economic reasons), and later gestational development of the foetus. This study secondly conducted a cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries. A predominantly conservative approach was found whereby 18 of 47 countries do not allow abortion under any circumstances besides saving the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, there was substantial diversity between countries, and 10 countries allowed abortion ‘on request’. Discursive elements that may enable policy development in Muslim-majority countries as well as future research that may enhance the study of abortion rights are discussed. Particularly, more lenient abortion laws may be achieved through disabusing individuals that the most authoritative texts unambiguously oppose abortion, highlighting more lenient interpretations that exist in certain Islamic legal schools, emphasizing significant actors that support abortion, and being mindful of policy frames that will not be well-received in Muslim-majority countries. PMID:23749735

Shapiro, Gilla K

2014-07-01

398

FDA Targets Risks from Reused Medical Devices  

MedlinePLUS

... Articulos en Espanol FDA Targets Risks From Reused Medical Devices Search the Consumer Updates Section These reusable medical ... how the clinic cleans and disinfects the reusable medical devices used in such procedures. Get Consumer Updates by ...

399

14 CFR 67.413 - Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Medical records. 67.413 Section 67...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 67.413 Medical records. (a) Whenever the...

2011-01-01

400

14 CFR 67.413 - Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Medical records. 67.413 Section 67...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 67.413 Medical records. (a) Whenever the...

2012-01-01

401

14 CFR 67.413 - Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Medical records. 67.413 Section 67...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 67.413 Medical records. (a) Whenever the...

2014-01-01

402

14 CFR 67.413 - Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Medical records. 67.413 Section 67...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 67.413 Medical records. (a) Whenever the...

2013-01-01

403

Post abortion family planning counseling as a tool to increase contraception use  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the impact of the post-abortion family planning counseling in bringing about the contraceptive usage in women who had induced abortion in a family planning clinic. Method The Diyarbakir Office of Turkish Family Planning Association (DTFPA) is a nonprofit and nongovernmental organization which runs a family planning clinic to serve the lower socio-economic populations, in Diyarbakir-Turkey. Post abortion counseling is introduced by using proper communication skills and with using appropriate methods to women. In this study we introduced contraceptive usage of women who had induced abortion one year ago and followed by DTFPA's clinic. Results 55.3% of our clients were not using contraceptive methods before abortion. At the end of the one year, 75.9% of our followed-up clients revealed that they were using one of the modern contraceptive methods. There was no woman with IUD before induced abortion. At the end of one year 124 (52.3%) women had IUD. "A modern method was introduced immediately after abortion" was the most important factor increasing modern method usage. Conclusion Our results advocate that post-abortion counseling may be an effective tool to increase the usage of contraceptives. Improved and more qualified post-abortion family planning counseling should be an integral part of abortion services. PMID:19146657

Ceylan, Ali; Ertem, Meliksah; Saka, Gunay; Akdeniz, Nurten

2009-01-01

404

Orion Guidance and Control Ascent Abort Algorithm Design and Performance Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the ascent flight phase of NASA s Constellation Program, the Ares launch vehicle propels the Orion crew vehicle to an agreed to insertion target. If a failure occurs at any point in time during ascent then a system must be in place to abort the mission and return the crew to a safe landing with a high probability of success. To achieve continuous abort coverage one of two sets of effectors is used. Either the Launch Abort System (LAS), consisting of the Attitude Control Motor (ACM) and the Abort Motor (AM), or the Service Module (SM), consisting of SM Orion Main Engine (OME), Auxiliary (Aux) Jets, and Reaction Control System (RCS) jets, is used. The LAS effectors are used for aborts from liftoff through the first 30 seconds of second stage flight. The SM effectors are used from that point through Main Engine Cutoff (MECO). There are two distinct sets of Guidance and Control (G&C) algorithms that are designed to maximize the performance of these abort effectors. This paper will outline the necessary inputs to the G&C subsystem, the preliminary design of the G&C algorithms, the ability of the algorithms to predict what abort modes are achievable, and the resulting success of the abort system. Abort success will be measured against the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) abort performance metrics and overall performance will be reported. Finally, potential improvements to the G&C design will be discussed.

