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Sample records for abortion medical procedures

  1. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    ... womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman has ... Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion

  2. Medical abortion service delivery.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, V; Rogers, M K; Vanderhei, D

    2000-08-01

    Medical abortion with mifepristone and methotrexate regimens may be offered in a variety of American medical practice settings. In this article the new provider will find information on all aspects of the patient care delivery system for medical abortion, including physical space requirements, staffing and training, patient flow, cost, security, marketing, and quality assurance. Because of the limited published data available regarding logistic issues surrounding abortion care, the information in this article derives largely from the experiences of providers who have established medical abortion practices in their offices or clinics. Its goals are to help make the initial start-up phase briefer and more rewarding for new providers, to offer helpful guidelines for incorporation of medical abortion into practice, and to encourage more practitioners to see the benefits of adding this option to their practices. PMID:10944366

  3. Medical abortion in social context.

    PubMed

    Joffe, C

    2000-08-01

    Early medical abortion regimens, especially those that include mifepristone, have the potential to reshape the landscape of abortion provision in the United States. Because medical abortion does not require surgical training, it may attract new providers of abortion services from a variety of specialties, including advanced practice clinicians. The diffusion of abortion services into myriad clinical and office-based settings may reduce the violence that has been associated with abortion provision. However, a number of factors may slow the spread of medical abortion, at least initially. These factors include the need for accurate means to date early pregnancies, the need to arrange backup surgical services for the small number of patients who require them, the obligation to conform to existing legal mandates governing surgical abortion, and possible difficulties negotiating appropriate malpractice coverage and reimbursement. Educational initiatives are needed to help clinicians to overcome these barriers and to actualize mifepristone's potential in women's health care. PMID:10944365

  4. Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  5. Medical abortion: the hidden revolution.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Phil

    2015-07-01

    While the medical abortion (MA) drugs, mifepristone and misoprostol, have radically altered reproductive health practices around the world, there has been little field research on the sales and use of these drugs, especially in developing countries. This leaves the family planning community with many unanswered questions. While good profiles of contraceptive use are available for many countries and we have good technical data on the MA drugs' efficacy, dosages and regimens such as home dosage of misoprostol versus clinic dosage, we have very little information about the quantities of MA drugs sold, how they are used, where they are used, and, in the case of misoprostol, for what purposes. Sales data are available from one excellent commercial survey and from social marketing sales of mifepristone and misoprostol and these are presented. Acknowledging the sensitivity of the issue, especially in countries where abortion is severely restricted, the author makes a plea for careful additional research to shed light on an important and growing part of the international reproductive health picture. PMID:26106105

  6. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history.

    PubMed

    Baird, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015. PMID:26719008

  7. The unmet need for safe abortion in Turkey: a role for medical abortion and training of medical students.

    PubMed

    Mihciokur, Sare; Akin, Ayse; Dogan, Bahar Guciz; Ozvaris, Sevkat Bahar

    2015-02-01

    Abortion has been legal and safe in Turkey since 1983, but the unmet need for safe abortion services remains high. Many medical practitioners believe that the introduction of medical abortion would address this. However, since 2012 there has been political opposition to the provision of abortion services. The government has been threatening to restrict the law, and following an administrative change in booking of appointments, some hospital clinics that provided family planning and abortion services had to stop providing abortions. Thus, the availability of safe abortion depends not only on permissive legislation but also political support and the ability of health professionals to provide it. We conducted a study among university medical school students in three provinces on their knowledge of abortion and abortion methods, to try to understand their future practice intentions. Pre-tested, structured, self-administered questionnaires were answered by 209 final-year medical students. The students' level of knowledge of abortion and abortion methods was very low. More than three-quarters had heard of surgical abortion, but only 56% mentioned medical abortion. Although nearly 90% supported making abortion services available in Turkey, their willingness to provide surgical abortion (16%) or medical abortion (15%) was low, due to lack of knowledge. Abortion care, including medical abortion, needs to be included in the medical school curriculum in order to safeguard this women's health service. PMID:25702066

  8. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Cattanach, J F

    1979-03-10

    As abortion is the destruction of individual human life, if an abortion is to be performed at all there must be grave reasons for it which should necessitate complete documentation. Surely human life should be given that respect at least. Legislation should oblige any doctor intending to perform an induced abortion to list the indications which in his or her opinion make that abortion lawful. A signed copy of that opinion should be sent to an official authority of notification. This authority could be developed along the lines of the Neonatal Deaths Committees with authority to check any such notification through consultant tribunals, similar to those existing in New Zealand, which would have access to the patient. The simplest way to ensure that an induced abortion of a viable pregnancy has not occurred at any curettage is to pass legislation which would make it mandatory that all tissue obtained at all uterine curettages or evacuations be sent for histopathological examination. Should the pathologist find evidence of an induced abortion or hysterotomy a copy of the pathology report would then be sent to the official committee. The usual copies would be sent to the doctor and hospital concerned. All such procedures would have to be carried out at registered hospitals. All medical staff members and nurses would have access to such reports. It would be a grave offence for the doctor, pathologist or hospital not to comply with the above procedure. The official committee would have the power to demand samples of tissue for examination by its own consultant pathologist, and to investigate irregularities in the above procedure. Pathologists concur that induced abortion can be accurately differentiated from other types of abortion, as there is an infiltration of polymorphs into the decidua within about three hours of fetal death in incomplete abortion, and there are other features such as hyalinization of placental villi. Apparently, these differences are so basic that a Medlars search of references appears to indicate that no formal research has been carried out. A pathologist with special expertise in uterine histopathology, Dr. Allan Bodie, agreed to conduct formal research to establish that this differentiation is accurate, and, on the basis of a preliminary series which he intends publishing soon, he has confirmed this (personal communciation). If procedures were to operate this way the law can be seen to be upheld, some respect given to prenatal human life, and valid research and statistics gained. PMID:449767

  9. Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  10. Shuttle abort landing site emergency medical services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenas, David K.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    NASA and DOD studies of medical-planning and logistical problems are reviewed as applicable to providing emergency medical care at remote transoceanic abort landing (TAL) sites. Two options are analyzed including a modified surgical response team and a combination physician/medical technician team. The two concepts are examined in terms of cost-effectiveness, specific types of medical support such as blood procurement, and search-and-rescue requirements. It is found that the physician/technician team is more economically efficient, and the description of the concept permits the development of an effective TAL-site astronaut medical-support system. A balance is struck between the competing problems of cost and medical capability by planning for on-scene medical stabilization and air evacuation to DOD tertiary medical centers.

  11. Medical abortion or vacuum aspiration? Two year follow up of a patient preference trial.

    PubMed

    Howie, F L; Henshaw, R C; Naji, S A; Russell, I T; Templeton, A A

    1997-07-01

    In a comparative study conducted during 1990-91, 363 Scottish women with pregnancies of less than 64 days of gestation were given the option of selecting medical abortion with mifepristone/gemeprost or surgical vacuum aspiration abortion; those without a preference were randomly assigned to a method. There were no differences between groups in efficacy or medical complications at the 21-day postabortion follow-up. Medical abortion was associated with significantly more pain during the procedure, but not following hospital discharge, and its efficacy decreased with advancing gestation. At a median time interval of 26 months after the abortion, 140 women from the original cohort were reinterviewed to assess long-term acceptability. There were no significant differences between the medical and surgical abortion groups at long-term follow-up in their assessment of their current health status, the nature and incidence of subsequent morbidity requiring a doctor's care, consultations for psychiatric problems, or menstrual disorders. 9% of women who opted for surgical abortion and 11% who chose medical abortion indicated they would select a different method in the future. Vacuum aspiration remained significantly more acceptable than medical abortion among women who were randomly allocated to an abortion group. 97 women (69%) rated the opportunity to choose an abortion method as highly important, and 86-90% indicated a willingness to pay for the provision of such choice. PMID:9236649

  12. Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su’ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M. S. L.; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li

    2012-01-01

    Background Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students’ attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. Methods and Results A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students’ pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students’ attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. Conclusions Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights. PMID:23300600

  13. Abortion.

    PubMed

    1993-09-01

    Vacuum aspiration, dilatation and curettage, hysterotomy, and, in some cases, hysterectomy comprise surgical methods of abortion. Oral administration of RU-486, epostane, prostaglandins E and F2 and vaginal suppositories of prostaglandins E and F2 are medical abortion methods. The traditional or clandestine methods are usually performed by unqualified persons and pregnant women themselves. These methods tend to be inefficient and harmful. They include oral preparations of herbs and drugs (e.g., quinine and ergot), introduction of fluids (e.g., household disinfectants) into the vagina, introduction of foreign bodies (e.g., twigs, stems, hollow tubes, needles, wire) into the uterus. Hospital records, death certificates, and community-based surveys are common sources of data on abortion. Worldwide, 40-70/1000 women of childbearing age undergo an abortion. 20-33% of all pregnancies are terminated. Abortion is always legal when it is performed to save a pregnant woman's life. In most countries, it is legal to protect the woman's physical or mental health against serious danger. The risk of death from a legal abortion is rare. On the other hand, when an abortion is performed by an unqualified, unskilled abortionist and/or under unhygienic conditions (all of which are common in countries who have a law against abortion) the risk of death is much higher. In fact, abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal death in many countries (25% and 86% of maternal deaths in Bangladesh and Romania, respectively). Common complications of abortion are incomplete abortion, trauma to pelvic organs (e.g., uterine perforation), tetanus, and infertility. In some developing countries, the cost of treating abortion complications account for up to 50% of maternity hospital budgets. Ways to reduce mortality from unsafe abortion include promoting contraceptive use, legalizing abortion, allowing trained practitioners to perform abortions for health reasons, and improving clinical management of abortion complications. PMID:12345783

  14. Abortion law in England: the medicalization of a crime.

    PubMed

    Grubb, A

    1990-01-01

    Abortion law in England has changed a great deal throughout its legal history. Starting with total prohibition in Common Law and ending up a state regulated therapeutic medical procedure. The battle over abortion rights has been as large in England as in the US; however, the battle ground has been Parliament, rather than the courts, as in the US. The reason for this stems mainly from the Sovereignty of the Parliament, which makes the English courts weaker than the US courts, which can actually over-turn legislation. In the beginning fetal rights were seen as absolute. Currently the rights of women to control their own bodies has been balanced against fetal rights. Now with some restriction and government regulation, women can seek abortion. There are still a great deal of unanswered questions concerning abortion. The legality of RU-486 and IUDs as well as selective reduction are still unresolved issues. Further, the effects of the United Kingdom's union with Europe and the change to English law that will result are still unknown. Already an English abortion case has been brought before the European Commission of Human Rights, the body that screens cases for the European Court of Human Rights. The case was rejected because the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms has several Articles which seem to apply to a woman's right to bodily integrity, family determination, and physician and mental health. However, Article 2 provides that everyone's right to life shall be protected. The Commission ruled that this Article applies to living people and thus not to fetuses. After European unification if completed the issue of abortion law in England will surely be settle by European Courts. PMID:2197511

  15. Medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration for legal abortion protect women's health and reduce costs to the health system: findings from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2015-02-01

    The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system. PMID:25702076

  16. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

  17. [Abortion].

    PubMed

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1971-01-01

    The historical and current (1969) abortion laws in France as well as those in other Western countries are analyzed. France has had a series of punitive abortion codes since the Napoleonic Code of 1810 prescribing solitary confinement for the woman. The reforms of 1920 and 1923 made provocation of abortion or contraceptional propaganda a "crime" (felony), later a "delit" (misdemeanor), called for trial before magistr ate instead of jury, but resulted in only about 200 convictions a year. The decree of 1939 extended the misdemeanor to women who aborted even if they were not pregnant, and provided for professional licenses such as that of surgeon or pharmacist to be suspended. The law of 1942 made abortion a social crime and increased the maximum penalty to capital punishment, which was exercised in 2 cases. About 4000 per year were convicted from 1942-1944. Now the law still applies to all who intend to abort, whether or not pregnant or successful, but punishemnt is limited to 1-5 years imprisonment, and 72,000 francs fine, or suspension of medical practice for 5 years. About 500 have been convicted per year. Since 1955 legal abortion has been available (to about 130 women over 4 years) if it is the only means to save the woman's life. Although pregnancy tests are controlled, the population desregards the law by resorting to clandestine abortion. The wealthy travel to Switzerland (where 68% of legal abortions are done on French women) or to England. Numbers are estimated by the French government at 250,000-300,000 per year, or 1 for every 2 live births, but by hospital statistics at 400,000-1,000,000 per year. The rest of the review covers abortion laws in Scandinavian, Central European, and individual US states as of 1969. PMID:12333138

  18. Abortion.

    PubMed

    1993-02-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor provides legislative information on abortion from January through February, 1993. The listing contains information on pending bills: the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the data the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available, the bill's status. Here the bills cover: Clinic Licensing, e.g., prohibiting the advertisement of pregnancy counseling unless the person advertising provides abortion services, or referrals, or discloses that such services or information are unavailable; Comprehensive Statutes, defining abortion, providing for the right to life to the fetus, repealing provisions found unconstitutional by federal court; Conscience Clauses; Fetal Personhood/Rights, e.g., battery that results in termination of pregnancy is a felony; Fetal Research/Remains, e.g., establishing the disposal and testing requirements for human remains; Gender of Fetus, bills prohibiting abortions relative to sex selection or requiring counseling prior to performing an abortion as a means of sex selection; Harassment regulations; Informed Consent and Waiting Periods, detailing the risks and alternatives to the abortion procedure, fetal age, and the 24-hour waiting period; Insurance Coverage, e.g., the repeal laws that restrict insurance coverage for elective abortion in certain circumstances; Miscellaneous bills; Parental Consent and Notification; Postviability Requirements; Public Funding; Reporting Requirements; Reproductive Rights; RU-486; and Spousal/Paternal Consent/Notification. PMID:12344859

  19. The introduction of first trimester medical abortion in Armenia.

    PubMed

    Louie, Karmen S; Chong, Erica; Tsereteli, Tamar; Avagyan, Gayane; Vardanyan, Susanna; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-02-01

    In Armenia, abortion is the main means of fertility regulation; however, before research activities were initiated only surgical methods were available and the quality of services was low in some areas. Our clinical study from 2008-2011 aimed to show that early medical abortion is an acceptable and feasible option. A total of 700 eligible women with pregnancies up to 63 days LMP presenting for abortion were recruited for the study in five locations. Participants took 200 mg mifepristone and 800 μg buccal misoprostol 24-48 hours later. They returned for a follow-up visit two weeks after mifepristone administration. 95% of the women had successful abortions and 95% were satisfied with the method. In 2012-2013, we conducted a follow-up assessment to examine the ongoing provision and quality of medical abortion services at the former research sites. Medical record reviews, interviews and observations were carried out three times approximately six months apart. The assessment found that all five sites had continued providing medical abortion, with about half of eligible women choosing the medical method. Four of the five sites were achieving high success rates. Staff turnover and the lack of trained providers likely contributed to the higher failure rate at the fifth site. These findings provide evidence that first trimester medical abortion is an acceptable and feasible option for Armenian women and providers, and that high quality services are being delivered. PMID:25702069

  20. Early medical abortion in Cairns, Queensland: July 2006 - April 2007.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline M; Russell, Darren B; de Costa, Naomi R; Carrette, Michael; McNamee, Heather M

    2007-08-01

    Mifepristone (RU486), which is used for early medical abortion, can only be obtained in Australia under the Authorised Prescriber legislation (Section 19[5] of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 [Cwlth]); two of the authors have permission to obtain, prescribe and administer this drug in Cairns, Queensland. From July 2006 to April 2007, 10 women who fulfilled the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) criteria of "life-threatening or otherwise serious" indications underwent medical abortion with mifepristone/misoprostol, and 12 women conforming with abortion requirements of Queensland law, but not TGA legislation for mifepristone administration, had medical abortions with the less preferable methotrexate/misoprostol combination. Although it is now more than a year since the cross-party vote in federal Parliament in February 2006 confirmed wide support for the right of Australian women to a medical abortion, we believe we are at present the only medical practitioners in Australia with permission to use mifepristone. Obtaining Authorised Prescriber status from the TGA is of necessity a complex and protracted process, involving ethics committee approval and auditing, and regular reporting to the TGA. Because of the current restrictions, we believe that women seeking medical abortion in Australia face barriers not experienced by women in other comparable countries, and that drug manufacturing and distributing companies may be discouraged from seeking to market mifepristone in Australia. PMID:17680745

  1. First-trimester medical abortion practices in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Guilbert, Edith R.; Hayden, Althea S.; Jones, Heidi E.; White, Katharine O’Connell; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; Norman, Wendy V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To understand the current availability and practice of first-trimester medical abortion (MA) in Canada. Design Using public sources and professional networks, abortion facilities across Canada were identified for a cross-sectional survey on medical and surgical abortion. English and French surveys were distributed by surface or electronic mail between July and November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures Descriptive statistics on MA practice and facility and provider characteristics, as well as comparisons of MA practice by facility and provider characteristics using χ2 and t tests. Results A total of 78 of 94 (83.0%) facilities responded. Medical abortion represented 3.8% of first-trimester abortions reported (2706 of 70 860) in 2012. Among the facilities offering MA, 45.0% performed fewer than 500 first-trimester abortions a year, while 35.0% performed more than 1000. More MAs were performed in private offices or ambulatory health centres than in hospitals. Sixty-two physicians from 28 of 78 facilities reported providing first-trimester MA; 87.1% also provided surgical abortion. More than three-quarters of MA physicians were female and 56.5% were family physicians. A preponderance (85.2%) of providers offered methotrexate with misoprostol. Nearly all physicians (90.3%) required patients to have an ultrasound before MA, and 72.6% assessed the completion of the abortion with ultrasonography. Most physicians (74.2%) offered MA through 49 days after the onset of the last menstrual period, and 21.0% offered MA through 50 to 56 days; 37.1% reported providing MA to patients who lived more than 2 hours away. Four physicians from 1 site provided MA via telemedicine. Conclusion In Canada, MA provision using methotrexate and misoprostol is consistent with best-practice guidelines, but MA is rare and its availability is unevenly distributed.

  2. Towards safe abortion access: an exploratory study of medical abortion in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Petitet, Pascale Hancart; Ith, Leakhena; Cockroft, Melissa; Delvaux, Thérèse

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, following its approval by the Ministry of Health, the medical abortion combination pack Medabon (containing mifepristone and misoprostol) was made available at pharmacies and in a restricted number of health facilities in Cambodia. The qualitative study presented in this paper was conducted in 2012 as a follow-up to longer-term ethnographical research related to reproductive health and fertility regulation between 2008 and 2012. Observations were carried out at several clinic and pharmacy sites and in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 women who attended two MSI Cambodia centres and 10 women identified through social networks; six men (women's male partners); eight health care providers at the two MSI centres and four pill sellers at private or informal pharmacies (who also provided health care services in private clinics). Although the level of training among the drug sellers and providers varied, their knowledge about medical abortion regimens, correct usage and common side effects was good. Overall, women were satisfied with the services provided. Medical abortion was not always a women-only process in this study as some male partners were also involved in the care process. The study illustrates positive steps forward being taken in making abortion safe and preventing and reducing unsafe abortion practices in Cambodia. PMID:25702068

  3. A medical record linkage analysis of abortion underreporting.

    PubMed

    Udry, J R; Gaughan, M; Schwingl, P J; van den Berg, B J

    1996-01-01

    Inaccuracy in women's reports of their abortion histories affects many areas of interest to reproductive health professionals and researchers. The identification of characteristics that affect the accuracy of reporting is essential for the improvement of data collection methods. A comparison of the medical records of 104 American women aged 27-30 in 1990-1991 with their self-reported abortion histories revealed that 19% of these women failed to report one or more abortions. Results of logistic regression analysis indicate that nonwhite women were 3.3 times as likely as whites to underreport. With each additional year that had elapsed since the first recorded abortion, women became somewhat more likely to underreport (odds ratio of 1.3), while each additional year of a woman's education slightly decreased the likelihood of underreporting (odds ratio of 0.7). PMID:8886766

  4. Interrogating medical tourism: Ireland, abortion, and mobility rights.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Mary; White, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Medical tourism in Ireland, like in many Western states, is built around assumptions about individual agency, choice, possibility, and mobility. One specific form of medical tourism—the flow of women from Ireland traveling in order to secure an abortion—disrupts and contradicts these assumptions. One legacy of the bitter, contentious political and legal battles surrounding abortion in Ireland in the 1980s and 1990s has been securing the right of mobility for all pregnant Irish citizens to cross international borders to secure an abortion. However, these mobility rights are contingent upon nationality, social class, and race, and they have enabled successive Irish governments to avoid any responsibility for providing safe, legal, and affordable abortion services in Ireland. Nearly twenty years after the X case discussed here, the pregnant female body moving over international borders—entering and leaving the state—is still interpreted as problematic and threatening to the Irish state. PMID:21114071

  5. Medication Abortion within a Student Health Care Clinic: A Review of the First 46 Consecutive Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Emily M.; Bordoloi, Anita; Moorthie, Mydhili; Pela, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol has been available in the United States since 2000. The authors reviewed the first 46 medication abortion cases conducted at a university-based student health care clinic to determine the safety and feasibility of medication abortion in this type of clinical setting. Participants:…

  6. Medication Abortion within a Student Health Care Clinic: A Review of the First 46 Consecutive Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Emily M.; Bordoloi, Anita; Moorthie, Mydhili; Pela, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol has been available in the United States since 2000. The authors reviewed the first 46 medication abortion cases conducted at a university-based student health care clinic to determine the safety and feasibility of medication abortion in this type of clinical setting. Participants:

  7. First-trimester medical abortion service in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sue S T; Ho, P C

    2015-10-01

    Research on medical abortion has been conducted in Hong Kong since the 1990s. It was not until 2011 that the first-trimester medical abortion service was launched. Mifepristone was registered in Hong Kong in April 2014 and all institutions that are listed in the Gazette as a provider for legal abortion can purchase mifepristone from the local provider. This article aimed to share our 3-year experience of this service with the local medical community. Our current protocol is safe and effective, and advocates 200-mg mifepristone and 400-µg sublingual misoprostol 24 to 48 hours later, followed by a second dose of 400-µg sublingual misoprostol 4 hours later if the patient does not respond. The complete abortion rate is 97.0% and ongoing pregnancy rate is 0.4%. Some minor side-effects have been reported and include diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pain, and allergy. There have been no serious adverse events such as heavy bleeding requiring transfusion, anaphylactic reaction, septicaemia, or death. PMID:26493078

  8. Investigation of abort procedures for space shuttle-type vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. W.; Eide, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation has been made of abort procedures for space shuttle-type vehicles using a point mass trajectory optimization program known as POST. This study determined the minimum time gap between immediate and once-around safe return to the launch site from a baseline due-East launch trajectory for an alternate space shuttle concept which experiences an instantaneous loss of 25 percent of the total main engine thrust.

  9. Medical abortion practices among private providers in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Hae; Nguyen, Thang Huu; Dang, Anh Thi Ngoc; Ngo, Thoai Dinh

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe medical abortion (MA) practices among private providers in Vietnam. Methods The study subjects were women (n = 258) undergoing early MA through 12 private providers in Hanoi during February–June 2012. The women were interviewed on the day of their procedure and were followed up by telephone 14 days after mifepristone administration. Results Of the 258 women in the study, 97% used a regimen of mifepristone plus misoprostol; 80% were instructed to administer misoprostol at home. MA resulted in a complete termination in 90.8% of cases. All women were provided with information on potential complications and were instructed to return for a follow-up visit. We successfully followed up 77.5% (n = 200) of participants by telephone, while nearly two-thirds of women returned to the clinic for a follow-up visit. At follow-up, 39.5% of women reported having used a Help line service, while 7% had sought help from a health provider. A high unmet need for postabortion family planning was identified. Conclusion Follow-up of women, postabortion care, and the provision of family planning have been identified as important areas to address for strengthening MA services in the private sector in Vietnam. PMID:24082795

  10. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Savage, A

    1979-09-15

    I refer for termination anyone who requests it for--pace Mr V Tunkel, (28 July, p 253)--the law is generally regarded as being one of "abortion on demand." I have some misgivings as I do not believe that women in early pregnancy are always in a fit state to make a considered decision, and they cannot in the nature of things be given time. I have, however, become increasingly worried about the morbidity arising from the procedure, and it is interesting that letters on the subject (25 August, pp 495 and 496) should be followed by one reporting rupture of the uterus during prostaglandin-induced abortion--yet another complication to add to those of cervical incompetence, pelvic sepsis, and permanent neurological damage. In so far as these tragedies usually follow late terminations Mr John Corrie's Bill is to be welcomed. A few further points. I am not so cynical as to think that every impregnation is the result of a thoughtless act of male lust. Unlike Professor Peter Huntingford (25 August, p 496), I listen to men as well as women, and many of them are deeply involved emotionally in the pregnancy they have helped to produce. Certainly I think a man should have the right to be consulted if his wife is to undergo a procedure that might damage her health. It is unfair contemptuously to dismiss as "whims" opinions that differ from ones own. These may result from genuine conscientious doubts or inability to cope from overwork and understaffing. Abortion is quite the most expensive form of contraception, and perhaps in these days of financial stringency this should be taken into account. "Bigotry" is defined in my dictionary as "blind zeal." This could be said of those who enthusiastically promote a course of action without regard to circumstances, safety, or cost. PMID:497770

  11. Abortion.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor "Legislative Proposals and Actions" provides US legislative information on abortion. The listing contains information on pending bills: the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available the bill's status. The bills cover: 1) clinic licensing, e.g., requiring outpatient health care facilities in which abortions are performed, to have malpractice liability insurance; 2) comprehensive statues, which require parental notification before minor may obtain abortions, mandate abortion counseling to all women 24 hours before the abortion can be performed and prohibit disciplining or discharging a state employee for refusing to provide abortion counseling; 3) fetal personhood and rights, e.g. providing that life is vested in each person at fertilization; 4) fetal research and remains; 5) gender of fetus, which regulate abortions relative to sex selection in pregnancies; 6) harassment regulation; 7) informed consent and waiting periods detailing the risks and alternatives to abortion, and the 24-hour waiting period; 8) insurance coverage, e.g., eliminating language banning the coverage of abortions for state workers, and prohibiting disclosure by a health insurance carrier to the employer of a claimant that the claimant had a surgical abortion; 9) legality of abortion, urging Congress to reject he Freedom of Choice Act; 10) parental consent and notification; 11) postviability requirements; 12) public funding; 13) reporting requirements; 14) reproductive rights, and 15) spousal and paternal consent and notification. PMID:12286571

  12. [Medical claims and women's experience. Physician-performed abortions in the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Usborne, C

    2000-01-01

    The campaign for abortion reform in the Weimar Republic occasioned passionate disputes between factions supporting and opposing liberalization of abortion laws. Nevertheless, both camps agreed on one issue: that doctors, and only doctors, should be authorized to terminate a pregnancy. The implication was that an operation induced by a registered medical practitioner was safe, while so-called back-street operations were always dangerous. By and large, this view has also been accepted by historians, often uncritically. This article shows that evidence of the very real risks of terminating a pregnancy was open to cultural and political manipulation. The claims of academic physicians were often contradictory: on the one hand, they dismissed the risks of medical procedures as a way of fighting lay abortions; on the other hand, they exaggerated these risks as a way of explaining unsuccessful surgeries. Using a case study from Bavaria at the beginning of the Republic, this article shows the ambiguous role doctors played and the biased view of the courts. It also sheds light on the experience of abortion-seeking women, whose interests were largely ignored by the law enforcement agencies. PMID:14674407

  13. Medical Students and Abortion: Reconciling Personal Beliefs and Professional Roles at One Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dans, Peter E.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of first- and fourth-year Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical students found little change in attitudes about abortion over four years. Attitudes correlated most strongly with personal beliefs about when a fetus is considered human life and somewhat with student gender. Results are used in a medical ethics course to illuminate…

  14. Changes in Service Delivery Patterns After Introduction of Telemedicine Provision of Medical Abortion in Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Grindlay, Kate; Buchacker, Todd; Potter, Joseph E.; Schmertmann, Carl P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effect of a telemedicine model providing medical abortion on service delivery in a clinic system in Iowa. Methods. We reviewed Iowa vital statistic data and billing data from the clinic system for all abortion encounters during the 2 years prior to and after the introduction of telemedicine in June 2008 (n?=?17?956 encounters). We calculated the distance from the patients residential zip code to the clinic and to the closest clinic providing surgical abortion. Results. The abortion rate decreased in Iowa after telemedicine introduction, and the proportion of abortions in the clinics that were medical increased from 46% to 54%. After telemedicine was introduced, and with adjustment for other factors, clinic patients had increased odds of obtaining both medical abortion and abortion before 13 weeks gestation. Although distance traveled to the clinic decreased only slightly, women living farther than 50 miles from the nearest clinic offering surgical abortion were more likely to obtain an abortion after telemedicine introduction. Conclusions. Telemedicine could improve access to medical abortion, especially for women living in remote areas, and reduce second-trimester abortion. PMID:23153158

  15. Rewriting abortion: deploying medical records in jurisdictional negotiation over a forbidden practice in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Siri

    2014-01-01

    Boundary work refers to the strategies deployed by professionals in the arenas of the public, the law and the workplace to define and defend jurisdictional authority. Little attention has been directed to the role of documents in negotiating professional claims. While boundary work over induced abortion has been extensively documented, few studies have examined jurisdictional disputes over the treatment of abortion complications, or post-abortion care (PAC). This study explores how medical providers deploy medical records in boundary work over the treatment of complications of spontaneous and induced abortion in Senegal, where induced abortion is prohibited under any circumstance. Findings are based on an institutional ethnography of Senegal’s national PAC program over a period of 13 months between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with 36 health care professionals, observation of PAC services at three hospitals, a review of abortion records at each hospital, and a case review of illegal abortions prosecuted by the state. Findings show that health providers produce a particular account of the type of abortion treated through a series of practices such as the patient interview and the clinical exam. Providers obscure induced abortion in medical documents in three ways: the use of terminology that does not differentiate between induced and spontaneous abortion in PAC registers, the omission of data on the type of abortion altogether in PAC registers, and reporting the total number but not the type of abortions treated in hospital data transmitted to state health authorities. The obscuration of suspected induced abortion in the record permits providers to circumvent police inquiry at the hospital. PAC has been implemented in nearly 50 countries worldwide. This study demonstrates the need for additional research on how medical professionals negotiate conflicting medical and legal obligations in the daily practice of treating abortion complications. PMID:24608117

  16. Rewriting abortion: deploying medical records in jurisdictional negotiation over a forbidden practice in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Suh, Siri

    2014-05-01

    Boundary work refers to the strategies deployed by professionals in the arenas of the public, the law and the workplace to define and defend jurisdictional authority. Little attention has been directed to the role of documents in negotiating professional claims. While boundary work over induced abortion has been extensively documented, few studies have examined jurisdictional disputes over the treatment of abortion complications, or post-abortion care (PAC). This study explores how medical providers deploy medical records in boundary work over the treatment of complications of spontaneous and induced abortion in Senegal, where induced abortion is prohibited under any circumstance. Findings are based on an institutional ethnography of Senegal's national PAC program over a period of 13 months between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with 36 health care professionals, observation of PAC services at three hospitals, a review of abortion records at each hospital, and a case review of illegal abortions prosecuted by the state. Findings show that health providers produce a particular account of the type of abortion treated through a series of practices such as the patient interview and the clinical exam. Providers obscure induced abortion in medical documents in three ways: the use of terminology that does not differentiate between induced and spontaneous abortion in PAC registers, the omission of data on the type of abortion altogether in PAC registers, and reporting the total number but not the type of abortions treated in hospital data transmitted to state health authorities. The obscuration of suspected induced abortion in the record permits providers to circumvent police inquiry at the hospital. PAC has been implemented in approximately 50 countries worldwide. This study demonstrates the need for additional research on how medical professionals negotiate conflicting medical and legal obligations in the daily practice of treating abortion complications. PMID:24608117

  17. [Abortion].

    PubMed

    Nunes, J P

    1998-01-01

    Abortion is the interruption of a dynamic process in a final and irreversible form. The legalization of abortion is applied to human ontogenesis, that is, the development of the human being. However, the embryo that is growing in the uterus is not a human being because a human being is a complex organism with differentiated systems, its own identity and intrinsic autonomy in its process of development. There are basically four levels of the analysis of the problem of abortion: 1) fundamental emotional arguments; 2) profound ignorance of technical and scientific facts; 3) rational positions obfuscated by the dramatic intensity of everyday situations; and 4) the conjunction of deliberated position where culpability is avoided with solidarity for all subjects of the process with a socially oriented view. The phenomenon of abortion from an epidemiological point of view summons the facts with which it is associated: poverty, illiteracy, shortage or lack of community health resources, absence of centers for adolescents, degradation of the environment, and precariousness of employment. PMID:9653371

  18. [Medical abortion 15-22g.w. first experience with mifepriston administration in Bulgaria].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, A

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion by definition is termination of pregnancy by means of administration of abortifacient pharmaceutical drugs. The most widely spread abortifacients are Mifepriston and Misoprostol. This is the gold standard for induced abortion worldwide, for first trimester, as well as for second. In Bulgaria Mifepriston is available as of June 2014. We represent here our first experience in administering Mifepriston for induced abortion in second trimester. We share our first impressions and discuss the results. PMID:25510045

  19. Laboratory Procedures for Medical Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pauline

    The purpose of the manual is to provide the medical assisting student a text which presents the common laboratory procedures in use today in physician's offices. The procedures for performing a complete urinalysis are outlined, along with those for carrying out various hematological tests. Information is also presented to help the student learn to…

  20. Medically indigent women seeking abortion prior to legalization: New York City, 1969-1970.

    PubMed

    Belsky, J E

    1992-01-01

    If the efforts now underway to limit access to abortion services in the United States are successful, their greatest impact will be on women who lack the funds to obtain abortions elsewhere. There is little published information, however, about the experience of medically indigent women who sought abortions under the old, restrictive state laws. This article details the psychiatric evaluation of 199 women requesting a therapeutic abortion at a large municipal hospital in New York City under a restrictive abortion law. Thirty-nine percent had tried to abort the pregnancy. Fifty-seven percent had concrete evidence of serious psychiatric disorder. Forty-eight percent had been traumatized by severe family disruption, gross emotional deprivation or abuse during childhood. Seventy-nine percent lacked emotional support from the man responsible for the pregnancy, and the majority were experiencing overwhelming stress from the interplay of multiple problems exacerbated by their unwanted pregnancy. PMID:1628716

  1. Electronic Procedures for Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Electronic procedures are replacing text-based documents for recording the steps in performing medical operations aboard the International Space Station. S&K Aerospace, LLC, has developed a content-based electronic system-based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard-that separates text from formatting standards and tags items contained in procedures so they can be recognized by other electronic systems. For example, to change a standard format, electronic procedures are changed in a single batch process, and the entire body of procedures will have the new format. Procedures can be quickly searched to determine which are affected by software and hardware changes. Similarly, procedures are easily shared with other electronic systems. The system also enables real-time data capture and automatic bookmarking of current procedure steps. In Phase II of the project, S&K Aerospace developed a Procedure Representation Language (PRL) and tools to support the creation and maintenance of electronic procedures for medical operations. The goal is to develop these tools in such a way that new advances can be inserted easily, leading to an eventual medical decision support system.

  2. Medical versus surgical abortion: a survey of knowledge and attitudes among abortion clinic patients.

    PubMed

    Virgo, K S; Carr, T R; Hile, A; Virgo, J M; Sullivan, G M; Kaikati, J G

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 405 abortion clinic patients identified confusion regarding the purpose of RU 486 and lack of commitment to required follow-up visits, suggesting a need for widespread educational efforts. PMID:10340020

  3. Medication Abortion Through Telemedicine: Implications of a Ruling by the Iowa Supreme Court.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Tony; Kozhimannil, Katy B

    2016-02-01

    In summer 2015, the Iowa Supreme Court unanimously struck down a restriction that would have prevented physicians from administering a medication abortion remotely through video teleconferencing. In its ruling, the Iowa Supreme Court stated that the restriction would have placed an undue burden on a woman's right to access abortion services. It is crucially important for clinicians-especially primary care clinicians, obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns), and all health care providers of telemedicine services-to understand the implications of this recent ruling, especially in rural settings. The Court's decision has potential ramifications across the country, for both women's access to abortion and the field of telemedicine. Today telemedicine abortion is available only in Iowa and Minnesota; 18 states have adopted bans on it. If telemedicine abortions are indeed being unconstitutionally restricted as the Iowa Supreme Court determined, court decisions reversing these bans could improve access to abortion services for the 21 million reproductive-age women living in these 18 states, which have a limited supply of ob-gyns, mostly concentrated in urban, metropolitan areas. Beyond the potential effects on abortion access, we argue that the Court's decision also has broader implications for telemedicine, by limiting the role of state boards of medicine regarding the restriction of politically controversial medical services when provided through telemedicine. The interplay between telemedicine policy, abortion politics, and the science of medicine is at the heart of the Court's decision and has meaning beyond Iowa's borders for reproductive-age women across the United States. PMID:26942359

  4. [Abortion in Colombia. Medical, legal and socioeconomic aspects].

    PubMed

    Umaña, A O

    1973-01-01

    Abortion is a social problem and criminal sanctions are very ineffective in limiting it and are seldom applied (133 legal actions vs. 65,600 cases of induced abortion in 1965). Abortion is a social disease, as are prostitution, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse, and so far has been an insoluble problem. Colombian laws should be modified to reflect reality. Sex education must be emphasized, because ignorance is one of the main causes of abortion. Leniency should be applied toward women who cooperate with the authorities in identifying the person who performed an abortion. Legalization of abortion and enforcement of strict laws against it are considered as possible solutions, but both are rejected. The former is regarded as morally unacceptable and as imposing an excessive burden on scarce health services, the latter as even worse, imposing an equivalent burden on the court system, without s olving either health or social problems. The best and probably only solution is to improve education in family planning, to promote knowledge and motivation to enable the population to make sound and responsible decisions. PMID:4804875

  5. Emotional Sequelae of Abortion: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemkau, Jeanne Parr

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes literature on normative reactions to abortion and factors that increase risk of negative emotional sequelae. Discusses characteristics of woman, social support and cultural milieu around the abortion, the medical environment and abortion procedure itself, and events subsequent to abortion which may cause conflict. Discusses implications…

  6. Emotional Sequelae of Abortion: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemkau, Jeanne Parr

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes literature on normative reactions to abortion and factors that increase risk of negative emotional sequelae. Discusses characteristics of woman, social support and cultural milieu around the abortion, the medical environment and abortion procedure itself, and events subsequent to abortion which may cause conflict. Discusses implications

  7. Medical management of missed abortion and anembryonic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    el-Refaey, H; Hinshaw, K; Henshaw, R; Smith, N; Templeton, A

    1992-12-01

    Mifepristone (an antiprogesterone) and misoprostol (a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1) were administered to 60 women diagnosed with missed abortion or anembryonic pregnancy (gestation sac present but no developing embryo) equivalent to 13 weeks' gestation or less who were recruited after counselling. The median age was 227 (range 15-44), and the median duration of amenorrhoea was 71 (42-110) days. 25 of the women had been referred for ultrasound scanning because of bleeding in early pregnancy, while the rest were diagnosed by routine scanning. 29 patients had anembryonic pregnancies, and 31 had a missed abortion. Each patient received a 600 mg single oral dose of mifepristone, and 36-48 hours later misoprostol 600 mcg was given orally (400 mcg and, 2 hours later, 200 mcg). If the products of conception were not expelled within 4 hours, vaginal ultrasonography was performed. 8 patients aborted with mifepristone alone, 43 aborted after taking 600 mcg of misoprostol, and 5 more aborted after receiving a 2nd divided dose of 600 mcg misoprostol. In 3 patients the treatment failed, and they underwent evacuation of the uterus under general anaesthesia. Exploratory curettage was performed in 2 other patients at 14 and 22 days after treatment with misoprostol, but no products of conception were obtained. The median time from administration of misoprostol to abortion was 4 (1-11) hours. The median duration of bleeding after abortion was 10 (2-22) days. Side effects included nausea, vomiting (5 patients received antiemetic drugs), and diarrhoea (7 patients) from misoprostol treatment. 39 women did not want any pain relief, 13 asked for oral analgesia, and 7 obtained parenteral analgesia. PMID:1486304

  8. Medical opinion on abortion in Jamaica: a national Delphi survey of physician, nurses, and midwives.

    PubMed

    Smith, K A; Johnson, R L

    1976-12-01

    A national sample of 120 Jamaican physicians, public health nurses, and licensed midwives participated in a two-stage Delphi survey to identify medical opinion on proposed liberlization of Jamaica's abortion law, and to predict the likely impact of such legislative action on existing health and family planning services. More than 80 percent of the respondents favored legalization of abortion, and most supported changes in the health service delivery system to accommodate the expected demand. They believed that clandestine abortion, involving pharmacists and physicians, is already widely practiced. PMID:996897

  9. Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm hidden behind septic abortion: pseudoaneurysm without preceding procedure.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Shigeki; Nakata, Manabu; Baba, Yosuke; Suzuki, Haruna; Nakamura, Hiroyasu; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2014-02-01

    Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) can occur after cesarean section or traumatic delivery, usually manifesting as postpartum hemorrhage. Here we report a patient with UAP possibly caused by septic abortion. She had high fever and bleeding with positive urine pregnancy test. We diagnosed this condition as septic abortion. Ultrasound revealed an intrauterine echogenic mass and color Doppler revealed swirling blood flow within the mass. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a heterogeneously enhanced intrauterine mass. Selective internal iliac artery angiography revealed contrast medium within the mass immediately after medium injection. Bilateral uterine artery embolization was performed, after which medium no longer accumulated in the uterus, and hemostasis was achieved, confirming the diagnosis as UAP. Antibiotic treatment ameliorated the infection and the uterine content was expelled and absorbed. UAP can occur even without preceding procedures and may manifest abortive, and not postpartum, hemorrhage. UAP may be hidden behind septic abortion. PMID:24118644

  10. Roles of pharmacists in expanding access to safe and effective medical abortion in developing countries: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sneeringer, Robyn K; Billings, Deborah L; Ganatra, Bela; Baird, Traci L

    2012-01-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major contributor to maternal mortality and morbidity around the world. This article examines the role of pharmacists in expanding women's access to safe medical abortion in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Available research shows that although pharmacists and pharmacy workers often sell abortion medications to women, accurate information about how to use the medications safely and effectively is rarely offered. No publication covered effective interventions by pharmacists to expand access to medical abortion, but lessons can be learned from successful interventions with other reproductive health services. To better serve women, increasing awareness and improving training for pharmacists and pharmacy workers about unsafe abortion – and medications that can safely induce abortion – are needed. PMID:22402571

  11. Prenatal diagnosis and female abortion: a case study in medical law and ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Dickens, B M

    1986-01-01

    Alarm over the prospect that prenatal diagnostic techniques, which permit identification of fetal sex and facilitate abortion of healthy but unwanted female fetuses has led some to urge their outright prohibition. This article argues against that response. Prenatal diagnosis permits timely action to preserve and enhance the life and health of fetuses otherwise endangered, and, by offering assurance of fetal normality, may often encourage continuation of pregnancies otherwise vulnerable to termination. Further, conditions in some societies may sometimes render excusable the inclination to abort certain healthy female fetuses. In places where abortion for fetal sex alone is recognised as unethical, however, medical licensing authorities already possess the power to discipline, for professional misconduct, physicians who prescribe or perform prenatal diagnosis purely to identify fetal sex, or those who disclose fetal sex when that is unrelated to the fetus's medical condition. PMID:3761335

  12. [Abortion and birth control].

    PubMed

    Soutoul, J H

    1980-12-11

    Induced abortion and sexual sterilization are the most common contraceptive methods in the world today. There were an estimated 40 million abortions in 1979, notwithstanding the fact that Islamism, Catholicism, and Buddhism are strongly against the practice. Some international and powerful organizations, notably the IPPF, are trying to expand abortion and sterilization services in the third world, while in the countries of the socialist block abortion as a contraceptive measure is being slowly replaced by oral contraception. On the other hand, in North America, England, and in the Scandinavian countries abortion and sterilization are gradually replacing oral contraception as the most used method of fertility control. The number of abortions in France is now estimated to be 30-40/100 live births, a percentage that very probably underestimates the reality; in France the number of abortions is almost the same in rural and in urban areas. Modern and highly effective methods of contraception are still preferred to abortion and sterilization. It would seem important to warn women against the clinical dangers of repeated abortions, and against the psychological dangers of sterilization and against the banalization of both such radical procedures. The responsibility for such medical acts does not only belong to women or to couples and to physicians, but to politicians and to members of the legal professions. PMID:7455552

  13. Peri-Abortion Contraceptive Choices of Migrant Chinese Women: A Retrospective Review of Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Sally B.; Wei, Zhang; Cooper, Annette J.; Lawton, Beverley A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Migrant Asian women reportedly have low levels of contraceptive use and high rates of abortion in New Zealand. Chinese make up the largest proportion of migrant Asian in New Zealand. This study aimed to describe the contraceptive choices of Chinese women seeking abortion; to examine method choice in relation to demographic characteristics (including length of stay) and to determine whether Chinese women were over-represented among abortion clinic attendees. Methods Retrospective review of medical records at a public hospital abortion clinic involving 305 Chinese women. Previously collected data for European (n = 277) and Maori women (n = 128) were used for comparative analyses. Regression analyses explored correlates of contraceptive method choice. Population census data were used to calculate rates of clinic attendance across ethnic groups. Results Chinese women were not over-represented among clinic attendees, and had similar rates of contraceptive non-use pre-abortion as women in comparison groups. Use of the oral contraceptive pill by Chinese was lower pre-abortion than for other ethnic groups, but choice of this method post-abortion was similar for Chinese (46.9%, 95% CI 41–52.7) and European women (43.7%, 95% CI 37.8–49.7). Post-abortion choice of an intrauterine device did not differ significantly between Chinese (28.9%, 95% CI 23.8–34.3) and Maori women (37%, 95% CI 28.4–45.7), but was higher than uptake of this method by European women (21.7%, 95% CI 17–27.0). Age, parity and previous abortion were significant predictors of post-abortion method choice by Chinese women (p<0.05). Conclusions Following contraceptive counseling at the clinic, Chinese women chose more effective contraceptive methods for use post-abortion than they had used previously. As the population of migrant Chinese in New Zealand continues to increase, strategies are urgently needed to provide new arrivals with appropriate information and advice about contraception and where to access it, so women can be better prepared to avoid unplanned pregnancy. PMID:22768231

  14. Abortion laws and medical developments: a medico-legal anomaly in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kerry

    2011-03-01

    In October 2010 the District Court sitting in Cairns, Queensland, found Tegan Leach not guilty of attempting to procure her own abortion and Sergie Brennan not guilty of supplying Leach with the drugs Mifepristone and Misoprostol to procure an abortion. Brennan obtained the drugs from his sister in the Ukraine through the regular postal system. R v Brennan and Leach was the first case in Queensland's history where a woman was charged with procuring her own abortion. The drugs are accepted by the medical profession worldwide for medical abortions. A prosecution witness gave evidence that Mifepristone is not harmful or injurious to the health of a woman and it is listed as an essential medicine by the World Health Organisation and approved for use by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. The jury found the defendants not guilty because they were not satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that the combination of the drugs Mifepristone and Misoprostol was a "noxious" substance under the Criminal Code (Old). This article concludes that there is no regulatory miracle which will stop the traffic of Mifepristone and Misoprostol into Australia and therefore an intelligent regulatory response is required which would make it unnecessary for women to seek Mifepristone and Misoprostol from overseas networks and the internet. Among other things, this would include the repeal of confusing, inappropriate and ineffective abortion laws. PMID:21528743

  15. 'The trial the world is watching': the 1972 prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, abortion, and the regulation of the medical profession in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Susanne M

    2014-04-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman's life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country's newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary's stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their 'duty' to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites' attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa's extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430

  16. Understanding women's experiences with medical abortion: In-depth interviews with women in two Indian clinics.

    PubMed

    Ganatra, B; Kalyanwala, S; Elul, B; Coyaji, K; Tewari, S

    2010-01-01

    We explored women's perspectives on using medical abortion, including their reasons for selecting the method, their experiences with it and their thoughts regarding demedicalisation of part or all of the process. Sixty-three women from two urban clinics in India were interviewed within four weeks of abortion completion using a semi-structured in-depth interview guide. While women appreciated the non-invasiveness of medical abortion, other factors influencing method selection were family support and distance from the facility. The degree of medicalisation that women wanted or felt was necessary also depended on the way expectations were set by their providers. Confirmation of abortion completion was a source of anxiety for many women and led to unnecessary interventions in a few cases. Ultimately, experiences depended more on women's expectations about the method, and on the level of emotional and logistic support they received rather than on inherent characteristics of the method. These findings emphasise the circumstances under which women make reproductive choices and underscore the need to tailor service delivery to meet women's needs. Women-centred counselling and care that takes into consideration individual circumstances are needed. PMID:19431005

  17. Safe, accessible medical abortion in a rural Tamil Nadu clinic, India, but what about sexual and reproductive rights?

    PubMed

    Sri, Subha B; Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2015-02-01

    Women's control over their own bodies and reproduction is a fundamental prerequisite to the achievement of sexual and reproductive health and rights. A woman's ability to terminate an unwanted pregnancy has been seen as the exercise of her reproductive rights. This study reports on interviews with 15 women in rural South India who had a medical abortion. It examines the circumstances under which they chose to have an abortion and their perspectives on medical abortion. Women in this study decided to have an abortion when multiple factors like lack of spousal support for child care or contraception, hostile in-laws, economic hardship, poor health of the woman herself, spousal violence, lack of access to suitable contraceptive methods, and societal norms regarding reproduction and sexuality converged to oppress them. The availability of an easy and affordable method like medical abortion pills helped the women get out of a difficult situation, albeit temporarily. Medical abortion also fulfilled their special needs by ensuring confidentiality, causing least disruption of their domestic schedule, and dispensing with the need for rest or a caregiver. The study concludes that medical abortion can help women in oppressive situations. However, this will not deliver gender equality or women's empowerment; social conditions need to change for that. PMID:25702077

  18. Reaching women where they are: eliminating the initial in-person medical abortion visit.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Grossman, Daniel; Wiebe, Ellen; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-09-01

    The requirement that every woman desiring medical abortion must come in person to a clinical facility to obtain the drugs is a substantial barrier for many women. To eliminate this requirement in the United States, two key components of the standard initial visit would need to be restructured. First, alternatives to ultrasound and pelvic exam would need to be identified for ensuring that gestational age is within the limit for safe and effective treatment. This is probably feasible: for example, data from a large study suggest that in selected patients menstrual history is highly sensitive for this purpose. Second, the Food and Drug Administration would need to remove the medically unwarranted restriction on distribution of mifepristone. These two changes could allow provision of the service by a broader range of providers in nontraditional venues or even by telemedicine. Such options could have profound benefits in reducing cost and expanding access to abortion. PMID:26134280

  19. Addressing gaps in abortion education: a sexual health elective created by medical students.

    PubMed

    Caro-Bruce, Emily; Schoenfeld, Elizabeth; Nothnagle, Melissa; Taylor, Julie

    2006-05-01

    Medical school curricula frequently contain gaps in the areas of abortion and sexual health. A group of first- and second-year medical students at the authors' institution organized a collaborative, multidisciplinary elective course to address such omissions in the preclinical curriculum. This paper describes the process of creating and implementing the elective. Medical students identified curricular gaps in the areas of abortion, sexual assault, lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender health, and HIV counseling. Clinical faculty and community-based professionals were invited to address these topics in a weekly lecture series organized by students. The course also included a half-day experience shadowing at a local abortion clinic. Collaboration with several student groups helped broaden student interest in and increase financial support for the elective. Some 37% of all first- and second-year students enrolled in the elective and received institutional credit for the course. Written and verbal evaluations confirmed student satisfaction with the lectures and the clinical experience. Dynamic and well-prepared speakers who presented interesting medical content received the highest ratings from students. Student leaders identified several challenges in implementing the elective. Ultimately the elective proved to be a successful collaboration among students, faculty, and healthcare providers, and resulted in permanent changes in the standard medical school curriculum. Challenges for student-initiated electives include difficulty in finding administrative support, securing funding and ensuring sustainability. This paper aims to make this process accessible and applicable to other students and faculty interested in addressing curricular gaps at their respective medical schools. PMID:16753723

  20. Nurse versus physician-provision of early medical abortion in Mexico: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    Ganatra, Bela; Sorhaindo, Annik; Karver, Tahilin S; Seuc, Armando; Villalobos, Aremis; García, Sandra G; Pérez, Martha; Bousieguez, Manuel; Sanhueza, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the effectiveness, safety, and acceptability of nurse provision of early medical abortion compared to physicians at three facilities in Mexico City. Methods We conducted a randomized non-inferiority trial on the provision of medical abortion and contraceptive counselling by physicians or nurses. The participants were pregnant women seeking abortion at a gestational duration of 70 days or less. The medical abortion regimen was 200 mg of oral mifepristone taken on-site followed by 800 μg of misoprostol self–administered buccally at home 24 hours later. Women were instructed to return to the clinic for follow-up 7–15 days later. We did an intention-to-treat analysis for risk differences between physicians’ and nurses’ provision for completion and the need for surgical intervention. Findings Of 1017 eligible women, 884 women were included in the intention-to-treat analysis, 450 in the physician-provision arm and 434 in the nurse-provision arm. Women who completed medical abortion, without the need for surgical intervention, were 98.4% (443/450) for physicians’ provision and 97.9% (425/434) for nurses’ provision. The risk difference between the group was 0.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: −1.2% to 2.3%). There were no differences between providers for examined gestational duration or women’s contraceptive method uptake. Both types of providers were rated by the women as highly acceptable. Conclusion Nurses’ provision of medical abortion is as safe, acceptable and effective as provision by physicians in this setting. Authorizing nurses to provide medical abortion can help to meet the demand for safe abortion services. PMID:26229189

  1. The effectiveness of using misoprostol with and without letrozole for successful medical abortion: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Naghshineh, Elham; Allame, Zahra; Farhat, Faezah

    2015-01-01

    Background: In developing countries it is important to the exploration of available and safe regimens for medical abortion. The present study was designed to assess the effect of letrozole compared to placebo pretreatment followed by sublingual misoprostol for therapeutic abortion in eligible women with gestational age less than 17 weeks. Materials and Methods: In this randomized control trail, 130 women eligible for legal abortions were randomly divided into two groups of case and controls. Cases received daily oral dose of 10 mg letrozole 10 mg letrozole for three days followed by sublingual misoprostol. Controls received daily oral dose of placebo followed by sublingual misoprostol. The dose of misoprostol was administrated according to ACOG guidelines based on patients’ gestational age. The rate of complete abortion, induction-of-abortion time, and side-effects were assessed as main outcomes. Results: Complete abortion was observed in 46 (76.7%) letrozole group and 26 (42.6%) controls (P < 0.0001). Also, in 14 subjects of letrozole group and 35 subjects in placebo group, the placenta was not delivered during follow-up and curettage was performed. The mean interval induction-to-abortion was 5.1 h in letrozole group and 8.9 h in control (P < 0.0001). The cumulative rates of the induction-of-abortion time were a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.0001). The incidence and severity of side-effects was comparable for the two groups (P = 0.9). Conclusion: Letrozole could be a quite beneficial adjuvant to misoprostol for induction of complete abortion in those who are candidates for legal medical abortion. PMID:26600834

  2. God's bullies: attacks on abortion.

    PubMed

    Hadley, J

    1994-01-01

    National politics in the US, Poland, and Ireland have in recent years been afire with debate over abortion. Conflicting abortion laws almost scuttled the reunification of Germany. This paper describes how the abortion debate took hold in post-Communist Poland and how the issue came to be so entrenched in US politics in the wake of the US Supreme Court's 1973 decision on abortion in the case of Roe vs. Wade. It focuses upon abortion mainly as a method of birth control which women have always sought when needed regardless of the procedure's legal status. The controversies and campaigns recorded and the ideas offered focus upon women's access to affordable, safe, and legal abortion. The author argues that Poland is no place to be a woman and presents sections on the country's church, government, and medical profession; Roe vs. Wade; who opposes abortion rights and their broad success; the 1992 US presidential election; Bill Clinton's presidency; why the abortion debate has been different in Britain; and new issues on abortion. PMID:12290677

  3. Women's experiences with the use of medical abortion in a legally restricted context: the case of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Silvina; Romero, Mariana; Aizenberg, Lila

    2015-02-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study exploring the experiences of women living in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, Argentina, with the use of misoprostol for inducing an abortion. We asked women about the range of decisions they had to make, their emotions, the physical experience, strategies they needed to use, including seeking health care advice and in dealing with a clandestine medical abortion, and their overall evaluation of the experience. An in-depth interview schedule was used. The women had either used misoprostol and sought counselling or care at a public hospital (n=24) or had used misoprostol based on the advice of a local hotline, information from the internet or from other women (n=21). Four stages in the women's experiences were identified: how the decision to terminate the pregnancy was taken, how the medication was obtained, how the tablets were used, and reflections on the outcome whether or not they sought medical advice. Safety and privacy were key in deciding to use medical abortion. Access to the medication was the main obstacle, requiring a prescription or a friendly drugstore. Correct information about the number of pills to use and dosage intervals was the least easy to obtain and caused concerns. The possibility of choosing a time of privacy and having the company of a close one was highlighted as a unique advantage of medical abortion. Efforts to improve abortion law, policy and service provision in Argentina in order to ensure the best possible conditions for use of medical abortion by women should be redoubled. PMID:25702064

  4. Level of awareness about legalization of abortion in Nepal: a study at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, H; Risal, A

    2010-06-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 25.0% of all pregnancies worldwide end in induced abortion, approximately 50 million each year. More than half of these abortions are performed under unsafe conditions resulting in high maternal mortality ratio specially in developing countries like Nepal. Abortion was legalized under specified conditions in March 2002 in Nepal. But still a large proportion of population are unaware of the legalization and the conditions under which it is permitted. Legal reform alone cannot reduce abortion related deaths in our country. This study was undertaken with the main objective to study the level of awareness about legalization of abortion in women attending gyne out patients department of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital (NMCTH), which will give a baseline knowledge for further dissemination and advocacy about abortion law. Total 200 women participated in the study. Overall 133 (66.5%) women said they were aware of legalization of abortion in Nepal. Women of age group 20-34 years, urban residents, service holders, Brahmin/Chhetri caste and with higher education were more aware about it. Majority (92.0%) of the women received information from the media. Detail knowledge about legal conditions under which abortion can be performed specially in second trimester was found to be poor. Large proportion (71.0%) of the women were still unaware of the availability of comprehensive abortion care services at our hospital, which is being provided since last seven years. Public education and advocacy campaigns are crucial to create awareness about the new legislation and availability of services. Unless the advocacy and awareness campaign reaches women, they are not likely to benefit from the legal reform and services. PMID:21222401

  5. Induced abortion--a global health problem.

    PubMed

    Odlind, V

    1997-01-01

    Every year around 500,000 women are estimated to die from pregnancy-related causes, the majority in the developing world and many as a consequence of unsafe abortion. Around 25 per cent of maternal deaths in Asia and 30-50 per cent of maternal deaths in Africa and Latin America occur as a result of induced abortion. Data on abortion related maternal morbidity is less reliable than mortality but suggests that for every maternal death 10-15 women suffer significant pregnancy-related morbidity, i.e. infertility, genito-urinary problems and/or chronic pain. Induced abortion occurs in practically every society in the world but only 40 per cent of the women in the world live in countries where abortion is legally free. A permissive legislation is an important prerequisite for medically safe and early abortion. Oppositely, with a restrictive law, abortion is difficult to obtain, costly and possibly unsafe, in particular to the least affluent women in the society. Induced abortion in a developed country with legal and easy access to services is a safe procedure with hardly any mortality and very low morbidity. The best strategy to reduce the number of unsafe abortions is prevention of unwanted pregnancy. The consequences of unsafe abortion on women's health need to be acknowledged by everybody in the society in order to improve abortion care. It is necessary to adjust legal and other barriers to medically safe abortion in order to follow the declaration at the UN conference on population in Cairo, 1994, which stated that abortion, wherever legal, should be safe. It is also necessary to introduce preventive measures where abortions are performed, i.e. good and easily accessible family planning services. PMID:9225636

  6. Medical Office Laboratory Procedures: Course Proposal. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eleanor

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia course, entitled "Medical Office Laboratory Procedures," which provides a laboratory introduction to microscopic and chemical analysis of blood and urine as performed in the physician's office. Following a standard cover form, a statement of the purpose of the course discusses course

  7. Medical Office Laboratory Procedures: Course Proposal. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eleanor

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia course, entitled "Medical Office Laboratory Procedures," which provides a laboratory introduction to microscopic and chemical analysis of blood and urine as performed in the physician's office. Following a standard cover form, a statement of the purpose of the course discusses course…

  8. Youth often risk unsafe abortions.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B

    1993-10-01

    The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to seeking safe abortion. Some countries lack adequately trained medical personnel and supplies. Mortality and morbidity declines are considered possible with legalization, more trained health personnel, and family planning programs for youth and education for parents. PMID:12287144

  9. Abortions in rural Idaho: physicians' attitudes and practices.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, R A; Mattis, R; Hart, L G

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed all family physicians, obstetrician-gynecologists, and general surgeons practicing in rural Idaho in 1994. Although most respondents provided a wide range of reproductive health services, less than 4% performed abortions, so most rural Idaho women wanting abortions must travel long distances for this procedure. Physicians report that they do not provide abortion services because of both their own moral objections and local community opposition to the procedure. Yet 26% of the respondents indicated interest in using RU-486 for abortions when it becomes available. This suggests that the development of acceptable medical abortifacients may improve access to this procedure even in very conservative rural areas. PMID:7573629

  10. Most deaths related to abortion occur in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Ciment, J

    1999-06-01

    A new publication of the World Health Organization, "Abortion in the Developing World," reports that 40% of the 50 million abortions performed each year are unsafe, and 90% of these medically perilous procedures occur in developing countries. Although the 30 million abortions performed annually in developing countries represent 60% of the global total, they account for 95% of abortion-related deaths. Abortion was illegal in 94% of the developing countries included in the WHO study. Unexpectedly, the proportion of women who were using contraception when they experienced an unintended pregnancy was similar in countries with strong family planning programs and those with weak or nonexistent programs. PMID:10355997

  11. Change in abortion services after implementation of a restrictive law in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Daniel; Baum, Sarah; Fuentes, Liza; White, Kari; Hopkins, Kristine; Stevenson, Amanda; Potter, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In 2013, Texas passed omnibus legislation restricting abortion services. Provisions restricting medical abortion, banning most procedures after 20 weeks and requiring physicians to have hospital admitting privileges were enforced in November 2013; by September 2014, abortion facilities must meet the requirements of ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs). We aimed to rapidly assess the change in abortion services after the first three provisions went into effect. Study Design We requested information from all licensed Texas abortion facilities on abortions performed between November 2012 and April 2014, including the abortion method and gestational age (<12 weeks versus ≥12 weeks). Results In May 2013, there were 41 facilities providing abortion in Texas; this decreased to 22 in November 2013. Both clinics closed in the Rio Grande Valley, and all but one closed in West Texas. Comparing November 2012–April 2013 to November 2013–April 2014, there was a 13% decrease in the abortion rate (from 12.9 to 11.2 abortions/1000 women age 15–44). Medical abortion decreased by 70%, from 28.1% of all abortions in the earlier period to 9.7% after November 2013 (p<0.001). Second-trimester abortion increased from 13.5% to 13.9% of all abortions (p<0.001). Only 22% of abortions were performed in the state’s six ASCs. Conclusions The closure of clinics and restrictions on medical abortion in Texas appear to be associated with a decline in the in-state abortion rate and a marked decrease in the number of medical abortions. Implications Supply-side restrictions on abortion—especially restrictions on medical abortion—can have a profound impact on access to services. Access to abortion care will become even further restricted in Texas when the ASC requirement goes into effect in 2014. PMID:25128413

  12. Mortality from abortion after Roe vs Wade.

    PubMed

    Smargisso, Dana M; Lester, David

    2002-12-01

    The decline in mortality from abortions after Roe vs Wade was probably a result of the introduction of safer procedures for abortions, but the decline in mortality was greater for induced abortions than for other types of abortions. PMID:12530723

  13. Road map to scaling-up: translating operations research study’s results into actions for expanding medical abortion services in rural health facilities in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying unsafe abortion among the major causes of maternal deaths and respecting the rights to health of women, in 2002, the Nepali parliament liberalized abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy on request. However, enhancing women’s awareness on and access to safe and legal abortion services, particularly in rural areas, remains a challenge in Nepal despite a decade of the initiation of safe abortion services. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, an operations research study was carried out using quasi-experimental design to determine the effectiveness of engaging female community health volunteers, auxiliary nurse midwives, and nurses to provide medical abortion services from outreach health facilities to increase the accessibility and acceptability of women to medical abortion. This paper describes key components of the operations research study, key research findings, and follow-up actions that contributed to create a conducive environment and evidence in scaling up medical abortion services in rural areas of Nepal. Results It was found that careful planning and implementation, continuous advocacy, and engagement of key stakeholders, including key government officials, from the planning stage of study is not only crucial for successful completion of the project but also instrumental for translating research results into action and policy change. While challenges remained at different levels, medical abortion services delivered by nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives working at rural outreach health facilities without oversight of physicians was perceived to be accessible, effective, and of good quality by the service providers and the women who received medical abortion services from these rural health facilities. Conclusions This research provided further evidence and a road-map for expanding medical abortion services to rural areas by mid-level service providers in minimum clinical settings without the oversight of physicians, thus reducing complications and deaths due to unsafe abortion. PMID:24886393

  14. ‘The Trial the World is Watching’: The 1972 Prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, Abortion, and the Regulation of the Medical Profession in Apartheid South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Klausen, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman’s life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country’s newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary’s stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their ‘duty’ to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites’ attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa’s extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430

  15. Patient experience of sexual hallucinations after propofol-induced painless abortion may lead to violence against medical personnel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Yi, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Painless abortion is an outpatient surgical procedure performed under general anesthesia, which requires an appropriate anesthetic reagent that must be safe, comfortable for the patient, and highly controllable. At present, fentanyl and propofol are first-choice anesthetic reagents in clinical applications. However, both have various side effects, including the inhibition of respiration and circulation and the occurrence of postoperative sexual fantasies and amorous behavior. In this report, we will demonstrate three cases of allegations of assault and violence caused by sexual hallucinations in patients who were anesthetized with propofol and fentanyl during painless abortion surgery. PMID:27017209

  16. Assessment of completion of early medical abortion using a text questionnaire on mobile phones compared to a self-administered paper questionnaire among women attending four clinics, Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Constant, Deborah; de Tolly, Katherine; Harries, Jane; Myer, Landon

    2015-02-01

    In-clinic follow-up to assess completion of medical abortion is no longer a requirement according to World Health Organization guidance, provided adequate counselling is given. However, timely recognition of ongoing pregnancy, complications or incomplete abortion, which require treatment, is important. As part of a larger trial, this study aimed to establish whether women having a medical abortion could self-assess whether their abortion was complete using an automated, interactive questionnaire on their mobile phones. All 469 participants received standard abortion care and all returnees filled in a self-assessment on paper at clinic follow-up 2-3 weeks later. The 234 women allocated to receive the phone messages were also asked to do a mobile phone assessment at home ten days post-misoprostol. Completion of the mobile assessment was tracked by computer and all completed assessments, paper and mobile, were compared to providers' assessments at clinic follow-up. Of the 226 women able to access the mobile phone assessment, 176 (78%) completed it; 161 of them (93%) reported it was easy to do so. Neither mobile nor paper self-assessments predicted all cases needing additional treatment at follow-up. Prediction of complete procedures was good; 71% of mobile assessments and 91% of paper assessments were accurate. We conclude that an interactive questionnaire assessing completion of medical abortion on mobile phones is feasible in the South African setting; however, it should be done later than day 10 and combined with an appropriate pregnancy test to accurately detect incomplete procedures. PMID:25702072

  17. Using a harm reduction lens to examine post-intervention results of medical abortion training among Zambian pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Fetters, Tamara; Raisanen, Keris; Mupeta, Stephen; Malisikwanda, Isikanda; Vwalika, Bellington; Osur, Joachim; Dijkerman, Sally

    2015-02-01

    Despite broad grounds for legal abortion in Zambia, access to abortion services remains limited. Pharmacy workers, a primary source of health care for communities, present an opportunity to bridge the gap between policy and practice. As part of a larger operations study, 80 pharmacy workers, both registered pharmacists and their assistants, participated in a training on medical abortion in 2009 and 2010. Fifty-five of the 80 pharmacy workers completed an anonymous, structured training pre-test, treated as a baseline questionnaire; 53 of the 80 trainees were interviewed 12-24 months post-training in face-to-face interviews to measure the retention of information and training effectiveness. Survey questions were selected to illustrate the principles of a harm reduction approach to unsafe abortion. Bivariate analysis was used to examine pharmacy worker knowledge, attitudes and dispensing behaviours pre-training and at follow-up. A higher percentage of pharmacy workers reported referring women to a health care facility between surveys (47% to 68%, p = 0.03). The number of pharmacy workers who reported dispensing ineffective abortifacients decreased from baseline to end-line (30% to 25%) but the difference was non-significant. However, study results demonstrate that Zambian pharmacy workers have a role to play in safe abortion services and some are willing to play that role. PMID:25702075

  18. Attributes and perspectives of public providers related to provision of medical abortion at public health facilities in Vietnam: a cross-sectional study in three provinces

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Thoai D; Free, Caroline; Le, Hoan T; Edwards, Phil; Pham, Kiet HT; Nguyen, Yen BT; Nguyen, Thang H

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate attributes of public service providers associated with the provision of medical abortion in Vietnam. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study via interviewer-administered questionnaire among abortion providers from public health facilities in Hanoi, Khanh Hoa, and Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam between August 2011 and January 2012. We recruited abortion providers at all levels of Vietnam’s public health service delivery system. Participants were questioned about their medical abortion provision practices and perspectives regarding abortion methods. Results A total of 905 providers from 62 health facilities were included, comprising 525 (58.0%) from Hanoi, 122 (13.5%) from Khanh Hoa, and 258 (28.5%) from Ho Chi Minh City. The majority of providers were female (96.7%), aged ≥25 years (94%), married (84.4%), and had at least one child (89%); 68.9% of providers offered only manual vacuum aspiration and 31.1% performed both medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration. Those performing both methods included physicians (74.5%), midwives (21.7%), and nurses (3.9%). Unadjusted analyses showed that female providers (odds ratio 0.1; 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.30) and providers in rural settings (odds ratio 0.3; 95% confidence interval 0.08–0.79) were less likely to provide medical abortion than their counterparts. Obstetricians and gynecologists were more likely to provide medical abortion than providers with nursing/midwifery training (odds ratio 22.2; 95% confidence interval 3.81–129.41). The most frequently cited advantages of medical abortion for providers were that no surgical skills are required (61.7%) and client satisfaction is better (61.0%). Conclusion Provision of medical abortion in Vietnam is lower than provision of manual vacuum aspiration. While the majority of abortion providers are female midwives in Vietnam, medical abortion provision is concentrated in urban settings among physicians. Individuals providing medical abortion found that the method yields high client satisfaction. PMID:25152635

  19. 11 CFR 1.6 - Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedure: Medical records. 1.6 Section 1.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.6 Special procedure: Medical records....

  20. 11 CFR 1.6 - Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedure: Medical records. 1.6 Section 1.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.6 Special procedure: Medical records....

  1. 11 CFR 1.6 - Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Special procedure: Medical records. 1.6 Section 1.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.6 Special procedure: Medical records....

  2. 11 CFR 1.6 - Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedure: Medical records. 1.6 Section 1.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.6 Special procedure: Medical records....

  3. 11 CFR 1.6 - Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special procedure: Medical records. 1.6 Section 1.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.6 Special procedure: Medical records....

  4. Abortion and psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Stotland, Nada L

    2003-03-01

    The subject of abortion is fraught with politics, emotions, and misinformation. A widespread practice reaching far back in history, abortion is again in the news. Psychiatry sits at the intersection of the religious, ethical, psychological, sociological, medical, and legal facets of the abortion issue. Although the religions that forbid abortion are more prominent in the media, many religions have more liberal approaches. While the basic right to abortion has been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court, several limitations have been permitted, including parental notification or consent (with the possibility of judicial bypass) for minors, waiting periods, and mandatory provision of certain, sometimes biased, information. Before the Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion in 1973, many women were maimed or killed by illegal abortions, and psychiatrists were sometimes asked to certify that abortions were justified on psychiatric grounds. Currently, there are active attempts to convince the public and women considering abortion that abortion frequently has negative psychiatric consequences. This assertion is not borne out by the literature: the vast majority of women tolerate abortion without psychiatric sequelae. The psychiatric outcome of abortion is best when patients are able to make autonomous, supported decisions. Psychiatrists need to know the medical and psychiatric facts about abortion. Psychiatrists can then help patients prevent unwanted pregnancies, make informed decisions consonant with their own values and circumstances when they become pregnant, and find appropriate social and medical resources whatever their decisions may be. PMID:15985924

  5. Integrating Mobile Phones into Medical Abortion Provision: Intervention Development, Use, and Lessons Learned From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Constant, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical abortion is legal in South Africa but access and acceptability are hampered by the current protocol requiring a follow-up visit to assess abortion completion. Objective To assess the feasibility and efficacy of information and follow-up provided via mobile phone after medical abortion in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods Mobile phones were used in three ways in the study: (1) coaching women through medical abortion using short message service (SMS; text messages); (2) a questionnaire to assess abortion completion via unstructured supplementary service data (USSD, a protocol used by GSM mobile telephones that allows the user to interact with a server via text-based menus) and the South African mobile instant message and social networking application Mxit; and (3) family planning information via SMS, mobisite and Mxit. A needs and context assessment was done to learn about womens experiences undergoing medical abortion and their use of mobile phones. After development, the mobile interventions were piloted. Recruitment was done by field workers at the clinics. In the RCT, women were interviewed at baseline and exit. Computer logs were also analyzed. All study participants received standard of care at the clinics. Results In the RCT, 234 women were randomized to the intervention group. Eight did not receive the intervention due to invalid numbers, mis-registration, system failure, or opt-out, leaving 226 participants receiving the full intervention. Of the 226, 190 returned and were interviewed at their clinic follow-up visit. The SMSs were highly acceptable, with 97.9% (186/190) saying that the SMSs helped them through the medical abortion. In terms of mobile phone privacy, 86.3% (202/234) said that it was not likely or possible that someone would see SMSs on their phone, although at exit, 20% (38/190) indicated that they had worried about phone privacy. Having been given training at baseline and subsequently asked via SMS to complete the self-assessment questionnaire, 90.3% (204/226) attempted it, and of those, 86.3% (176/204) reached an endpoint of the questionnaire. For the family planning information, a preference for SMS was indicated by study clients, although the publicly available Mxit/mobisite was heavily used (813,375 pages were viewed) over the study duration. Conclusions SMS provided a good medium for timed, "push" information that guided and supported women through medical abortion. Women were able to perform a self-assessment questionnaire via mobile phones if provided training and prompted by SMS. Phone privacy needs to be protected in similar settings. This study may contribute to the successful expansion of medical abortion provision aided by mobile phones. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR): PACTR201302000427144; http://www.pactr.org/ATMWeb/appmanager/atm/atmregistry?dar=true&tNo=PACTR201302000427144 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6N0fnZfzm). PMID:25098569

  6. 12 CFR 261a.7 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 261a.7... Procedures for Requests by Individuals to Whom Record Pertains § 261a.7 Special procedures for medical records. If you request medical or psychological records pursuant to § 261a.5, we will disclose...

  7. 12 CFR 261a.7 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 261a.7... Procedures for Requests by Individuals to Whom Record Pertains § 261a.7 Special procedures for medical records. If you request medical or psychological records pursuant to § 261a.5, we will disclose...

  8. 12 CFR 261a.7 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 261a.7... Procedures for Requests by Individuals to Whom Record Pertains § 261a.7 Special procedures for medical records. If you request medical or psychological records pursuant to § 261a.5, we will disclose...

  9. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... transmission of the medical information directly to the requesting individual could have an adverse effect...

  10. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... transmission of the medical information directly to the requesting individual could have an adverse effect...

  11. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... transmission of the medical information directly to the requesting individual could have an adverse effect...

  12. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... transmission of the medical information directly to the requesting individual could have an adverse effect...

  13. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... transmission of the medical information directly to the requesting individual could have an adverse effect...

  14. Accuracy of Assessment of Eligibility for Early Medical Abortion by Community Health Workers in Ethiopia, India and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, My Huong; Habib, Ndema; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Harries, Jane; Iyengar, Kirti; Moodley, Jennifer; Constant, Deborah; Sen, Swapnaleen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy of assessment of eligibility for early medical abortion by community health workers using a simple checklist toolkit. Design Diagnostic accuracy study. Setting Ethiopia, India and South Africa. Methods Two hundred seventeen women in Ethiopia, 258 in India and 236 in South Africa were enrolled into the study. A checklist toolkit to determine eligibility for early medical abortion was validated by comparing results of clinician and community health worker assessment of eligibility using the checklist toolkit with the reference standard exam. Results Accuracy was over 90% and the negative likelihood ratio <0.1 at all three sites when used by clinician assessors. Positive likelihood ratios were 4.3 in Ethiopia, 5.8 in India and 6.3 in South Africa. When used by community health workers the overall accuracy of the toolkit was 92% in Ethiopia, 80% in India and 77% in South Africa negative likelihood ratios were 0.08 in Ethiopia, 0.25 in India and 0.22 in South Africa and positive likelihood ratios were 5.9 in Ethiopia and 2.0 in India and South Africa. Conclusion The checklist toolkit, as used by clinicians, was excellent at ruling out participants who were not eligible, and moderately effective at ruling in participants who were eligible for medical abortion. Results were promising when used by community health workers particularly in Ethiopia where they had more prior experience with use of diagnostic aids and longer professional training. The checklist toolkit assessments resulted in some participants being wrongly assessed as eligible for medical abortion which is an area of concern. Further research is needed to streamline the components of the tool, explore optimal duration and content of training for community health workers, and test feasibility and acceptability. PMID:26731176

  15. Achieving transparency in implementing abortion laws.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Erdman, J N; Dickens, B M

    2007-11-01

    National and international courts and tribunals are increasingly ruling that although states may aim to deter unlawful abortion by criminal penalties, they bear a parallel duty to inform physicians and patients of when abortion is lawful. The fear is that women are unjustly denied safe medical procedures to which they are legally entitled, because without such information physicians are deterred from involvement. With particular attention to the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Human Rights Committee, the Constitutional Court of Colombia, the Northern Ireland Court of Appeal, and the US Supreme Court, decisions are explained that show the responsibility of states to make rights to legal abortion transparent. Litigants are persuading judges to apply rights to reproductive health and human rights to require states' explanations of when abortion is lawful, and governments are increasingly inspired to publicize regulations or guidelines on when abortion will attract neither police nor prosecutors' scrutiny. PMID:17889879

  16. [Legal secrecy: abortion in Puerto Rico from 1937 to 1970].

    PubMed

    Marchand-Arias, R E

    1998-03-01

    The essay discusses abortion in Puerto Rico from 1937 to 1970, concentrating in its legal status as well as its social practice. The research documents the contradictions between the legality of the procedure and a social practice characterized by secrecy. The essay discusses the role of the Clergy Consultation Service on Abortion in promoting the legal practice of absortion in Puerto Rico. It also discusses the ambivalent role of medical doctors who, despite being legally authorized to perform abortions to protect the life and health of women, refused to perform the procedure arguing abortion was illegal. The essay concludes with a brief discussion on perceptions of illegality regarding abortion, emphasizing the contradictions between the practice of abortion and that of sterilization in Puerto Rico. PMID:9642717

  17. Abortion checks at German-Dutch border.

    PubMed

    Von Baross, J

    1991-05-01

    The commentary on West German abortion law, particularly in illegal abortion in the Netherlands, finds the law restrictive and in violation of the dignity and rights of women. The Max-Planck Institute in 1990 published a study that found that a main point of prosecution between 1976 and 1986, as reported by Der Spiegal, was in border crossings from the Netherlands. It is estimated that 10,000 annually have abortions abroad, and 6,000 to 7,000 in the Netherlands. The procedure was for an official to stop a young person and query about drugs; later the woman would admit to an abortion, and be forced into a medical examination. The German Penal Code Section 218 stipulates abortion only for certain reasons testified to by a doctor other than the one performing the abortion. Counseling on available social assistance must be completed 3 days prior to the abortion. Many counseling offices are church related and opposed to abortions. Many doctors refuse legally to certify, and access to abortion is limited. The required hospital stay is 3-4 nights with no day care facilities. Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 allows prosecution for uncounseled illegal abortion. Abortion law reform is anticipated by the end of 1992 in the Bundestag due to the Treaty or the Unification of Germany. The Treaty states that the rights of the unborn child must be protected and that pregnant women relieve their distress in a way compatible with the Constitution, but improved over legal regulations from either West or East Germany, which permits abortion on request within 12 weeks of conception without counseling. It is hoped that the law will be liberalized and Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 will be abolished. PMID:12343177

  18. Partial-birth abortion: the final frontier of abortion jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Bopp, J; Cook, C R

    1998-01-01

    Partial-birth abortion bans patterned after the federal bill passed by both houses of Congress are constitutional. The clear legislative definition can be easily distinguished from other abortion procedures. Abortion precedents do not apply to such bans because the abortion right pertains to unborn human beings, not to those partially delivered. Such bans are also rationally-related to legitimate state interests. Even if abortion jurisprudence is deemed to apply in the partial-birth abortion context, a ban is still constitutional under Casey because a ban on partial-birth abortions does not impose an undue burden on the abortion right. PMID:9707939

  19. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion. PMID:25815623

  20. Medical versus surgical methods of early abortion: protocol for a systematic review and environmental scan of patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Kyla Z; Thompson, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Currently, we lack understanding of the content, quality and impact of patient decision aids to support decision-making between medical and surgical methods of early abortion. We plan to undertake a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify, appraise and describe the impact of early abortion method decision aids evaluated quantitatively (Part I), and an environmental scan to identify and appraise other early abortion method decision aids developed in the US (Part II). Methods and analysis For the systematic review, we will search PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases for articles describing experimental and observational studies evaluating the impact of an early abortion method decision aid on women's decision-making processes and outcomes. For the environmental scan, we will identify decision aids by supplementing the systematic review search with Internet-based searches and key informant consultation. The primary reviewer will assess all studies and decision aids for eligibility, and a second reviewer will also assess a subset of these. Both reviewers will independently assess risk of bias in the studies and abstract data using a piloted form. Finally, both reviewers will assess decision aid quality using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards criteria, ease of readability using Flesch/Flesch-Kincaid tests, and informational content using directed content analysis. Ethics and dissemination As this study does not involve human subjects, ethical approval will not be sought. We aim to disseminate the findings in a scientific journal, via academic and/or professional conferences and among the broader community to contribute knowledge about current early abortion method decision-making support. Trial registration number This protocol is registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42015016717). PMID:26173718

  1. 29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611.6... REGULATIONS § 1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission receives a request pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure...