Proud, Ryan W.; Bendle, John R.; Tedesco, Mark B.; Hart, Jeremy J.

2009-01-01

405

The health profile of football/soccer players in Northern Ireland – a review of the uefa pre-participation medical screening procedure  

PubMed Central

Background It is compulsory that domestic football/soccer teams in UEFA competitions organise players’ pre-participation medicals. Although screening guidelines have been established, these remain controversial. The findings of medical examinations can have lasting consequences for athletes and doctors. No previous studies have reported UEFA pre-participation screening results in semi-professional footballers. This study aims to further knowledge regarding ‘normal’ data in this population. Method Retrospective audit and analysis of records of pre-season medicals for all male first-team players at one semi-professional Northern Ireland Premiership team between 2009-2012. Medicals were conducted by the club doctor following the UEFA proforma. Height, weight, blood pressure (BP), full blood count (FBC), dipstick urinalysis and resting electrocardiogram (ECG) were conducted by an independent nurse. Only one ECG must be documented during a player’s career; other tests are repeated yearly. Results 89 medicals from 47 players (6 goalkeepers, 11 defenders, 22 midfielders and 8 attackers; mean age 25.0 years (SD 4.86)) were reviewed. Mean height of the players was 179.3 cm (SD 5.90) with a mean weight of 77.6 kg (SD 10.5). Of 89 urine dipsticks, 7 were positive for protein; all 7 were normal on repeat testing following 48 hours of rest. Of 40 ECGs (mean ventricular rate 61.2 bpm (SD 11.6)), one was referred to cardiology (right bundle branch block; prolonged Q-T interval). No players were excluded from participation. Conclusions This study provides important information about ‘normal’ values in a population of semi-professional footballers. Urinalysis showing protein is not uncommon but is likely to be normal on repeat testing. PMID:24521343

2014-01-01

406

Magnitude and risk factors of abortion among regular female students in Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Induced abortion is one of the greatest human rights dilemmas of our time. Yet, abortion is a very common experience in every culture and society. According to the World Health Organization, Ethiopia had the fifth largest number of maternal deaths in 2005 and unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. Youth are disproportionately affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the magnitude and identify factors associated with abortion among female Wolaita Sodo University students. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University between May and June 2011. Data were collected from 493 randomly selected female students using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Results The rate of abortion among students was found to be 65 per 1000 women, making it three fold the national rate of abortion for Ethiopia (23/1000 women aged 15–44). Virtually all of the abortions (96.9%) were induced and only half (16) were reported to be safe. Students with history of alcohol use, who are first-year and those enrolled in faculties with no post-Grade 10 Natural Science background had higher risk of abortion than their counterparts. About 23.7% reported sexual experience. Less than half of the respondents (44%) ever heard of emergency contraception and only 35.9% of those who are sexually experienced ever used condom. Conclusions High rate of abortion was detected among female Wolaita Sodo University students and half of the abortions took place/initiated under unsafe circumstances. Knowledge of students on legal and safe abortion services was found to be considerably poor. It is imperative that improved sexual health education, with focus on safe and legal abortion services is rendered and wider availability of Youth Friendly family planning services are realized in Universities and other places where young men and women congregate. PMID:24666926

2014-01-01

407

Theorizing waste in abortion and fetal ovarian tissue use.  

PubMed

This article explores the theoretical implications of the concept of waste as it specifically relates to arguments in favour of fetal ovarian tissue use as a source of donor eggs. The author begins by discussing medico-scientific constructions of women's reproductive bodies as wasteful. The article explores the works of Drucilla Cornell on bodily borders, Julia Kristeva on abjection, and Mary Douglas on pollution to develop a nuanced understanding of the relations between waste, women's reproductivity, and abortion in North American mainstream and medico-scientific cultures. This layered reading of waste and abortion deconstructs a significant assumption of arguments in favour of fetal ovarian tissue use as ethical--that such tissue is just "waste." The author suggests that theorizing waste this way may contribute to ethical analyses of uses of other reproductive materials (that is, embryos) that are supported, in part, by an assumption that those materials would otherwise be "wasted." PMID:16506333

Arris, Rachel

2003-01-01

408

Bill restricts abortion blockades. Clinic violence is target of action.  

PubMed

On November 16, 1993, the US Senate voted approval, by 69 to 30 members, to impose stiff penalties on those obstructing access to abortion clinics. The penalties include up to 1 year in jail and a $100,000 fine for first violent offenses. Obstruction without violence would lead to a fine of $10,000 and 6 months in jail. The legislation was deemed necessary after the murder of a doctor in Florida and the wounding of another doctor in Kansas. Democratic Senator Edward Kennedy said that those who do not obstruct access have nothing to fear. Support came not only from abortion rights advocates, but from those against lawlessness in the pro-life movement. Maryland's Democratic Senators Mikulski and Sarbanes and California's Democratic Senator Barbara Boxes supported the bill, as well as Attorney General Janet Reno and President Clinton. House Speaker Thomas S. Foley announced that the House would consider its version of the bill on November 18, 1993. The original version was changed to reduce fines for nonviolent offenders from $100,000 to $10,000. Opponents argued that the legislation treated peaceful protesters as felons, and was directed in a singular=sided way with no regard to civil disobedience by animal rights activists, antinuclear protesters, and AIDS activists. North Carolina Republican Senator Jesse Helms thought that the Supreme Court would find the bill unconstitutional. Other arguments were that civil disobedience should be allowed for anti-abortion protesters, as it was allowed for civil rights protesters such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Senator Kennedy pointed out the Dr. King was trying to secure a constitutional right, unlike anti-abortion protesters who were trying to deny a constitutional right. PMID:12287159

1993-11-17

409

Hypothyrodisim and spontaneous abortions among Hanford, Washington, downwinders  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous abortions occurred more than twice as frequently in hypothyroid women, compared with nonhypothyroid women. Both groups of women had lived in the same environment during the same period of time. The high incidence of hypothyroidism in a cohort of several hundred women who lived downwind of the Hanford, Washington, nuclear installation was likely associated with environmental contamination from deliberate releases of radioactive iodine from the facility. 8 refs.

Grossman, C.M.; Morton, W.E. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Nussbaum, R.H. [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

1996-05-01

410

Placenta percreta resulting in incomplete spontaneous abortion in first trimester.  

PubMed

Placenta percreta is a rare complication potentially fatal to fetus and the mother. We present here a 41-year-old female patient who underwent curettage for incomplete abortion at 6(th) week of pregnancy. She had persistent vaginal bleeding for 2 months after the curettage, for which she was treated with hysterectomy. Preoperative ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) made the diagnosis of placenta percreta. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed this diagnosis. PMID:25379165

Genc, Mine; Genc, Berhan; Solak, Aynur; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin

2014-10-01

411

Placenta Percreta Resulting in Incomplete Spontaneous Abortion in First Trimester  

PubMed Central

Placenta percreta is a rare complication potentially fatal to fetus and the mother. We present here a 41-year-old female patient who underwent curettage for incomplete abortion at 6th week of pregnancy. She had persistent vaginal bleeding for 2 months after the curettage, for which she was treated with hysterectomy. Preoperative ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) made the diagnosis of placenta percreta. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed this diagnosis. PMID:25379165

Genc, Mine; Genc, Berhan; Solak, Aynur; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin

2014-01-01

412

Post-abortion contraception: care and practices1  

PubMed Central

Objective to analyze assistance regarding contraception methods received by women during hospitalization due to abortion, and contraceptive practices the month after this episode. Methods a longitudinal study of women hospitalized due to abortion in a public hospital in the city of São Paulo. Face-to-face interviews (n=170) followed by telephone interviews in the subsequent month (n=147) were conducted between May and December of 2011. Results a small number of women reported they received guidance on, and prescription for, contraceptive methods at hospital discharge. A trend of statistical significance was identified for prescription of contraceptive methods at discharge and its use in the following month, when adjusted for age. Most women reported sexual intercourse (69.4%) with the use of contraceptive method (82.4%), but no health professional guidance (63.1%). Conclusion despite the fact that post-abortion contraception assistance was lower than the recommended guidelines by public health policies, women demonstrated willingness to use contraceptive methods.

Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Monteiro, Renata Luciria; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Chofakian, Christiane Borges do Nascimento; dos Santos, Osmara Alves

2014-01-01

413

A case of equine abortion caused by Encephalitozoon sp.  

PubMed

A Lippizan mare aborted a male fetus a few days before the expected foaling date without showing any clinical sings. Focal lympho-histiocytic hepatitis in the foal and multiplex focal lympho-histiocytic villitis accompanied by villus necroses and marked hypertrophy of chorionic epithelial cells in the arcades were observed. Elongated nucleated organisms were seen in groups in vacuoles or solitarily located in the cytoplasm of the chorionic epithelial cells. The organisms were in large numbers and often extracellularly in areas of villitis and villus necroses. They were Gram-positive, stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Giemsa, weakly with Warthin-Starry silver stain but not with Gömöri's methenamine-silver stain. By ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examinations, the organisms were identified as microsporidia belonging to the genus Encephalitozoon. No Encephalitozoon organisms were detected in the fetal organs. This is the first reported case of equine abortion induced by Encephalitozoon sp. in Europe. Although abortion induced by Encephalitozoon is rare, microsporidia should be considered a differential diagnosis for intracellular organisms observed in the chorionic epithelial cells of horses. PMID:18277711

Szeredi, L; Pospischil, A; Dencsö, L; Mathis, A; Dobos-Kovács, M

2007-12-01

414

Medical Services Assistant Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to develop 12th-grade multiple competencies courses, this curriculum prepares the student to assist a physician, dentist, or other health professional with the management of a medical office and to perform basic health services procedures. Course descriptions are provided for the two courses in the curriculum: medical services assistant…

Leeman, Phyllis A.

415

Factors influencing post abortion outcomes among high-risk patients in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Post abortion complications remain one of the major causes of mortality among women of child bearing age in Zimbabwe. Based on this problem, factors associated with mortalities due to abortion were investigated with the aim of improving post abortion outcomes for Zimbabwe's women, and possibly also for women of other African countries. Cases and controls were selected from 4895 post abortion records to conduct a retrospective case-control study. Significant risk factors identified for reducing mortalities due to post abortion complications included the administration of oxytocic drugs and evacuation of the uterus whilst anaemia and sepsis apparently reduced these women's chances of survival. Women who died (cases) from post abortion complications apparently received better reported quantitative care than controls. Recommendations based on this research report include improved education of health care workers and enhanced in-service training, regular audits of patients' records and changed policies for managing these conditions more effectively in Zimbabwe. PMID:16450562

Mudokwenuy-Rawdon, C; Ehlers, V J; Bezuidenhout, M C

2005-11-01

416

Launch Vehicle Abort Analysis for Failures Leading to Loss of Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launch vehicle ascent is a time of high risk for an onboard crew. There is a large fraction of possible failures for which time is of the essence and a successful abort is possible if the detection and action happens quickly enough. This paper focuses on abort determination based on data already available from the Guidance, Navigation, and Control system. This work is the result of failure analysis efforts performed during the Ares I launch vehicle development program. The two primary areas of focus are the derivation of abort triggers to ensure that abort occurs as quickly as possible when needed, but that false aborts are avoided, and evaluation of success in aborting off the failing launch vehicle.

Hanson, John M.; Hill, Ashley D.; Beard, Bernard B.