  2. 29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection...

  3. 19 CFR 201.27 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 201.27... APPLICATION Safeguarding Individual Privacy Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a § 201.27 Special procedures: Medical... maintained by the Commission which pertain to him or her, medical and psychological records merit...

  4. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records, requested pursuant to § 319.5 of this part, will be disclosed to the...

  5. 29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection...

  6. 17 CFR 200.305 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special procedure: Medical... Individuals and Systems of Records Maintained by the Commission § 200.305 Special procedure: Medical records... records pertaining to him that include medical and/or psychological information, the Commission, if...

  7. 29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611.6... REGULATIONS § 1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission receives a request pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure...

  8. 19 CFR 201.27 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 201.27... APPLICATION Safeguarding Individual Privacy Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a § 201.27 Special procedures: Medical... maintained by the Commission which pertain to him or her, medical and psychological records merit...

  9. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records, requested pursuant to § 319.5 of this part, will be disclosed to the...

  10. 29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection...

  11. 12 CFR 1403.6 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1403.6 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit System...

  12. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records, requested pursuant to § 319.5 of this part, will be disclosed to the...

  13. 12 CFR 1403.6 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1403.6 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit System...

  14. 12 CFR 603.325 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 603.325 Section 603.325 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 603.325 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the...

  15. 5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which, in...

  16. 29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611.6... REGULATIONS § 1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission receives a request pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure...

  17. 5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which, in...

  18. 40 CFR 16.8 - Special procedures: Medical Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical Records. 16... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.8 Special procedures: Medical Records. Should EPA receive a request for access to medical records (including psychological records) disclosure of which the system manager decides would...

  19. 12 CFR 1403.6 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1403.6 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit System...

  20. 40 CFR 16.8 - Special procedures: Medical Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical Records. 16... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.8 Special procedures: Medical Records. Should EPA receive a request for access to medical records (including psychological records) disclosure of which the system manager decides would...

  1. 12 CFR 261a.7 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Requests by Individual to Whom Record Pertains § 261a.7 Special procedures for medical records. Medical or... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 261a.7 Section 261a.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

  2. 7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1... Regulations § 1.115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives a request pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure it...

  3. 29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611.6... REGULATIONS § 1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission receives a request pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure...

  4. 7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1... Regulations § 1.115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives a request pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure it...

  5. 5 CFR 2504.6 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records... PRESIDENT PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 2504.6 Special procedures for medical records. (a) When the Privacy Act Officer receives a request from an individual for access to those official medical records which belong...

  6. 12 CFR 603.325 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 603.325 Section 603.325 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 603.325 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the...

  7. 12 CFR 603.325 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 603.325 Section 603.325 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 603.325 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the...

  8. 5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which, in...

  9. 12 CFR 261a.7 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Requests by Individuals to Whom Record Pertains § 261a.7 Special procedures for medical records. If you request medical or psychological records pursuant to § 261a.5, we will disclose them directly to you... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records....

  10. 12 CFR 1070.55 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1070.55... INFORMATION The Privacy Act § 1070.55 Special procedures for medical records. If an individual requests medical or psychological records pursuant to § 1070.53 of this subpart, the CFPB will disclose...

  11. 40 CFR 16.8 - Special procedures: Medical Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical Records. 16... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.8 Special procedures: Medical Records. Should EPA receive a request for access to medical records (including psychological records) disclosure of which the system manager decides would...

  12. 7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1... Regulations § 1.115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives a request pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure it...

  13. 40 CFR 16.8 - Special procedures: Medical Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical Records. 16... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.8 Special procedures: Medical Records. Should EPA receive a request for access to medical records (including psychological records) disclosure of which the system manager decides would...

  14. 5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which, in...

  15. 5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which, in...

  16. 5 CFR 2504.6 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records... PRESIDENT PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 2504.6 Special procedures for medical records. (a) When the Privacy Act Officer receives a request from an individual for access to those official medical records which belong...

  17. 5 CFR 2504.6 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records... PRESIDENT PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 2504.6 Special procedures for medical records. (a) When the Privacy Act Officer receives a request from an individual for access to those official medical records which belong...

  18. 12 CFR 603.325 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 603.325 Section 603.325 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 603.325 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the...

  19. 12 CFR 603.325 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 603.325 Section 603.325 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 603.325 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the...

  20. 12 CFR 1403.6 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1403.6 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit System...

  1. 12 CFR 1070.55 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1070.55... INFORMATION The Privacy Act § 1070.55 Special procedures for medical records. If an individual requests medical or psychological records pursuant to § 1070.53 of this subpart, the CFPB will disclose...

  2. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records, requested pursuant to § 319.5 of this part, will be disclosed to the...

  3. 5 CFR 2504.6 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records... PRESIDENT PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 2504.6 Special procedures for medical records. (a) When the Privacy Act Officer receives a request from an individual for access to those official medical records which belong...

  4. 29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611.6... REGULATIONS § 1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission receives a request pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure...

  5. 40 CFR 16.8 - Special procedures: Medical Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical Records. 16... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.8 Special procedures: Medical Records. Should EPA receive a request for access to medical records (including psychological records) disclosure of which the system manager decides would...

  6. 12 CFR 1070.55 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1070.55... INFORMATION The Privacy Act § 1070.55 Special procedures for medical records. If an individual requests medical or psychological records pursuant to § 1070.53 of this subpart, the CFPB will disclose...

  7. 7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1... Regulations § 1.115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives a request pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure it...

  8. 29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection...

  9. 7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1... Regulations § 1.115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives a request pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure it...

  10. 12 CFR 1403.6 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1403.6 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit System...

  11. 29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection...

  12. 5 CFR 2504.6 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records... PRESIDENT PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 2504.6 Special procedures for medical records. (a) When the Privacy Act Officer receives a request from an individual for access to those official medical records which belong...

  13. Contraceptive care at the time of medical abortion: experiences of women and health professionals in a hospital or community sexual and reproductive health context

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Carrie; Cameron, Sharon; Lawton, Julia; Glasier, Anna; Harden, Jeni

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine experiences of contraceptive care from the perspective of health professionals and women seeking abortion, in the contexts of hospital gynaecology departments and a specialist sexual and reproductive health centre (SRHC). Materials and methods We conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 46 women who had received contraceptive care at the time of medical abortion (gestation≤9 weeks) from one SRHC and two hospital gynaecology-department-based abortion clinics in Scotland. We also interviewed 25 health professionals (nurses and doctors) involved in abortion and contraceptive care at the same research sites. We analysed interview data thematically using an approach informed by the Framework method, and comparison was made between the two clinical contexts. Results Most women and health professionals felt that contraceptive counselling at abortion was acceptable and appropriate, if provided in a sensitive, nonjudgemental way. Participants framed contraceptive provision at abortion as significant primarily as a means of preventing subsequent unintended conceptions. Accounts of contraceptive decision making also presented tensions between the priorities of women and health professionals, around ‘manoeuvring’ women towards contraceptive uptake. Comparison between clinical contexts suggests that women's experiences may have been more positive in the SRHC setting. Conclusions Whilst abortion may be a theoretically and practically convenient time to address contraception, it is by no means an easy time to do so and requires considerable effort and expertise to be managed effectively. Training for those providing contraceptive care at abortion should explicitly address potential conflicts between the priorities of health professionals and women seeking abortion. Implications This paper offers unique insight into the detail of women and health professionals' experiences of addressing contraception at the time of medical abortion. The comparison between hospital and community SRHC contexts highlights best practise and areas for improvement relevant to a range of settings. PMID:26434646

  14. 37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by an... routine use, for all systems of records containing medical records, consultations with an individual's... every case of a request by an individual for access to medical records, the Privacy Officer shall:...

  15. 37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by an... routine use, for all systems of records containing medical records, consultations with an individual's... every case of a request by an individual for access to medical records, the Privacy Officer shall:...

  16. 37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by an... routine use, for all systems of records containing medical records, consultations with an individual's... every case of a request by an individual for access to medical records, the Privacy Officer shall:...

  17. 37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by an... routine use, for all systems of records containing medical records, consultations with an individual's... every case of a request by an individual for access to medical records, the Privacy Officer shall:...

  18. Abortion - surgical

    MedlinePlus

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  19. Abortion in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Francome, C

    1992-08-22

    Substantial legal barriers to abortion persist in both the Irish Republic and Northern Ireland, despite growing popular support for abortion under certain conditions. A 1983 amendment to the republic's constitution guarantees the fetus the same right to life s the mother and bans the provision of information on abortion. Although a recent well publicized case of a pregnant, suicidal 14-year-old who travelled to England for an abortion resulted in an Irish Supreme Court ruling that abortion was acceptable in cases of "real and substantial risk" to a woman's life, uncertainty still surrounds the right to travel to England for the procedure. In Northern Ireland, the 1967 Abortion Act does not apply and abortions are denied even in cases of rape and incest. A total of 1766 women from Northern Ireland and 4158 from the republic travelled to England for abortions in 1991. Public opinion seems to have shifted toward support for less restrictive abortion laws, however. Whereas 80% of those surveyed in a 1980 Irish poll supported to ban on abortion in all cases, this statistic had dropped to 30% by 1990. Similarly, a 1991 poll taken in Northern Ireland found 80% of respondents to be a favor of abortion in cases where the procedure is necessary to maintain a woman's physical or mental health. PMID:1392954

  20. Post legalisation challenge: minimizing complications of abortion.

    PubMed

    Ojha, N; Sharma, S; Paudel, J

    2004-01-01

    Abortion has been legalized in Nepal since September 2002 by 11th amendment to the Muluki Ain. The present study was conducted in Paropakar Shree Panch Indra Rajya Laxmi Devi Maternity Hospital to assess the magnitude of induced abortion, its causes and the types of complications, in the post legalization phase. Prospective descriptive analyses of the patients who were admitted with history of induced abortion from 16th Dec 2003 to 13th March 2004 was carried out. A total of 305 cases of abortion complications were admitted during the three-month study period, which is 39.7% of the total gynaecological admissions (768). Of these 31 (10.25%) patients had history of induced abortion. Half of the induced abortion cases (52%) were of age group 21-29 yrs and 42% had three or more children. 39% of the cases had history of induced abortion at more than 12 weeks and almost half of the cases (48%) had history of family planning. The most common reason for seeking abortion was too many children (59%) followed by illegitimate pregnancy (16%). Twenty-one patients gave history of abortion being performed by doctors and the most common method used was D and C (75%). 77% of cases presented as incomplete abortion and one case presented with uterine perforation, bowel injury and peritonitis. Twenty patients had evacuation under sedation while five had manual vacuum aspiration (MVA); one patient required laparatomy. In two third of the patients intravenous fluid and antibiotics were used. Four patients required blood transfusion. Abortion complications constitute almost 40% of the total gynaecological admissions. Ten percent of the abortion cases had history of induced abortion. Medical persons, mainly doctors, performed most of the cases of induced abortion and D and C was the most commonly used method. However the patients had faced various types of complications. Untrained provider, resulting in serious life threatening injuries, performed more than a third of the cases of induced abortion at more than twelve weeks gestation. This points to the need for improved monitoring of the quality of services provided, and adherence to the criteria set by the procedural order. PMID:15821380

  1. Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedures--Bacteriology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    This manual presents laboratory procedures for the differentiation and identification of disease agents from clinical materials. Included are procedures for the collection of specimens, preparation of culture media, pure culture methods, cultivation of the microorganisms in natural and simulated natural environments, and procedures in…

  2. The moral significance of spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, T F

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion is rarely addressed in moral evaluations of abortion. Indeed, 'abortion' is virtually always taken to mean only induced abortion. After a brief review of medical aspects of spontaneous abortion, I attempt to articulate the moral implications of spontaneous abortion for the two poles of the abortion debate, the strong pro-abortion and the strong anti-abortion positions. I claim that spontaneous abortion has no moral relevance for strict pro-abortion positions but that the high incidence of spontaneous abortion is not (as some claim) eo ipso any sort of justification for voluntarily induced abortion. Secondly, I show that if the strict anti-abortionist position is to be taken seriously in its insistence that prenatal life has a right to be protected by virtue of its being conceived, then it seems necessary to take measures to prevent spontaneous abortion and its presumptive causes, and this as a matter of moral obligation. PMID:4009638

  3. 32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40 Section 564.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.40 Procedures for obtaining...

  4. 32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40 Section 564.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.40 Procedures for obtaining...

  5. 32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40 Section 564.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.40 Procedures for obtaining...

  6. 32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40 Section 564.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.40 Procedures for obtaining...

  7. 19 CFR 201.27 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 201.27... APPLICATION Safeguarding Individual Privacy Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a § 201.27 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) While an individual has an unqualified right of access to the records in systems of...

  8. 22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director for... records maintained by the Agency could have an adverse effect upon such individual, the...

  9. 22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director for... records maintained by the Agency could have an adverse effect upon such individual, the...

  10. 22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director for... records maintained by the Agency could have an adverse effect upon such individual, the...

  11. 19 CFR 201.27 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 201.27... APPLICATION Safeguarding Individual Privacy Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a § 201.27 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) While an individual has an unqualified right of access to the records in systems of...

  12. 19 CFR 201.27 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 201.27... APPLICATION Safeguarding Individual Privacy Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a § 201.27 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) While an individual has an unqualified right of access to the records in systems of...

  13. 22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director for... records maintained by the Agency could have an adverse effect upon such individual, the...

  14. 22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director for... records maintained by the Agency could have an adverse effect upon such individual, the...

  15. 32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40 Section 564.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.40 Procedures for obtaining...

  16. Safety, efficacy and acceptability of outpatient mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion through 70 days since last menstrual period in public sector facilities in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Smith, Patricio; Peña, Melanie; Dzuba, Ilana G; García Martinez, María Laura; Aranguré Peraza, Ana Gabriela; Bousiéguez, Manuel; Shochet, Tara; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-02-01

    Extensive evidence exists regarding the efficacy and acceptability of medical abortion through 63 days since last menstrual period (LMP). In Mexico City's Secretariat of Health (SSDF) outpatient facilities, mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion is the first-line approach for abortion care in this pregnancy range. Recent research demonstrates continued high rates of complete abortion through 70 days LMP. To expand access to legal abortion services in Mexico City (where abortion is legal through 12 weeks LMP), this study sought to assess the efficacy and acceptability of the standard outpatient approach through 70 days in two SSDF points of service. One thousand and one women seeking pregnancy termination were enrolled and given 200 mg mifepristone followed by 800 μg misoprostol 24-48 hours later. Women were asked to return to the clinic one week later for evaluation. The great majority of women (93.3%; 95% CI: 91.6-94.8) had complete abortions. Women with pregnancies ≤ 8 weeks LMP had significantly higher success rates than women in the 9th or 10th weeks (94.9% vs. 90.5%; p = 0.01). The difference in success rates between the 9th and 10th weeks was not significant (90.0% vs. 91.2%; p = 0.71). The majority of women found the side effects (82.9%) and the use of misoprostol (84.4%) to be very acceptable or acceptable. This study provides additional evidence supporting an extended outpatient medical abortion regimen through 10 weeks LMP. PMID:25702071

  17. Making abortions safe: a matter of good public health policy and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Berer, M.

    2000-01-01

    Globally, abortion mortality accounts for at least 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Preventing mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. This article examines the changes in policy and health service provision required to make abortions safe. It is based on a wide-ranging review of published and unpublished sources. In order to be effective, public health measures must take into account the reasons why women have abortions, the kind of abortion services required and at what stages of pregnancy, the types of abortion service providers needed, and training, cost and counselling issues. The transition from unsafe to safe abortions demands the following: changes at national policy level; abortion training for service providers and the provision of services at the appropriate primary level health service delivery points; and ensuring that women access these services instead of those of untrained providers. Public awareness that abortion services are available is a crucial element of this transition, particularly among adolescent and single women, who tend to have less access to reproductive health services generally. PMID:10859852

  18. Effect of Wujia Shenghua capsule on uterine bleeding following medically-induced incomplete abortion in rats during early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    LIU, HAIYANG; MA, WEI; LIU, QI; WANG, FASHAN; CAO, LING; LI, TIENAN; ZHANG, NING; GENG, FANG

    2015-01-01

    The Wujia Shenghua capsule (WSC) is derived from Sheng-Hua-Tang, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine compound prescription that has been widely applied during the postpartum period in Chinese communities for a number of years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of WSC on uterine bleeding following medically-induced incomplete abortion in rats during early pregnancy. Incomplete abortions were induced in Wistar rats during early pregnancy using mifepristone combined with misoprostol. The effects of WSC treatment were investigated in terms of the duration and volume of uterine bleeding, the uterine index and shape, and various hemodynamic indexes. In addition, blood samples were collected to measure the levels of estradiol (E2), fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LM) via a radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while the expression levels of FN, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in the uterine tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry. The in vivo results demonstrated that WSC treatment markedly shortened the duration and reduced the volume of uterine bleeding when compared with the model group. Furthermore, WSC treatment significantly elevated the E2 level in the serum and the expression of the ER and PR in the uterine tissues, while notably decreasing the FN and LM levels in the serum and uterine tissues. In addition, the hemodynamic indexes were shown to improve with WSC treatment. These results demonstrated that WSC exerted an inhibitory effect on the bleeding caused by medical abortion, possibly through modulating the E2, ER, PR, FN and LM levels. PMID:26622367

  19. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting disclosure of a record which contains medical or psychological information may name a...

  20. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting disclosure of a record which contains medical or psychological information may name a...

  1. 18 CFR 1301.16 - Special procedures-medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-medical records. 1301.16 Section 1301.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.16 Special procedures—medical records. If, in the judgment of TVA, the transmission of medical records, including psychological records, directly to a...

  2. 18 CFR 1301.16 - Special procedures-medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-medical records. 1301.16 Section 1301.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.16 Special procedures—medical records. If, in the judgment of TVA, the transmission of medical records, including psychological records, directly to a...

  3. 18 CFR 1301.16 - Special procedures-medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-medical records. 1301.16 Section 1301.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.16 Special procedures—medical records. If, in the judgment of TVA, the transmission of medical records, including psychological records, directly to a...

  4. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting disclosure of a record which contains medical or psychological information may name a...

  5. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting disclosure of a record which contains medical or psychological information may name a...

  6. 18 CFR 1301.16 - Special procedures-medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-medical records. 1301.16 Section 1301.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.16 Special procedures—medical records. If, in the judgment of TVA, the transmission of medical records, including psychological records, directly to a...

  7. 18 CFR 1301.16 - Special procedures-medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-medical records. 1301.16 Section 1301.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.16 Special procedures—medical records. If, in the judgment of TVA, the transmission of medical records, including psychological records, directly to a...

  8. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting disclosure of a record which contains medical or psychological information may name a...

  9. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  10. Regulations on the appointment of physicians for abortion or ligation procedures.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    These Regulations are made pursuant to Article 5 of the Eugenic Protection Law, 1984. They provide the following: a) physicians must undergo an examination of their qualifications at both the local and national levels; b) those applying to perform abortions must have specialized in gynecology and obstetrics for between two and four years, depending on the grade of hospital in which they have practised; c) those applying to perform ligations must have specialized in gynecology and obstetrics, surgery, or urology for between two and four years, depending on the grade hospital in which they have practised, or have signed a contract to perform ligations with a health department; d) physicians who have been approved to perform abortions or ligations will receive a certificate, which is to be placed in a conspicuous place at work; e) a certificate is not to be issued or, if issued, revoked, when a physician's licence has been suspended, when the licence is withheld for a penalty, or when the physician has not reported case records monthly as required by law. PMID:12346658

  11. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    PubMed

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other countries with decriminalization of abortion should also be assessed. Factors considered should include the true impunity of abortion, public health problems and socioeconomic problems generated by the state through criminalization of abortion, and the psychological and economic implications for women of the criminal status of abortion. Systems of decriminalization should be examined to decide which would be appropriate for Mexico. These systems include authorizing complete freedom of choice for the 1st trimester and permitting abortion only for specific indications. All penal codes in Mexico now use the system of abortion for specific indications. Few cases are accepted for legal pregnancy termination. PMID:12158044

  12. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis: Case report with history of urticaria, petechiae and palpable pinpoint purpura triggered by medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Mbonile, Lumuli

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is a rare autoimmune response to raised endogenous progesterone levels that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Cutaneous, mucosal lesions and other systemic manifestations develop cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when progesterone levels are elevated. APD symptoms usually start 3 - 10 days before menstruation and resolve 1 - 2 days after menstruation ceases. A 30-year-old woman presented with urticaria, petechiae and palpable pinpoint purpura lesions of the legs, forearms, neck and buttocks 1 week prior to her menses starting and 2 months after a medical abortion. She was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis and topical steroids were prescribed. Her skin conditions did not improve and were associated with her menstrual cycle. We performed an intradermal test using progesterone, which was positive. She was treated with oral contraceptive pills and the symptoms were resolved. This is a typical case of APD triggered by increased sensitivity to endogenous progesterone induced a few months after medical abortion. PMID:27032848

  13. Pharmacy workers in Nepal can provide the correct information about using mifepristone and misoprostol to women seeking medication to induce abortion.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Anand; Puri, Mahesh; Lama, Kalyan; Shrestha, Prabhakar

    2015-02-01

    In Nepal, despite policy restrictions, both registered and unregistered brands of mifepristone and misoprostol can easily be obtained at pharmacies. Since many women visit pharmacies for abortion information, ensuring that they receive effective care from pharmacy workers remains an important challenge. We conducted an operations research study to examine whether trained pharmacy workers can correctly provide information on safe use of mifepristone and misoprostol for early first trimester medical abortion. Pharmacy workers in one district were given orientation and training using a harm-reduction approach, and compared with a non-equivalent comparison group in the second district. Overall, trained pharmacy workers' knowledge increased substantially, but no increase was found in the comparison group. Compared to the baseline (65%), 97% of trained pharmacy workers knew up to what stage of pregnancy and how women should use mifepristone and misoprostol. A higher percentage of pharmacy workers in the intervention group (77%) compared to the comparison group (49%) were knowledgeable at follow-up about determining whether an abortion was successful, implying a need for improving this aspect of training. As many mid-level health providers run their own pharmacies and offer medical abortion pills, it is important for the government to consider training these providers and registering their pharmacies as safe medical abortion service outlets. PMID:25702074

  14. Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedures--Serology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    Presented are laboratory procedures of a serologic or immunologic nature for use in the diagnosis of a variety of infectious and noninfectious conditions. Included are tests for the detection of specific antibodies in the patient's serum, as well as immunologic tests for the detection of other products in the patient's serum and biological fluids.

  15. Abortion: the continuing controversy.

    PubMed

    Behrens, C E

    1972-08-01

    While most countries of the world practice abortion, government policy, medical opinion, private opinion and actual practice vary widely. Although mortality from legal abortions is quite low, complications rise sharply after 12 gestational weeks. No conclusive proof shows adverse postabortion psychological effects. Romania, Japan and the Soviet Union experienced declining birth rates when abortion was made available and New York City saw a decline in illegitimacy of approximately 12% from 1970 to 1971. Throughout the world abortion laws vary from restrictive to moderate to permissive. Where laws are restrictive, as in France and Latin America, illegal abortions are estimated in the millions. The controversy over abortion centers around the arguments of what constitutes a human life, and the rights of the fetus versus the right of a woman to control her reproductive life. A review of state abortion laws as of August 1972 shows pressure on state legislatures to change existing laws. The future of abortion depends upon technological advances in fertility control, development of substitutes like menstral extraction, prostaglandins and reversible sterilization. Development of these techniques will take time. At present only through education and improved delivery of contraceptives can dependence on abortion as a method of fertility control be eased. Citizen education in the United States, both sex education and education for responsbile parenthood, is in a poor state according to the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. If recourse to abortion is to be moderated, it is the next generation of parents who will have to be educated. PMID:12306354

  16. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

  17. The clinical management of abortion.

    PubMed

    Bacci, A

    1994-12-01

    Unsafe abortion is associated with inadequate provider skills, hazardous techniques, unsanitary facilities, advanced gestational age, and marginal social class status. Abortion legalization leads to better trained personnel, more adequate medical facilities, and lowered gestational age. However, even in countries where abortion remains illegal or restricted, abortion complications can be significantly reduced through the provision of modern medical conditions. Emergency abortion care must be integrated into all levels of the health care system, and accurate initial assessment and prompt management of women suspected of an incomplete abortion diagnosis are essential. Community health workers should be trained to recognize the signs and symptoms of abortion and its complications. Improvements in the clinical management of induced abortion must be supplemented by improved access to contraceptive services and the active involvement of community women in reproductive health campaigns. PMID:12319581

  18. Adolescent Girls and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Wellisch, Lawren; Chor, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Abortion is an extremely common procedure in the United States, with approximately 2% of women having an abortion before age 19 years. Although most pediatricians do not provide abortions, many will care for a young woman who is either considering an abortion or has already had one; therefore, the pediatrician should be able to provide accurate and appropriate counseling about this option. To provide the best care for adolescent patients considering abortion, pediatricians must be knowledgeable of aspects of abortion that are universal to all women and have an understanding of considerations specific to the adolescent patient. The purpose of this article is to (1) review recent statistics about teenagers and abortion, (2) explain the different types of abortion available to teenagers who desire to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, (3) discuss aspects of abortion unique to the adolescent population, such as insurance coverage and parental involvement laws, and (4) address common misconceptions about abortion. [Pediatr Ann. 2015;44(9):384-385,388,390,392.]. PMID:26431238

  19. Unintended consequences: abortion training in the years after Roe v Wade.

    PubMed

    Aksel, Sarp; Fein, Lydia; Ketterer, Em; Young, Emily; Backus, Lois

    2013-03-01

    The US Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v Wade decision had clear implications for American women's reproductive rights and physician ability to carry out patient choices. Its effect on physician abortion training was less apparent. In an effort to increase patient access to abortions after Roe, provision shifted from hospitals to nonhospital clinics. However, these procedures and patients were taken out of the medical education realm, and physicians became vulnerable to intimidation. The consequent provider shortage created an unexpected barrier to abortion access. Medical Students for Choice was founded in 1993 to increase abortion-training opportunities for medical students and residents. Its mission ensures that motivated medical students will learn and a growing number of physicians will commit to comprehensive abortion provision. PMID:23327239

  20. Unintended Consequences: Abortion Training in the Years After Roe v Wade

    PubMed Central

    Fein, Lydia; Ketterer, Em; Young, Emily; Backus, Lois

    2013-01-01

    The US Supreme Court’s 1973 Roe v Wade decision had clear implications for American women’s reproductive rights and physician ability to carry out patient choices. Its effect on physician abortion training was less apparent. In an effort to increase patient access to abortions after Roe, provision shifted from hospitals to nonhospital clinics. However, these procedures and patients were taken out of the medical education realm, and physicians became vulnerable to intimidation. The consequent provider shortage created an unexpected barrier to abortion access. Medical Students for Choice was founded in 1993 to increase abortion-training opportunities for medical students and residents. Its mission ensures that motivated medical students will learn and a growing number of physicians will commit to comprehensive abortion provision. PMID:23327239

  1. Predictors of Physician Recommendation for Ethically Controversial Medical Procedures: Findings from an Exploratory National Survey of American Muslim Physicians.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Sundus; Ghannam, Obadah; Watson, Sydeaka; Padela, Aasim I

    2016-04-01

    Physician religiosity can influence their ethical attitude toward medical procedures and can thereby impact healthcare delivery. Using a national survey of American Muslim physicians, we explored the association between physician recommendation of three controversial medical procedures-tubal ligation, abortion, and porcine-based vaccine-and their (1) religiosity, (2) utilization of bioethics resources, and (3) perception of whether the procedure was a medical necessity and if the scenario represented a life threat. Generally, multivariate models found that physicians who read the Qur'an more often as well as those who perceived medical necessity and/or life threat had a higher odds recommending the procedures, whereas those who sought Islamic bioethical guidance from Islamic jurists (or juridical councils) more often had a lower odds. These associations suggest that the bioethical framework of Muslim physicians is influenced by their reading of scripture, and the opinions of Islamic jurists and that these influences may, paradoxically, be interpreted to be in opposition over some medical procedures. PMID:26613589

  2. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7 Section 319.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures:...

  3. Bio-medical flow sensor. [intrvenous procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A bio-medical flow sensor including a packageable unit of a bottle, tubing and hypodermic needle which can be pre-sterilized and is disposable. The tubing has spaced apart tubular metal segments. The temperature of the metal segments and fluid flow therein is sensed by thermistors and at a downstream location heat is input by a resistor to the metal segment by a control electronics. The fluids flow and the electrical power required for the resisto to maintain a constant temperature differential between the tubular metal segments is a measurable function of fluid flow through the tubing. The differential temperature measurement is made in a control electronics and also can be used to control a flow control valve or pump on the tubing to maintain a constant flow in the tubing and to shut off the tubing when air is present in the tubing.

  4. Sex Differences in Career Goals, Family Plans, and Abortion Attitudes of Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, Joy W.; Koester, Lynne Sanford

    Women have historically been under-represented in the medical profession in part because the norms of feminine behavior have deviated from behavior expected of physicians. To determine the career and family expectations of current medical students, 320 medical students were surveyed. Results confirmed the hypothesis that even sex-role-modern women…

  5. Bolstering the Evidence Base for Integrating Abortion and HIV Care: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Kelly; Lince, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    HIV-positive women have abortions at similar rates to their HIV-negative counterparts, yet little is known about clinical outcomes of abortion for HIV-positive women or the best practices for abortion provision. To fill that gap, we conducted a literature review of clinical outcomes of surgical and medication abortion among HIV-positive women. We identified three studies on clinical outcomes of surgical abortion among HIV-positive women; none showed significant differences in infectious complications by HIV status. A review of seven articles on similar gynecological procedures found no differences in complications by HIV status. No studies evaluated medication abortion among HIV-positive women. However, we did find that previously expressed concerns regarding blood loss and vomiting related to medication abortion for HIV-positive women are unwarranted based on our review of data showing that significant blood loss and vomiting are rare and short lived among women. We conclude that although there is limited research that addresses clinical outcomes of abortion for HIV-positive women, existing data suggest that medication and surgical abortion are safe and appropriate. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV integration efforts must include both options to prevent maternal mortality and morbidity and to ensure that HIV-positive women and women at risk of HIV can make informed reproductive decisions. PMID:23316350

  6. Contextualized simulation and procedural skills: a view from medical education.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, Roger; Baillie, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Simulation offers an attractive solution to the profound changes affecting traditional approaches to learning clinical procedural skills. Technical developments in physical models and virtual-reality computing make it possible to practice an increasing range of procedures "in vitro." However, too narrow a focus on technical skill can overlook crucial elements of clinical care such as communication and professionalism. Patient-focused simulation (the combination of a simulated patient with an inanimate simulator or item of medical equipment) allows clinical procedures to be practiced and assessed within realistic scenarios that recreate clinical challenges by placing a real person at the center of the encounter. This paper draws on work with human clinical procedures, exploring the parallels with veterinary practice and highlighting possible developments in client-focused simulation. The paper concludes by arguing for closer collaboration and dialogue between the medical and veterinary professions, for the benefit of both. PMID:19228914

  7. Comparison of complication rates in first trimester abortions performed by physician assistants and physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, M A; Jillson, D A; Coffin, R R; Novick, L F

    1986-01-01

    The outcomes of 2,458 first trimester abortions performed in a freestanding clinic in Vermont were studied. Procedures were performed by physician assistants and by physicians. Demographic information, medical history, and data relevant to the abortion were recorded. Both immediate and delayed (up to four weeks post-abortion) complications were noted. Direct follow-up four weeks after the procedure by clinic visit, letter, or telephone contact was achieved for 96 per cent all patients. An overall rate of 29.1 complications per 1,000 procedures was observed, with a rate of 27.4 for abortions performed by physician assistants and 30.8 for physicians. The incidence of immediate complications was 6.1 per 1,000 procedures; delayed complication incidence was 23.2 per 1,000 procedures. Overall complication rates varied according to operative procedure used. PMID:2870654

  8. Medical Tourism: The Trend toward Outsourcing Medical Procedures to Foreign Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Diane

    2008-01-01

    The rising costs of medical treatment in the United States are fueling a movement to outsource medical treatment. Estimates of the number of Americans traveling overseas for treatment range from 50,000 to 500,000. Charges for common procedures such as heart bypass can be $11,000 in Thailand compared to $130,000 in the United States. Knee…

  9. Medical Tourism: The Trend toward Outsourcing Medical Procedures to Foreign Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Diane

    2008-01-01

    The rising costs of medical treatment in the United States are fueling a movement to outsource medical treatment. Estimates of the number of Americans traveling overseas for treatment range from 50,000 to 500,000. Charges for common procedures such as heart bypass can be $11,000 in Thailand compared to $130,000 in the United States. Knee

  10. [Regional procedure of blood products transport by emergency medical services].

    PubMed

    Lassale, B; Fournier, M; Dettori, I; Aullen, J-P

    2012-11-01

    Transfusions are exceptional while patients are rushed to hospital for sanitary reasons. The quality of care requires the collaboration with different partners (samu, blood bank centre, haemovigilance correspondents…). In response to dysfunctions that occurred during transports for sanitary reasons we have drawn up a regional procedure, which specifies how to get and use blood products. This procedure harmonizes our medical practice, states the role of the different participants (traceability of blood samples of immunohaematology tests, etc.), including a part dedicated to identity vigilance. The expected impacts of this procedure are: the decrease of dysfunctions and of destructions of red blood cells, the improvement of security while patients are transfused. PMID:22885110

  11. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  12. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  13. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  14. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  15. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  16. 15 CFR 4.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... individual refuses in writing to give the names and consents set forth in paragraphs (c)(2) through (c)(4) of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 4.26 Section 4.26 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce DISCLOSURE...

  17. 15 CFR 4.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... individual refuses in writing to give the names and consents set forth in paragraphs (c)(2) through (c)(4) of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 4.26 Section 4.26 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce DISCLOSURE...

  18. 15 CFR 4.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... individual refuses in writing to give the names and consents set forth in paragraphs (c)(2) through (c)(4) of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 4.26 Section 4.26 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce DISCLOSURE...

  19. 15 CFR 4.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... individual refuses in writing to give the names and consents set forth in paragraphs (c)(2) through (c)(4) of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 4.26 Section 4.26 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce DISCLOSURE...

  20. 15 CFR 4.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... individual refuses in writing to give the names and consents set forth in paragraphs (c)(2) through (c)(4) of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 4.26 Section 4.26 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce DISCLOSURE...

  1. Emergency Physician Awareness of Prehospital Procedures and Medications

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Rachel; Sixsmith, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maintaining patient safety during transition from prehospital to emergency department (ED) care depends on effective handoff communication between providers. We sought to determine emergency physicians’ (EP) knowledge of the care provided by paramedics in terms of both procedures and medications, and whether the use of a verbal report improved physician accuracy. Methods We conducted a 2-phase observational survey of a convenience sample of EPs in an urban, academic ED. In this large ED paramedics have no direct contact with physicians for non-critical patients, giving their report instead to the triage nurse. In Phase 1, paramedics gave verbal report to the triage nurse only. In Phase 2, a research assistant (RA) stationed in triage listened to this report and then repeated it back verbatim to the EPs caring for the patient. The RA then queried the EPs 90 minutes later regarding their patients’ prehospital procedures and medications. We compared the accuracy of these 2 reporting methods. Results There were 163 surveys completed in Phase 1 and 116 in Phase 2. The oral report had no effect on EP awareness that the patient had been brought in by ambulance (86% in Phase 1 and 85% in Phase 2.) The oral report did improve EP awareness of prehospital procedures, from 16% in Phase 1 to 45% in Phase 2, OR=4.28 (2.5–7.5). EPs were able to correctly identify all oral medications in 18% of Phase 1 cases and 47% of Phase 2 cases, and all IV medications in 42% of Phase 1 cases and 50% of Phase 2 cases. The verbal report led to a mild improvement in physician awareness of oral medications given, OR=4.0 (1.09–14.5), and no improvement in physician awareness of IV medications given, OR=1.33 (0.15–11.35). Using a composite score of procedures plus oral plus IV medications, physicians had all three categories correct in 15% of Phase 1 and 39% of Phase 2 cases (p<0.0001). Conclusion EPs in our ED were unaware of many prehospital procedures and medications regardless of the method used to provide this information. The addition of a verbal hand-off report resulted in a modest improvement in overall accuracy. PMID:25035759

  2. Induced Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... any long-term health effects from having an abortion? Some women worry that having an abortion could affect their ... complications. Recent studies have shown no link between abortion and breast cancer. For women with an unplanned pregnancy, there is no difference ...

  3. Abortion health services in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion provision.

  4. Abortion, contraception and child mental health.

    PubMed

    Redman, L J; Lieberman, E J

    1973-01-01

    The experience of 87 girls, 15 years of age and younger, who were seen at Preterm, a freestanding abortion facility in Washington, D.C., from June-August 1972, is reported. Each girl was about 10 weeks pregnant and had vacuum aspiration abortions performed at Preterm. 65 of these girls had never used contraception. In postabortion counseling, 42 patients chose the pill for subsequent protection; 23 had an IUD inserted; 22 refused contraception. 32 records were selected at random from these 87 cases for more detailed study. The patients liked school with a ratio of 2:1. 1/3 came from a single parent home; most had siblings. The extent of their sexual experience was minimal. 3 cases are described in more detail. The main concern of this report is with the implications for prevention of mental disorder resulting from unwanted pregnancy. Abortion is an important form of birth control for this group because teenagers are least adept at getting and using contraception. Abortion is a lifesaving procedure and is decisive in preserving the options for personal development and mental health. It is suggested that sex education, available contraception and safe medical abortion be implemented and the child mental health programs include education on sex and family life for all age groups, including parents. PMID:4805729

  5. If we can do it for misoprostol, why not for mifepristone? The case for taking mifepristone out of the office in medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Gold, Marji; Chong, Erica

    2015-09-01

    Given the highly political nature of abortion in the United States, the provision of medical abortion with mifepristone (Mifeprex) and misoprostol has always occurred under a unique set of circumstances. The Food and Drug Administration-approved regimen requires clinicians to administer the mifepristone in the office and also requires women to return to the office for the misoprostol. In the US, where off-label drug use is an accepted practice when supportive evidence exists, most clinicians give women the misoprostol at the initial visit for her to take at home, eliminating an unnecessary visit to the office. This commentary suggests that, based on current studies, there is also enough evidence to offer women the option to self-administer mifepristone out of the office and that this is just another feature of off-label use. Six studies, enrolling over 1800 women, found that the option of taking mifepristone out of the office was popular and acceptable among women and providers. Given that it is safe, highly acceptable and not burdensome on providers, outside-office-use of mifepristone should be offered to all women as part of routine medical abortion services. PMID:26093187

  6. Is selective abortion for a genetic disease an issue for the medical profession? A comparative study of Quebec and France.