2013-01-01

417

20 CFR 702.401 - Medical care defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical care defined. 702.401 Section 702...RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Medical Care and Supervision § 702.401 Medical care defined. (a) Medical care shall...

2010-04-01

418

20 CFR 702.401 - Medical care defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical care defined. 702.401 Section 702...RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Medical Care and Supervision § 702.401 Medical care defined. (a) Medical care shall...

2011-04-01

419

20 CFR 702.401 - Medical care defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical care defined. 702.401 Section 702...RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Medical Care and Supervision § 702.401 Medical care defined. (a) Medical care shall...

2014-04-01

420

Determination of trans vitamin K1 in infant and medical nutritional products using AOAC Method 999.15 with modified preparation and extraction procedures and C30 bonded phase chromatography: single-laboratory validation.  

PubMed

Modifications were made to AOAC Official Method 999.15 to extend its applicability to specialty infant formulas containing hydrolyzed proteins and free amino acids, and to medical and adult nutritional products. Minor changes to the sample preparation procedure and chromatographic separation improved vitamin K1 recoveries and reduced chromatographic interferences in these types of matrixes. Currently AOAC Method 999.15 is applicable only to the determination of total vitamin K1 (phylloquione) in infant formula and milk (fluid, ready-to-feed, and powdered) containing > 1 microg vitamin K1/100 g solids. AOAC Method 999.15 recoveries of vitamin K1 were improved by altering sample sizes, extraction solvents and amounts, and the reagent addition order and amount of water or aqueous solutions added. The chromatographic separation of vitamin K1 in medical nutritional products containing canola and marine oils was improved, and trans vitamin K1 was separated from the biologically inactive cis isomer in all products with a C30 3 microm column and a 100% methanol mobile phase. With these modifications to the extraction procedure and chromatographic separation, AOAC Method 999.15 demonstrated acceptable precision and accuracy for the quantitation of trans vitamin K1 in specialty infant formulas containing hydrolyzed proteins and free amino acids, and medical and adult nutritional products. A single-laboratory validation of these minor modifications was completed. Fourteen different product matrixes were analyzed during validation. The intermediate precision averaged 4.15% RSD (range 2.52-5.81% RSD), and recovery data averaged 100.1% (range 92.2-109%). PMID:20480913

Schimpf, Karen J; Thompson, Linda B; Schmitz, Daniel J

2010-01-01

421

Clinical aspects of medication overuse headaches.  

PubMed

Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a subset of chronic daily headache, occurring from overuse of 1 or more classes of migraine abortive medication. Acetaminophen, combination analgesics (caffeine combinations), opioids, barbiturates (butalbital), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and triptans are the main classes of drugs implicated in the genesis of MOH. Migraine seems to be the most common diagnosis leading to MOH. The development of MOH is associated with both frequency of use of medication and behavioral predispositions. MOH is not a unitary concept. The distinction between simple (type 1) vs complex (type 2) forms is based on both the class of overused medication and behavioral factors, including psychopathology and psychological drug dependence. MOH is a challenging disorder causing decline in the quality of life and causing physical symptoms, such as daily and incapacitating headaches, insomnia, and non-restorative sleep, as well as psychological distress and reduced functioning. MOH is associated with biochemical, structural, and functional brain changes. Relapse after detoxification is a challenge, but can be addressed if the patient is followed over a prolonged period of time with a combination of prophylactic pharmacotherapy, use of abortive medication with minimal risk of MOH, withholding previously overused medication, and providing psychological (cognitive-behavioral) therapy. PMID:24116964