    PubMed

    Renaud, M; Bouchard, L; Kremp, O; Dallaire, L; Labadie, J F; Bisson, J; Trugeon, A

    1993-08-01

    This article discusses the results of a study of the stand and attitudes of physicians from the Picardie, Nord-Pas-de-Calais region in France and the province of Quebec (Canada) regarding abortion following the diagnosis of a fetal anomaly by ultrasound, amniocentesis, or chorionic villus sampling. The study examined the degree of acceptability of abortion for several specific conditions as well as the physicians' perceptions of their role in the women's decision to abort. The study shows a consensus (over 75 per cent of the physicians surveyed) for aborting a fetus with trisomy 21. There is a similar consensus, except among Francophones in Quebec, for muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, and Huntington disease. Conversely, there is no consensus (below 60 per cent) for several anomalies. In these cases, Quebec Anglophone physicians find abortion more acceptable than Quebec Francophone or French physicians. Concerning the role of the practitioners in the decision to abort, physicians in France tend to be much more directive than their overseas colleagues. Several hypotheses are suggested to explain the difference between the three groups surveyed. PMID:8284288

  7. Medical information prior to invasive medical procedures in otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Laccourreye, O; Garabedian, E-N; Samad, M-A; Dubreuil, C

    2012-02-01

    Based on a review of the medical literature (PubMed database, keywords: medical information, informed consent), the authors analyse the main medicolegal aspects concerning the patient information that must be provided in France prior to any invasive diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedures in otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery, as well as the patient's perception and recall of the information provided, the quality of the information provided and problems encountered in providing this information. In the light of this review, several solutions are recommended to improve this essential phase prior to obtaining the patient's informed consent. PMID:22104583

  8. A politico-medical perspective of induced abortion in a semi-urban community of Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fasubaa, O B; Akindele, S T; Adelekan, A; Okwuokenye, H

    2002-01-01

    This study is designed to document a semi-urban community perspective on induced abortion in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, with a view to estimating community awareness, attitudes and implications of its existence in the community and providing relevant sociopolitical policies and pragmatic educational guidelines for policy makers to solve some of its problems within the Nigerian landscape and beyond. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in April 2000, at Oranfe community in Ile-Ife, South West, Nigeria, which has an estimated population of 5250 inhabitants. We used the survey method with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. One hundred and eighty residents of the community were sampled as our subjects for this study. We used the cluster random sampling technique. The main outcome measures were the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, knowledge, attitude with perceived solutions to the problems of abortion and relationship of the sociodemographic factors to respondents' knowledge and attitude. The respondents were highly literate, as only 18 (11.04%) had no formal education. Eighty-five (52.79%) had good knowledge of abortion while 45 (27.95%) and 31 (19.25%) had fair and poor knowledge, respectively. Thirty-eight (24.05%) respondents felt that the solution to the problems of induced abortion can be obtained through its legalisation; 31 (19.62%) respondents believed that the solution lies in liberalising laws on abortion; provision of safe abortion services was suggested by 30 (18.98%) respondents. One hundred and seven (66.88%) felt that legalisation of abortion will increase its practice while 53 (31.12%) felt that such legalisation will not increase the practice. Similarly, 55 (34.37%) of the respondents emphasised that legalisation would reduce the problems of induced abortion compared with 82 (51.25%) who felt otherwise. One hundred and twenty (73.61%) of the respondents did not believe that the position of the law in Nigeria can stop the practice of induced abortion. Solving the problems of induced abortion in Nigeria requires pragmatic and non-hypocritical sex educational policies, which are widely embracing to sensitise people in the community through public enlightenment programmes. PMID:12521730

  9. Medical tourism: the trend toward outsourcing medical procedures to foreign countries.

    PubMed

    York, Diane

    2008-01-01

    The rising costs of medical treatment in the United States are fueling a movement to outsource medical treatment. Estimates of the number of Americans traveling overseas for treatment range from 50,000 to 500,000. Charges for common procedures such as heart bypass can be $11,000 in Thailand compared to $130,000 in the United States. Knee replacement in the United States can cost $40,000 compared to $13,000 in Singapore.A new industry, medical tourism, has been created to advise patients on the appropriate facility in the right country for their condition, handle all travel arrangements, teleconference with physicians, and send medical records. To respond to the growth in medical travel, the Joint Commission (formerly the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations) initiated the Joint Commission International (JCI) to accredit hospitals worldwide. Although outcome statistics from hospitals outside the United States are rare, first-person reports on quality are numerous. Making surgery possible for uninsured and underinsured individuals or self-insured state, municipal, and private entities is a major benefit of medical tourism. Mitigating against medical travel are the lack of legal remedies in place for malpractice and the possibility that travel itself can impose risk to patients. For example, lengthy air flights where the patient is in a fixed position for hours at a time can cause embolisms. If the trend toward medical tourism continues, continuing education, credentialing, and certification services may be required to help assure patient safety. PMID:18521877

  10. The public health need for abortion statistics.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J C; Cates, W

    1978-01-01

    As with the delivery of any medical service, abortion has definite public health effects that should be evaluated. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has monitored the impact of abortion in three ways: (a) conducting epidemiologic surveillance of legally induced abortion beginning in 1969. (b) funding a multicenter study of abortion morbidity beginning in 1971, and (c) undertaking surveillance of abortion-related mortality beginning in 1972. These activities are intended to identify health problems related to abortion, to assess the magnitude of these problems, and to make recommendations directed at eliminating the problems. In addition to the Programmatic uses of abortion data, the CDC statistics have also provided a basis for both legislative and judicial decisions that have had national and local impact. The CDC and the National Center for Health Statistics are currently working collectively to strengthen the reporting of national abortion statistics so that the public health need for abortion statistics can be met. PMID:635096

  11. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  12. Women Who Seek Abortions: A Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Alma T.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    When New York State's abortion laws were liberalized in 1970, there was a sharp rise in the number of clinic patients who requested abortions. Because social workers at Mount Sinai Medical Center believed that abortion still is an emotional risk for many women, a study was conducted to determine which patients needed intensive counseling. (Author)

  13. Reemergence of self-induced abortions.

    PubMed

    Honigman, B; Davila, G; Petersen, J

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of adolescent females attempting self-induced abortions are presented. Many ramifications and complications of illegal abortions are discussed as they affect the patient and society. In addition, we discuss the future of medical education as well as the economic aspects of health care in relationship to illegal abortions. PMID:8445179

  14. Abortion Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashear, Diane B.

    1973-01-01

    The author discusses the characteristics and feelings of women undergoing abortion. She mentions the decisions which counselors must help such women face, the information they must be given, and the types of support they need. Increased counseling services are needed, she feels, for the markedly increased number of women seeking abortions. (EK)

  15. Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. PMID:12293809

  16. Photoacoustic monitoring of circulating tumor cells released during medical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juratli, Mazen A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Galanzha, Ekaterina; Suen, James Y.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2013-03-01

    Many cancer deaths are related to metastasis to distant organs due to dissemination of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) shed from the primary tumor. For many years, oncologists believed some medical procedures may provoke metastasis; however, no direct evidence has been reported. We have developed a new, noninvasive technology called in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC), which provides ultrasensitive detection of CTCs. When CTCs with strongly light-absorbing intrinsic melanin pass through a laser beam aimed at a peripheral blood vessel, laser-induced acoustic waves from CTCs were detected using an ultrasound transducer. We focused on melanoma as it is one of the most metastatically aggressive malignancies. The goal of this research was to determine whether melanoma manipulation, like compression, incisional biopsy, or tumor excision, could enhance penetration of cancer cells from the primary tumor into the circulatory system. The ears of nude mice were inoculated with melanoma cells. Blood vessels were monitored for the presence of CTCs using in vivo PAFC. We discovered some medical procedures, like compression of the tumor, biopsy, and surgery may either initiate CTC release in the blood which previously contained no CTCs, or dramatically increased (10-30-fold) CTC counts above the initial level. Our results warn oncologists to use caution during physical examination, and surgery. A preventive anti-CTC therapy during or immediately after surgery, by intravenous drug administration could serve as an option to treat the resulting release of CTCs.

  17. Safe abortion: WHO technical and policy guidance.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M; Horga, M

    2004-07-01

    In 2003, the World Health Organization published its well referenced handbook Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems to address the estimated almost 20 million induced abortions each year that are unsafe, imposing a burden of approximately 67 thousand deaths annually. It is a global injustice that 95% of unsafe abortions occur in developing countries. The focus of guidance is on abortion procedures that are lawful within the countries in which they occur, noting that in almost all countries, the law permits abortion to save a woman's life. The guidance treats unsafe abortion as a public health challenge, and responds to the problem through strategies concerning improved clinical care for women undergoing procedures, and the appropriate placement of necessary services. Legal and policy considerations are explored, and annexes present guidance to further reading, international consensus documents on safe abortion, and on manual vacuum aspiration and post-abortion contraception. PMID:15207687

  18. How women perceive abortion care: A study focusing on healthy women and those with mental and posttraumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Wallin Lundell, Inger; Öhman, Susanne Georgsson; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Högberg, Ulf; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta

    2015-06-01

    Objectives To identify perceived deficiencies in the quality of abortion care among healthy women and those with mental stress. Methods This multi-centre cohort study included six obstetrics and gynaecology departments in Sweden. Posttraumatic stress (PTSD/PTSS) was assessed using the Screen Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; anxiety and depressive symptoms, using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale; and abortion quality perceptions, using a modified version of the Quality from the Patient's Perspective questionnaire. Pain during medical abortion was assessed in a subsample using a visual analogue scale. Results Overall, 16% of the participants assessed the abortion care as being deficient, and 22% experienced intense pain during medical abortion. Women with PTSD/PTSS more often perceived the abortion care as deficient overall and differed from healthy women in reports of deficiencies in support, respectful treatment, opportunities for privacy and rest, and availability of support from a significant person during the procedure. There was a marginally significant difference between PTSD/PTSS and the comparison group for insufficient pain alleviation. Conclusions Women with PTSD/PTSS perceived abortion care to be deficient more often than did healthy women. These women do require extra support, relatively simple efforts to provide adequate pain alleviation, support and privacy during abortion may improve abortion care. PMID:25666812

  19. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... an abortion procedure? In an abortion procedure, the embryo or fetus is removed from a woman’s uterus . ... are removed with suction or other surgical instruments. Embryo: The developing organism from the time it implants ...

  20. Women's Medical Professional Corporation v. Taft.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Court Decision: 353 Federal Reporter, 3d Series 436; 2003 Dec 17 (date of decision). The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reversed a lower court decision and held that Ohio's partial-birth abortion law was constitutional because the law permitted the procedure in the event of significant maternal health risk and did not prohibit dilation and evacuation (a lawful abortion procedure). Women's Medical Professional Corporation challenged the constitutionality of Ohio's ban on partial-birth abortion, claiming that the law did not contain an adequate exception for maternal health and that it unduly burdened a woman's right to abort a nonviable fetus by dilation and evacuation (D&E). The Sixth Circuit held that the law's maternal health exception was valid under the Fourteenth Amendment because it allowed partial-birth abortion when there is significant maternal health risk. The court rejected the plaintiff's assertion that partial-birth abortion should be allowed at any physician's discretion and noted that precedent allows states to "restrict an abortion procedure except when the procedure is necessary to prevent a significant health risk." The court also held that the law did not ban D&E, the most common second-trimester abortion procedure, because the law explicitly tracked the medical differences between D&E and partial-birth abortion, it provided an exception for D&E, and it focused on other distinctions between D&E and partial-birth abortion. For these reasons, Ohio's partial-birth abortion ban did not unduly burden a woman's right to terminate a pregnancy and was therefore constitutional. PMID:16477714

  1. Estimating the costs of induced abortion in Uganda: A model-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The demand for induced abortions in Uganda is high despite legal and moral proscriptions. Abortion seekers usually go to illegal, hidden clinics where procedures are performed in unhygienic environments by under-trained practitioners. These abortions, which are usually unsafe, lead to a high rate of severe complications and use of substantial, scarce healthcare resources. This study was performed to estimate the costs associated with induced abortions in Uganda. Methods A decision tree was developed to represent the consequences of induced abortion and estimate the costs of an average case. Data were obtained from a primary chart abstraction study, an on-going prospective study, and the published literature. Societal costs, direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, indirect (productivity) costs, costs to patients, and costs to the government were estimated. Monte Carlo simulation was used to account for uncertainty. Results The average societal cost per induced abortion (95% credibility range) was $177 ($140-$223). This is equivalent to $64 million in annual national costs. Of this, the average direct medical cost was $65 ($49-86) and the average direct non-medical cost was $19 ($16-$23). The average indirect cost was $92 ($57-$139). Patients incurred $62 ($46-$83) on average while government incurred $14 ($10-$20) on average. Conclusion Induced abortions are associated with substantial costs in Uganda and patients incur the bulk of the healthcare costs. This reinforces the case made by other researchers--that efforts by the government to reduce unsafe abortions by increasing contraceptive coverage or providing safe, legal abortions are critical. PMID:22145859

  2. [Abortion: towards worldwide legalization].

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    A table showing the current status of abortion in the world based on two recent and detailed studies is presented. Countries are categorized according to whether they totally prohibit abortion, permit it to save the mother's life, permit it to preserve her physical health or mental health, permit it for maternal socioeconomic reasons, or provide it at the mother's request. The countries are grouped into 5 geographic areas: America and the Caribbean; Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa; East and South Asia and the Pacific; Europe; sub-Saharan Africa. The trend toward liberalization of laws is clear. The development of abortion laws is moving in the direction of complete legalization, that is, the creation of health norms that facilitate abortion for all women, with guarantees of medical safety. There are still countries that move to restrict access to abortion, and in a few cases, such as Colombia and Poland, legalization and prohibition have alternated depending on the social and political circumstances of the moment. In the past 12 years, 28 countries liberalized their laws in some way, while 4 countries with close ties to the Vatican restricted or prohibited access. PMID:12348900

  3. Defining minors' abortion rights.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, A M

    1988-01-01

    The right to abortion is confirmed in the Roe versus Wade case, by the US Supreme Court. It is a fundamental right of privacy but not an absolute right, and must consider state interests. During the first trimester of pregnancy abortion is a decision of the woman and her doctor. During the second trimester of pregnancy the state may control the abortion practice to protect the mothers health, and in the last trimester, it may prohibit abortion, except in cases where the mother's life or health are in danger. The states enacted laws, including one that required parents to give written consent for a unmarried minor's abortion. This law was struck down by the US Court, but laws on notification were upheld as long as there was alternative procedures where the minor's interests are upheld. Many of these law have been challenged successfully, where the minor was judged mature and where it served her best interests. The state must enact laws on parental notification that take into consideration basic rights of the minor woman. Health professionals and workers should be aware of these laws and should encourage the minor to let parents in on the decision making process where possible. PMID:3139955

  4. Decision-Making for Induced Abortion in the Accra Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gbagbo, Fred Yao; Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Laar, Amos

    2015-06-01

    Decision-making for induced abortion can be influenced by various circumstances including those surrounding onset of a pregnancy. There are various dimensions to induced abortion decision-making among women who had an elective induced abortion in a cosmopolitan urban setting in Ghana, which this paper examined. A cross-sectional mixed method study was conducted between January and December 2011 with 401 women who had undergone an abortion procedure in the preceding 12 months. Whereas the quantitative data were analysed with descriptive statistics, thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. The study found that women of various profiles have different reasons for undergoing abortion. Women considered the circumstances surrounding onset of pregnancy, person responsible for the pregnancy, gestational age at decision to terminate, and social, economic and medical considerations. Pressures from partners, career progression and reproductive intentions of women reinforced these reasons. First time pregnancies were mostly aborted regardless of gestational ages and partners' consent. Policies and programmes targeted at safe abortion care are needed to guide informed decisions on induced abortions. PMID:26506656

  5. 32 CFR 1901.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological... Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general. When a request for access or amendment involves medical or psychological records and when the originator determines that such records...

  6. 28 CFR 549.46 - Procedures for involuntary administration of psychiatric medication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of psychiatric medication. 549.46 Section 549.46 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS... Procedures for involuntary administration of psychiatric medication. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... before involuntarily administering psychiatric medication to any inmate. (a) Procedures. When an...

  7. 28 CFR 549.46 - Procedures for involuntary administration of psychiatric medication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of psychiatric medication. 549.46 Section 549.46 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS... Procedures for involuntary administration of psychiatric medication. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... before involuntarily administering psychiatric medication to any inmate. (a) Procedures. When an...

  8. 28 CFR 549.46 - Procedures for involuntary administration of psychiatric medication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of psychiatric medication. 549.46 Section 549.46 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS... Procedures for involuntary administration of psychiatric medication. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... before involuntarily administering psychiatric medication to any inmate. (a) Procedures. When an...

  9. 29 CFR 2400.7 - Special procedures for requesting medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures for requesting medical records. 2400.7... COMMISSION REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY ACT § 2400.7 Special procedures for requesting medical records. (a) Upon an individual's request for access to his medical records, including...

  10. 29 CFR 2400.7 - Special procedures for requesting medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures for requesting medical records. 2400.7... COMMISSION REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY ACT § 2400.7 Special procedures for requesting medical records. (a) Upon an individual's request for access to his medical records, including...

  11. 29 CFR 2400.7 - Special procedures for requesting medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures for requesting medical records. 2400.7... COMMISSION REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY ACT § 2400.7 Special procedures for requesting medical records. (a) Upon an individual's request for access to his medical records, including...

  12. 29 CFR 2400.7 - Special procedures for requesting medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special procedures for requesting medical records. 2400.7... COMMISSION REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY ACT § 2400.7 Special procedures for requesting medical records. (a) Upon an individual's request for access to his medical records, including...

  13. 29 CFR 2400.7 - Special procedures for requesting medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures for requesting medical records. 2400.7... COMMISSION REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY ACT § 2400.7 Special procedures for requesting medical records. (a) Upon an individual's request for access to his medical records, including...

  14. 32 CFR 326.11 - Special procedures for disclosure of medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures for disclosure of medical and... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 326.11 Special procedures for disclosure of medical and psychological records. When requested medical...

  15. 32 CFR 326.11 - Special procedures for disclosure of medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures for disclosure of medical and... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 326.11 Special procedures for disclosure of medical and psychological records. When requested medical...

  16. 32 CFR 326.11 - Special procedures for disclosure of medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special procedures for disclosure of medical and... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 326.11 Special procedures for disclosure of medical and psychological records. When requested medical...

  17. 32 CFR 326.11 - Special procedures for disclosure of medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures for disclosure of medical and... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 326.11 Special procedures for disclosure of medical and psychological records. When requested medical...

  18. A woman physician views elective abortion.

    PubMed

    Gerster, C F

    1989-01-01

    In 1973, the United States Supreme Court, in a landmark decision, ruled that the 50 states could not regulate abortion up to 24-28 weeks' gestation, except as necessary to insure the safety of the woman, and severely limited state legislation of abortion after 28 weeks by a broad interpretation of the "health" restriction. This article will explore (1) the history of abortion prior to 1973, (2) the scope of the Court decision, (3) abortion from the perspective of medical ethics, and (4) the sequelae of permissive abortion 16 years after Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton. PMID:10303844

  19. Brazilian adolescents’ knowledge and beliefs about abortion methods: a school-based internet inquiry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet surveys that draw from traditionally generated samples provide the unique conditions to engage adolescents in exploration of sensitive health topics. Methods We examined awareness of unwanted pregnancy, abortion behaviour, methods, and attitudes toward specific legal indications for abortion via a school-based internet survey among 378 adolescents aged 12–21 years in three Rio de Janeiro public schools. Results Forty-five percent knew peers who had undergone an abortion. Most students (66.0%) did not disclose abortion method knowledge. However, girls (aOR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.2), those who had experienced their sexual debut (aOR1.76, 95% CI 1.1-3.0), and those attending a prestigious magnet school (aOR 2.7 95% CI 1.4-6.3) were more likely to report methods. Most abortion methods (79.3%) reported were ineffective, obsolete, and/or unsafe. Herbs (e.g. marijuana tea), over-the-counter medications, surgical procedures, foreign objects and blunt trauma were reported. Most techniques (85.2%) were perceived to be dangerous, including methods recommended by the World Health Organization. A majority (61.4%) supported Brazil’s existing law permitting abortion in the case of rape. There was no association between gender, age, sexual debut, parental education or socioeconomic status and attitudes toward legal abortion. However, students at the magnet school supported twice as many legal indications (2.7, SE.27) suggesting a likely role of peers and/or educators in shaping abortion views. Conclusions Abortion knowledge and attitudes are not driven simply by age, religion or class, but rather a complex interplay that includes both social spaces and gender. Prevention of abortion morbidity and mortality among adolescents requires comprehensive sexuality and reproductive health education that includes factual distinctions between safe and unsafe abortion methods. PMID:24521075

  20. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 19962011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 19962003 and 20042011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 19962003 to 58.0% during 20042011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children - vulnerable with respect to repeat abortion. PMID:25005363

  1. Surrogate motherhood as a medical treatment procedure for women's infertility.

    PubMed

    Jovic, Olga S

    2011-03-01

    The content of this work is conceived on the research of the consequences of surrogate motherhood as a process of assisted procreation, which represent a way of parenthood in cases when it is not possible to realize parenthood through a natural way. Surrogate motherhood is a process in which a woman (surrogate mother) agrees to carry a pregnancy with the intent to give the child to the couple with whom she has made a contract on surrogate maternity after the birth. This process of conception and birth makes the determination of the child's origin on its mother's side hard to determine, because of the distinction of the genetic and gestation phases of the two women. The concept of surrogate motherhood is to appear in two forms, depending on the existence or the non-existence of the genetic link between the surrogate mother and the child she gives birth to. There are gestation (full) and genetic (partial) surrogates each with different modalities and legal and ethical implications. In Serbia, Infertility Treatment and the Bio-medically Assisted Procreation Act from 2009 explicitly forbids surrogate motherhood, despite the fact that an infertile couple decides to use it, as a rule, after having tried all other treatment procedures, in cases when there is a diagnosis but the conventional treatment applied has not produced the desired results. Given the fact that no one has the right to ignore the sufferings of people who cannot procreate naturally, the medical practice and legal science in our country plead for a formulation of a legal framework in which to apply surrogate motherhood as an infertility treatment, under particular conditions. PMID:21528795

  2. [Septic abortion in the Hospital de Ginecología y Obstetricia no. 3 del Instituto Mexicana de Seguridad Social. Late and early morbidity].

    PubMed

    López Ortiz, E; Sandoval Sevilla, S; Arteaga, V M; Rosas Arceo, J; Ortíz Arroyo, R

    1974-02-01

    268 cases of septic abortion which occurred between 1964-72 in a large metropolitan hospital in Mexico were analyzed retrospecively. There cases represented 0.88% of all cases of abortion during the same time. Most patients were between 21-30, and 48% with parity 2-5; 63% were at their first abortion; only 16 patients declared to have attempted abortion, and most cases were first trimester abortion. Pre- and postoperative procedures and vital signs were carefully taken, and time elapsed from medical treatment to surgery was 4-12 hours. There were 237 curettages, and 28 hysterectomies. Complication from surgery were 4.1%; there were 19 deaths, i.e. 7.5% of patients, of which 10 only 24 hours after hospitalization. Protocol of treatment of septic abortion is discussed, and surgical treatment highly recommended. PMID:4828887

  3. Unsafe abortion: an avoidable tragedy.

    PubMed

    Van Look, Paul F A; Cottingham, Jane C

    2002-04-01

    An estimated 60 000-70 000 women die annually from complications of unsafe abortion and hundreds of thousands more suffer long-term consequences which include chronic pelvic pain and infertility. The reasons for the continuing high incidence of unwanted pregnancy leading to unsafe abortion include lack of access to, or misuse of and misinformation about, effective contraceptive methods, coerced sex which prohibits women from protecting themselves, and contraceptive failure. Unsafe abortion is closely associated with restrictive legal environments and administrative and policy barriers hampering access to existing services. Vacuum aspiration and medical methods combining mifepristone and a prostaglandin for early abortion are simple and safe. For second trimester abortion, the main choices are repeat doses of prostaglandin with or without prior mifepristone, and dilatation and evacuation by experienced providers. Strategies for preventing unsafe abortion include: upgrading providers' skills; further development of medical methods for pregnancy termination and their introduction into national programmes; improving the quality of contraceptive and abortion services; and improving partner communication. PMID:12041963

  4. [Is a sociology of abortion possible?].

    PubMed

    Isambert, F A

    1982-01-01

    Abortion is a thorny problem whose study is problematic because it is a source of social and juridical discord, of moral incertitude, of medical and psychiatric confusion, and of personal anguish. The question arises of whether a single perspective can be found which allows comprehension of the entire phenomenon. This work uses published sources to examine the abortion debate, beginning with the varying views of abortion expressed in the struggles to liberalize abortion legislation in France, Europe, and the US. 4 particular views of abortion were identified in the Paris press; the traditional religious view, which condemns abortion because the fetus is regarded as fully human from conception; the view of abortion as a means of fertility regulation; the view of abortion as a cause of public health problems that could be alleviated through legalization and medical control; and the view that abortion allows women to control their own bodies. The law is obliged to reconcile these diverse positions. Abortion legislation in different countries ranges along a continuum from severe to lenient, but regional variations are also evident. Abortion trials in the US and France shortly before liberalization of the laws of either country showed striking similarities but also notable differences due largely to dissimilarities in the social structures of the 2 countries. The relations between the individual and the state, morality, and the law, as reflected in the abortion debate, rested on inverse bases in the 2 countries. The typically American doctrine of privacy occupied a prominent place in the American legislation, while the French was more concerned with the humanitarian goal of reducing health damage from illegal abortions. Tension and ambiguity nevertheless unavoidably characterize the abortion regulations in the 2 countries. Abortion as an institution is a controlled and practical compromise between 2 poles, those giving primacy to individual interests, as in the US, and those giving primacy to collective interests, as in France. PMID:12339246

  5. Psychological sequelae of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Romans-Clarkson, S E

    1989-12-01

    This article reviews the scientific literature on the psychological sequelae of induced abortion. The methodology and results of studies carried out over the last twenty-two years are examined critically. The unanimous consensus is that abortion does not cause deleterious psychological effects. Women most likely to show subsequent problems are those who were pressured into the operation against their own wishes, either by relatives or because their pregnancy had medical or foetal contraindications. Legislation which restricts abortion causes problems for women with unwanted pregnancies and their doctors. It is also unjust, as it adversely most affects lower socio-economic class women. PMID:2692552

  6. Unusual Complication of Surgical Abortion with Pelvic Extrusion of Fetal Head: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sunita; Ghose, Seetesh

    2015-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. The complications mostly results following unsafe abortion procedure done by unskilled provider with or without minimal medical knowledge in rural part of developing countries. These complications can endanger the life of mother if proper medical or surgical interventions are not offered in time. A majority of these complications remains confidential. The uterine perforation is one of the serious but preventable complications of surgical abortion. A 21-year-old woman G4P2L2A1, presented in the emergency ward with complaints of lower abdominal pain for four days after attempting twice surgical termination of pregnancy at 19 weeks of gestation for an unwanted pregnancy. Transabdominal sonography and MRI revealed uterine rent with pelvic extrusion of fetal head. Emergency laparotomy with removal of fetal head and uterine rent repair was done. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion by the gynaecologist for uterine perforation in patient presenting with abdominal pain a few days after undergoing surgical abortion, also shows the complementary role of sonography and MRI in evaluation of the similar patient and this case also highlights the rampant illegal unsafe abortion procedure in rural India despite of legalization of abortion act. PMID:26675988

  7. Unusual Complication of Surgical Abortion with Pelvic Extrusion of Fetal Head: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Begum, Jasmina; Samal, Sunita; Ghose, Seetesh

    2015-11-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. The complications mostly results following unsafe abortion procedure done by unskilled provider with or without minimal medical knowledge in rural part of developing countries. These complications can endanger the life of mother if proper medical or surgical interventions are not offered in time. A majority of these complications remains confidential. The uterine perforation is one of the serious but preventable complications of surgical abortion. A 21-year-old woman G4P2L2A1, presented in the emergency ward with complaints of lower abdominal pain for four days after attempting twice surgical termination of pregnancy at 19 weeks of gestation for an unwanted pregnancy. Transabdominal sonography and MRI revealed uterine rent with pelvic extrusion of fetal head. Emergency laparotomy with removal of fetal head and uterine rent repair was done. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion by the gynaecologist for uterine perforation in patient presenting with abdominal pain a few days after undergoing surgical abortion, also shows the complementary role of sonography and MRI in evaluation of the similar patient and this case also highlights the rampant illegal unsafe abortion procedure in rural India despite of legalization of abortion act. PMID:26675988

  8. The horror of unsafe abortion: case report of a life threatening complication in a 29-year old woman

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Every year 42 million women with unintended pregnancies choose abortion, and fifty percent of these procedures, 20 million are unsafe. An unsafe abortion is defined as a procedure for terminating an unintended pregnancy carried out either by person lacking the necessary skills or in an environment that does not conform to minimal medical standards or both. Pakistan is the one of the six countries where more than 50% of the world’s all maternal deaths occur. It is estimated that 890,000 induced abortions are performed annually in Pakistan, and estimate an annual abortion rate of 29 per 1000 women aged 15-49. Case presentation Here we present a case report of a 29-year old woman who underwent an unsafe abortion for unintended pregnancy resulting in uterine perforation. The unskilled provider pulled out her bowel through vagina after perforating the uterus, as a result she lost major portion of her small intestine resulting in short bowel syndrome. Conclusion The law of Pakistan only allows abortion during early stages of pregnancy for purpose of saving the life of a mother but does not cater for cases of rape, incest and fetal abnormalities or social reasons. Only legalization of abortion is not sufficient, preventing unintended pregnancy should be the priority of all the nations and for this reason contraception should be widely accessible. Practitioners need to become better trained in safer abortion methods and be to able transfer the patient to health facility when complications occur. PMID:24131627

  9. Abortion (Amendment) Bill.

    PubMed

    Dundon, S

    1980-02-23

    Your editorial of Jan. 26 and the multi-signatory letter in your issue of Feb. 2 support the 1967 Abortion Act and suggest that Mr. Corrie's Bill is a retrograde step. The implication is that our professional knowledge should lead us to that conclusion. To take the opposite view risks being regarded as a member of a pressure group or a conscientious objector, but to remain silent might be construed as being in agreement. As I see it the great majority of people of varying ethnic groups, including those adhering to the Jewish, Muslim, and Christian faiths, subscribe to a behavioral code which regards human life as sacred: to take a life is to be countenanced only to save another. Abortion should be regarded as taking human life and morally wrong; making abortion legal does not make it morally right. Doctors are in a very difficult position, and cannot, no more than politicians can, make moral decisions for other people. Traditionally, however, the profession has a role in the responsibility for protection of life, and perhaps the public have a right to expect this protection. Human life begins at conception and some human rights begin at this time. Life (and its protection) seems to be a most basic right. The World Medical Association, in the Declaration of Oslo (1970), stated: "1. The first moral principle imposed upon the doctor is respect for human life as expressed in a clause of the Declaration of Geneva: 'I will maintain the utmost respect for human life from the time of conception.'" The 1967 Abortion Act did not result from a general referendum, much less a medical referendum. If the Corrie Bill is passed and abortions are cut by 2/3 as you suggest, this would, in my view, be a step, not back, but in the right direction. PMID:6101885

  10. Simplified follow-up after medical abortion using a low-sensitivity urinary pregnancy test and a pictorial instruction sheet in Rajasthan, India – study protocol and intervention adaptation of a randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organisation suggests that simplification of the medical abortion regime will contribute to an increased acceptability of medical abortion, among women as well as providers. It is expected that a home-based follow-up after a medical abortion will increase the willingness to opt for medical abortion as well as decrease the workload and service costs in the clinic. Methods/Design This study protocol describes a study that is a randomised, controlled, non-superiority trial. Women screened to participate in the study are those with unwanted pregnancies and gestational ages equal to or less than nine weeks. The randomisation list will be generated using a computerized random number generator and opaque sealed envelopes with group allocation will be prepared. Randomization of the study participants will occur after the first clinical encounter with the doctor. Eligible women randomised to the home-based assessment group will use a low-sensitivity pregnancy test and a pictorial instruction sheet at home, while the women in the clinic follow-up group will return to the clinic for routine follow-up carried out by a doctor. The primary objective of the study this study protocol describes is to evaluate the efficacy of home-based assessment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test and a pictorial instruction sheet 10–14 days after an early medical abortion. Providers or research assistants will not be blinded during outcome assessment. To ensure feasibility of the self-assessment intervention an adaption phase took place at the selected study sites before study initiation. This resulted in an optimized, tailor-made intervention and in the development of the pictorial instruction sheet with a guide on how to use the low-sensitivity pregnancy test and the danger signs after a medical abortion. Discussion In this paper, we will describe the study protocol for a randomised control trial investigating the efficacy of simplified follow-up in terms of home-based assessment, 10–14 days after a medical abortion. Moreover, a description of the adaptation phase is included for a better understanding of the implementation of the intervention in a setting where literacy is low and the road-connections are poor. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01827995. Registered 04 May 2013. PMID:25127545

  11. Mental health and abortion: review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ney, P G; Wickett, A R

    1989-11-01

    This survey of studies which relate to the emotional sequelae of induced abortion, draws attention to the need for more long-term, in-depth prospective studies. The literature to this point finds no psychiatric indications for abortion, and no satisfactory evidence that abortion improves the psychological state of those not mentally ill; abortion is contra-indicated when psychiatric disease is present, as mental ill-health has been shown to be worsened by abortion. Recent studies are turning up an alarming rate of post-abortion complications such as P.I.D., and subsequent infertility. The emotional impact of these complications needs to be studied. Other considerations looked at are the long-term demographic implications of abortion on demand and the effect on the medical professions. PMID:2682716

  12. Prevention of infection after induced abortion: release date October 2010: SFP guideline 20102.

    PubMed

    Achilles, Sharon L; Reeves, Matthew F

    2011-04-01

    One known complication of induced abortion is upper genital tract infection, which is relatively uncommon in the current era of safe, legal abortion. Currently, rates of upper genital tract infection in the setting of legal induced abortion in the United States are generally less than 1%. Randomized controlled trials support the use of prophylactic antibiotics for surgical abortion in the first trimester. For medical abortion, treatment-dose antibiotics may lower the risk of serious infection. However, the number-needed-to-treat is high. Consequently, the balance of risk and benefits warrants further investigation. Perioperative oral doxycycline given up to 12 h before a surgical abortion appears to effectively reduce infectious risk. Antibiotics that are continued after the procedure for extended durations meet the definition for a treatment regimen rather than a prophylactic regimen. Prophylactic efficacy of antibiotics begun after abortion has not been demonstrated in controlled trials. Thus, the current evidence supports pre-procedure but not post-procedure antibiotics for the purpose of prophylaxis. No controlled studies have examined the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for induced surgical abortion beyond 15 weeks of gestation. The risk of infection is not altered when an intrauterine device is inserted immediately post-procedure. The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or acute cervicitis carries a significant risk of upper genital tract infection; this risk is significantly reduced with antibiotic prophylaxis. Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) also have an elevated risk of post-procedural infection as compared with women without BV; however, additional prophylactic antibiotics for women with known BV has not been shown to reduce their risk further than with use of typical pre-procedure antibiotic prophylaxis. Accordingly, evidence to support pre-procedure screening for BV is lacking. Neither povidone-iodine nor chlorhexidine have been shown to alter the risk of infection when used as cervicovaginal preparation. However, chlorhexidine appears to be more effective than povidone iodine at reducing bacteria within the vagina. The Society of Family Planning recommends the routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis, preferably with doxycycline, before surgical abortion. Use of treatment doses of antibiotics with medical abortion may decrease the rare risk of serious infection but universal requirement for such treatment has not been established. PMID:21397086

  13. Selective Reduction: "A Soft Cover for Hard Choices" or Another Name for Abortion?

    PubMed

    Rao, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Selective reduction and abortion both involve the termination of fetal life, but they are classified by different designations to underscore the notion that they are regarded as fundamentally different medical procedures: the two are performed using distinct techniques by different types of physicians, upon women under very different circumstances, in order to further dramatically different objectives. Hence, the two procedures appear to call for a distinct moral calculus, and they have traditionally evoked contradictory reactions from society. This essay posits that despite their different appellations, selective reduction and abortion are essentially equivalent. PMID:26242939

  14. [Intellectual honesty in abortion problems].

    PubMed

    Werner, M

    1991-04-01

    A pastor comments on the recent ruling by the Swedish Department of Health and Social Affairs that the remains of an abortion should be "treated respectfully"--cremated or buried in a cemetery. This decision results from recognition on the part of the government and the medical establishment that a growing segment of public opinion agrees that the fetus is a human being. The new rules mean, though, that a fetus becomes human only upon its death. Logically, an abortion that is respectfully performed ought not to be performed at all. This is the fundamental problem with abortion, and no amount of arbitrary boundary drawing at various levels of supposed capability for survival at the 12th, the 18th, or the 24th week of pregnancy will alter the fact. It is necessary to face the problem with complete intellectual honesty and say that a fetus is a human being no matter what its age, but that voluntary abortion is also a social necessity. Only then can society find another abortion policy, one that recognizes that late abortions are hard to distinguish from births. The Swedish abortion policy must reflect honest facts, rather than etiological legends, preconceived ideas for which arguments must be found afterward. PMID:2016968

  15. Enablers of and Barriers to Abortion Training

    PubMed Central

    Guiahi, Maryam; Lim, Sahnah; Westover, Corey; Gold, Marji; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the legalization of abortion services in the United States, provision of abortions has remained a controversial issue of high political interest. Routine abortion training is not offered at all obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) training programs, despite a specific training requirement by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Previous studies that described Ob-Gyn programs with routine abortion training either examined associations by using national surveys of program directors or described the experience of a single program. Objective We set out to identify enablers of and barriers to Ob-Gyn abortion training in the context of a New York City political initiative, in order to better understand how to improve abortion training at other sites. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 22 stakeholders from 7 New York City public hospitals and focus group interviews with 62 current residents at 6 sites. Results Enablers of abortion training included program location, high-capacity services, faculty commitment to abortion training, external programmatic support, and resident interest. Barriers to abortion training included lack of leadership continuity, leadership conflict, lack of second-trimester abortion services, difficulty obtaining mifepristone, optional rather than routine training, and antiabortion values of hospital personnel. Conclusions Supportive leadership, faculty commitment, and external programmatic support appear to be key elements for establishing routine abortion training at Ob-Gyn residency training programs. PMID:24404266

  16. 45 CFR 5b.6 - Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records. 5b.6 Section 5b.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.6 Special procedures for notification of or access to medical...

  17. 45 CFR 5b.6 - Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records. 5b.6 Section 5b.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.6 Special procedures for notification of or access to medical...

  18. 45 CFR 5b.6 - Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records. 5b.6 Section 5b.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.6 Special procedures for notification of or access to medical...

  19. 32 CFR 1901.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters § 1901.31 Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general. When a request for access...

  20. 32 CFR 1901.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters § 1901.31 Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general. When a request for access...

  1. 32 CFR 1901.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters § 1901.31 Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general. When a request for access...

  2. 32 CFR 1901.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters § 1901.31 Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general. When a request for access...

  3. Establishment of medical surveillance in industry: problems and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, D.K.; Grennan, M.J.

    1986-08-01

    The establishment of standard history-taking will be discussed and will include examples of such histories developed in the clinic. The development of a protocol for performing and recording physical examinations will also be described. Special tests, such as pulmonary function and sputum cytology, will then be discussed. The integration of medical data into a data base will also be discussed with examples taken from the program in Pittsburgh. Presentation of the problems of obtaining adequate early medical information leads to the conclusion that medical surveillance programs must be integrated with industrial hygiene surveillance. The use of exposure measures to make and implement preventive medical decisions is essential until medical science provides tests with enhanced sensitivity and specificity for use in early detection of workplace disease.

  4. 49 CFR 390.115 - Procedure for removal from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Certified Medical Examiners. 390.115 Section 390.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Certified Medical Examiners § 390.115 Procedure for removal from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners. (a) Voluntary removal. To be voluntarily removed from the National Registry of Certified...

  5. 49 CFR 390.115 - Procedure for removal from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of Certified Medical Examiners. 390.115 Section 390.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Certified Medical Examiners § 390.115 Procedure for removal from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners. (a) Voluntary removal. To be voluntarily removed from the National Registry of Certified...

  6. 49 CFR 390.115 - Procedure for removal from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Certified Medical Examiners. 390.115 Section 390.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Certified Medical Examiners § 390.115 Procedure for removal from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners. (a) Voluntary removal. To be voluntarily removed from the National Registry of Certified...

  7. 45 CFR 5b.6 - Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to medical records. 5b.6 Section 5b.6 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.6 Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records. (a) General. An individual in general has a right to notification of or access to his medical...

  8. 45 CFR 5b.6 - Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to medical records. 5b.6 Section 5b.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.6 Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records. (a) General. An individual in general has a right to notification of or access to his medical...