Da Silva, Arnaldo Neves; Lake, Alvin E

2014-01-01

422

Reimbursement of hormonal contraceptives and the frequency of induced abortion among teenagers in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Reduction in costs of hormonal contraceptives is often proposed to reduce rates of induced abortion among young women. This study investigates the relationship between rates of induced abortion and reimbursement of dispensed hormonal contraceptives among young women in Sweden. Comparisons are made with the Nordic countries Finland, Norway and Denmark. Methods Official statistics on induced abortion and numbers of prescribed and dispensed hormonal contraceptives presented as “Defined Daily Dose/thousand women” (DDD/T) aged 15-19 years were compiled and related to levels of reimbursement in all Swedish counties by using public official data. The Swedish numbers of induced abortion were compared to those of Finland, Norway and Denmark. The main outcome measure was rates of induced abortion and DDD/T. Results No correlation was observed between rates of abortion and reimbursement among Swedish counties. Nor was any correlation found between sales of hormonal contraceptives and the rates of abortion. In a Nordic perspective, Finland and Denmark, which have no reimbursement at all, and Norway all have lower rates of induced abortion than Sweden. Conclusions Reimbursement does not seem to be enough in order to reduce rates of induced abortion. Evidently, other factors such as attitudes, education, religion, tradition or cultural differences in each of Swedish counties as well as in the Nordic countries may be of importance. A more innovative approach is needed in order to facilitate safe sex and to protect young women from unwanted pregnancies. PMID:24884539

2014-01-01

423

Women's perceptions about abortion in their communities: perspectives from western Kenya.  

PubMed

Unsafe abortion in Kenya is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In October 2012, we sought to understand the methods married women aged 24-49 and young, unmarried women aged ? 20 used to induce abortion, the providers they utilized and the social, economic and cultural norms that influenced women's access to safe abortion services in Bungoma and Trans Nzoia counties in western Kenya. We conducted five focus groups with young women and five with married women in rural and urban communities in each county. We trained local facilitators to conduct the focus groups in Swahili or English. All focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computerized, and coded for analysis. Abortion outside public health facilities was mentioned frequently. Because of the need for secrecy to avoid condemnation, uncertainty about the law, and perceived higher cost of safer abortion methods, women sought unsafe abortions from community midwives, drug sellers and/or untrained providers at lower cost. Many groups believed that abortion was safer at higher gestational ages, but that there was no such thing as a safe abortion method. Our aim was to inform the design of a community-based intervention on safe abortion for women. Barriers to seeking safe services such as high cost, perceived illegality, and fear of insults and abuse at public facilities among both age groups must be addressed. PMID:24908466

Marlow, Heather M; Wamugi, Sylvia; Yegon, Erick; Fetters, Tamara; Wanaswa, Leah; Msipa-Ndebele, Sinikiwe

2014-05-01

424

Temporal trends and spatial distribution of unsafe abortion in Brazil, 1996-2012  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze temporal trends and distribution patterns of unsafe abortion in Brazil. METHODS Ecological study based on records of hospital admissions of women due to abortion in Brazil between 1996 and 2012, obtained from the Hospital Information System of the Ministry of Health. We estimated the number of unsafe abortions stratified by place of residence, using indirect estimate techniques. The following indicators were calculated: ratio of unsafe abortions/100 live births and rate of unsafe abortion/1,000 women of childbearing age. We analyzed temporal trends through polynomial regression and spatial distribution using municipalities as the unit of analysis. RESULTS In the study period, a total of 4,007,327 hospital admissions due to abortions were recorded in Brazil. We estimated a total of 16,905,911 unsafe abortions in the country, with an annual mean of 994,465 abortions (mean unsafe abortion rate: 17.0 abortions/1,000 women of childbearing age; ratio of unsafe abortions: 33.2/100 live births). Unsafe abortion presented a declining trend at national level (R2: 94.0%, p < 0.001), with unequal patterns between regions. There was a significant reduction of unsafe abortion in the Northeast (R2: 93.0%, p < 0.001), Southeast (R2: 92.0%, p < 0.001) and Central-West regions (R2: 64.0%, p < 0.001), whereas the North (R2: 39.0%, p = 0.030) presented an increase, and the South (R2: 22.0%, p = 0.340) remained stable. Spatial analysis identified the presence of clusters of municipalities with high values for unsafe abortion, located mainly in states of the North, Northeast and Southeast Regions. CONCLUSIONS Unsafe abortion remains a public health problem in Brazil, with marked regional differences, mainly concentrated in the socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of the country. Qualification of attention to women’s health, especially to reproductive aspects and attention to pre- and post-abortion processes, are necessary and urgent strategies to be implemented in the country. PMID:25119946

Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Lima, Mauricélia da Silveira; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio Costa; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Heukelbach, Jorg

2014-01-01

425

Real-Time Trajectory Assessment and Abort Management for the X-33 Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 is a flying testbed to evaluate technologies and designs for a reusable Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) production vehicle. Although it is sub-orbital, it is trans-atmospheric. This paper will discuss the abort capabilities, both commanded and autonomous, available to the X-33. The cornerstone of the abort capabilities is the Performance Monitor (PM) and it's supporting software. PM is an on-board 3-DOF simulation, which evaluates the vehicle ability to execute the current trajectory. The Abort Manager evaluates the results from PM, and, when indicated, computes and implements an abort trajectory.

Moise, M. C.; McCarter, J. W.; Mulqueen, J.

2000-01-01

426

Social determinants and access to induced abortion in burkina faso: from two case studies.  

PubMed

Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and concerns mainly young women. The legal restriction and social stigma make abortions most often clandestine and risky for women who decide to terminate a pregnancy. However, the exposure to the risk of unsafe induced abortion is not the same for all the women who faced unwanted pregnancy and decide to have an abortion. Drawn from a qualitative study on the issue of abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso's capital, the contrasting cases of two young women who had abortion allow us to show how the women's personal resources (such as the school level, financial resources, the compliance to social norms, the social network, etc.) may determine the degree of vulnerability of women, the delay to have an abortion, the type of care they are likely to benefit from, and the cost they have to face. This study concludes that the poorest always pay more (cost and consequences), take longer to have an abortion, and have more exposure to the risk of unsafe abortion. PMID:24790605

Ouédraogo, Ramatou; Sundby, Johanne

2014-01-01

427

The relationship of patient medical and laboratory characteristics to changes in functional health status in children and adolescents after the Fontan procedure.  

PubMed

Despite hypothesized concerns about deterioration beginning in adolescence, longitudinal data and associated factors regarding standardized assessment of physical functioning are not available for Fontan patients. Parents who participated in the Fontan Cross-Sectional Study completed the Child Health Questionnaire at 2 time points for 245 subjects ages 6-18 years. Associations between change in Physical Functioning Summary Score and baseline patient, medical, and laboratory characteristics (mean age 9.5 ± 1.7 years) and follow-up patient and medical characteristics (mean age 16.2 ± 1.6 years) were determined by regression analyses. During a mean of 6.7 ± 0.4 years, a small (not clinically important) but statistically significant decrease in score from 46.2 ± 11.7 to 44.5 ± 12.1 (p < 0.03) was noted. Subjects with higher baseline scores had a greater decrease in score (r = -0.48; p < 0.001). A multivariable model of patient and medical characteristics (R(2) = 0.11) showed that a greater decrease in score was significantly associated with interim development of asthma (n = 13; parameter estimate [PE] -6.6; p < 0.05) or other chronic respiratory, lung, or breathing problems (n = 13; PE -12.5; p < 0.001) and the presence of protein-losing enteropathy at any time (n = 12; PE -9.4; p = 0.006). Change in score was not significantly associated with baseline laboratory measures of exercise capacity and ventricular characteristics and function. Therefore, although physical functioning may be stable during adolescence for many Fontan patients, deterioration occurs in some in association with respiratory conditions and protein-losing enteropathy. Further longitudinal study is necessary to better understand the relationship between clinical morbidities and functional health status as these patients transition into adulthood. PMID:24264999