  9. Factors hindering access to abortion services.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, S K

    1995-01-01

    Although abortion services are readily available in large urban areas to those able to pay, a 1993 survey of U.S. abortion providers shows that access to service is still problematic for many women because of barriers related to distance, gestation limits, costs and harassment. Among women who have nonhospital abortions, an estimated 24% travel at least 50 miles from their home to the abortion facility. Although 98% of providers will perform abortions at eight weeks after the last menstrual period, only 48% will perform abortions at 13 weeks and 13% at 21 weeks. Half of nonhospital abortion providers estimate that more than four days elapse on average between their patients' first telephone contact and the date of the procedure; one in seven say that more than one week elapses. Most women are able to obtain abortion services in one visit to a clinic. The average woman having a first-trimester nonhospital abortion with local anesthesia paid $296 for the procedure in 1993, up from $251 in 1989. On average, nonhospital facilities charged $604 at 16 weeks of gestation and $1,067 at 20 weeks. Eighty-six percent of nonhospital facilities providing 400 or more abortions in 1992 were the targets of antiabortion harassment. Picketing at facilities and the homes of staff members, vandalism and chemical attacks increased significantly between 1988 and 1992, but the incidence of bomb threats decreased. PMID:7796896

  10. Abortion applicants: characteristics distinguishing dropouts remaining pregnant and those having abortion.

    PubMed Central

    Swigar, M E; Quinlan, D M; Wexler, S D

    1977-01-01

    This study, of two groups of women who applied for induced hospital abortion, compares 100 women who had the abortion with 100 women who dropped out to carry to term. Dropout applicants who elected to carry to term had less education, had partners with less education, tended to be indecisive, and when they told their partners tended to receive negative responses toward abortion. In addition, these women expressed greater concern about the procedure and about the moral implications of abortion. Implications of this study for further research on women's and their partners' decision-making about abortion using the Janis-Mann model are discussed. PMID:835758

  11. Evidence mounts for sex-selective abortion in Asia.

    PubMed

    Westley, S B

    1995-01-01

    In Korea, China, and Taiwan--countries where son preference persists--the availability of prenatal screening techniques and induced abortion has produced an imbalance in the naturally occurring sex ratios of 104-107 male births for every 100 female births. Policy responses to sex-selective abortion were the focus of a 1994 International Symposium on Sex Preference for Children in the Rapidly Changing Demographic Dynamics in Asia sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund and the Government of the Republic of Korea. Modern technology (i.e., amniocentesis, ultrasound, and chorionic villi sampling) enables couples to control both family size and sex selection. According to data from the 1990 Korean Census, 80,000 female fetuses were aborted from 1986-90 as a result of son preference. In the late 1980s, the Governments of Korea, China, and India imposed bans on the use of medical technology for prenatal sex determination, but many observers maintain that regulations have served only to make the procedures clandestine and more expensive. To remedy the problems underlying sex-selective abortion, the Symposium recommended the following government actions: 1) implement policies and programs to diminish gender discrimination; 2) establish guidelines for the monitoring and regulation of prenatal testing; 3) utilize mass and folk media, interpersonal channels, and school curricula to promote gender equality; 4) strengthen the ethics curriculum of medical schools to address son preference; and 5) increase the capability of statistical and research organizations to collect gender-disaggregated data. PMID:12319402

  12. ‘Miscarriage or abortion?’ Understanding the medical language of pregnancy loss in Britain; a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Moscrop, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Clinical language applied to early pregnancy loss changed in late twentieth century Britain when doctors consciously began using the term ‘miscarriage’ instead of ‘abortion’ to refer to this subject. Medical professionals at the time and since have claimed this change as an intuitive empathic response to women's experiences. However, a reading of medical journals and textbooks from the era reveals how the change in clinical language reflected legal, technological, professional and social developments. The shift in language is better understood in the context of these historical developments, rather than as the consequence of more empathic medical care for women who experience miscarriage. PMID:23429567

  13. Using GOMS models and hypertext to create representations of medical procedures for online display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gugerty, Leo; Halgren, Shannon; Gosbee, John; Rudisill, Marianne

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated two methods to improve organization and presentation of computer-based medical procedures. A literature review suggested that the GOMS (goals, operators, methods, and selecton rules) model can assist in rigorous task analysis, which can then help generate initial design ideas for the human-computer interface. GOMS model are hierarchical in nature, so this study also investigated the effect of hierarchical, hypertext interfaces. We used a 2 x 2 between subjects design, including the following independent variables: procedure organization - GOMS model based vs. medical-textbook based; navigation type - hierarchical vs. linear (booklike). After naive subjects studies the online procedures, measures were taken of their memory for the content and the organization of the procedures. This design was repeated for two medical procedures. For one procedure, subjects who studied GOMS-based and hierarchical procedures remembered more about the procedures than other subjects. The results for the other procedure were less clear. However, data for both procedures showed a 'GOMSification effect'. That is, when asked to do a free recall of a procedure, subjects who had studies a textbook procedure often recalled key information in a location inconsistent with the procedure they actually studied, but consistent with the GOMS-based procedure.

  14. Abortion laws cause problems in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, M

    1995-06-17

    A doctor who performed an abortion in Poland faces two years in prison and the loss of his medical license for up to 10 years if he is found guilty of violating the new abortion laws introduced in 1993 after a lengthy campaign by the Catholic church and the Christian Democratic Union party. The new laws permit abortion when the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother, presents a serious health threat to the mother, is the result of rape or incest, or will result in the birth of a irreversibly and seriously malformed fetus. In this case, the woman had the abortion because she could not afford to support the child on her own; her former lover faces two years in prison if he is convicted of having paid for the operation. The new law follows a 40-year period of liberal abortion laws under the communist regime when abortion was seen as a form of contraception; an estimated 100,000 abortions occurred in the 1980s. The number of recorded abortions decreased to 777 (nine were in contravention of the law) in 1993. However, some abortions have gone underground; this one surfaced because of an angry former lover. Doctors can now charge two months' salary for the illegal operation, forcing many of the women go to Russia, Belarus, or the Ukraine where the operation is cheaper. Other women take matters into their own hands; one woman murdered the baby she would have aborted earlier. PMID:7787640

  15. From analogue to apps - developing an app to prepare children for medical imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gigi; Greene, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne has launched a world-first app for children that will help reduce anxiety and the need for anesthesia during medical imaging procedures. The free, game-based app, "Okee in Medical Imaging", helps children aged from four to eight years to prepare for all medical imaging procedures - X-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and fluoroscopy. The app is designed to reduce anticipatory fear of imaging procedures, while helping to ensure that children attend imaging appointments equipped with the skills required for efficient and effective scans to be performed. This paper describes how the app was developed. PMID:26828544

  16. Procedure for the Disposal of Controlled Medication in the School Setting.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Karen A

    2015-09-01

    The disposal of controlled medication left in the school nurse office is problematic for school nurses. Medications are left for a variety of reasons: students transfer out of the district, state, or country; parents and guardians lack transportation to pick up their child's medication; and some families simply forget. The medications of concern are controlled substances, primarily Schedule II medications including Adderall, Concerta, and methylphenidate. Over time, these medications begin to accumulate in a school nurse's office. Schools should establish procedures that address safe disposal of controlled medications as well as liability protection for the school nursing staff. This article will discuss a procedure created for the Christina School District in conjunction with a state board of pharmacy and subsequently shared with other school nurses in the State of Delaware. PMID:25816421

  17. New abortion law in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Batar, I

    1993-06-01

    In December 1992, the Hungarian Parliament revised the abortion law. The new law is in some ways more liberal than the former one. A woman can now have an abortion on demand within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, if she is in a "crisis situation". A compulsory consultation has also been introduced with a nurse who informs the women on issues of contraception, maternity allowance, etc. Under certain circumstances abortion is legal beyond the first trimester. These include for example misdiagnoses of the pregnancy, if the women is under 18 years, or in case of genetical or teratogenic risks. Abortion performed for medical reasons is free of charge. In other cases the fee is HUF 5000, the equivalent of US $60, which can be reduced according to the economical status of the family. In one way the new law can be considered more restrictive; previously, an abortion was free of charge for women who became pregnant with an IUD, whereas now the woman has to pay the abortion fee. PMID:12222239

  18. [The content and limits of consent to a medical procedure].

    PubMed

    Carnevale, A; Colagreco, A

    1999-01-01

    The bases of legality for any medical-surgical activity aimed at a therapeutical-diagnostic purpose is the consent of the patient. Such a consent must comply with some requirements of validity, first of all the owner of this right must be able to realize the significance of the assertion of his will. Besides, the awareness of the consent assumes that the surgeon should make a complete and detailed planning of the operation, with a clear reference to any possible hazard, as well as to any possible after-effects, as far as either the intellectual level or the motivity of the patient are concerned. After having examined the various laws covering, the legal, doctrinal and jurisprudential views, authors defines the aspects of the therapeutical treatment. The differences between a free decision and a true informed consent are outlined as well as the extension and the expression of same. It is particularly analysed the relationship between capacity and competence to get the juridical right. The question of understanding which is the best way to respect individual freedom, often reduced to a virtual level form a pathological restriction of individual autonomy, is still open. Moreover, the consent may really be effective only if it is specific, the is aimed at a well definite and accurate therapeutical act. Authors agrees with the criminalist interpretation that the medical surgical activity, out of consent of the patient, can give form to personal voluntary injury. In case of medical surgical treatment different from that previously agreed and out of a situation of therapeutic flagrant necessity, the authors are of the opinion that the inquiry has to concern the medical behaviour in order to estimate the medical surgical treatment as personal voluntary injury or as personal negligent injury. Some reasoned evaluations on the problem were considered at the end of the article. PMID:10804654

  19. Cosmetic procedures among youths: a survey of junior college and medical students in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Jia Hui; Yeak, Seth; Phoon, Natalie; Lo, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Although cosmetic procedures have become increasingly popular among the younger population in recent years, limited research on this subject has been done in the Asian context. We aimed to explore the views and knowledge regarding cosmetic procedures among junior college (JC) and medical students in Singapore. METHODS In the first phase of the study, a cross-sectional, self-administered survey of 1,500 JC students aged 16–21 years from six JCs was conducted in 2010. The same survey was then conducted on a random sample of Year 2–5 medical students from an undergraduate medical school in 2011. RESULTS In total, 1,164 JC and 241 medical students responded to the surveys. There was an overall female to male ratio of 1.3:1. Of all the respondents, 2.5% of the JC students and 3.0% of the medical students admitted to having undergone cosmetic procedures. Among those who claimed to have never had cosmetic procedures done, 9.0% and 44.0% of the JC and medical students, respectively, responded that they would consider such procedures in the future. Those who disapproved of their peers undergoing cosmetic surgery comprised 35.0% of JC students and 56.8% of medical students. Among the JC and medical students, 52.0% and 36.1%, respectively, were unaware of any risks associated with cosmetic procedures. CONCLUSION The younger population is increasingly accepting of cosmetic procedures. However, there is a general lack of understanding of the risks associated with such procedures. Education of both the general public and medical students may help prevent potential medicolegal issues. PMID:25189303

  20. Confronting the challenge of unsafe second-trimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H; Grossman, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    Unsafe abortion accounts for approximately 13% of maternal deaths worldwide-roughly 47,000 deaths per year. Most deaths from unsafe abortion occur in low-resource countries. Second-trimester abortion carries a higher risk of morbidity and mortality compared with first-trimester abortion and, although the former comprises the minority of abortion procedures worldwide, it is responsible for the majority of serious complications and death where unsafe abortion is prevalent. Therefore, improving access to safe second-trimester abortion must be a priority in low-income regions of the world if the majority of deaths from unsafe abortion are to be prevented. In the present paper, we consider a variety of barriers to second-trimester care, including healthcare provider training and abortion stigma, which may lead to neglect of unmet need for second-trimester services. PMID:21820115

  1. An economic interpretation of the distribution and organization of abortion services.

    PubMed

    Kay, B J; Whitted, N A; Hardin, S S

    1981-01-01

    Compared with other medical services, elective abortion is a special case where economic factors affecting delivery remain essentially constant. The consumer purchases it infrequently and the provider provides relatively frequently; the patient is not seeking information or interpretation of symptoms, only therapeutic service for which the technique is almost universal. In this area of medicine the consumer assesses the symptoms and decides on treatment before selecting a provider. U.S. women are not using abortion as a means of contraception in general and if they do, it is only once or twice. Prices charged for 1st trimester abortions are relatively stable ($171 in 1978, $174 in 1980). Since the liberalization of abortion legislation in 1973 there has been a yearly increase in elective 1st trimester abortions (85%), but a decreasing rate for each subsequent year (21% for 1973-74, 4% for 1977-78). Unmet need decreased from 58% in 1973 to 26% in 1978, concentrated in rural areas. The supply of abortions is subjected to constraints such as the aura of illegality, negative professional peer pressure, and distribution of providers. In 1977 13% of all providers performed 71% of all abortions, freestanding clinics had an average case load of more than 1600 year, hospitals provided 3% of abortions and office-based physicians performed 4%. In contrast to other medical services, abortion is a cash-on-delivery transaction with only 10% of patients submitting insurance forms. Information is provided to consumers regarding cost and quality of services through advertising and professional referral and is relatively widely available due to efforts of women's organizations, evaluative information is also disseminated. In Atlanta, 7 clinics performed 20,337 procedures in 1977, an increase of 1859 from 1976, prices ranging from $125-$165 in 1978 with a coefficient of variation of 0.09, the same since 1972-73. In a survey of 75 university students who had had abortions (16.8% of those who returned a questionnaire distributed at the university), it was found that newspaper and word of mouth are initial information sources about providers. Most important factors in choosing a provider were medical reputation, time required, absence of need for parental consent, and staff attitude. If present trends in delivery of services continue as demand levels off, large freestanding clinics will grow and choices will decrease. Statewide dissemination of information about facilities, particularly to people with access problems, would assist the consumer to increase competition between large and small clinics. 1 option for further research is the comparison of abortion services in different locations with varying market structure and degree of unmet need. PMID:6460698

  2. Frequency and collective dose of medical procedures in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Korir, Geoffrey K; Wambani, Jeska S; Korir, Ian K; Tries, Mark; Kidali, Mike M

    2013-12-01

    The first comprehensive national survey on frequency and radiation dose imparted to the population from radiological procedures was carried out in Kenya and reported here. This survey involved assessment of frequency, typical patient radiation exposure, and collective effective dose from general radiography, fluoroscopy, interventional procedures (IPs), mammography, and computed tomography. About 300 x-ray facilities across the country were invited to participate in the survey, and a 31% response was recorded. The individual and collective radiation burdens of more than 62 types of pediatric and adult radiological examinations were quantified using effective and collective dose. The average effective dose for each radiological examination was assessed from the x-ray efficiency performance tests and patient data from over 30 representative radiological facilities. The results found indicated that over 3 million x-ray procedures were performed in 2011, resulting in an annual collective effective dose of 2,157 person-Sv and an annual effective dose per capita of 0.05 mSv. The most frequent examinations were general radiography (94%), computed tomography (3.3%), and fluoroscopy (2.5%). Although the contribution of computed tomography was small in terms of frequency, this procedure accounted for 36% of the effective dose per capita. General radiography was the most frequent type of examination with a contribution of 55% of the effective dose per capita. PMID:24162056

  3. Distress Behavior in Children With Leukemia Undergoing Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Ernest R.

    Improving prognosis for many forms of childhood cancer has resulted in increased attention on the quality-of-life experience. Conditioned anxiety and pain associated with recurrent diagnostic and treatment procedures have been identified as major sources of distress in children with malignant disease. To evaluate the efficacy of various…

  4. Cavitational Iron Microparticles Generation By Plasma Procedures For Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, Ioan; Bunoiu, Madalin; Chirigiu, Liviu; Spunei, Marius; Juganaru, Iulius

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents the experimental installation for the production, in argon plasma, of cavitational iron microparticles (pore microspheres, microtubes and octopus-shaped microparticles). Experimental results are presented and discussed and it is shown that absorbant particles with a minimum iron content are obtained by the plasma procedures

  5. The persistence of induced abortion in Cuba: exploring the notion of an "abortion culture".

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Danièle; Flynn, Andrea

    2009-03-01

    Cuba's annual induced abortion rate persistently ranks among the highest in the world, and abortion plays a prominent role in Cuban fertility regulation despite widespread contraceptive prevalence and state promotion of modern contraceptives. We explore this phenomenon using the concept of an "abortion culture," typically used in reference to Soviet and post-Soviet countries. We synthesize existing literature to provide a historical account of abortion and contraception in Cuba. We also provide a qualitative analysis of abortion and contraceptive use based on in-depth interviews conducted in 2005 in Havana with 24 women who have had an abortion and 10 men whose partners have had an abortion. Information gained from a focus-group discussion with medical professionals also informed the study. Our four principal findings are: (a) longstanding awareness of abortion, (b) the view of abortion as a personal decision, (c) the influence of economic constraints on the decision to induce an abortion, and (d) general skepticism toward contraceptives. We discuss our results on abortion in Cuba in relation to the notion of social diffusion, an approach commonly used to explain the spread of fertility control throughout a population. PMID:19397182

  6. Medical Tests and Procedures for Finding and Treating Heart and Blood Vessel Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Audio CME Program Point of Care Searching and Learning Other Opportunities Medical Tests and Procedures for Finding and Treating Heart and Blood Vessel Disease - English Patient education library Open in new window Download ...

  7. Characteristics of private abortion services in Mexico City after legalization.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Raffaela; Collado, Maria Elena; Troncoso, Erika; Soto Sánchez, José Ezequiel; Zorrilla, Gabriela Otero; Palermo, Tia

    2010-11-01

    In 2007, first trimester abortion was legalized in Mexico City, and the public sector rapidly expanded its abortion services. In 2008, to obtain information on the effect of the law on private sector abortion services, we interviewed 135 physicians working in private clinics, located through an exhaustive search. A large majority of the clinics offered a range of reproductive health services, including abortions. Over 70% still used dilatation and curettage (D&C); less than a third offered vacuum aspiration or medical abortion. The average number of abortions per facility was only three per month; few reported more than 10 abortions monthly. More than 90% said they had been offering abortion services for less than 20 months. Many women are still accessing abortion services privately, despite the availability of free or low-cost services at public facilities. However, the continuing use of D&C, high fees (mean of $157-505), poor pain management practices, unnecessary use of ultrasound, general anaesthesia and overnight stays, indicate that private sector abortion services are expensive and far from optimal. Now that abortions are legal, these results highlight the need for private abortion providers to be trained in recommended abortion methods and quality of private abortion care improved. PMID:21111357

  8. Postarthroscopic Infection in the Knee following Medical or Dental Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Swank, Kat; Dragoo, Jason L.

    2013-01-01

    Knee infection is a relatively rare complication after arthroscopic knee surgery (Babcok et al., 2002), with reported incidences ranging from 0.1% to 3.4% (Babcok et al., 2002 and Bert et al., 2007). Although postoperative dental and surgical procedures were formerly considered a risk factor for infection in arthroplasty patients, the American Dental Association (ADA) and Academy of Orthopaedic Surgery (AAOS) no longer recommend prophylactic antibiotics for patients with prosthetic joints and do not make recommendations concerning patients who have recently undergone arthroscopic surgery (J. M. Bert and T. M. Bert, 2010). We report two patients who had an uncomplicated postoperative course until having a procedure and then developed a septic knee. PMID:24191214

  9. 32 CFR 1701.13 - Special procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../psychological records. 1701.13 Section 1701.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense... procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. Current and former ODNI employees, including... access to their medical, psychiatric or psychological testing records by writing to: Information...

  10. 32 CFR 326.11 - Special procedures for disclosure of medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... psychological records. 326.11 Section 326.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... Special procedures for disclosure of medical and psychological records. When requested medical and psychological records are not exempt from disclosure, the PA Coordinator may determine which non-exempt...

  11. How technology is reframing the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1986-02-01

    Since the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, medical and scientific developments have focused greater public and professional attention on the status of the fetus. Their cumulative effect may influence legal, social, and moral thought and set the stage for a change in public opinion and a challenge to legalized abortion. There is as yet no inexorable convergence of medical data and legal opinion that would undermine the rational of Roe v. Wade. But the prochoice movement must find room for an open airing of the moral questions if abortion is to remain what it should be--a legally acceptable act. PMID:3514547

  12. Informed or Misinformed Consent? Abortion Policy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Cynthia R; Ferguson, Janna; Howard, Grace; Roberti, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Since 2010, the United States has witnessed a dramatic expansion of state-based restrictions on abortion. The most common of these are informed consent statutes, which require that a woman seeking an abortion receive a state-authored informational packet before the abortion procedure can be performed. These laws, in addition to requiring the provision of information about alternatives to and risks of abortion, all also require details of embryological and fetal development. This article presents the findings of a comprehensive study of state-authored informed consent materials regarding embryological and fetal development. To conduct this study, we recruited a panel of experts in human anatomy to assess the accuracy of these materials in the context of the constitutional standard established inPlanned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania et al. v. Robert P. Casey et al.(505 U.S. 833 (1992)): that such information must be "truthful" and "nonmisleading." We find that nearly one-third of the informed consent information is medically inaccurate, that inaccurate information is concentrated primarily in the earlier weeks of pregnancy and is clustered around particular body systems. We discuss the implications of our findings for the question of the constitutionality of informed consent laws as they have been implemented in practice. PMID:26732319

  13. Rhode Island Medical Society v. Whitehouse.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island, on 30 August 1999, enjoined enforcement of Rhode Island's partial-birth abortion ban act. The act defined partial-birth abortion as "an abortion in which the person performing the abortion vaginally delivers a living human fetus before killing the infant and completing the delivery." The act also provided that a physician could perform an aborton on a viable fetus if necessary to save the mother's life only if "no other medical procedure would suffice for that purpose." The United States District Court found Rhode Island's statute to be constitutionally flawed in four respects. First, the court ruled that the definition of partial-birth abortion was unconstitutionally vague within the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution since it implicitly banned the legally protected D & E procedure along with the impermissible D & X procedure. Secondly, following the United States Supreme Court precedent, the court invalidated the statute because it lacked a provision that would permit a partial-birth abortion to preserve the mother's health. Thirdly, the court concluded that the section of the statute permitting a partial-birth abortion to save the mother's life was inadequate. Finally, the court found that the statute placed an undue burden on a woman's right to an abortion within the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment. Its provision for a civil action against an abortion provider by the father of a fetus or by a minor's parents could involve third parties in the abortion decision against a woman's will. PMID:15584139

  14. Therapeutic abortion trends in the United States.

    PubMed

    Heller, A

    1972-01-01

    The experience of Denver General Hospital with Colorado's liberalized abortion law from May 1967 to July 1970 is used to indicate nationwide trends. 457 of 699 cases evaluated were approved for abortion. 70% of the applicants had family incomes below $6000 per year, indicating a trend of more awareness of the availability of abortion among poorer women. At all ages, the Therapeutic Abortion Board approved more applications than it rejected, most markedly in the 12-25 year groups. Special in-service training for staff along with extra psychiatric counseling and a psychiatric nurse were required to help accomodate the staff to the presence of abortion patients on the maternity floors. During the first year of the law, the eightfold increase in abortions in Colorado was confined to the Denver area. Only 3 or 4 hospitals outside Denver even performed abortions. However, more hospitals are becoming active, with both medical practitioners and hospitals becoming more accustomed to therapeutic abortion practice and taking a more relaxed attitude toward it. Abortion is still an emotional issue, but reform and change are inevitable. PMID:5032902

  15. Informatics-based medical procedure assistance during space missions.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

    2008-08-01

    Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-modal format and, in each step, clinical instructions are provided simultaneously in voice, text, pictures video or animations. An example application of the system to diagnosis and treatment of space Decompression Sickness is presented. Astronauts performing space walks from the International Space Station are at risk for decompression sickness because the atmospheric pressure of the Extra-vehicular Activity space- suit is significantly less that that of the interior of the Station. PMID:19048089

  16. Legal Regulation of Adolescent Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Gary B.

    1987-01-01

    Legislators often have established special procedures for judicial or parental involvement in adolescent abortion decisions. While ostensibly protecting pregnant minors' psychological health, and increasing the competency of decision making, judicial bypass and parental notification promote neither goal. At best, they are benign but costly and…

  17. Developing Physiologic Models for Emergency Medical Procedures Under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Nigel; O'Quinn, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Several technological enhancements have been made to METI's commercial Emergency Care Simulator (ECS) with regard to how microgravity affects human physiology. The ECS uses both a software-only lung simulation, and an integrated mannequin lung that uses a physical lung bag for creating chest excursions, and a digital simulation of lung mechanics and gas exchange. METI s patient simulators incorporate models of human physiology that simulate lung and chest wall mechanics, as well as pulmonary gas exchange. Microgravity affects how O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs. Procedures were also developed to take into affect the Glasgow Coma Scale for determining levels of consciousness by varying the ECS eye-blinking function to partially indicate the level of consciousness of the patient. In addition, the ECS was modified to provide various levels of pulses from weak and thready to hyper-dynamic to assist in assessing patient conditions from the femoral, carotid, brachial, and pedal pulse locations.

  18. Developing Physiologic Models for Emergency Medical Procedures Under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Nigel; OQuinn, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Several technological enhancements have been made to METI's commercial Emergency Care Simulator (ECS) with regard to how microgravity affects human physiology. The ECS uses both a software-only lung simulation, and an integrated mannequin lung that uses a physical lung bag for creating chest excursions, and a digital simulation of lung mechanics and gas exchange. METI's patient simulators incorporate models of human physiology that simulate lung and chest wall mechanics, as well as pulmonary gas exchange. Microgravity affects how O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs. Procedures were also developed to take into affect the Glasgow Coma Scale for determining levels of consciousness by varying the ECS eye-blinking function to partially indicate the level of consciousness of the patient. In addition, the ECS was modified to provide various levels of pulses from weak and thready to hyper-dynamic to assist in assessing patient conditions from the femoral, carotid, brachial, and pedal pulse locations.

  19. Ultrasound-guided procedures in medical education: a fresh look at cadavers.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Riley; Means, Russel; Robertson, Jeffrey; Rappaport, Douglas; Schmier, Charles; Jones, Travis; Stolz, Lori Ann; Kaplan, Stephen Jerome; Adamas-Rappaport, William Joaquin; Amini, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Demand for bedside ultrasound in medicine has created a need for earlier exposure to ultrasound education during the clinical years of undergraduate medical education. Although bedside ultrasound is often used for invasive medical procedures, there is no standardized educational model for procedural skills that can provide the learner a real-life simulated experience. The objective of our study was to describe a unique fresh cadaver preparation model, and to determine the impact of a procedure-focused ultrasound training session. This study was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. A sixteen-item questionnaire was administered at the beginning and end of the session. Fifty-five third year medical students participated in this 1-day event during their surgical clerkship. Students were trained to perform the following ultrasound-guided procedures: internal jugular vein cannulation, femoral vein cannulation femoral artery cannulation and pericardiocentesis. Preparation of the fresh cadaver is easily replicated and requires minor manipulation of cadaver vessels and pericardial space. Fifty-five medical students in their third year participated in this study. All of the medical students agreed that US could help increase their confidence in performing procedures in the future. Eighty percent (95 % CI 70-91 %) of students felt that there was a benefit of learning ultrasound-based anatomy in addition to traditional methods. Student confidence was self-rated on a five-point Likert scale. Student confidence increased with statistical significance in all of the skills taught. The most dramatic increase was noted in central venous line placement, which improved from 1.95 (SD = 0.11) to 4.2 (SD = 0.09) (p < 0.001). The use of fresh cadavers for procedure-focused US education is a realistic method that improves the confidence of third year medical students in performing complex but critical procedures. PMID:26276229

  20. Patient characteristics and service trends following abortion legalization in Mexico City, 2007-10.

    PubMed

    Mondragón y Kalb, Manuel; Ahued Ortega, Armando; Morales Velazquez, Jorge; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; Valencia Rodríguez, Jorge; Becker, Davida; García, Sandra G

    2011-09-01

    Legal abortion services have been available in public and private health facilities in Mexico City since April 2007 for pregnancies of up to 12 weeks gestation. As of January 2011, more than 50,000 procedures have been performed by Ministry of Health hospitals and clinics. We researched trends in service users' characteristics, types of procedures performed, post-procedure complications, repeat abortions, and postabortion uptake of contraception in 15 designated hospitals from April 2007 to March 2010. The trend in procedures has been toward more medication and manual vacuum aspiration abortions and fewer done through dilation and curettage. Percentages of post-procedure complications and repeat abortions remain low (2.3 and 0.9 percent, respectively). Uptake of postabortion contraception has increased over time; 85 percent of women selected a method in 2009-10, compared with 73 percent in 2007-08. Our findings indicate that the Ministry of Health's program provides safe services that contribute to the prevention of repeat unintended pregnancies. PMID:21972668

  1. Medical Operations Console Procedure Evaluation: BME Response to Crew Call Down for an Emergency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Troop; Pettys, Marianne; Hurst, Victor, IV; Smaka, Todd; Paul, Bonnie; Rosenquist, Kevin; Gast, Karin; Gillis, David; McCulley, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Mission Operations are managed by multiple flight control disciplines located at the lead Mission Control Center (MCC) at NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC). ISS Medical Operations are supported by the complementary roles of Flight Surgeons (Surgeon) and Biomedical Engineer (BME) flight controllers. The Surgeon, a board certified physician, oversees all medical concerns of the crew and the BME provides operational and engineering support for Medical Operations Crew Health Care System. ISS Medical Operations is currently addressing the coordinated response to a crew call down for an emergent medical event, in particular when the BME is the only Medical Operations representative in MCC. In this case, the console procedure BME Response to Crew Call Down for an Emergency will be used. The procedure instructs the BME to contact a Surgeon as soon as possible, coordinate with other flight disciplines to establish a Private Medical Conference (PMC) for the crew and Surgeon, gather information from the crew if time permits, and provide Surgeon with pertinent console resources. It is paramount that this procedure is clearly written and easily navigated to assist the BME to respond consistently and efficiently. A total of five BME flight controllers participated in the study. Each BME participant sat in a simulated MCC environment at a console configured with resources specific to the BME MCC console and was presented with two scripted emergency call downs from an ISS crew member. Each participant used the procedure while interacting with analog MCC disciplines to respond to the crew call down. Audio and video recordings of the simulations were analyzed and each BME participant's actions were compared to the procedure. Structured debriefs were conducted at the conclusion of both simulations. The procedure was evaluated for its ability to elicit consistent responses from each BME participant. Trials were examined for deviations in procedure task completion and/or navigation, in particular the execution of the Surgeon call sequence. Debrief comments were used to analyze unclear procedural steps and to discern any discrepancies between the procedure and generally accepted BME actions. The sequence followed by BME participants differed considerably from the sequence intended by the procedure. Common deviations included the call sequence used to contact Surgeon, the content of BME and crew interaction and the gathering of pertinent console resources. Differing perceptions of task priority and imprecise language seem to have caused multiple deviations from the procedure s intended sequence. The study generated 40 recommendations for the procedure, of which 34 are being implemented. These recommendations address improving the clarity of the instructions, identifying training considerations, expediting Surgeon contact, improving cues for anticipated flight control team communication and identifying missing console tools.

  2. [Induced abortions in the Third Reich. Legal basis and provision].

    PubMed

    Link, G

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses, after introductory comments on the legal situation in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic, the legal basis for induced abortions during National Socialist rule in Germany. During this period the first legal definition for eugenically and medically indicated abortions was established. At the same time the prohibition of induced abortions outside these criteria was controlled more strictly and violations were punished more severely. This concerned abortions mainly for social reasons. The intention was to legalize abortion for those deemed "less worthy" while, at the same time, to minimise the number of abortions of those considered as "more valuable" to society. The main thrust of this policy was to increase the birth rate of "valuable" citizens. The second part of this paper focuses on eugenic and medical abortions at the University of Freiburg's Maternity Hospital. PMID:11050762

  3. International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1988-01-01

    During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126

  4. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high. PMID:26078881

  5. Abortion before & after Roe.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-09-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971 to 1975 to demonstrate that women traveled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A 100-mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  6. Abortion Before & After Roe

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  7. Public opinion about abortion-related stigma among Mexican Catholics and implications for unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    McMurtrie, Stephanie M; García, Sandra G; Wilson, Kate S; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Fawcett, Gillian M

    2012-09-01

    A nationally representative survey was conducted among 3000 Catholics in Mexico during 2009 and 2010. Respondents were presented with a hypothetical situation about a young woman who decided to have an abortion and were asked their personal opinion of her. On the basis of a stigma index, it was found that the majority (61%) had stigmatizing attitudes about abortion; however, 81% believed that abortion should be legal in at least some circumstances. Respondents were significantly more likely to stigmatize abortion if they disagreed with the Mexico City law legalizing the procedure (odds ratio 1.66; 95% CI, 1.30-2.11) and believed that abortion should be prohibited in all cases (odds ratio 3.13; 95% CI, 2.28-4.30). Such stigma can lead women to seek unsafe abortions to avoid judgment by society. PMID:22920621

  8. Non-Parenteral Medications for Procedural Sedation in Children- A Narrative: Review Article.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Razieh; Ferdosian, Farzad; Shajari, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Procedural sedation may be needed in many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children. To make pediatric procedural sedation as safe as possible, protocols should be developed by institutions. Response to sedation in children is highly variable, while some become deeply sedated after minimal doses, others may need much higher doses. Child developmental status, clinical circumstances and condition of patient should be considered and then pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions for sedation be selected. Drug of choice and administration route depend on the condition of the child, type of procedure, and predicted pain degree. The drugs might be administered parenteral (intravenous or intramuscular) or non parenteral including oral, rectal, sublingual, aerosolized buccal and intranasal. The use of intravenous medication such propofol, ketamine, dexmedetomidine, or etomidate may be restricted in use by pediatric anesthesiologist or pediatric critical care specialists or pediatric emergency medicine specialists. In this review article we discuss on non-parenteral medications that can be used by non- anesthesiologist. PMID:26401146

  9. The Marquis de Sade and induced abortion.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, A D

    1980-01-01

    In 1795 the Marquis de Sade published his La Philosophic dans le boudoir, in which he proposed the use of induced abortion for social reasons and as a means of population control. It is from this time that medical and social acceptance of abortion can be dated, although previously the subject had not been discussed in public in modern times. It is suggested that it was largely due to de Sade's writing that induced abortion received the impetus which resulted in its subsequent spread in western society. PMID:6990001

  10. How risky are second trimester clandestine abortions in Cameroon: a retrospective descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Complications of clandestine abortions increase with gestational age. The aim of this study was to identify complications of second trimester clandestine abortions (STA) and those of first trimester clandestine abortions (FTA). Methods This retrospective descriptive study was conducted between March 1st and August 31st, 2012 in the University Teaching Hospital and the Central Hospital, Yaoundé (Cameroon). The files of women with clandestine abortions carried out outside our units, but received in our settings for some complications were reviewed. Variables studied were maternal age, parity, marital status, gestational age at the time of abortion, the abortion provider and the method used, the duration of antibiotic coverage, the time interval between abortion and consultation, the complications presented and the duration of hospital stay. Data of 20 women with STA (≥13 weeks 1 day) and those of 74 women with FTA (≤13 complete weeks) were analyzed and compared. The t-test was used to compare continuous variables. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Women with STA had high parities (P = 0.0011). STAs were mostly performed by nurses and were usually done by dilatation and curettage or dilatation and evacuation, manual vacuum aspiration, intramuscular injection of an unspecified medication, transcervical foreign body insertion, amniotomy and misoprostol. STA complications were severe anemia, hypovolemic shock, uterine perforation and maternal death. Conclusions Clandestine abortions, especially second trimester abortions, are associated with risks of maternal morbidity and mortality especially when done by nurses. Therefore, women should seek for help directly from trained health personnel (Gynecologists & Obstetricians). Moreover, nurses should be trained in uterine evacuation procedures. They should also refer women who want to carry out STA to Gynecologists and Obstetricians. Finally, to reduce the prevalence of abortion in general, the government should make contraception available to all women, as well as use public media to sensitize women on the dangers of abortion and on the need to use family planning services. PMID:25199407

  11. Abortions: A National Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses general attitudes towards unwanted pregnancies and abortions, the methods that students have resorted to in order to abort themselves, and the mental state of college women, who become pregnant with children they don't want. (RK)

  12. Human Factors and ISS Medical Systems: Highlights of Procedures and Equipment Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, V. E.; Hudy, C.; Smith, D.; Whitmore, M.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering Critical Questions Roadmap, a three year Technology Development Project (TDP) was funded by NASA Headquarters to examine emergency medical procedures on ISS. The overall aim of the emergency medical procedures project was to determine the human factors issues in the procedures, training, communications and equipment, and to recommend solutions that will improve the survival rate of crewmembers in the event of a medical emergency. Currently, each ISS crew remains on orbit for six month intervals. As there is not standing requirement for a physician crewmember, during such time, the maintenance of crew health is dependant on individual crewmembers. Further, in the event of an emergency, crew will need to provide prolonged maintenance care, as well as emergency treatment, to an injured crewmember while awaiting transport to Earth. In addition to the isolation of the crew, medical procedures must be carried out within the further limitations imposed by the physical environment of the space station. For example, in order to administer care on ISS without the benefit of gravity, the Crew Medical Officers (CMOs) must restrain the equipment required to perform the task, restrain the injured crewmember, and finally, restrain themselves. Both the physical environment and the physical space available further limit the technology that can be used onboard. Equipment must be compact, yet able to withstand high levels of radiation and function without gravity. The focus here is to highlight the human factors impacts from our three year project involving the procedures and equipment areas that have been investigated and provided valuable to ISS and provide groundwork for human factors requirements for medical applications for exploration missions.

  13. Unwanted pregnancy--medical and ethical dimensions.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, J

    2003-03-01

    Globally, abortion mortality accounts for approximately 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high maternal mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Unplanned and unwanted pregnancies constitute a serious public health responsibility. While fertility has declined by half in developing countries, the motivation to control and space births has risen faster than the rate of contraceptive use. Preventing maternal mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. A range of positive steps has been taken to reduce deaths and morbidity from abortion in a growing number of countries over the past 15 years. Making abortion legal is an essential prerequisite in making it safe. In this respect, changing the law does matter and assertions to the contrary are ill conceived and unsupported in practice. Although, in many countries, trends towards safer abortion have often occurred prior to or in the absence of changes in the law, legal changes need to take place if safety is to be sustained for all women. Religious laws may also require attention when legal change is being contemplated. There are three main ways of approaching this problem: liberalizing the existing law within the penal or criminal code; partially or fully legalizing abortion through a positive law or a court ruling; and decriminalising abortion by taking it out of the law. Women's health groups and other advocates, parliamentarians and health professionals, can work together to support the right of women not to die from unsafe abortions and to ensure they receive treatment for complications. Committed doctors can make a difference by providing treatment for abortion complications, interpreting the law in a liberal way and providing safe services where these are legal as well as training providers in the safest techniques to reduce mortality and morbidity. Although law, policy and women's rights are central to this issue, making abortions safe is above all a public health responsibility of governments. Moreover, reducing maternal mortality by making abortions safe is also an important part of the international commitment made in Cairo in 1994 at the ICPD and reaffirmed at the Cairo meeting in 1999. PMID:14556348

  14. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion. PMID:12293000

  15. Right to abortion: the courts versus the legislatures.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, A H

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court found the right of privacy in various amendments to the Constitution so that a competent woman in the first trimester has an unrestricted right to an abortion if she can find a licensed, willing doctor to perform the procedure. The Court ruled that a state may not adopt legislation to impede the implementation of this desire. National, state, and city governments, however, have tried to block or restrict the right to abortion by imposing conditions. However, 1 in every 11 women of reproductive age had a legal abortion between 1969-77. More than a million abortions were performed in 1975. Few rural hospitals offer abortion. No Catholic institutions permit them, and less than one-third of all non-Catholic, short-term general hospitals do. Most abortions are conducted in clinics. New York and California account for 1 of every 3 abortions. The Supreme Court did not include a government obligation to pay for abortions. When Medicaid was adopted in 1965, nontherapeutic abortions were illegal, therefore, the Court found no reason to cover elective abortions. The Danforth court majority in 1976 concluded that parental consent could not be required of a minor prior to abortion. State laws must offer an alternative procedure, without parental involvement, in which the minor may show that she is mature and responsible enough to make her own decision. PMID:6985600

  16. Abortion and religion.

    PubMed

    Howell, N R

    1997-01-01

    This paper argues that religious communities should pose new questions about abortion in an attempt to reinvigorate the abortion debate and make it more constructive. Such questions would break the current impasse, enlarge the global and ecological scope of abortion inquiry, and engage plural religious perspectives in an interreligious dialogue about justice and abortion. After an introduction, the paper discusses the first impasse in the abortion debate, which is caused by conflicting definitions of personhood that create a fetus/pregnant woman dualism and artificially separate the fetus from its interdependence with the mother. Section 2 looks at how the abortion impasse results from the assertions of competing fetal and maternal rights and from conflict over who controls nature and women's bodies. The third section seeks alternatives to the dichotomizing of individual and community in the abortion debate in Christian theology, such as the notion of the relational self that demands attention to the wider social implications of reproduction. By examining theories that presume that people are relational, section 4 locates the abortion debate in a wider ecological context with concerns about overpopulation and environmental degradation. Section 5 explores questions of what authority can be used to determine whether abortion is ever justifiable for Christians and what authority is relevant for determining a Christian theological ethic of abortion. This section also looks at Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist views of abortion in the belief that the complex ethical issues relating to abortion may be explored through religious ritual. PMID:12348325

  17. Abortion among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  18. Abortion among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues

  19. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more likely to reject the abortion alternative. Vital statistics suggest that, for the most part, it is abortion rather than contraception that exerts an ameliorating effect on the birthrate of the younger mothers. The most disturbing aspect of these statistics is the magnitude of the very real problems associated with children bearing children. 2/3 of all women who have their 1st baby before the age of 20 will be below the poverty level. A correlation exists between poor marital adjustment and early childbearing. The divorce rate is 3 times higher when 1 spouse is younger than age 20. There are also problems for the infant of the teenage mother, including an increase in stillbirths and prematurity, and increase in small for date infants, and physical, psychological and social disadvantages over time for children born to mothers in their early teens. PMID:6608673

  20. Induced abortion and spontaneous fetal loss in subsequent pregnancies.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, C S; Smith, R G; Steinhoff, P G; Mi, M P

    1982-01-01

    The effect of induced abortion on spontaneous pregnancy loss in subsequent pregnancies was studied based on 3,416 pairs of matched data in a follow-up investigation. Pregnancy outcome was examined also in relation to abortion procedure, gestation length at time of abortion, and number of previous abortions. In general there was no significant association between prior induced abortion and risks of pregnancy loss with the relative risks of 1.10, 0.88, and 0.81 for the first to third trimester respectively. A slight increase of first-trimester spontaneous loss was noted with the D&C/Suction procedure and early induced abortion (less than 9 weeks). The D&C procedure was associated with non-significant increase of second-trimester loss with the relative risk of 1.59. PMID:7072872

  1. A Stress Inoculation Program for Parents Whose Children Are Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    Compared program efficacy in helping parents cope with children's painful medical procedures. Parents (n=72) of pediatric leukemia patients participated in either stress inoculation program or observed child participating in cognitive behavior therapy. Found parents in stress inoculation program reported lower anxiety scores and higher positive…

  2. 20 CFR 10.304 - Are there any exceptions to these procedures for obtaining medical care?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are there any exceptions to these procedures for obtaining medical care? 10.304 Section 10.304 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE...

  3. 20 CFR 10.304 - Are there any exceptions to these procedures for obtaining medical care?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Are there any exceptions to these procedures for obtaining medical care? 10.304 Section 10.304 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE...

  4. A Stress Inoculation Program for Parents Whose Children Are Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    Compared program efficacy in helping parents cope with children's painful medical procedures. Parents (n=72) of pediatric leukemia patients participated in either stress inoculation program or observed child participating in cognitive behavior therapy. Found parents in stress inoculation program reported lower anxiety scores and higher positive

  5. 32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1801.31 Section 1801.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters §...

  6. 32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1801.31 Section 1801.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters §...

  7. 32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1801.31 Section 1801.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters §...

  8. 32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1801.31 Section 1801.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters §...

  9. 32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1801.31 Section 1801.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Additional Administrative Matters §...

  10. 32 CFR 1701.13 - Special procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures for medical/psychiatric... OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ADMINISTRATION OF RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 1701.13...

  11. 32 CFR 1701.13 - Special procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures for medical/psychiatric... OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ADMINISTRATION OF RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 1701.13...

  12. 32 CFR 1701.13 - Special procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures for medical/psychiatric... OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ADMINISTRATION OF RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 1701.13...

  13. 32 CFR 1701.13 - Special procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special procedures for medical/psychiatric... OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ADMINISTRATION OF RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 1701.13...

  14. Abortion legislation in Eritrea: an overview of law and practice.

    PubMed

    Isaac, K

    2005-03-01

    This article discusses legal issues related to the abortion provisions of the Transitional Penal Code of Eritrea. As is the case in many African countries, the current abortion law of Eritrea mainly was adopted from continental Europe four decades ago, reflecting the reality of the time. Despite the advancement in science and technology, which significantly determines the very definition and concept of abortion and contraception, the abortion law remains the same, save for minor amendments taken place in 1991. Due to the background of the abortion law and the shortcomings occurred during the amendment process, the law manifests legal gaps and limitations resulting in discrepancies between law and practice. The article, therefore, identifies and analyses the gaps of the abortion law in light of principles of criminal law, existing medical technology related to abortion, and experience of other countries. PMID:15887619

  15. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion. PMID:26480889

  16. [Abortion in Brazil: a household survey using the ballot box technique].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda. PMID:20640252

  17. Scientific evaluation and pricing of medical devices and associated procedures in France.

    PubMed

    Gilard, Martine; Debroucker, Frederique; Dubray, Claude; Allioux, Yves; Aper, Eliane; Barat-Leonhardt, Valérie; Brami, Michèle; Carbonneil, Cédric; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Coqueblin, Claire; Fare, Sandrine; Giri, Isabelle; Goehrs, Jean-Marie; Levesque, Karine; Maugendre, Philippe; Parquin, François; Sales, Jean-Patrick; Szwarcensztein, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Medical devices are many and various, ranging from tongue spatulas to implantable or invasive devices and imaging machines; their lifetimes are short, between 18 months and 5 years, due to incessant incremental innovation; and they are operator-dependent: in general, the clinical user performs a fitting procedure (hip implant or pacemaker), a therapeutic procedure using a non-implantable invasive device (arrhythmic site ablation probe, angioplasty balloon, extension spondyloplasty system, etc.) or follow-up of an active implanted device (long-term follow-up of an implanted cardiac defibrillator or of a deep brain stimulator in Parkinson's patients). A round-table held during the XXVIII(th) Giens Workshops meeting focused on the methodology of scientific evaluation of medical devices and the associated procedures with a view to their pricing and financing by the French National Health Insurance system. The working hypothesis was that the available data-set was sufficient for and compatible with scientific evaluation with clinical benefit. Post-registration studies, although contributing to the continuity of assessment, were not dealt with. Moreover, the focus was restricted to devices used in health establishments, where the association between devices and technical medical procedures is optimally representative. An update of the multiple regulatory protocols governing medical devices and procedures is provided. Issues more specifically related to procedures as such, to non-implantable devices and to innovative devices are then dealt with, and the proposals and discussion points raised at the round-table for each of these three areas are presented. PMID:23981256

  18. Abortion and fertility regulation.

    PubMed

    Kulczycki, A; Potts, M; Rosenfield, A

    1996-06-15

    To achieve their desired fertility, women use a combination of contraception and abortion, and some societies also place constraints on marriage and sexual activity. The degree to which these means are adopted varies considerably, but for the foreseeable future abortion will remain an important element of fertility regulation. Globally, complications of unsafe abortion affect hundreds of thousands of women each year, and account for as many as 100,000 deaths annually (about two in ten maternal deaths), mainly in poor countries, where abortion typically remains illegal. Access to safe abortion is both essential and technically feasible and should be provided in combination with good quality family planning services. PMID:8642962

  19. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2002-06-03

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  20. Abortion in the United States: barriers to access.

    PubMed

    Fried, M G

    2000-01-01

    The legalization of abortion in the United States has brought a dramatic improvement in women's health and reductions in maternal and infant mortality. For young women, low-income women, and women of color, however, access to abortion has been increasingly restricted. This article describes the obstacles to abortion access, including lack of federal funding; restrictive laws, encompassing those requiring parental consent or notification for a minor seeking an abortion, as well as those attempting to ban a certain procedure; stigmatization and marginalization of abortion; decreasing abortion services; and a shortage of providers. The article connects the erosions in rights relating to abortion to policies undermining poor women's rights in relation to having children. PMID:10796974

  1. Time to follow guidelines, protocols, and structured procedures in medical care and time to leap out

    PubMed Central

    Kobo-Greenhut, Ayala; Notea, Amos; Ruach, Meir; Onn, Erez; Hasin, Yehunatan

    2014-01-01

    Present medical practice encourages management according to written guidelines, protocols, and structured procedures (GPPs). Daily medical practice includes instances in which “leaping” from one patient management routine to another is a must. We define “frozen patient management”, when patient management leaping was required but was not performed. Frozen patient management may cause significant damage to patient safety and health and the treatment quality. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of GPP-guided medical practice and gives an explanation of the problem of frozen patient management in light of quality engineering, control engineering, and learning processes. Our analysis of frozen patient management is based on consideration of medical care as a process. By considering medical care processes as a closed-loop control process, it is possible to explain why, when an indication for deviation from the expected occurs, it does not necessarily attract the medical teams’ attention, thereby preventing the realization that leaping to an alternative patient management is needed. We suggest that working according to GPPs intensifies the frozen patient management problem since working according to GPPs relates to “exploitation learning behavior”, while leaping to new patient management relates to “exploration learning behavior”. We indicate practice routines to be incorporated into GPP-guided medical care, to reduce frozen patient management. PMID:25473321

  2. Misoprostol and the politics of abortion in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya

    2012-12-01

    Misoprostol, a WHO essential medicine indicated for labour induction, management of miscarriage and post-partum haemorrhage, as well as for induced abortion and treatment of post-abortion complications, came up for registration in Sri Lanka in December 2010. The decision on registration was postponed, indefinitely. This has wide-ranging implications, as misoprostol is widely available and used, including by health professionals in Sri Lanka, without guidance or training in its use. This paper attempts to situate the failure to register misoprostol within the broader context of unsafe abortion, drawing on data from interviews with physicians and health policymakers in Sri Lanka. It demonstrates how personal opposition to abortion infiltrates policy decisions and prevents the issue of unsafe abortion being resolved. Any move to reform abortion law and policy in Sri Lanka will require a concerted effort, spearheaded by civil society. Women and communities affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion need to be involved in these efforts. Regardless of the law, women will access abortion services if they need them, and providers will provide them. Decriminalizing abortion and registering abortion medications will make provision of abortion services safer, less expensive and more equitable. PMID:23245422

  3. Evaluation of radiation doses in patient and medical staff during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures.

    PubMed

    Seo, Deoknam; Kim, Kie Hwan; Kim, Jung-Su; Han, Seonggyu; Park, Kyung; Kim, Jungmin

    2016-03-01

    The radiation exposure dose must be optimised because the hazard resulting from an interventional radiology procedure is long term depending on the patient. The aim of this study was to measure the radiation doses received by the patients and medical staff during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures. Data were collected during 126 ERCP procedures, including the dose-area product (DAP), entrance dose (ED), effective dose (E), fluoroscopy time (T) and number of digital radiographs (F). The medical staff members each wore a personal thermoluminescence dosemeter to monitor exposure during ERCP procedures. The mean DAP, ED, E and T were 47.06 Gy cm(2), 196.06 mGy, 8.93 mSv, 7.65 min and 9.21 images, respectively. The mean dose to the staff was 0.175 mSv and that to the assistant was 0.069 mSv. The dose to the medical staff was minimal when appropriate protective measures were used. The large variation in the patient doses must be further investigated. PMID:26269518

  4. Abortion techniques in Australia: a history.

    PubMed

    Bird, J

    1981-04-01

    This is an historical survey of the abortion practices in Australia in the early 20th century. The evidence presented in the article is gathered from reports and documents, articles in medical journals, and information obtained at interviews. The estimated figures for induced abortion are 1/8 live births in 1904, 1/5 live birth in 1937, and 1/4 live births in 1970. Drugs inducing abortion were easily available by the 1890s; they usually were euphemistically advertised to correct irregularities, that is, to bring on a late period, thus enabling vendors to escape prosecution by law. Many of the prescriptions were simple purgatives, such as oil of savin, croton oil, aloe, or they caused contractions of the blood vessels or of the uterus, as did ergot of rye. The contents of the abortion inducing drugs were rarely stated and often misrepresented. In many cases abortion was a secondary effect of the woman poisoning her body with large quantities of drugs; women were also instructed to take hot mustard baths, to jump off tables, and to conduct other physical violence against themselves. Many women tried mechnical methods when chemical methods failed; they included insertion into the uterus of knitting needles, crochet hooks, laminaria and sponge tents. Women who could find the money went to an abortionist; in the 1890s there were an estimated 100-300 abortionists in the city of Sydney. The methods employed went from the use of laminaria tents, to insertion of a catheter, or forcing of fluids into the uterus. Septic infection, peritonitis, blood poisoning, and also uterine perforation were common complications noted in women being admitted to hospitals following abortion. Retention of the placenta was another common complication. After 1904 more restrictive laws reduced the availability of abortifacient drugs and also of contraceptives such as condoms and pessaries; the cost of an illegal abortion skyrocketed to 25 pounds. The result was that more women attempted to procure an abortion by themselves, and that morbidity and mortality rates increased. As recently as 1960 women were procuring abortions by the same means as in the 1890s with the same results and complications; the only advantage being the fact that they could be properly treated once they reached the hospital after attempting the abortion. There are still many restrictions placed on the availability of abortion in Australia; some abortion services, such as those in South Wales, interpret the law very freely. A survey conducted by the Preterm Foundation in 1976 found that 7.6% of its clients had attempted abortion before presenting at the clinic. PMID:12263459

  5. Needs for laws dealing with abortion in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ojo, S L

    1976-09-01

    This paper reviews from the point of view of a lawyer, the need for abortion, the state of the laws in Africa and hazards of illegal abortion encouraged by restrictive laws. The author then examines the trends in the liberalization of laws in Africa and poses the problem of intention towards liberalization and the tendency of the governments to continue retaining some aspects of the restrictive laws. It is concluded that restrictive abortion laws in many African countries have proved ineffective and should therefore be liberalized. Miller's 8 stages in a woman's reproductive career when she is especially vulnerable psychologically to unwanted pregnancy and the 5 aspects of ego psychology to explain these stages are delineated. Hazards of illegal abortions include use of unqualified personnel, unsanitary conditions, high mortality rate and a sense of punishment conveyed especially to the poor and uneducated which may deter them from seeking medical assistance and contraceptive advice after the operation. 7% of the world's population live in countries where abortion is prohibited; for 12% abortion is permitted only to save the life of the mother; 15% must have broad medical grounds for abortion; for 22% social factors are taken into consideration; 36% can have abortions at their own request, 8% are subject to restrictive abortion laws. Only Tunisia and Zambia in Africa have so far liberalized their abortion laws. Liberalization will substantially reduce frequency of illegal and/or self induced abortions and the incidence of illegitimate births. Women who practice contraception are more likely to accept abortion and those who have an abortion are more likely to accept contraceptive methods when available. Since Potts predicts that 1/3 of all married couples will have at least 1 unplanned pregnancy, liberalization of abortion laws cannot be denied on the argument that instead emphasis should be placed on prevention through family planning education and services. The specific intentions of Nigeria, Ghana, Zaire, Mali, Dahomey, Senegal and Kenya are given. It is concluded that various African governments believe incorrectly that providing contraception can avoid abortion. The author recommends educating these governments on the links between abortion and contraception and a push from appropriate associations in Africa for liberalization. Appendices list grounds for abortion in all countries of the world, the effect of the English Abortion Act (1967) on illegitimate births, and abortion deaths, and the text of the French law of 1920. PMID:12264822

  6. Clandestine abortion in Latin America: provider perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, K; Strickler, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of in-depth interviews with ten clandestine abortion providers in urban Latin America. Three related issues are addressed: how abortion providers come to this line of work; their major difficulties; and their sources of job satisfaction. A variety of paths bring health professionals to the practice of abortion; common elements are a sense of calling, a desire to help women, personal experience with abortion, and a commitment to political change. Providers describe difficulties that include a lack of medical support, the need for secrecy, and threats of violence, extortion, and prosecution. In spite of difficulties, all providers report a great deal of fulfillment in their work, based on their satisfaction in saving women's lives, maintaining supportive relationships with colleagues, and empowering women. PMID:10374808

  7. The new regulation of abortion in Spain.

    PubMed

    Requejo, Mara Teresa

    2011-09-01

    The enactment of Law 2/2010 on Sexual and Reproductive Health and on Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy represents a radical change in the regulation of abortion in Spain. The law moves from the medical indication model that has been in place since 1985 (which established certain cases in which abortion was legal) towards a time-limit model that, with some exceptions, allows free abortion during the first 14 weeks of pregnancy. Along with the hot debate that this fundamental change has caused, other features of the law have also arisen as a source of conflict, including the regulation of the informed consent of underage women for having an abortion and the rules regarding the conscientious objection by healthcare professionals. PMID:21970052

  8. A urinary test procedure for identification of cannabidiol in patients undergoing medical therapy with marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Wertlake, Paul T; Henson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as Schedule I, drugs having no accepted medical value. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. This conflict inhibits physicians from prescribing marijuana and the systematic study of marijuana in medical care. This study concerns the use of the clinical laboratory as a resource for physicians recommending cannabidiol (CBD) to patients, or for patients using medical marijuana. Marijuana containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is psychoactive. CBD is not psychoactive. CBD is reported to have medical benefit for seizure control, neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and pain associated with cancer. Use of opiates leads to increasing dosage over time that may cause respiratory depression. The Medical Board of California has termed this a serious public health crisis of addiction, overdose, and death. Is it feasible that CBD might alleviate persistent, severe pain and therefore diminished opiate use? Further study is needed to determine medical effectiveness of CBD including the effect on concurrent opiate therapy due to competition for receptor sites. This study is the application of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry procedure adapted for use in our laboratory, to detect CBD in urine. The intended use is as a tool for physicians to assess that marijuana being used by a patient is of a composition likely to be medically effective. A law ensuring physicians freedom from federal prosecution would provide confidence essential to formal study of medical uses of marijuana and treatment of clinical problems. Detection of CBD in a urine sample would be a convenient test for such confirmation. PMID:26929665

  9. A urinary test procedure for identification of cannabidiol in patients undergoing medical therapy with marijuana.

    PubMed

    Wertlake, Paul T; Henson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as Schedule I, drugs having no accepted medical value. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. This conflict inhibits physicians from prescribing marijuana and the systematic study of marijuana in medical care. This study concerns the use of the clinical laboratory as a resource for physicians recommending cannabidiol (CBD) to patients, or for patients using medical marijuana. Marijuana containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is psychoactive. CBD is not psychoactive. CBD is reported to have medical benefit for seizure control, neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and pain associated with cancer. Use of opiates leads to increasing dosage over time that may cause respiratory depression. The Medical Board of California has termed this a serious public health crisis of addiction, overdose, and death. Is it feasible that CBD might alleviate persistent, severe pain and therefore diminished opiate use? Further study is needed to determine medical effectiveness of CBD including the effect on concurrent opiate therapy due to competition for receptor sites. This study is the application of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry procedure adapted for use in our laboratory, to detect CBD in urine. The intended use is as a tool for physicians to assess that marijuana being used by a patient is of a composition likely to be medically effective. A law ensuring physicians freedom from federal prosecution would provide confidence essential to formal study of medical uses of marijuana and treatment of clinical problems. Detection of CBD in a urine sample would be a convenient test for such confirmation. PMID:26929665

  10. Induced abortion in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, P D; Lin, R S

    1995-04-01

    Induced abortion is widely practised in Taiwan; however, it had been illegal until 1985. It was of interest to investigate induced abortion practices in Taiwan after its legalization in 1985 in order to calculate the prevalence rate and ratio of induced abortion to live births and to pregnancies in Taiwan. A study using questionnaires through personal interviews was conducted on more than seventeen thousand women who attended a family planning service in Taipei metropolitan areas between 1991 and 1992. The reproductive history and sexual behaviour of the subjects were especially focused on during the interviews. Preliminary findings showed that 46% of the women had a history of having had an induced abortion. Among them, 54.8% had had one abortion, 29.7% had had two, and 15.5% had had three or more. The abortion ratio was 379 induced abortions per 1,000 live births and 255 per 1,000 pregnancies. The abortion ratio was highest for women younger than 20 years of age, for aboriginal women and for nulliparous women. When logistic regression was used to control for confounding variables, we found that the number of previous live births is the strongest predictor relating to women seeking induced abortion. In addition, a significant positive association exists between increasing number of induced abortions and cervical dysplasia. PMID:7738988

  11. Efforts underway to impose harsh regulations on abortion providers.

    PubMed

    Sollom, T

    1996-09-01

    Legislators or regulators in Mississippi, South Carolina, and Missouri have imposed burdensome and unnecessary clinic requirements on abortion providers. In each case, the legislators or regulators designed the requirements to make abortions more difficult to obtain. Mississippi, a state with only two licensed abortion clinics, already had restrictive abortion laws. In August 1996, it implemented stringent regulations on private physicians who provide abortion services in their offices. Some requirements include purchasing specific equipment, widening hallways, and hiring more staff. Several physicians have filed a lawsuit to stop enforcement of the regulations because they make the provision of abortion services so cumbersome and expensive as to discourage physicians from offering abortions. Antiabortion groups testified before the legislature that the Department of Health had been negligent in monitoring private practices for compliance with Mississippi's many abortion laws, particularly counseling requirements. The Republican governor signed the legislation in March 1996. In July 1996, a federal judge prohibited the South Carolina Department of Health from enforcing a new regulation making physicians who perform as few as five abortions a month to meet strict specifications for their office (e.g., disclosure of patient records and medical agreements). The regulation was a response to a 1995 law targeting private physicians who perform abortions in their offices. The judge held that the substantial changes in terms of privacy and expense could bring an undue burden on women seeking abortions. The state denied that the regulation would close clinics or would increase costs so much as to make abortions inaccessible. In September 1996, the House did not override the Democratic governor's veto of a bill that would have required all facilities where abortions are done to be licensed and undergo annual inspections and that would have required all physicians to have $500,000 in medical malpractice insurance and to have ob/gyn privileges at a Missouri hospital. PMID:12347483

  12. HYPNOSIS TO MANAGE DISTRESS RELATED TO MEDICAL PROCEDURES: A META-ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Schnur, Julie B; Kafer, Ilana; Marcus, Carolyn; Montgomery, Guy H

    2008-08-21

    This meta-analysis evaluates the effect of hypnosis in reducing emotional distress associated with medical procedures. PsycINFO and PubMed were searched from their inception through February 2008. Randomized controlled trials of hypnosis interventions, administered in the context of clinical medical procedures, with a distress outcome, were included in the meta-analysis (26 of 61 papers initially reviewed). Information on sample size, study methodology, participant age and outcomes were abstracted independently by 2 authors using a standardized form. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Effects from the 26 trials were based on 2342 participants. Results indicated an overall large effect size (ES) of 0.88 (95% CI = 0.57-1.19) in favour of hypnosis. Effect sizes differed significantly (p < 0.01) according to age (children benefitted to a greater extent than adults) and method of hypnosis delivery, but did not differ based on the control condition used (standard care vs. attention control). PMID:19746190

  13. Radiological health risks to astronauts from space activities and medical procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Leif E.; Nachtwey, D. Stuart

    1990-01-01

    Radiation protection standards for space activities differ substantially from those applied to terrestrial working situations. The levels of radiation and subsequent hazards to which space workers are exposed are quite unlike anything found on Earth. The new more highly refined system of risk management involves assessing the risk to each space worker from all sources of radiation (occupational and non-occupational) at the organ level. The risk coefficients were applied to previous space and medical exposures (diagnostic x ray and nuclear medicine procedures) in order to estimate the radiation-induced lifetime cancer incidence and mortality risk. At present, the risk from medical procedures when compared to space activities is 14 times higher for cancer incidence and 13 times higher for cancer mortality; however, this will change as the per capita dose during Space Station Freedom and interplanetary missions increases and more is known about the risks from exposure to high-LET radiation.

  14. Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access

    MedlinePlus

    ... 17 Strauss LT et al. Abortion surveillance – United States, 2004. MMWR , 56(SS-9), 2007. 18 V irk J, Zhang J et al. Medical abortion ... 32 Ibid. 33 Ibid. 34 Center for Reproductive ... to clinics. State Policies in Brief , 2008. 36 Guttmacher Institute. Counseling ...

  15. RU 486: an alternative to surgical abortion.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, K; Briggs, J; McMaster, D

    1994-09-01

    After 5 years of use in more than 100,000 European women, RU 486, an antiprogestin medication used as a medical abortifacient, has recently come under scrutiny in the United States. This article discusses the current and potential uses of RU 486. Also addressed are the history, advantages, and disadvantages of medical abortion (including the acceptability of the method from a woman-centered perspective); new clinical trials; and ethical issues. PMID:7996306

  16. Ruminant abortion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Holler, Larry D

    2012-11-01

    Successful abortion diagnosis in ruminants involves input from the producer, practitioner, and diagnostician. Unfortunately, despite best efforts, many investigations still result in a diagnosis of idiopathic abortion. If this diagnosis is made after a complete and systematic investigation of appropriate and reasonably preserved samples, some comfort can be taken that practitioners and diagnosticians did their best for the benefit of the producer. As new diagnostic technology is developed for abortion diseases, hopefully this best will only get better. PMID:23101668

  17. Abortion in early America.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Z

    1979-01-01

    This piece describes abortion practices in use from the 1600s to the 19th century among the inhabitants of North America. The abortive techniques of women from different ethnic and racial groups as found in historical literature are revealed. Thus, the point is made that abortion is not simply a "now issue" that effects select women. Instead, it is demonstrated that it is a widespread practice as solidly rooted in our past as it is in the present. PMID:10297561

  18. [Therapeutic abortion: a difficult choice].

    PubMed

    Gratton-Jacob, F

    1981-01-01

    Because the primary responsibility for the care and raising of children still falls on women, they should be able to decide freely whether or not to have children. Although many women who do not initially desire their pregnancies turn out to be adequate mothers, studies have shown that unwanted children suffer disproportionately from a variety of emotional and behavioral disorders. Studies have also found that large numbers of women seeking abortions failed to use any contraception while others used less effective methods, sometimes because of lack of knowledge. Even the most reliable contraceptive methods are liable to occasional failures. According to some authors, undesired pregnancy many reflect a struggle of adolescents with authoritarian parents, the search of a lonely person for something to love or possess, a proof of femininity, an expression of conflict with the partner or an attempt to force a marriage, or ambivalence among middle-aged women at the prospect of becoming more independent when their children enter school. Women may obtain abortions at accredited hospitals in the Province of Quebec upon decision of a committee of 3 physicians that continuation of the pregnancy would result in danger to the life or health of the patient. In 1970 some 100-150,000 illegal abortions occurred, resulting in hospitalization of 20,000 women for complications. In 1972, 4 French-speaking hospitals performed 136 of the 2919 therapeutic abortions sought in the Province of Quebec. In recent years the number has increased. Reasons for obtaining an abortion are usually social or economic: poor relationship with the father, sufficient number of children already born, age of the preceding infant, economic difficulties, mother's age, or effect of pregnancy on work. Many adolescents refuse to tell their parents of their pregnancy for fear of their reaction, but others enjoy considerable parental support. A study of about 5000 French speaking adolescents conducted in 1977 showed that nurses were among the last people they would consider consulting about personal difficulties. Although fewer than 10% of women have serious psychiatric problems following an abortion, it is a stressful event for all who undergo it, and nurses can offer several types of assistance, including offering support and helping the patient to explore her feelings and reactions and to make firm decisions. Nurses should provide patients with all needed information on the procedure and subsequent contraception, and they should make themselves available after the procedure. PMID:6920614

  19. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of opponents. Opponents have taken an active approach in decomposing their beliefs into different strands to be argued. Their assertions that the fetus is a person from conception or a person in potential have forced proponents of legalized abortion to argue in a largely reactive mode. PMID:12348801

  20. Will Congress keep the two-tier system of abortion?

    PubMed

    Goodman, E

    1994-08-16

    Comments were made about the US legislative agenda to provide universal health insurance coverage and basic health care which must cover the most controversial procedure, abortion. Compromises have been offered that would deny abortion to any women receiving a government subsidy, that would allow employers to opt out of coverage, that would allow a nurse or doctor to opt out of performing an abortion, and that would allow women to refuse abortion insurance coverage. Neither prochoice nor prolife groups have cooperated in reducing the demand for abortion. Over the past several years, the debate has evolved to the point where prolife groups are trying to make abortion impossible, not just illegal, by murdering doctors and escorts and blocking clinic entrances. A CNN poll revealed in the beginning of August 1994 that 8% agreed that force was justifiable for preventing abortion, and 3% agreed that killing a doctor was justifiable. Members of Congress have attempted to create a neutral or safety zone to no avail. This has created the illusion of peace, but the abortion war rages on. Health care reform must address this controversial question and move in one direction or another. The present system perpetrates a double standard because the financially comfortable are covered for abortion care, and the poor under Medicaid are denied abortion coverage. PMID:12289883

  1. Vacuum Aspiration of the Uterus in Therapeutic Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Buckle, A. E. R.; Anderson, Mary M.; Loung, K. C.

    1970-01-01

    A prospective study of vacuum aspiration in 400 cases of therapeutic abortion is described showing that the procedure was quick, involving little blood loss in most cases, and that the complication rate was low. The routine use of this method in therapeutic abortion is recommended. PMID:5310228

  2. Cross-validation of a new procedure for early screening of smoking cessation medications in humans.

    PubMed

    Perkins, K A; Lerman, C; Fonte, C A; Mercincavage, M; Stitzer, M L; Chengappa, K N R; Jain, A

    2010-07-01

    Brief procedures for evaluating medication efficacy may reveal which candidate drugs warrant further testing in clinical trials and which do not. We previously carried out a study of smoking abstinence, involving the nicotine patch, and established the sensitivity of our procedure. In this study, we sought to cross-validate our earlier work by comparing short-term smoking abstinence due to varenicline (relative to placebo) in smokers with high intrinsic quit interest (n = 57) and those with low intrinsic quit interest (n = 67). All the subjects were randomly assigned to either abstinence reinforcement ($12/day) or no reinforcement. In a crossover design, all the subjects participated in two 3-week phases: ad libitum smoking (week 1), dose run-up of varenicline (1.0 mg b.i.d.) or placebo (week 2), and quit attempt on medication verified daily by carbon monoxide <5 ppm (week 3). As with the nicotine patch in the previous study, varenicline (relative to placebo) increased abstinence more effectively in those with high intrinsic quit interest than in those with low quit interest but did not affect abstinence due to reinforcement. These data confirm the feasibility of a brief, sensitive test of the efficacy of cessation medications in smokers with high quit interest. PMID:20485335

  3. It is time to integrate abortion into primary care.

    PubMed

    Yanow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The Roe v Wade decision made safe abortion available but did not change the reality that more than 1 million women face an unwanted pregnancy every year. Forty years after Roe v Wade, the procedure is not accessible to many US women. The politics of abortion have led to a plethora of laws that create enormous barriers to abortion access, particularly for young, rural, and low-income women. Family medicine physicians and advanced practice clinicians are qualified to provide abortion care. To realize the promise of Roe v Wade, first-trimester abortion must be integrated into primary care and public health professionals and advocates must work to remove barriers to the provision of abortion within primary care settings. PMID:23153160

  4. It Is Time to Integrate Abortion Into Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Roe v Wade decision made safe abortion available but did not change the reality that more than 1 million women face an unwanted pregnancy every year. Forty years after Roe v Wade, the procedure is not accessible to many US women. The politics of abortion have led to a plethora of laws that create enormous barriers to abortion access, particularly for young, rural, and low-income women. Family medicine physicians and advanced practice clinicians are qualified to provide abortion care. To realize the promise of Roe v Wade, first-trimester abortion must be integrated into primary care and public health professionals and advocates must work to remove barriers to the provision of abortion within primary care settings. PMID:23153160

  5. Increasing compliance with medical examination requests directed to children with autism: effects of a high-probability request procedure.

    PubMed

    Riviere, Vinca; Becquet, Melissa; Peltret, Emilie; Facon, Bruno; Darcheville, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a high-probability (high-p) request sequence as a means of increasing compliance with medical examination tasks. Participants were children who had been diagnosed with autism and who exhibited noncompliance during general medical examinations. The inclusion of the high-p request sequence effectively increased compliance with medical examination tasks. In addition, the procedure was efficient, could be implemented by parents and medical professionals, and did not involve aversive procedures. PMID:21541109

  6. INCREASING COMPLIANCE WITH MEDICAL EXAMINATION REQUESTS DIRECTED TO CHILDREN WITH AUTISM: EFFECTS OF A HIGH-PROBABILITY REQUEST PROCEDURE

    PubMed Central

    Riviere, Vinca; Becquet, Melissa; Peltret, Emilie; Facon, Bruno; Darcheville, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a high-probability (high-p) request sequence as a means of increasing compliance with medical examination tasks. Participants were children who had been diagnosed with autism and who exhibited noncompliance during general medical examinations. The inclusion of the high-p request sequence effectively increased compliance with medical examination tasks. In addition, the procedure was efficient, could be implemented by parents and medical professionals, and did not involve aversive procedures. PMID:21541109

  7. Abortion in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  8. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  9. From abortion to contraception: Tbilisi, 1990.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1991-01-01

    Hoping to provide women other choice besides abortion as a way to regulate fertility, 220 experts from 27 mostly European countries met in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR to discuss ways of increasing access to modern contraceptives. Held last October, the conference was sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Health Organization European Regional Office (WHO/EURO), the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Europe, and the Zhordania Institute of Human Reproduction, Tbilisi. The meeting produced the Tbilisi Declaration, which -- among other things -- recognizes that unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions pose a serious health and social problem. Criminalization, the experts agreed, does little to reduce the number of abortions, and only increases the number of unsafe operations. The Tbilisi Declaration also affirms women's right to decide freely on the number and spacing of children, their right to reproductive health, their right to self-determination in their sexual and reproductive lives, and the right of every child to be a wanted child. The participants addressed the high incidents of abortion in some European countries -- particularly the Soviet Union. With the highest rate of abortion in Europe, the Soviet Union recorded 6 million legal abortions in 1988, and estimates that another 6 million were performed illegally. Nonetheless, perestroika has begun to facilitate access to contraceptives. Participants also discussed new methods of early pregnancy termination, RU486 and menstrual regulation procedures (MR), neither of which is readily available. Increasing access to these methods would help reduce suffering and unnecessary deaths. PMID:12283600

  10. [Conscientious objection in the matter of abortion].

    PubMed

    Serrano Gil, A; García Casado, M L

    1992-03-01

    The issue of conscientious objection in Spain has been used by pro-choice groups against objecting health personnel as one of the obstacles to the implementation of the abortion law, a misnomer. At present objection is massive in the public sector; 95% of abortions are carried out in private clinics with highly lucrative returns; abortion tourism has decreased; and false objection has proliferated in the public sector when the objector performs abortions in the private sector for high fees. The legal framework for conscientious objection is absent in Spain. Neither Article 417 of the Penal Code depenalizing abortion, nor the Ministerial Decree of July 31, 1985, nor the Royal Decree of November 21, 1986 recognize such a concept. However, the ruling of the Constitutional Court on April 11, 1985 confirmed that such objection can be exercised with independence. Some authors refer to the applicability of Law No. 48 of December 16, 1984 that regulates conscientious objection in military service to health personnel. The future law concerning the fundamental right of ideological and religious liberty embodied in Article 16.1 of the Constitution has to be revised. A draft bill was submitted in the Congress or Representatives concerning this issue on May 3, 1985 that recognizes the right of medical personnel to object to abortion without career repercussions. Another draft bill was introduced on April 17, 1985 that would allow the nonparticipation of medical personnel in the interruption of pregnancy, however, they would be prohibited from practicing such in the private hospitals. Neither of these proposed bills became law. Professional groups either object unequivocally, or do not object at all, or object on an ethical level but do not object to therapeutic abortion. The resolution of this issue has to be by consensus and not by imposition. PMID:1565971

  11. Perceptions of misoprostol among providers and women seeking post-abortion care in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Maternowska, M Catherine; Mashu, Alexio; Moyo, Precious; Withers, Mellissa; Chipato, Tsungai

    2015-02-01

    In Zimbabwe, abortions are legally restricted and complications from unsafe abortions are a major public health concern. This study in 2012 explored women's and providers' perspectives in Zimbabwe on the acceptability of the use of misoprostol as a form of treatment for complications of abortion in post-abortion care. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 participants at seven post-abortion care facilities. Participants included 73 women of reproductive age who received services for incomplete abortion and 42 providers, including physicians, nurses, midwives, general practitioners and casualty staff. Only 29 providers had previously used misoprostol with their own patients, and only 21 had received any formal training in its use. Nearly all women and providers preferred misoprostol to surgical abortion methods because it was perceived as less invasive, safer and more affordable. Women also generally preferred the non-surgical method, when given the option, as fears around surgery and risk were high. Most providers favoured removing legal restrictions on abortion, particularly medical abortion. Approving use of misoprostol for post-abortion care in Zimbabwe is important in order to reduce unsafe abortion and its related sequelae. Legal, policy and practice reforms must be accompanied by effective reproductive health curricula updates in medical, nursing and midwifery schools, as well as through updated training for current and potential providers of post-abortion care services nationwide. Our findings support the use of misoprostol in national post-abortion care programmes, as it is an acceptable and potentially life-saving treatment option. PMID:25702065

  12. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  13. Locus of pain control associated with medication adherence behaviors among patients after an orthopedic procedure

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Thaisy Mendes; Machado, Daniele Caferatti; Martins, Rafael Olívio; Galato, Dayani; Piovezan, Anna Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background Locus of pain control (LPC) is characterized by the behavior of people coping with their health problems, as a result of their own actions (internal control) or external factors or other people (external control). This parameter can be associated with medication adherence, in addition to other psychosocial factors that may also influence this behavior. This study was performed to investigate the influence of the LPC on medication adherence in patients undergoing an orthopedic procedure. Subjects and methods We conducted a prospective cohort study on patients who attended an orthopedic clinic for arthroscopy treatment. The patients’ LPC and pain intensity data were obtained on the day of admission through the use of the LPC scale and the visual analog scale (VAS), respectively, both being validated tools. After arthroscopic surgery, the patients received drug prescriptions and were reassessed after 15 days regarding treatment adherence, using the Morisky test. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results We assessed 79 individuals from both the internal LPC group (n=35) and external LPC group (n=44) and found that there were no group differences in sex, affected limb, cause of injury, repetitive strain injury, duration of pain, or pain intensity. However, there was a higher proportion of patients in the external LPC group that adhered to the prescribed medication compared with the internal LPC group (P<0.01). Conclusion The results showed that among patients who underwent an orthopedic procedure, there was a higher adherence rate to prescribed medication in the external LPC group compared with the internal LPC group. PMID:25075178

  14. Acp. Best practice no 155. Pathological investigation of deaths following surgery, anaesthesia, and medical procedures.