McCrindle, Brian W; Zak, Victor; Breitbart, Roger E; Mahony, Lynn; Shrader, Peter; Lai, Wyman W; Burns, Kristin M; Colan, Steven D; Williams, Richard V; Goldberg, David; Hill, Kevin D; Khaikin, Svetlana; Atz, Andrew M

2014-04-01

428

The use of medical claims to assess incidence, diagnostic procedures and initial treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) may be underreported in cancer registries such as the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). Analysis of Dutch medical claims can complement NCR data on MDS and CMML. We analyzed data on 3681 MDS patients and 235 CMML patients aged ?18 years with initial claims for MDS or CMML from the Dutch nationwide medical claims-based Diagnosis Treatment Combination Information System (DIS) between 2008 and 2010. Clinical information was available in the DIS. MDS and CMML were diagnosed without a bone marrow (BM) examination in almost half of the patients. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) per 100,000 in the cohort that underwent BM examinations compared with NCR data was 2.8 vs. 3.3 for MDS and 0.2 vs. 0.4 for CMML in 2008-2010. A conservative treatment approach was associated with increasing age and absence of BM examination in MDS (p<0.001 for both) and CMML patients (p<0.033 for both). In conclusion, the ASR of MDS in the cohort that underwent BM examinations was comparable with the NCR. The majority of elderly patients, either with or without BM examinations, received no therapy. Together, MDS and CMML may be misdiagnosed and inappropriately managed without a BM confirmation. PMID:25533930

Dinmohamed, Avinash G; van Norden, Yvette; Visser, Otto; Posthuma, Eduardus F M; Huijgens, Peter C; Sonneveld, Pieter; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A; Jongen-Lavrencic, Mojca

2015-02-01

429

North Korean defectors seeking health certification to take the national medical licensing examination in the Republic of Korea: figures and procedures.  

PubMed

In May 2011, the Ministry of Unification of the Republic of Korea (Korea) announced that 21,165 defectors from Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) had settled in Korea. Since healthcare workers are counted among these defectors, it is necessary to provide them with a pathway to certification to work in Korea. This report summarizes the vetting and approval process defectors from North Korea must pass through to be eligible to take the national medical licensing examination. Defectors must pass an oral test conducted by the National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board to be eligible to sit for the exam. From 2002 to August 2011, 41 North Korean defectors applied for the approval process to take the exam. Twenty-nine were approved (70.7%): 23 physicians, 1 dentist, 2 oriental medical doctor, 1 nurse, and 2 pharmacists. Out of 29 approved, 11 passed the licensing examination (39.3%). This report also highlights the difficulty in assessing North Korean defectors' eligibility by oral test, and suggests that adequate competency should be emphasized to recognize their unique abilities as healthcare personnel. PMID:23330055

Kim, Yoon Hee

2012-01-01

430

North Korean defectors seeking health certification to take the national medical licensing examination in the Republic of Korea: figures and procedures  

PubMed Central

In May 2011, the Ministry of Unification of the Republic of Korea (Korea) announced that 21,165 defectors from Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) had settled in Korea. Since healthcare workers are counted among these defectors, it is necessary to provide them with a pathway to certification to work in Korea. This report summarizes the vetting and approval process defectors from North Korea must pass through to be eligible to take the national medical licensing examination. Defectors must pass an oral test conducted by the National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board to be eligible to sit for the exam. From 2002 to August 2011, 41 North Korean defectors applied for the approval process to take the exam. Twenty-nine were approved (70.7%): 23 physicians, 1 dentist, 2 oriental medical doctor, 1 nurse, and 2 pharmacists. Out of 29 approved, 11 passed the licensing examination (39.3%). This report also highlights the difficulty in assessing North Korean defectors’ eligibility by oral test, and suggests that adequate competency should be emphasized to recognize their unique abilities as healthcare personnel. PMID:23330055

Kim, Yoon Hee

2012-01-01

431

Simulation Environment for Orion Launch Abort System Control Design Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and use of an interactive environment to perform control system design and analysis of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System is described. The environment, built using a commercial dynamic systems design package, includes use of an