    PubMed Central

    Start, R D; Cross, S S

    1999-01-01

    The pathological investigation of deaths following surgery, anaesthesia, and medical procedures is discussed. The definition of "postoperative death" is examined and the classification of deaths following procedures detailed. The review of individual cases is described and the overall approach to necropsy and interpretation considered. There are specific sections dealing with the cardiovascular system (including air embolism, perioperative myocardial infarction, cardiac pacemakers, central venous catheters, cardiac surgery, heart valve replacement, angioplasty, and vascular surgery); respiratory system (postoperative pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax); central nervous system (dissection of cervical spinal cord), hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal system; musculoskeletal system; and head and neck region. Deaths associated with anaesthesia are classified and the specific problems of epidural anaesthesia and malignant hyperthermia discussed. The article concludes with a section on the recording of necropsy findings and their communication to clinicians and medicolegal authorities. PMID:10655984

  15. When Is an Abortion Not an Abortion?

    PubMed

    Mutcherson, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Discussion about the similarities and differences between abortion and multi-fetal pregnancy reduction, including the tug-of-war over naming, highlights ongoing contestation about the relationship between the law, ethics, and women's bodies. Ultimately, the law must root itself in the realities of pregnancy including the physical and social consequences that any pregnancy creates for the woman who carries it. PMID:26242940

  16. Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: a psychosocial study.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, M

    1998-09-01

    Despite its social, legal and medical importance, termination of pregnancy (TOP) (induced abortion) has rarely been the focus of psychosocial research. Of a total of 1329 women who consecutively attended the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Japan, 635 were expecting their first baby. Of these 635 women, 103 (16.2%) had experienced TOP once previously (first aborters), while 47 (7.4%) had experienced TOP two or more times (repeated aborters). Discriminant function analysis was performed using psychosocial variables found to be significantly associated with either first abortion or repeated abortion in bivariate analyses. This revealed that both first and repeated aborters could be predicted by smoking habits and an unwanted current pregnancy while the repeated aborters appear to differ from first aborters in having a longer pre-marital dating period, non-arranged marriages, smoking habits, early maternal loss experience or a low level of maternal care during childhood. These findings suggest that both the frequency of abortion and its repetition have psychosocial origins. PMID:9844843

  17. HYPNOSIS TO MANAGE DISTRESS RELATED TO MEDICAL PROCEDURES: A META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Schnur, Julie B.; Kafer, Ilana; Marcus, Carolyn; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis evaluates the effect of hypnosis in reducing emotional distress associated with medical procedures. PsycINFO and PubMed were searched from their inception through February 2008. Randomized controlled trials of hypnosis interventions, administered in the context of clinical medical procedures, with a distress outcome, were included in the meta-analysis (26 of 61 papers initially reviewed). Information on sample size, study methodology, participant age and outcomes were abstracted independently by 2 authors using a standardized form. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Effects from the 26 trials were based on 2342 participants. Results indicated an overall large effect size (ES) of 0.88 (95% CI = 0.57–1.19) in favour of hypnosis. Effect sizes differed significantly (p < 0.01) according to age (children benefitted to a greater extent than adults) and method of hypnosis delivery, but did not differ based on the control condition used (standard care vs. attention control). PMID:19746190

  18. Abortion cases worrying.

    PubMed

    Mwanza, G

    1994-01-01

    The writer believes that life begins the instant that an human sperm cell and ovule fuse. This life must be respected and preserved. Abortion is shameful, but tolerated when either the mother or would-be baby's life is at stake. As the number of abortions continue to increase, the controversy over a woman's right to abortion rages on. The author wonders whether questions about abortion will ever be resolved and considers some possible solutions with reference to Zambia. There are many early pregnancies among Zambian youths. A 1993 study found 207 abortions per year in the country among 15-19 year olds; this includes illegal, incomplete, and induced abortions. The Coordinator for the Young Women Christian Association in Lusaka thinks that inadequate sex education is one of the factors contributing to the ever-rising number of abortions today. Youths have sexual intercourse without understanding the possible consequences. Parents, community leaders, and school authorities should instead become more involved and teach children about sex to lessen the incidence of abortion. Specifically, parents should talk to their children about sex as they mature, teaching them about their biological reproductive features and functions. The author is convinced that once children and youths understand their bodies, it will be very easy for them to control their desires. Most male and female teens do, however, cite love and sexual desire as the primary motives for their first relationships. The writer also mentions how pregnant girls get expelled from school and that women experience mental and physical side effects from induced abortion. PMID:12287982

  19. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post-abortion care is daunting. There is the need for policymakers to intensify public education against indiscriminate abortion and to reduce unwanted pregnancies. In effect, there is need for effective alternative family planning methods. This is likely to reduce the demand for abortion. Further, with income found as a major constraint, post abortion services should be made accessible to both the rich and poor alike so as to prevent unnecessary maternal deaths as a result of abortion related complications. PMID:25024929

  20. Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance of concerted efforts to improve access. Other countries contemplating changes to abortion policy can draw on the evidence and implementation strategies observed in Nepal. PMID:23741391

  1. Brazilians have different views on when abortion should be legal, but most do not agree with imprisoning women for abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Aníbal; Duarte, Graciana Alves; de Sousa, Maria Helena; Soares Camargo, Rodrigo Paupério; Pacagnella, Rodolfo Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Unsafe abortions remain a major public health problem in countries with very restrictive abortion laws. In Brazil, parliamentarians - who have the power to change the law - are influenced by "public opinion", often obtained through surveys and opinion polls. This paper presents the findings from two studies. One was carried out in February-December 2010 among 1,660 public servants and the other in February-July 2011 with 874 medical students from three medical schools, both in São Paulo State, Brazil. Both groups of respondents were asked two sets of questions to obtain their opinion about abortion: 1) under which circumstances abortion should be permitted by law, and 2) whether or not women in general and women they knew who had had an abortion should be punished with prison, as Brazilian law mandates. The differences in their answers were enormous: the majority of respondents were against putting women who have had abortions in prison. Almost 60% of civil servants and 25% of medical students knew at least one woman who had had an illegal abortion; 85% of medical students and 83% of civil servants thought this person(s) should not be jailed. Brazilian parliamentarians who are currently reviewing a reform in the Penal Code need to have this information urgently. PMID:24315072

  2. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Medical Procedures in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background High quality of informed consent form is essential for adequate information transfer between physicians and patients. Current status of medical procedure consent forms in clinical practice in Croatia specifically in terms of the readability and the content is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and the content of informed consent forms for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used with patients in Croatia. Methods 52 informed consent forms from six Croatian hospitals on the secondary and tertiary health-care level were tested for reading difficulty using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula adjusted for Croatian language and for qualitative analysis of the content. Results The averaged SMOG grade of analyzed informed consent forms was 13.25 (SD 1.59, range 10–19). Content analysis revealed that informed consent forms included description of risks in 96% of the cases, benefits in 81%, description of procedures in 78%, alternatives in 52%, risks and benefits of alternatives in 17% and risks and benefits of not receiving treatment or undergoing procedures in 13%. Conclusions Readability of evaluated informed consent forms is not appropriate for the general population in Croatia. The content of the forms failed to include in high proportion of the cases description of alternatives, risks and benefits of alternatives, as well as risks and benefits of not receiving treatments or undergoing procedures. Data obtained from this research could help in development and improvement of informed consent forms in Croatia especially now when Croatian hospitals are undergoing the process of accreditation. PMID:26376183

  3. 29 CFR 1913.10 - Rules of agency practice and procedure concerning OSHA access to employee medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rules of agency practice and procedure concerning OSHA access to employee medical records. 1913.10 Section 1913.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) RULES OF AGENCY PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE CONCERNING OSHA ACCESS...

  4. 29 CFR 1913.10 - Rules of agency practice and procedure concerning OSHA access to employee medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rules of agency practice and procedure concerning OSHA access to employee medical records. 1913.10 Section 1913.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) RULES OF AGENCY PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE CONCERNING OSHA ACCESS...

  5. Soft Tissue Infection Caused by Rapid Growing Mycobacterium following Medical Procedures: Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Sen; Lee, Chin-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Non-tubecrulosis mycobacterium infections were increasingly reported either pulmonary or extrapulmonary in the past decades. In Taiwan, we noticed several reports about the soft tissue infections caused by rapid growing mycobacterium such as Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium chelonae, on newspaper, magazines, or the multimedia. Most of them occurred after a plastic surgery, and medical or non-medical procedures. Here, we reported two cases of these infections following medical procedures. We also discussed common features and the clinical course of the disease, the characteristics of the infected site, and the treatment strategy. The literatures were also reviewed, and the necessity of the treatment guidelines was discussed. PMID:24882980

  6. Abortion surveillance at CDC: creating public health light out of political heat.

    PubMed

    Cates, W; Grimes, D A; Schulz, K F

    2000-07-01

    In the late 1960s, states began to liberalize their abortion laws, and a new era in women's health began. Under the leadership of Jack Smith, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established a voluntary abortion surveillance system that provided the first nationwide information on the numbers and characteristics of women having abortions. Studies of abortion morbidity done by the CDC revealed that suction curettage was safer than sharp curettage, local anesthesia was safer than general anesthesia, free-standing clinics were safer than hospitals, and dilation and evacuation (D&E) was safer than the alternative of labor induction for early second-trimester abortions. This evidence, which contradicted traditional medical tenets, rapidly changed the practice of abortion in the United States. CDC also established a surveillance system for abortion deaths. This demonstrated a rapid improvement in the safety of abortion in the early 1970s. Lessons learned from mortality investigations helped to change practice as well.Today, more is known about the epidemiology of abortion than any other operation in the history of medicine. In the midst of strident debate over the abortion issue, CDC abortion surveillance data have helped to guide judicial rulings, legislative actions, and Surgeon General's reports, which have supported safer choices for women of reproductive age. When medical historians of the future look back on this century, the increasing availability of safe, legal abortion will stand out as a public health triumph. PMID:10863125

  7. Self-ownership, abortion and infanticide.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, E F; Paul, J

    1979-01-01

    Doctors have been placed in an anomalous position by abortion laws which sanction the termination of a fetus while in a woman's womb, yet call it murder when a physician attempts to end the life of a fetus which has somehow survived such a procedure. This predicament, the doctors' dilemma, can be resolved by adopting a strategy which posits the right to ownership of one's own body for human beings. Such an approach will generate a consistent policy prescription, one that sanctions the right of all pregnant women to abortions, yet grants the fetus, after it becomes viable as a potentially independent person, a right to its own body. The doctors' dilemma is surmounted, then, by requiring that abortions of viable fetuses be performed in a manner that will produce a live delivery. Hence, infanticide and termination of viable fetuses are proscribed. PMID:490573

  8. Catholic attitudes toward abortion.

    PubMed

    Smith, T W

    1984-01-01

    In the US attitudes toward abortion in the 1980s seem to have reached a more liberal plateau, much more favored than in the 1960s or earlier, but not longer moving in a liberal direction. Catholic attitudes basically have followed the same trend. Traditionally Catholic support has been slightly lower than Protestant, and both are less inclined to support abortion than Jews or the nonreligious. During the 1970s support among non-black Catholics averaged about 10 percentage points below non-black Protestants. Blacks tend to be anti-abortion and thereby lower support among Protestants as a whole. A comparison of Protestants and Catholics of both races shows fewer religious differences -- about 7 percentage points. There are some indications that this gap may be closing. In 1982, for the 1st time, support for abortions for social reasons, such as poverty, not wanting to marry, or not wanting more children, was as high among Catholics as among Protestants. 1 of the factors contributing to this narrowing gap has been the higher level of support for abortion among younger Catholics. Protestants show little variation on abortion attitudes, with those over age 65 being slightly less supportive. Among Catholics, support drops rapidly with age. This moderate and possibly vanishing difference between Catholics and Protestants contrasts sharply with the official positions of their respective churches. The Catholic Church takes an absolute moral position against abortion, while most Protestant churches take no doctrinaire position on abortion. Several, such as the Unitarians and Episcopalians, lean toward a pro-choice position as a matter of social policy, though fundamentalist sects take strong anti-abortion stances. Few Catholics agree with their church's absolutist anti-abortion position. The big split on abortion comes between what are sometimes termed the "hard" abortion reasons -- mother's health endangered, serious defect in fetus, rape, or incest. Support among Catholics for "hard" reasons ranges from about 80-88%. Abortion for social reasons such as poverty or not wanting additional children ranges from 35-50%. Catholic support for abortion also varies by geographical region, community type, and ethnic group. Support tends to be strongest in the Northeast, in large cities, and among descendants of immigrants from Italy, Eastern Europe, and France. Support is weakest among Catholics in the Southwest, in small towns or rural areas, and among the Irish and Hispanics, especially Mexican-Americans. Among Catholics, many factors cause opinion to deviate from the national average. A 2nd major political implication is the comparative dedication or commitment of supporters and opponents. Analysis of election returns in 1978 in particular failed to demonstrate any measurable anti-abortion vote, but this does not mean that in a particular constituency it could not be made a serious issue. PMID:12178931

  9. Medical physicists' implication in radiological diagnostic procedures: results after 1 y of experience.

    PubMed

    Ryckx, Nick; Gnesin, Silvano; Meuli, Reto; Elandoy, Christel; Verdun, Francis R

    2015-04-01

    Since January 2008-de facto 2012-medical physics experts (MPEs) are, by law, to be involved in the optimisation process of radiological diagnostic procedures in Switzerland. Computed tomography, fluoroscopy and nuclear medicine imaging units have been assessed for patient exposure and image quality. Large spreads in clinical practice have been observed. For example, the number of scans per abdominal CT examination went from 1 to 9. Fluoroscopy units showed, for the same device settings, dose rate variations up to a factor of 3 to 7. Quantitative image quality for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations varied significantly depending on the local image reconstruction algorithms. Future work will be focused on promoting team cooperation between MPEs, radiologists and radiographers and on implementing task-oriented objective image quality indicators. PMID:25480839

  10. What basic clinical procedures should be mastered by junior clerkship students? Experience at a single medical school in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Konje, Eveline T; Kabangila, Rodrick; Manyama, Mange; van Wyk, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical training in most medical schools, including the Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences (CUHAS), is offered in the form of junior and senior rotations. During these clinical rotations, students are expected to acquire and master the basic procedural skills. However, students’ learning process should be evaluated for quality improvement. Objectives This study was conducted to identify the basic medical procedural skills that third-year medical students should acquire and master and determine the level of students’ exposure on these procedures at the end of junior rotation in internal medicine. Identification of the gap between clinicians’ opinions, skills practiced by students, and third-year students’ curriculum in the medical department at CUHAS was also done. Methods The descriptive cross-sectional study was used to collect data through a self-administered, structured questionnaire from clinicians in medicine. A review of logbooks was considered to determine level of students’ exposure, and a document analysis was done using existing medical curriculum. Results The response of 71% (n=22) was obtained. Clinicians agreed on basic procedures that students should perform independently (ie, Foley catheter insertion, venipuncture, and intravenous drip insertion). Clinicians thought that lumbar punctures, abdominal paracentesis, and nasogastric tube insertion should be done under minimal supervision. A considerable number of students (25%, n=75) did not practice any procedure throughout their rotation. The majority of the students performed venipuncture independently (82.14%, n=56) and lumbar punctures (73.21%, n=56) under supervision. Less than 25% (n=56) of the students met the required number of exposures on the basic procedures. The procedures to be performed and the level of competency in the procedures are not specified in the current curriculum. Conclusion The study identified the procedures that should be taught and practiced by students. It also highlighted the discrepancies in the existing curriculum and the need to monitor and supervise students’ practice. PMID:27051331

  11. Unsafe abortion: the silent scourge.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A

    2003-01-01

    An estimated 19 million unsafe abortions occur worldwide each year, resulting in the deaths of about 70,000 women. Legalization of abortion is a necessary but insufficient step toward improving women's health. Without skilled providers, adequate facilities and easy access, the promise of safe, legal abortion will remain unfulfilled, as in India and Zambia. Both suction curettage and pharmacological abortion are safe methods in early pregnancy; sharp curettage is inferior and should be abandoned. For later abortions, either dilation and evacuation or labour induction are appropriate. Hysterotomy should not be used. Timely and appropriate management of complications can reduce morbidity and prevent mortality. Treatment delays are dangerous, regardless of their origin. Misoprostol may reduce the risks of unsafe abortion by providing a safer alternative to traditional clandestine abortion methods. While the debate over abortion will continue, the public health record is settled: safe, legal, accessible abortion improves health. PMID:14711757

  12. Radiation exposure to patients and medical staff in hepatic chemoembolisation interventional procedures in Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Khoury, H J; Garzon, W J; Andrade, G; Lunelli, N; Kramer, R; de Barros, V S M; Huda, A

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient and medical staff absorbed doses received from transarterial chemoembolisation of hepatocellular carcinoma, which is the most common primary liver tumour worldwide. The study was performed in three hospitals in Recife, capital of the state of Pernambuco, located in the Brazilian Northeastern region. Two are public hospitals (A and B), and one is private (C). For each procedure, the number of images, irradiation parameters (kV, mA and fluoroscopy time), the air kerma-area product (PKA) and the cumulative air kerma (Ka,r) at the reference point were registered. The maximum skin dose (MSD) of the patient was estimated using radiochromic film. For the medical staff dosimetry, thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD-100) were attached next to the eyes, close to the thyroid (above the shielding), on the thorax under the apron, on the wrist and on the feet. The effective dose to the staff was estimated using the algorithm of von Boetticher. The results showed that the mean value of the total PKA was 267.49, 403.83 and 479.74 Gy cm(2) for Hospitals A, B and C, respectively. With regard to the physicians, the average effective dose per procedure was 17 µSv, and the minimum and maximum values recorded were 1 and 41 µSy, respectively. The results showed that the feet received the highest doses followed by the hands and lens of the eye, since the physicians did not use leaded glasses and the equipment had no lead curtain. PMID:25870436

  13. Alternative pathways for abortion services.

    PubMed

    1980-05-24

    The interests of women seeking abortion and of doctors opposed to abortion are best served by alternative referral abortion facilities. Of 22 area health authorities in England with day-care gynecology in 1977, only 13 had day-care abortion units. The 2 abortion charities were doing about 3 times as many abortions as all National Health Service Hospitals put together. At day-care abortion facilities, part-time nurses and doctors sympathetic to abortion are supportive to women in a vulnerable situation. There is no pressure for valuable hospital beds. Women being treated for infertility are not housed next to abortion patients. Resources are not available for women seeking abortion under the 1967 Abortion Act. In 1 district 66% women succeeded in obtaining their abortion through the National Health Service (NHS). Over half the women in Wessex had to go to another region to obtain abortions. Many local gynecologists have conscientious objections to abortion. Subcontracting or referral of NHS patients to charitable organizations running day-care facilities is one answer to the lack of facilities. PMID:6103449

  14. Monte Carlo calculations on extremity and eye lens dosimetry for medical staff at interventional radiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Carinou, E; Ferrari, P; Koukorava, C; Krim, S; Struelens, L

    2011-03-01

    There are many factors that can influence the extremity and eye lens doses of the medical staff during interventional radiology and cardiology procedures. Numerical simulations can play an important role in evaluating extremity and eye lens doses in correlation with many different parameters. In the present study, the first results of the ORAMED (Optimisation of Radiation protection of MEDical staff) simulation campaign are presented. The parameters investigated for their influence on eye lens, hand, wrist and leg doses are: tube voltage, filtration, beam projection, field size and irradiated part of the patient's body. The tube voltage ranged from 60 to 110 kV(p), filtration from 3 to 6 mm Al and from 0 to 0.9 mm Cu. For all projections, the results showed that doses received by the operator decreased with increasing tube voltage and filtration. The magnitude of the influence of the tube voltage and the filtration on the doses depends on the beam projection and the irradiated part of the patient's body. Finally, the influence of the field size is significant in decreasing the doses. PMID:21212075

  15. Regulations prohibiting abortion counseling held unconstitutional.

    PubMed

    Rymer, T A

    1990-01-01

    A federal appellate court for Massachusetts has ruled that regulations prohibiting counseling or referrals for abortion services violate the constitutional right to reproductive choice. The regulations in question were promulgated under Title X of the US Public Health Service Act. The regulations required pregnant women to be furnished with a list of providers who supported the welfare of the mother and the fetus, thus making the decision to abort more difficult and intruding upon pre- existing physician-patient relationships. The regulations further imposed substantial costs and delays on women who chose to abort through their endorsement of the withholding of requested information. In finding these regulations unconstitutional, the Court noted that they went beyond a mere refusal to fund abortion and interfered with the decision making process by dictating the information a woman was entitled to receive. On the basis of general principles that govern the provision of health services and the physician-patient relationship, the American Medical Association supported the position that the Title X regulations were unconstitutional. The Association noted in its brief that physicians must be free to reveal to their patients all the relevant facts patients need to make an informed decision about medical treatment, even if the physician does not personally plan to provide such treatment. PMID:2304078

  16. Parents' perspectives on supporting children during needle-related medical procedures.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Katarina; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim; Enskär, Karin; Rydström, Ingela

    2014-01-01

    When children endure needle-related medical procedures (NRMPs), different emotions arise for the child and his/her parents. Despite the parents' own feelings, they have a key role in supporting their child through these procedures. The aim of this study is to describe the meanings of supporting children during NRMPs from the perspective of the parents. Twenty-one parents participated in this study. A reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach was used and phenomenological analysis was applied. The essential meaning of the phenomenon-supporting children during an NRMP-is characterized as "keeping the child under the protection of one's wings," sometimes very close and sometimes a little further out under the wingtips. The essential meaning is additionally described through its constituents: paying attention to the child's way of expressing itself, striving to maintain control, facilitating the child's understanding, focusing the child's attention, seeking additional support, and rewarding the child. The conclusion is that parents' ability to be supportive can be affected when seeing their child undergo an NRMP. To regain the role as the child's protector and to be able to keep the child "under the protection of one's wings," parents need support from the staff. PMID:25008196

  17. Applications of fluid MicroJets to medical and dental laser procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederickson, Christopher J.; Hayes, Donald J.; Wallace, David B.; Ussery, D.; Arcoria, Charles J.; Motamedi, Massoud; Jennett, E.; Diven, D.

    1995-05-01

    Many laser medical procedures can be improved by dispensing exogenous fluids onto the tissue during irradiation. Examples include the dispensing of coolants, photoabsorptive enhancers, photoreflective tissue shields, photoactivated tissue solders, fillers, or surface sealants. The main obstacle to the use of such auxiliary fluids is the difficulty of dispensing them in a convenient, interactive fashion while operating the laser. We have adapted ink-jet printing technology to this problem of dispensing auxiliary fluids during laser procedures. The technology can dispense fluids with exquisite volumetric, spatial, and temporal precision. In principle, one or more fluids can be dispensed interactively from nozzles similar in size to the optical fibers and microlenses that are used for the lasers. Compact handpieces or endoscopic tools that will incorporate fluid MicroJets and laser optics can be envisioned. The enhancements to laser surgical technology that could be afforded by the use of fluid jetting will be discussed. Examples from ongoing work in dentistry, orthopedics, and dermatology are presented. Supported in part by NIH SBIR's DE10687 and GM50602.

  18. Specific disgust sensitivities differentially predict interest in careers of varying procedural-intensity among medical students.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Windsor, John A

    2014-05-01

    Mismatches between the needs of public health systems and student interests have led to renewed study on the factors predicting career specializations among medical students. While most work examines career and lifestyle values, emotional proclivities may be important; disgust sensitivity may help explain preferences for careers with greater and lesser degrees of procedural content. In the study, 294 students completed measures assessing: (1) demographics, (2) career interest or intention regarding emergency medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, and pediatric medicine, (3) traditional determinants of career intention/interest, and (4) core/bodily product, animal reminder, contamination, and sexual/moral disgust sensitivity. As predicted, logistic regressions controlling for demographics and traditional career predictors, showed that greater animal reminder disgust predicted reduced interest in emergency medicine but greater interest in pediatric medicine. Conversely, greater core/bodily product disgust predicted lower interest in obstetrics/gynecology and pediatric medicine; greater contamination and sexual/moral disgust both predicted increased odds of interest in internal medicine. Overall, specific disgust sensitivities were the best predictors of specialization intention in multivariate models. Specific disgust sensitivities appear to differentially deter and/or predispose self-selection into specific trajectories varying in procedural content. Such findings may permit the early identification of specialty fit and provide guidance in career counseling. PMID:23797803

  19. Parents’ perspectives on supporting children during needle-related medical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Katarina; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim; Enskär, Karin; Rydström, Ingela

    2014-01-01

    When children endure needle-related medical procedures (NRMPs), different emotions arise for the child and his/her parents. Despite the parents’ own feelings, they have a key role in supporting their child through these procedures. The aim of this study is to describe the meanings of supporting children during NRMPs from the perspective of the parents. Twenty-one parents participated in this study. A reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach was used and phenomenological analysis was applied. The essential meaning of the phenomenon—supporting children during an NRMP—is characterized as “keeping the child under the protection of one’s wings,” sometimes very close and sometimes a little further out under the wingtips. The essential meaning is additionally described through its constituents: paying attention to the child’s way of expressing itself, striving to maintain control, facilitating the child’s understanding, focusing the child’s attention, seeking additional support, and rewarding the child. The conclusion is that parents’ ability to be supportive can be affected when seeing their child undergo an NRMP. To regain the role as the child’s protector and to be able to keep the child “under the protection of one’s wings,” parents need support from the staff. PMID:25008196

  20. [Management of chemical burns and inhalation poisonings in acute medical care procedures of the State Fire Service].

    PubMed

    Chomoncik, Mariusz; Nitecki, Jacek; Ogonowska, Dorota; Cisoń-Apanasewicz, Urszula; Potok, Halina

    2013-01-01

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) were founded by the government to perform tasks aimed at providing people with help in life-threatening conditions. The system comprises two constituent parts. The first one is public administrative bodies which are to organise, plan, coordinate and supervise the completion of the tasks. The other constituent is EMS units which keep people, resources and units in readiness. Supportive services, which include: the State Fire Service (SFS) and the National Firefighting and Rescue System (NFRS), are of great importance for EMS because they are eligible for providing acute medical care (professional first aid). Acute medical care covers actions performed by rescue workers to help people in life-threatening conditions. Rescue workers provide acute medical care in situations when EMS are not present on the spot and the injured party can be accessed only with the use of professional equipment by trained workers of NFRS. Whenever necessary, workers of supportive services can assist paramedics' actions. Cooperation of all units of EMS and NFRS is very important for rescue operations in the integrated rescue system. Time is a key aspect in delivering first aid to a person in life-threatening conditions. Fast and efficient first aid given by the accident's witness, as well as acute medical care performed by a rescue worker can prevent death and minimise negative effects of an injury or intoxication. It is essential that people delivering first aid and acute medical care should act according to acknowledged and standardised procedures because only in this way can the process of decision making be sped up and consequently, the number of possible complications following accidents decreased. The present paper presents an analysis of legal regulations concerning the management of chemical burn and inhalant intoxication in acute medical care procedures of the State Fire Service. It was observed that the procedures for rescue workers entitled to provide acute medical care should be correlated with the procedures for emergency medical teams. PMID:24466708

  1. Medicine and abortion law: complicating the reforming profession.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Sheelagh; Thomson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The complicated intra-professional rivalries that have contributed to the current contours of abortion law and service provision have been subject to limited academic engagement. In this article, we address this gap. We examine how the competing interests of different specialisms played out in abortion law reform from the early twentieth-century, through to the enactment of the Abortion Act 1967, and the formation of the structures of abortion provision in the early 1970s. We demonstrate how professional interests significantly shaped the landscape of abortion law in England, Scotland, and Wales. Our analysis addresses two distinct and yet related fields where professional interests were negotiated or asserted in the journey to law reform. Both debates align with earlier analysis that has linked abortion law reform with the market development of the medical profession. We argue that these two axes of debate, both dominated by professional interests, interacted to help shape law's treatment of abortion, and continue to influence the provision of abortion services today. PMID:25995361

  2. Matching Doses of Distraction With Child Risk for Distress During a Medical Procedure

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kleiber, Charmaine; Hanrahan, Kirsten; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Ersig, Anne; Westhus, Nina; Allen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background Parents often want to provide support to their children during medical procedures, but not all parents are effective in providing distraction after brief training. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three doses of distraction intervention for children at high and medium risk for procedure-related distress. Methods Children undergoing scheduled intravenous insertions for diagnostic or treatment purposes and their parents participated. A computerized application, Children, Parents and Distraction, was used to predict distress risk. Doses of intervention were basic (parents trained on providing distraction), enhanced (basic training plus tailored instructions, environmental modifications, and support and guidance from the research assistant), and professional (a trained research assistant provided distraction). Outcome measures were Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised for behavioral distress, Oucher for self-reported pain, parent report of child distress, and salivary cortisol for physiological distress. Results A total of 574 children, ages 4–10, and their parents participated. The Children, Parents and Distraction predicted that the risk for distress was high for 156 children, medium for 372, and low for 46. Children predicted to have higher risk for distress displayed more behavioral distress (p < .01). Children in the medium-risk group who had the professional intervention displayed significantly less behavioral distress (p < .001). Children in the high-risk group tended to have less behavioral distress when receiving the professional intervention (p = .07). There were no significant group differences for self-report of pain, parent report of distress, or cortisol levels. Discussion Some parents may need additional training in providing distraction to their children during procedures, and some children at medium and high risk for distress may need professional support. Parents should be asked about their preferences in acting as the distraction coach and, if willing, be provided as much training and support as possible in the clinical situation. PMID:25350539

  3. Attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation. A model for understanding reactions to medical procedures after death.

    PubMed

    Sanner, M

    1994-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to reach a deeper understanding of factors influencing the attitudes toward organ donation and other procedures with the dead body. From a survey of 400 inhabitants of Uppsala, a city in the middle of Sweden, concerning attitudes toward transplantation issues, 38 individuals with different attitudes toward donation of their own organs were selected for follow-up interviews. From the interviews, more than 600 statements concerning motives and reactions to medical procedures with the dead body were listed. These statements were summarized in 20 motive categories, in which 17 the nature of the motives were negative to organ donation and three promoting such a procedure. The categories were then analyzed and interpreted within a frame of reference of psychodynamic defense theory. In several cases it was possible to relate them to common death anxiety defenses. Six different motive complexes were extracted. These are called (1) illusion of lingering life; (2) protection of the value of the individual; (3) distrust, anxiety and alienation; (4) respecting the limits set by Nature or God; (5) altruism; and (6) rationality. Individuals not willing to donate their own organs were judged as either (a) reacting out of strenthened death anxiety defenses, or (b) as having a special outlook on life, where the idea of what is 'natural' was emphasized. The adverse reactions of the positive attitude group were seen as initial reactions perceived as derivations of common death anxiety defenses and weakened when confronted with altruistic and fact-stressing arguments. In the 'undecided group' of 14 persons, 11 arrived at a definite opinion. Seven decided for organ donation when their mistaken beliefs were corrected or when they took time to work through their initial uneasiness, while 4 persons actually were clearly negative. Three still remained uncertain. The stability of these attitudes seems to be high, often being experienced as a part of one's philosophy of life. PMID:8042059

  4. MTP Amendment Bill, 2014: towards re-imagining abortion care.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    In India, the 1971 Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, while allowing abortions under a broad range of circumstances, can be considered a conservative law from a feminist perspective. The Act allows healthcare providers rather than women seeking abortion to have the final say on abortion, and creates an environment within which women are made dependent on their healthcare providers. On October 29, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare released a draft of the MTP (Amendment) Bill 2014, which proposes changes that could initiate a shift in the focus of the Indian abortion discourse from healthcare providers to women. Such a shift would decrease the vulnerability of women within the clinical setting and free them from subjective interpretations of the law. The Bill also expands the base of healthcare providers by including mid-level and non-allopathic healthcare providers. While the medical community has resisted this inclusion, the author is in favour of it, arguing that in the face of the high rates of unsafe abortion, such a step is both ethical and necessary. Additionally, the clause extending the gestational limit could trigger ethical debates on eugenic abortions and sex-selective abortions. This paper argues that neither of these should be used to limit access to late-trimester termination, and should, instead, be dealt with separately and in a way that enquires into why such pregnancies are considered unwanted. PMID:25716439

  5. Reproductive failure due to spontaneous abortion and recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Bulletti, C; Flamigni, C; Giacomucci, E

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and clinical management of spontaneous and recurrent abortion and of the failure of embryo implantation are discussed in a retrospective overview of the major studies conducted since 1975 identified through a Medline search. Infertile women who experienced spontaneous single (32%) and recurrent (0.5%) abortion as well as those who became pregnant after induction of ovulation with gonadotrophins (abortion rate 17-31%) and those who underwent assisted fertilization programmes (abortion rate 18-34%) are considered. Causes and treatments are here reported. Medical treatments for immunologically mediated abortion (IMA) are based on prednisolone, heparin, aspirin and intravenous immunoglobulin. Efficacy of the medical treatment of patients with a history of IMA has yet to be completely demonstrated. Genetic disorders are possible causes of both failure in implantation and early abortion; this cause is more prominent with advanced age and currently cannot be treated. Endocrine factors may also be responsible for miscarriage, and correction of hormone abnormalities is discussed. Infections, endometriosis and psychological factors are other possible important causes of embryo loss without specific widely accepted treatments. Prominent areas of research are the identification of genetic preimplantation abnormalities, and pharmacological intervention for abnormal spontaneous uterine contractility. The data here reported are encouraging, but the efficacy of different treatments is still not convincing. The information available is sufficient to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools to evaluate their efficacy in reducing spontaneous abortion at an early stage. PMID:9079408

  6. [The decision-making process of abortion high committees].

    PubMed

    Cohen-Almagor, R; Snir, Y

    2000-06-15

    Factors influencing the decision-making process of the Abortions High Committees (after the 23rd week of pregnancy), and whether there are differences between decisions of different Committees were examined. A questionnaire was sent to the 45 members of these committees of whom 24 responded (53%). Some hospitals refused to cooperate because they did not want to evoke discussion about the practices of the Committees. The significant factors that play a part in the decision as to whether or not to allow an abortion are the medical condition of the fetus, the medical and psychological state of the mother, and the week of pregnancy. The data also show that women committee members are more inclined to authorize abortion than men, and that the more religious members are less inclined to authorize abortions. No differences were found between hospitals, and the age of committee members had no influence. Members did not accord any importance to fear of litigation in their considerations. PMID:10979420

  7. Abortion Liberalization in World Society, 1960-2009.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Elizabeth H; Kim, Minzee; Longhofer, Wesley

    2015-11-01

    Controversy sets abortion apart from other issues studied by world society theorists, who consider the tendency for policies institutionalized at the global level to diffuse across very different countries. The authors conduct an event history analysis of the spread (however limited) of abortion liberalization policies from 1960 to 2009. After identifying three dominant frames (a women's rights frame, a medical frame, and a religious, natural family frame), the authors find that indicators of a scientific, medical frame show consistent association with liberalization of policies specifying acceptable grounds for abortion. Women's leadership roles have a stronger and more consistent liberalizing effect than do countries' links to a global women's rights discourse. Somewhat different patterns emerge around the likelihood of adopting an additional policy, controlling for first policy adoption. Even as support for women's autonomy has grown globally, with respect to abortion liberalization, persistent, powerful frames compete at the global level, preventing robust policy diffusion. PMID:26900619

  8. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  9. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real

  10. [Spontaneous abortion. Etiologic survey. Results].

    PubMed

    Baaklini, N; Anguenot, J L; Boulanger, J C; Vitse, M

    1990-12-01

    The definition of repeated spontaneous abortions is subject to caution. For some, it corresponds to at least three repeated spontaneous abortions with no normal previous pregnancy; for others, it comprises the repeated spontaneous abortions occurring after a normal pregnancy. It is a frequent problem, especially if one tries to give a wider definition. The authors studied the frequency of repeated spontaneous abortions in a continuous series of 14,857 pregnancies which took place between January 1982 and December 1988. In the study of the aetiology of the repeated spontaneous abortions in the various groups of women defined according to the number of previous pregnancies and abortions, they find the classical causes of repeated spontaneous abortions in all the categories: therefore, it seems legitimate to them that a wider definition be given for repeated spontaneous abortions. PMID:2291048

  11. Abortion and human rights.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. PMID:20303830

  12. A compromise on abortion?

    PubMed

    Rhoden, N K

    1989-01-01

    Rhoden's article is one of three on "Abortion: searching for common ground" in this issue of the Hastings Center Report. Her article, together with those by M. Mahowald and M. Glendon, was prompted by the expectation that the impending U.S. Supreme Court decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (3 July 1989) would overturn or restrict Roe v. Wade (1973). Rhoden, an advocate for the pro-choice position, asks whether a compromise leading to an acceptable regulatory policy is possible or desirable among those on opposite sides of the abortion issue. She identifies several reasons why the Roe decision is vulnerable to review, but argues that effective education about sexuality and comprehensive social support of women are better approaches to abortion than restrictive legislation. PMID:2663778

  13. [Abortion and crime].

    PubMed

    Citoni, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward. PMID:23057202

  14. The "gag rule" revisited: physicians as abortion gatekeepers.

    PubMed

    Bloche, M Gregg

    1992-01-01

    In this article, I explore this failure [of the therapeutic exception as a compromise device in federal abortion counseling regulations] with an eye toward its broader lessons about the social uses of medical discretion and the difficulty of achieving an abortion compromise in America. I begin by examining the legal underpinning beneath the widespread belief that the "gag rule" imposed a near-absolute ban on discussion of the abortion option. This conventional wisdom, I conclude, collapses on careful inspection. It fails utterly to account for the strong support to be found in the Title X regulations and their larger legal context for a therapeutic exception unconstrained by administrative or judicial definition. Next, I observe that this legal unboundedness would have empowered Title X clinic physicians (and perhaps others who do counseling) to exercise broad discretion over abortion access, under the rubric of medical indication.... By so doing, however, physicians would have become abortion gatekeepers. This would have raised difficult ethical and clinical questions about the extent to which medical judgment should be allowed to incorporate (and shield) socially-disputed moral choices. I briefly consider some of these questions, along with the countervailing appeal of preserving a measure of intimate freedom under medical cover. I then conclude by positing some connections between the moral infirmities of medical gatekeeping and the political failure of the therapeutic exception. I suggest, in essence, that this failure was ensured by a strong resonance between the exception's moral infirmities and the fears of the medical leaders, pro-choice activists, and abortion opponents who framed the public debate over the "gag rule." The potential breadth of the therapeutic exception went unrecognized and unexplored because professional and popular understanding of the abortion counseling regulations was molded by the activists who framed the debate... PMID:11651561

  15. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind placards for flight. PA-1 flight data is shown, as well as a comparison of PA-1 flight data to nonlinear simulation Monte Carlo data.

  16. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  17. Brazilian obstetrician-gynecologists and abortion: a survey of knowledge, opinions and practices

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Lisa A; García, Sandra G; Díaz, Juan; Yam, Eileen A

    2005-01-01

    Background Abortion laws are extremely restrictive in Brazil. The knowledge, opinions of abortion laws, and abortion practices of obstetrician-gynecologists can have a significant impact on women's access to safe abortion. Methods We conducted a mail-in survey with a 10% random sample of obstetrician-gynecologists affiliated with the Brazilian Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. We documented participants' experiences performing abortion under a range of legal and illegal circumstances, and asked about which abortion techniques they had experience with. We used chi-square tests and crude logistic regression models to determine which sociodemographic, knowledge-related, or practice-related variables were associated with physician opinion. Results Of the 1,500 questionnaires that we mailed out, we received responses from 572 (38%). Less than half (48%) of the respondents reported accurate knowledge about abortion law and 77% thought that the law should be more liberal. One-third of respondents reported having previous experience performing an abortion, and very few of these physicians reported having experience with manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) or with misoprostol with either mifepristone or methotrexate. Physicians that favored liberalization of the law were more likely to have correct knowledge about abortion law, and to be in favor of public funding for abortion services. Conclusion Brazilian obstetrician-gynecologists need more information on abortion laws and on safe, effective abortion procedures. PMID:16288647

  18. Hardware Design and Implementation of a Wavelet De-Noising Procedure for Medical Signal Preprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szi-Wen; Chen, Yuan-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based de-noising with its applications into the noise reduction for medical signal preprocessing is introduced. This work focuses on the hardware realization of a real-time wavelet de-noising procedure. The proposed de-noising circuit mainly consists of three modules: a DWT, a thresholding, and an inverse DWT (IDWT) modular circuits. We also proposed a novel adaptive thresholding scheme and incorporated it into our wavelet de-noising procedure. Performance was then evaluated on both the architectural designs of the software and. In addition, the de-noising circuit was also implemented by downloading the Verilog codes to a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based platform so that its ability in noise reduction may be further validated in actual practice. Simulation experiment results produced by applying a set of simulated noise-contaminated electrocardiogram (ECG) signals into the de-noising circuit showed that the circuit could not only desirably meet the requirement of real-time processing, but also achieve satisfactory performance for noise reduction, while the sharp features of the ECG signals can be well preserved. The proposed de-noising circuit was further synthesized using the Synopsys Design Compiler with an Artisan Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC, Hsinchu, Taiwan) 40 nm standard cell library. The integrated circuit (IC) synthesis simulation results showed that the proposed design can achieve a clock frequency of 200 MHz and the power consumption was only 17.4 mW, when operated at 200 MHz. PMID:26501290

  19. Hardware design and implementation of a wavelet de-noising procedure for medical signal preprocessing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szi-Wen; Chen, Yuan-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based de-noising with its applications into the noise reduction for medical signal preprocessing is introduced. This work focuses on the hardware realization of a real-time wavelet de-noising procedure. The proposed de-noising circuit mainly consists of three modules: a DWT, a thresholding, and an inverse DWT (IDWT) modular circuits. We also proposed a novel adaptive thresholding scheme and incorporated it into our wavelet de-noising procedure. Performance was then evaluated on both the architectural designs of the software and. In addition, the de-noising circuit was also implemented by downloading the Verilog codes to a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based platform so that its ability in noise reduction may be further validated in actual practice. Simulation experiment results produced by applying a set of simulated noise-contaminated electrocardiogram (ECG) signals into the de-noising circuit showed that the circuit could not only desirably meet the requirement of real-time processing, but also achieve satisfactory performance for noise reduction, while the sharp features of the ECG signals can be well preserved. The proposed de-noising circuit was further synthesized using the Synopsys Design Compiler with an Artisan Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC, Hsinchu, Taiwan) 40 nm standard cell library. The integrated circuit (IC) synthesis simulation results showed that the proposed design can achieve a clock frequency of 200 MHz and the power consumption was only 17.4 mW, when operated at 200 MHz. PMID:26501290

  20. Nurses’ perspectives on supporting children during needle-related medical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Katarina; Rydström, Ingela; Enskär, Karin; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim

    2014-01-01

    Children state that among their worst fears during hospitalization are those related to various nursing procedures and to injections and needles. Nurses thus have a responsibility to help children cope with needle-related medical procedures (NRMP) and the potentially negative effects of these. The aim of the study is to describe the lived experience of supporting children during NRMP, from the perspective of nurses. Fourteen nurses took part in the study, six of whom participated on two occasions thus resulting in 20 interviews. A reflective lifeworld research approach was used, and phenomenological analysis was applied. The result shows that supporting children during NRMP is characterized by a desire to meet the child in his/her own world and by an effort to reach the child's horizon of understanding regarding these actions, based on the given conditions. The essential meaning of the phenomenon is founded on the following constituents: developing relationships through conversation, being sensitive to embodied responses, balancing between tact and use of restraint, being the child's advocate, adjusting time, and maintaining belief. The discussion focuses on how nurses can support children through various types of conversation and by receiving help from the parents’ ability to be supportive, and on whether restraint can be supportive or not for children during NRMP. Our conclusion is that nurses have to see each individual child, meet him/her in their own world, and decide on supportive actions while at the same time balancing their responsibility for the completion of the NRMP. This work can be described as “balancing on a tightrope” in an unpredictable situation. PMID:24646473

  1. Nurses' perspectives on supporting children during needle-related medical procedures.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Katarina; Rydström, Ingela; Enskär, Karin; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim

    2014-01-01

    Children state that among their worst fears during hospitalization are those related to various nursing procedures and to injections and needles. Nurses thus have a responsibility to help children cope with needle-related medical procedures (NRMP) and the potentially negative effects of these. The aim of the study is to describe the lived experience of supporting children during NRMP, from the perspective of nurses. Fourteen nurses took part in the study, six of whom participated on two occasions thus resulting in 20 interviews. A reflective lifeworld research approach was used, and phenomenological analysis was applied. The result shows that supporting children during NRMP is characterized by a desire to meet the child in his/her own world and by an effort to reach the child's horizon of understanding regarding these actions, based on the given conditions. The essential meaning of the phenomenon is founded on the following constituents: developing relationships through conversation, being sensitive to embodied responses, balancing between tact and use of restraint, being the child's advocate, adjusting time, and maintaining belief. The discussion focuses on how nurses can support children through various types of conversation and by receiving help from the parents' ability to be supportive, and on whether restraint can be supportive or not for children during NRMP. Our conclusion is that nurses have to see each individual child, meet him/her in their own world, and decide on supportive actions while at the same time balancing their responsibility for the completion of the NRMP. This work can be described as "balancing on a tightrope" in an unpredictable situation. PMID:24646473

  2. College Students' Attitudes Toward Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Joseph W.

    1970-01-01

    Attitudes toward the desirability of abortion were significaantly related to sex, college, classification, level of church activity, residence background, family size, exposure to abortion, and attitude toward premarital sex. The data suggest an increasing acceptance of abortion in the future. (Author)

  3. Multiple Induced Abortions: Danish Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Mogens; David, Henry P.; Morgall, Janine M.

    1997-01-01

    Women having an induced abortion in an urban clinic were studied. First, second, and third time aborters (N=150) were interviewed. Variables including reasons for choosing abortion, life situations, contraceptive risk-taking, and ease of becoming pregnant were examined. Related studies and suggestions for postabortion counseling are discussed.…

  4. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  5. INDUCED ABORTION FROM AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE: IS IT CRIMINAL OR JUST ELECTIVE?

    PubMed Central

    Albar, Mohammed A.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Induced Abortion for social reasons is spreading all over the world. It is estimated that globally 50 million unborn babies are killed annually, resulting in the deaths of 200,000 pregnant women and the suffering of millions. The complications of illegal abortion are very serious. Abortion is still used in many countries as a means of family planning. The medical reasons for abortion are limited and con-sti-tute a small proportion of all abortion cases. This paper discusses the different views on abortion, its history, its evolution over time, and the present legal circumstances. The emphasis is on the situation in Islamic countries and the effect of Islamic Fatwas on abortion. PMID:23008648

  6. U.S. abortion policy since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Mcfarlane, D R

    1993-01-01

    After noting in its introduction that in Roe vs. Wade the US Supreme Court federalized (rather than nationalized) abortion policy with the result that states were given parameters in which they could develop their own abortion policies, this article reviews subsequent Supreme Court decisions about abortion from Doe vs. Bolton in 1973 through Bray vs. Alexandria Women's Health Clinic in 1993. The narrative review is illustrated by a table which indicates year, ruling, case name, and major findings for each of the 23 cases. The review reveals that the parameters set for states by the Supreme Court have been subject to change and reversal as the composition of the Court has changed. The Court has also given states wide discretion in the area of paying for abortions for women who are eligible for Medicaid with the result that 30 states provide no abortion funding unless a Medicaid patient's life is endangered by the pregnancy. The Supreme Court rulings have also allowed states to develop widely differing policies about parental consent/notification before a minor can obtain an abortion. Of the 35 states with parental consent notification laws on their books, only 15 actually enforce them. Other state restrictions include the requirement for the performance of specified tests before an abortion can occur, a prohibition on the use of public facilities for abortions, and a prohibition on public employees participating in the performance of an abortion. State activity in the realm of abortion legislation is expected to continue as an outcome of the Webster and Casey decisions, but with the election of President Clinton, more abortion policy developments are expected to take place on the federal level. These include repeal of the "gag rule" which banned abortion counseling in federally-supported family planning clinics, passage of the Freedom of Choice Act (stuck in committee in 1992) to codify the rulings in Roe vs. Wade, passage of the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act, provision of additional Medicaid funding for abortions, and the introduction of RU-486 for medically induced abortions. Changes in the Court composition as a result of Clinton-appointed Supreme Court justices will also lead to changes in policy development. PMID:12288251

  7. Serum immunoglobulins in aborted and non-aborted bovine foetuses.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, W A; Logan, E F; O'Brien, J J

    1978-01-01

    The concentration of immunoglobulin classes G, M and A (IgG, IgM and IgA) in the sera of 233 aborted and 201 non-aborted foetuses was measured. IgM was first detected in a foetus at day 90 of gestation while IgG and IgA were first detected on day 111 of gestation. Immunoglobulins were detected in 81.5% of aborted foetuses and 32.8% of non-aborted foetuses. Total immunoglobulin concentrations of 20 mg/100 ml or greater were found in 35.2% of aborted foetuses but only in 4.5% of non-aborted foetuses. It is suggested that factors resulting in antigenic stimulation of the foetus may play an important part in bovine abortion. PMID:101325

  8. Decriminalisation of abortion performed by qualified health practitioners under the Abortion Law Reform Act 2008 (Vic).

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2012-06-01

    In 2008, the Victorian Parliament enacted the Abortion Law Reform Act 2008 (Vic) and amended the Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) to decriminalise terminations of pregnancy while making it a criminal offence for unqualified persons to carry out such procedures. The reform legislation has imposed a civil regulatory regime on the management of abortions, and has stipulated particular statutory duties of care for registered qualified health care practitioners who have conscientious objections to terminations of pregnancy. The background to, and the structure of, this novel statutory regime is examined, with a focus on conscientious objection clauses and liability in the tort of negligence and the tort of breach of statutory duty. PMID:22908609

  9. The Wessex abortion studies: I. Interdistrict variation in provision of abortion services.

    PubMed

    Ashton, J R; Dennis, K J; Rowe, R G; Waters, W E; Wheeller, M J

    1980-01-12

    An analysis of fertility and the provision of abortion and abortion-related services in the health districts of Wessex showed considerable variation between districts in the provision of formal family-planning services. The patterns of fertility varied between the districts and there appeared to be some relationship between family-planning provision and the rates for illegitimate and "legitimated" births and induced abortion. Although the region as a whole was meeting the demand of 42% of its abortion patients within the National Health Service, there was a considerable variation from district to district which could be explained only in part by variations in the provision of resources. The main differences could be accounted for by the attitudes of the women and of their general practitioners and consultants. Of Wessex women obtaining induced abortions privately at the British Pregnancy Advisory Service (B.P.A.S.) clinic at Brighton, 85% said they would have been willing to have an N.H.S. operation locally if one had been available but that no choice had been offered. It is concluded that the differences in provision between the health districts are more likely to be explained by the attitudes of doctors to providing this service than by the wishes of women to use private medical treatment. PMID:6101426

  10. Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nations, M K; Misago, C; Fonseca, W; Correia, L L; Campbell, O M

    1997-06-01

    Two folk medical conditions, "delayed" (atrasada) and "suspended" (suspendida) menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to "regulate" these conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also described, including ingesting herbal remedies, patent drugs, and modern pharmaceuticals. The ingestion of such self-administered remedies is facilitated by the cognitive ambiguity, euphemisms, folklore, etc., which surround conception and gestation. The authors argue that the ethnomedical conditions of "delayed" and "suspended" menstruation and subsequent menstrual regulation are part of the "hidden reproductive transcript" of poor and powerless Brazilian women. Through popular culture, they voice their collective dissent to the official, public opinion about the illegality and immorality of induced abortion and the chronic lack of family planning services in Northeast Brazil. While many health professionals consider women's explanations of menstrual regulation as a "cover-up" for self-induced abortions, such popular justifications may represent either an unconscious or artful manipulation of hegemonic, anti-abortion ideology expressed in prudent, unobtrusive and veiled ways. The development of safer abortion alternatives should consider women's hidden reproductive transcripts. PMID:9194245

  11. [Induced abortion in Puerto Rico 1985].

    PubMed

    Pacheco Acosta, E

    1990-04-01

    This retrospective study analyzes the sociodemographic and fertility characteristics of a sample of 5368 women undergoing abortion at a private clinic in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in 1985. Although induced abortion is a controversial phenomenon in Puerto Rico, there is as yet little knowledge of the characteristics of women who seek abortions. The 5358 study women ranged in age from 12-48 years and averaged 26. 63% were aged 20-29 years. 40% were single, 43% were currently married, 16% were divorced, and 1% were widows. Women who has never married were 23.7 years old on average and ever-married women were 27.8 years old on average. 46.7% were economically active, 28.1% were housewives, 22.7% were students, and 2.5% were unemployed. The women had had an average of 2.9 pregnancies each. 6 women had been pregnant 12-15 times including the current pregnancy. 50.7% of the women were in the 3rd or higher order pregnancy, 20.8% were in their 2nd pregnancy, and 28.5% were in their 1st pregnancy. Ever-married subjects had an average of 3.5 pregnancies vs. 2.0 for single subjects. The average numbers of pregnancies were 2.9 for both economically active and inactive women. 40.9% had abortions without ever having children, 45.1% had had 1 or 2 children, and 13.9% had had 3 children or more. 74.2% of the single women and 19.2% of the ever-married women had abortions before ever having children. The average numbers of living children were .46 for single women, 1.64 for ever-married women, 1.1 for economically active women, 1.24 for inactive women, and 1.17 for the entire sample. The average numbers of prior induced abortions were .45 for single women, .72 for ever-married women, .71 for economically active women, .53 for inactive women, and .61 for the entire sample. 63.1% were undergoing their 1st abortion, 22.6% had had 1 previous abortion, and 14.2% had had more than 1. 17 women had had 6 ore more previous abortions. 65.5% of the women had used contraception. 78.1% of the abortions were performed at 8 weeks gestation or earlier, and 90.7% were done in the 1st trimester. Complications occurred in 35 of the 5368 procedures (.7%). These findings, which are not necessarily representative of induced abortion in Puerto Rico, suggest that both single and ever-married women resort to abortion. Single women tend to terminate their 1st pregnancies while ever-married women terminate pregnancies exceeding their desired number of children. PMID:2270261

  12. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  13. Attitudes toward abortion in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Awah, Paschal; Pearson, Erin

    2012-09-01

    Despite Zambia's relatively progressive abortion law, women continue to seek unsafe, illegal abortions. Four domains of abortion attitudes - support for legalization, immorality, rights, and access to services - were measured in 4 communities. A total of 668 people were interviewed. Associations among the 4 domains were inconsistent with expectations. The belief that abortion is immoral was widespread, but was not associated with lack of support for legalization. Instead, it was associated with belief that women need access to safe services. These findings suggest that increasing awareness about abortion law in Zambia may be important for encouraging more favorable attitudes. PMID:22920619

  14. Changes in Racial Differences in Use of Medical Procedures and Diagnostic Tests Among Elderly Persons: 1986–1997

    PubMed Central

    Escarce, José J.; McGuire, Thomas G.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We used 1997 Medicare data to replicate an earlier study that used data from 1986 to examine racial differences in usage of specific medical procedures or tests among elderly persons. Methods. We used 1997 physician claims data to obtain a random sample of 5% of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. We used this sample to study 30 procedures and tests that were analyzed in the 1986 study, as well as several new procedures that became more widely used in the early 1990s. Results. Racial differences remain in the rates of use of these procedures; in general, Blacks have lower rates of use than do Whites. Between 1986 and 1997, the ratio of White to Black use moved in favor of Blacks for all but 4 of the established procedures studied. Conclusions. The White–Black gap in health care use under Medicare is narrowing. PMID:15451752

  15. Abortion policy and science: can controversy and evidence co-exist?

    PubMed

    Cates, Willard

    2012-08-01

    Abortion policies should be based on evidence. Over the past four decades in the United States, we have accumulated more data about the practice of legal abortion than any other surgical procedure. This evidence has documented the public health impact of increased access to safer abortion. In recent years, state laws to restrict abortion access have gained momentum. An accompanying article in this issue of JPHP uses extant data to examine whether two restrictive policies have had a measurable effect on abortion morbidity. The analysis found an unexpected result – states which imposed restrictions had lower levels of abortion complications than those who did not. Various explanations exist for these findings. Caution is needed to interpret observational findings, especially with polarizing issuess like abortion. PMID:22622482

  16. Operational and Medical Procedures for a Declared Contingency Shuttle (CSCS) Shuttle Mission Due to a Failure that Precludes a Safe Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Adrien; Patlach, Bob; Duchense, Ted; Chandler, Mike; Stepaniak, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    This poster paper outlines the operational and medical procedures for a shuttle mission that has a failure that precludes a safe return to Earth. Information about the assumptions, procedures and limiting consumables is included.

  17. [Putting decriminalization of abortion to a refendum].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Surveys conducted in Mexico by GIRE in 1992, 1994, and 1995 reveal that over 80% of the national population believes only a woman or a woman and her partner should make abortion decisions. Neither the government, the Church, nor physicians should intervene. Public opinion and the documented social and public health consequences of illegal abortion demonstrate the obsolescence of laws penalizing abortion. Mexico does not have a direct means of converting the opinions of the population into votes and laws. In place of referendums, committees of specialists have been convened; they are limited in number and ability to represent diverse groups, and oriented above all to the losses and gains of political and parliamentary disputes. The electoral reform of 1995-96 was a good example of the question under debate getting lost in partisan maneuvering. The Federal District and four states have initiated development of the referendum process, but the procedures have been too cumbersome and the results disappointing. In the current day, opinions are often formed not by following a rational process, but by bombardment with advertising appealing to irrational emotions. The democratic effects of referendum should be furthered by guaranteeing fair and exhaustive exposure of all points of view before the vote is held. GIRE recommends that a referendum on decriminalization of abortion should be preceded by a period of at least two years for public debate and reflection, and that the Federal Electoral Institute should organize the debate and the referendum. PMID:12349540

  18. Using Functional Analysis Procedures To Monitor Medication Effects in an Outpatient and School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mark T.; Vu, Chau; Derby, K. Mark; Goris, Mary; McLaughlin, T. F.

    2002-01-01

    Functional analysis methods were used to monitor medication used to reduce vocal and physical tics of a child with Tourettes Syndrome. Post-medication results demonstrated a reduced level of tics by the participant. Although preliminary, the findings suggest that functional analysis methods can be used to monitor the effects of medication in

  19. Using Functional Analysis Procedures To Monitor Medication Effects in an Outpatient and School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mark T.; Vu, Chau; Derby, K. Mark; Goris, Mary; McLaughlin, T. F.

    2002-01-01

    Functional analysis methods were used to monitor medication used to reduce vocal and physical tics of a child with Tourettes Syndrome. Post-medication results demonstrated a reduced level of tics by the participant. Although preliminary, the findings suggest that functional analysis methods can be used to monitor the effects of medication in…

  20. ‘This Is Real Misery’: Experiences of Women Denied Legal Abortion in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Hajri, Selma; Raifman, Sarah; Gerdts, Caitlin; Baum, Sarah; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to accessing legal abortion services in Tunisia are increasing, despite a liberal abortion law, and women are often denied wanted legal abortion services. In this paper, we seek to explore the reasons for abortion denial and whether these reasons had a legal or medical basis. We also identify barriers women faced in accessing abortion and make recommendations for improved access to quality abortion care. We recruited women immediately after they had been turned away from legal abortion services at two facilities in Tunis, Tunisia. Thirteen women consented to participate in qualitative interviews two months after they were turned away from the facility. Women were denied abortion care on the day they were recruited due to three main reasons: gestational age, health conditions, and logistical barriers. Nine women ultimately terminated their pregnancies at another facility, and four women carried to term. None of the women attempted illegal abortion services or self-induction. Further research is needed in order to assess abortion denial from the perspective of providers and medical staff. PMID:26684189

  1. Abortion and Islam: policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Hessini, Leila

    2007-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of legal, religious, medical and social factors that serve to support or hinder women's access to safe abortion services in the 21 predominantly Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where one in ten pregnancies ends in abortion. Reform efforts, including progressive interpretations of Islam, have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. However, medical and social factors limit access to safe abortion services in all but Turkey and Tunisia. To address this situation, efforts are increasing in a few countries to introduce post-abortion care, document the magnitude of unsafe abortion and understand women's experience of unplanned pregnancy. Religious fat?wa have been issued allowing abortions in certain circumstances. An understanding of variations in Muslim beliefs and practices, and the interplay between politics, religion, history and reproductive rights is key to understanding abortion in different Muslim societies. More needs to be done to build on efforts to increase women's rights, engage community leaders, support progressive religious leaders and government officials and promote advocacy among health professionals. PMID:17512379

  2. "These things are dangerous": Understanding induced abortion trajectories in urban Zambia.

    PubMed

    Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan F

    2016-03-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of global maternal mortality and morbidity. Zambia has among the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa, however this alone does not guarantee access to safe abortion, and 30% of maternal mortality is attributable to unsafe procedures. Too little is known about the pathways women take to reach abortion services in such resource-poor settings, or what informs care-seeking behaviours, barriers and delays. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2013 with 112 women who accessed abortion-related care in a Lusaka tertiary government hospital at some point in their pathway. The sample included women seeking safe abortion and also those receiving hospital care following unsafe abortion. We identified a typology of three care-seeking trajectories that ended in the use of hospital services: clinical abortion induced in hospital; clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital; and non-clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital. Framework analyses of 70 transcripts showed that trajectories to a termination of an unwanted pregnancy can be complex and iterative. Individuals may navigate private and public formal healthcare systems and consult unqualified providers, often trying multiple strategies. We found four major influences on which trajectory a woman followed, as well as the complexity and timing of her trajectory: i) the advice of trusted others ii) perceptions of risk iii) delays in care-seeking and receipt of services and iv) economic cost. Even though abortion is legal in Zambia, girls and women still take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Levels of awareness about the legality of abortion and its provision remain low even in urban Zambia, especially among adolescents. Unofficial payments required by some providers can be a major barrier to safe care. Timely access to safe abortion services depends on chance rather than informed exercise of entitlement. PMID:26921835

  3. Size Selective Characterization and Particle Emission Rates during a Simulated Medical Laser Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Ramon

    A laboratory-based simulated surgical procedure was designed to characterize the medical laser-generated air contaminant (LGAC) particles generated during surgical procedures and to estimate exposures in theoretical rooms. Laser operational parameter settings were varied between levels to investigate the influence of parameter settings on LGAC generation. Two medical lasers, the carbon dioxide at a wavelength of 10,600 nanometers (CO2, lambda =10,600 nm) and the holmium yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:YAG) laser at the wavelength of 2100 nanometers (Ho:YAG, lambda =2100 nm) were used, varying three operational parameters (beam diameter, pulse-repetition frequency [PRF], and power) between two levels and the resultant plume was collected using two real-time size selective particle counters in a laboratory emission chamber. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the influence of operational parameter settings on size-specific particle emission rate. Particles from a limited number of experiments were also collected on polycarbonate filters and imaged using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in backscatter mode to study the particle characteristics and if mechanism of formation could be determined. Particles on each filter were counted and a determination on shape (irregular versus homogenous) and diameter was made. Size-specific particle emission rates were then used to demonstrate potential concentration range using a two-zone exposure model. Results indicate power and beam diameter were statistically significant influential parameters for both lasers and for all particle size ranges, but pulse repetition frequency was only a statistically significant influential parameter for the smallest particles generated. An increase in power and decrease in beam diameter led to an increase in particle emission for the Ho:YAG laser. For the CO2 laser, higher power led to a decrease in emission rates of small particles and an increase for large particles while a smaller beam diameter led to an increase of particle emissions for most size ranges (<10microm). Beam diameter was the most influential variable in the generation of laser-generated particles at all sizes, and the three operational parameters we tested had the most influence on the generation of the smallest particle size ranges. Particle size varied, with the Ho:YAG laser producing particles in the 1--10 microm range and the CO2 laser producing particles between 1 and 50 microm in diameter. Particle shape was variable, with fibers, foam, and conglomerate particles present in our samples. Modeled concentrations for the near-field ranged between 0.03 and 0.5 mg/m3 and between 0.01 and 0.4 mg/m3 in the far-field. Results indicate concentrations in the simulated scenarios were similar to those obtained from previously reported field assessments conducted in hospital operating rooms (ORs). The methods used in this study provide a foundation for future investigations to better estimate particle-size dependent emission rates for additional laser operational parameters in order to inform occupational exposure control strategies.

  4. From pragmatism to politics: a qualitative study of abortion providers.

    PubMed

    Wear, Delese

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-eight years after the United State Supreme Court issued its landmark Roe v. Wade, the struggle continues to ensure that all women have the full range of reproductive choices, including abortion. While the struggle can be addressed through its political, religious, and medical dimensions, it also can be examined through the perspectives of those who actually provide abortions. This paper examines the perspectives of physician abortion providers to understand more fully their motivations, the quality of their personal and professional lives, their views on the future of abortion services, and their recommendations for undergraduate and residency medical education. Such questions are often best answered through qualitative inquiry, particularly when the subject at hand has had little interpretive scrutiny, lacks theoretical understandings, and remains in general an under-investigated phenomenon. Because abortion providers and the work they do fit those criteria, a qualitative study of physician providers in Ohio was undertaken. This paper is divided into the following sections: a literature review of abortion services in the United States, methods, interview data and discussion, and last, recommendations and conclusions. PMID:12555805

  5. "Reclaiming the white daughter's purity": Afrikaner nationalism, racialized sexuality, and the 1975 Abortion and Sterilization Act in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Susanne M

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the struggle over abortion law reform that preceded the enactment in 1975 of the first statutory law on abortion in South Africa. The ruling National Party government produced legislation intended to eliminate access to doctors willing to procure abortions in an attempt to prevent young, unmarried white women from engaging in premarital (hetero) sexual activity. It was also aimed at strictly regulating the medical profession’s actions with regards to abortion. The production of the abortion legislation was directly influenced by international struggles for accessible abortion and, more broadly, sexual liberation. The regime believed South Africa was being infiltrated by Western "immorality" and the abortion law was an attempt to buttress racist heteropatriarchal apartheid culture. Examining the abortion controversy highlights the global circulation of ideas about reproduction in the twentieth century and foregrounds a neglected dimension of the history of sexual regulation in apartheid South Africa: the disciplining and regulation of white female reproductive sexuality. PMID:20857591

  6. Denial of Abortion Because of Provider Gestational Age Limits in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Weitz, Tracy A.; Jones, Rachel K.; Barar, Rana E.; Foster, Diana Greene

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the factors influencing delay in seeking abortion and the outcomes for women denied abortion care because of gestational age limits at abortion facilities. Methods. We compared women who presented for abortion care who were under the facilities’ gestational age limits and received an abortion (n = 452) with those who were just over the gestational age limits and were denied an abortion (n = 231) at 30 US facilities. We described reasons for delay in seeking services. We examined the determinants of obtaining an abortion elsewhere after being denied one because of facility gestational age limits. We then estimated the national incidence of being denied an abortion because of facility gestational age limits. Results. Adolescents and women who did not recognize their pregnancies early were most likely to delay seeking care. The most common reason for delay was having to raise money for travel and procedure costs. We estimated that each year more than 4000 US women are denied an abortion because of facility gestational limits and must carry unwanted pregnancies to term. Conclusions. Many state laws restrict abortions based on gestational age, and new laws are lowering limits further. The incidence of being denied abortion will likely increase, disproportionately affecting young and poor women. PMID:23948000

  7. Congress, administration, clergy and activists react to abortion clinic murders.

    PubMed

    1995-01-25

    The murders of two abortion clinic workers in Brookline, Massachusetts, on December 30, 1994, have raised public awareness about the increasing violence against abortion clinics, their clients, and their employees. The US Justice Department immediately launched an investigation, while clinics have started to install metal detectors and bulletproof glass. Boston Archbishop Bernard Cardinal Law called for a moratorium on abortion protests in front of clinics in the wake of this incident and urged activists to take their vigils to churches to avoid any violence. In contrast, New York Archbishop John Cardinal O'Connor called for the protests to continue. The Brookline tragedy brings to five the number of abortion clinic workers killed in the previous 22 months, and it had prompted a national debate over inflammatory language inciting violence and whether mainstream anti-abortion groups are willing to assume the moral responsibility for such acts. To be sure at the annual anti-abortion march on Washington, DC, 45,000 protesters gathered peacefully, but they did not condemn violent tactics. After the March 1993 murder of Dr. David Gunn, President Clinton had established a task force to investigate these violent attacks and possible conspiracy implications. At the same time, the Attorney General pointed out that round-the-clock protection of all clinics would be prohibitively expensive for the US Marshall Service. In the House and Senate, measures were introduced calling for full enforcement of the Freedom of Access to Clinics Entrances Law (FACE). The Justice Department also brought several suits against anti-abortion protesters who blocked clinic entrances and stalked employees. All reproductive health clinics are grappling with these threats as well as the associated crisis of a decline in the number of physicians willing to provide abortion services. Medical education associations that set standards for residency programs are also under pressure whether to approve training in abortion for obstetric/gynecology residents. PMID:12345959

  8. The Politicization of Abortion and the Evolution of Abortion Counseling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation—head and heart counseling—departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade. PMID:23153144

  9. The politicization of abortion and the evolution of abortion counseling.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Carole

    2013-01-01

    The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation--head and heart counseling--departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade. PMID:23153144

  10. Religion and attitudes toward abortion and abortion policy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil. PMID:22303535

  11. [A mutation in the mechanisms of social control: the case of abortion].

    PubMed

    Horellou-lafarge, C

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the process by which the control and suppression of abortion shifted from the judicial domain to become an object of medical control in France. Abortion was a crime under the Napoleonic Code of 1810 and remained severely punishable for a century, but the law was regarded as too severe and prosecution was lax. The prescribed punishments became less stringent in 1923 but were later toughened again. Laws against abortion did not seem fair to much of the population concerned or to many of those charged with enforcing the laws, and they did not seem to uphold any inviolable moral principle. Increasing discontent with existing abortion laws, which were felt no longer to reflect the needs or mores of the society, and moreover to penalize poor women, who could not afford medically safe abortions abroad, and a belief that the law was doing nothing to reduce the numbers of abortions were among the stimuli that prompted the search for improved legislation. The public debate about the revised abortion law and the proper role of physicians and magistrates in determing access to abortion are traced though an exposition of opinions and quotations of the major participants in the controversy. The law of 1975 removed abortion from the control of magistrates and thereby liberalized access to it, but by entrusting access to abortion to the medical profession, the law embodied a bias toward preventing abortion. New social forces were behind the 1975 law, including pressure from women's groups which were developing a new consciousness of their rights and place in society, and a new role of medical practitioners, who occupy a privileged position in a social system based on knowledge rather than property. The new law still regards abortion as an evil and attempts to discourage it by imposing numerous constraints concerning when, where, and by whom it can be performed, by not requiring health personnel or facilities to make abortion available and by limiting the number that can be performed in any 1 establishment, and by obliging the abortion seeker to complete a maze of preliminary requirements. The law, by its own inner contradictions in authorizing and at the same time condemning and attempting to suppress abortion, and by granting control of access to the medical system despite the fact that abortion is not an illness, carries the seeds of its own ultimate failure. PMID:12339248

  12. Future healthcare professionals’ knowledge about the Argentinean abortion law

    PubMed Central

    Oizerovich, Silvia; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We assessed healthcare students’ knowledge and opinions on Argentinian abortion law and identified differences between first- and final-year healthcare students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, self-administered anonymous questionnaires were administered to 760 first- and 695 final-year students from different fields of study (medicine, midwifery, nursing, radiology, nutrition, speech therapy, and physiotherapy) of the School of Medicine at the University of Buenos Aires, in 2011-2013. Results Compared to first-year students, a higher percentage of final-year students knew that abortion is legally restricted in Argentina (p < 0.001). A significantly higher percentage of final-year students could correctly identify the circumstances in which abortion is legal: woman´s life risk (87.4% last vs. 79.1% first year), rape of a woman with developmental disability (66.2% first vs. 85.4% last-year; p < 0.001). More final-year students chose severe foetal malformations (37.3% first year vs. 57.3% final year) despite its being illegal. Conclusions Although most final-year students knew that abortion is legally restricted in Argentina, misconceptions regarding circumstances of legal abortion were observed; this may be due to the fact that abortion is inadequately covered in the medical curricula. Medical schools should ensure that sexual and reproductive health topics are an integral part of their curricula. Healthcare providers who are aware of the legality of abortion are more likely to provide the public with sound information and ensure abortions are appropriately performed. PMID:27018552

  13. Immunologically mediated abortion (IMA).

    PubMed

    Giacomucci, E; Bulletti, C; Polli, V; Prefetto, R A; Flamigni, C

    1994-06-01

    Roughly 20% of all clinical pregnancies evolve into "spontaneous abortions". The causes of spontaneous abortion have been determined in under 60% of the total and comprise genetic, infectious, hormonal and immunological factors. In some cases the immune tolerance mechanism may be impaired and the foetus immunologically rejected (IMA, immunologically mediated abortion). The immunological mechanism implicated depends on the time in which pregnancy loss takes place. During preimplantation and up to the end of implantation (13th day) the cell-mediated immune mechanism (potential alloimmune etiologies) is responsible for early abortion. This mechanism involves immunocompetent decidual cells (eGL, endometrial granulated lymphocytes) already present during pre-decidualization (late luteal phase) and their production of soluble factors or cytokines. Once the implantation process is over, after blastocyst penetration of the stroma and the decidual reaction of uterine tissue, IMA could be caused by cell-mediated and humoral mechanism (anti-paternal cytotoxic antibodies or autoantibody etiology), by the production of paternal anti major histocompatibility complex antibodies, or even by an autoimmune disorder leading to the production of autoantibodies (antiphospholipid antibodies, antinuclear antibodies or polyclonal B cell activation). The diagnostic work-up adopted to select IMA patients is crucial and includes primary (karyotype of both partners, toxo-test, hysterosalpingography, endometrial biopsy, thyroid function tests, serum hprolactin, luteal phase dating) and secondary (full hemochromocytometric test, search for LE cells, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, antinuclear antibodies, Rheumatoid factor, blood complement VDRL) investigations. Therapeutical approaches vary. If autoimmune disorders are demonstrated therapies with different combinations of corticosteroids, aspirin and heparin or intravenous immunoglobulin are administered. Otherwise, therapy with paternal or donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells should be instituted. PMID:8031707

  14. [Contraception and abortion: an update in 2015].

    PubMed

    Chung, D; Ferro Luzzi, E; Bettoli Musy, L; Narring, F

    2015-09-23

    Family doctors can play an important role in preventing unplanned pregnancies. This article addresses the different contraceptives methods available in Switzerland, which are classified in 2 groups and recommends using the GATHER approach (Greet, Ask, Tell, Help, Explain, Return) to promote compliance. LARC (long acting reversible contraceptives) can be recommended to any woman who needs a reliable birth control method. These contraceptives require minimum effort for high efficiency. Further explanation regarding the use of an emergency contraception must be provided when short action contraceptives are chosen. Switzerland's abortion rate is one of the lowest in the world. Medical abortion tends to be more and more prominent. Under certain circumstances, it can be self-administered at home. PMID:26591787

  15. A study of reported therapeutic abortions in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Howell, E M

    1975-05-01

    Legislation in 1967 allowed abortions in North Carolina for reasons of mental or physical danger to the mother or child or in cases of rape. In 1971 the statute was changed to require 2 rather than 3 physicians in agreement, to reduce residency requirements from 4 months to 30 days, and mandatory reporting of all abortions. A study of reported abortions since 1967 is undertaken for time trends, differences, distribution, and complications of patients in 1971 voluntary versus mandatory reporting, and abortion ratio for mandatory reporting period. 4378 abortion were reported for 1971. 70.6% of the women were white; 29.4 nonwhite. The most frequent indication was for psychiatric reasons (90%) and the most frequent procedure was suction curettage. Mean age was 23.6 years; mean gestation was 11.9 weeks. In comparison to national data for 1971, North Carolina had similar age distribution, later performance of abortion in terms of gestational age, and similar distribution of operational procedures. PMID:1130570

  16. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women. PMID:12348330

  17. Necessity is the mother of invention: video recording firsthand perspectives of critical medical procedures to make simulated training more effective.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, K Anders

    2014-01-01

    The traditional apprenticeship model for training doctors requires ample opportunities in the clinic for trainees to learn core procedures under the supervision of skilled doctors. In this issue, Kyser and colleagues document that the learning opportunities for residents to master certain core procedures, such as forceps and vacuum deliveries, are insufficient in many teaching hospitals. To address this serious problem, this author argues that learning techniques (i.e., deliberate practice and simulator use) from other domains of expertise, such as chess, music, and sports, must be adapted for use in medicine. For example, medical procedures should be videotaped and indexed for access over the Internet. Trainees then could view recordings of rare emergency procedures and complications and practice their decision-making skills. Evidence suggests that training outside the constraints of the clinic could be more effective in improving performance because trainees are able to engage in deliberate practice and focus on their individual weaknesses in executing procedures and making decisions. For example, with video and simulator training, trainees have the opportunity to repeatedly perform only the parts of a procedure that they find challenging until they have attained a level of acceptable speed and control. More generally, training could be structured around the particular needs of individual learners and scheduled when the learners are rested and able to concentrate fully on learning. Training also should include opportunities for learners to practice repeatedly with different patient descriptions requiring the same or different, yet related, procedures to teach trainees effective discrimination and execution. PMID:24280862

  18. 12 CFR 792.57 - Special procedures: Information furnished by other agencies; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... other agencies; medical records. 792.57 Section 792.57 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION...; medical records. (a) When a request for records or information from NCUA includes information furnished by... whether to disclose the record shall be made in the first instance by the system manager. (b)...

  19. 12 CFR 792.57 - Special procedures: Information furnished by other agencies; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... other agencies; medical records. 792.57 Section 792.57 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION...; medical records. (a) When a request for records or information from NCUA includes information furnished by... records may be disclosed on request to the individuals to whom they pertain unless disclosing the...

  20. 12 CFR 792.57 - Special procedures: Information furnished by other agencies; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... other agencies; medical records. 792.57 Section 792.57 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION...; medical records. (a) When a request for records or information from NCUA includes information furnished by... records may be disclosed on request to the individuals to whom they pertain unless disclosing the...

  1. 12 CFR 792.57 - Special procedures: Information furnished by other agencies; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... other agencies; medical records. 792.57 Section 792.57 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION...; medical records. (a) When a request for records or information from NCUA includes information furnished by... records may be disclosed on request to the individuals to whom they pertain unless disclosing the...

  2. 12 CFR 792.57 - Special procedures: Information furnished by other agencies; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... other agencies; medical records. 792.57 Section 792.57 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION...; medical records. (a) When a request for records or information from NCUA includes information furnished by... records may be disclosed on request to the individuals to whom they pertain unless disclosing the...

  3. [Preselection procedure for medical devices suppliers at the essential medicines and generic drugs purchasing central in Togo (CAMEG-Togo)].

    PubMed

    Babaley, M

    2006-12-01

    One of the main objectives of pharmaceutical policies in developing countries is to ensure accessibility and affordability of good quality medicines for the population. The Essential Medicines and Generic Drugs Purchasing Central (French acronym, CAMEG-Togo) is a not-for-profit association established in 1998 to ensure procurement for public and not-for-profit private public health facilities within the framework of recovery of costs. Although attention has been focused mainly on medicines, medical devices account for a growing part of the pharmaceutical products purchased by central stores, hospitals and health programs. Recognizing this need in 2002, CAMEG-Togo in collaboration with the French cooperation agency decided to upgrade its competency in evaluating the quality of medical devices. For that purpose the information sheet used to preselect suppliers for international tenders and the technical specifications sheet for medical devices was revised and pharmacists responsible for processing these files were given specific training. European directive N 93/42/CEE of 14 June 1993 is currently used by CAMEG-Togo as the regulatory basis for preselection of medical device suppliers. Referencing based on American regulatory requirements is now under way to widen the scope of suppliers eligible for preselection. The purpose of this article is first to describe the main guidelines of the European directive used by medical device manufacturers to obtain EC certification and second to present the procedures used by the CAMEG-Togo to preselect medical device suppliers, with special focus on the technical specifications sheet. PMID:17286037

  4. CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.FLILLER,R.III.FU,W.MICHNOFF,R.

    2004-07-05

    Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  5. Living Through Some Giant Change: The Establishment of Abortion Services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the establishment of abortion clinics following Roe v Wade. Abortion clinics followed one of two models: (1) a medical model in which physicians emphasized the delivery of high quality medical services, contrasting their clinics with the back-alley abortion services that had sent many women to hospital emergency rooms prior to legalization, or (2) a feminist model in which clinics emphasized education and the dissemination of information to empower women patients and change the structure of women’s health care. Male physicians and feminists came together in the newly established abortion services and argued over the priorities and characteristics of health care delivery. A broad range of clinics emerged, from feminist clinics to medical offices run by traditional male physicians to for-profit clinics. The establishment of the National Abortion Federation in the mid-1970s created a national forum of health professionals and contributed to the broadening of the discussion and the adoption of compromises as both feminists and physicians influenced each other's practices. PMID:23327251

  6. Living through some giant change: the establishment of abortion services.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    This article traces the establishment of abortion clinics following Roe v Wade. Abortion clinics followed one of two models: (1) a medical model in which physicians emphasized the delivery of high quality medical services, contrasting their clinics with the back-alley abortion services that had sent many women to hospital emergency rooms prior to legalization, or (2) a feminist model in which clinics emphasized education and the dissemination of information to empower women patients and change the structure of women's health care. Male physicians and feminists came together in the newly established abortion services and argued over the priorities and characteristics of health care delivery. A broad range of clinics emerged, from feminist clinics to medical offices run by traditional male physicians to for-profit clinics. The establishment of the National Abortion Federation in the mid-1970s created a national forum of health professionals and contributed to the broadening of the discussion and the adoption of compromises as both feminists and physicians influenced each other's practices. PMID:23327251

  7. Induced Abortions and the Risk of Preeclampsia Among Nulliparous Women.

    PubMed

    Parker, Samantha E; Gissler, Mika; Ananth, Cande V; Werler, Martha M

    2015-10-15

    Induced abortion (IA) has been associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia among nulliparous women, but it remains unclear whether this association differs by method (either surgical or medical) or timing of IA. We performed a nested case-control study of 12,650 preeclampsia cases and 50,600 matched control deliveries identified in the Medical Birth Register of Finland from 1996 to 2010. Data on number, method, and timing of IAs were obtained through a linkage with the Registry of Induced Abortions. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Overall, prior IA was associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia, with odds ratios of 0.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 1.0) for 1 prior IA and 0.7 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.0) for 3 or more IAs. Differences in the associations between IA and preeclampsia by timing and method of IA were small, with odds ratios of 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.1) for late (≥12 gestation weeks) surgical abortion and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.7, 1.2) for late medical abortion. There was no association between IA in combination with a history of spontaneous abortion and risk of preeclampsia. In conclusion, prior IA only was associated with a slight reduction in the risk of preeclampsia. PMID:26377957

  8. Dworkin and Casey on abortion.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Sarah

    1996-01-01

    This article responds to two important recent treatments of abortion rights. I will mainly discuss Ronald Dworkin's recent writings concerning abortion: his article "Unenumerated rights: whether and how Roe should be overruled," and his book Life's Dominion. In these writings Dworkin presents a novel view of what the constitutional and moral argument surronding abortion is really about. Both debates actually turn, he argues, on the question of how to interpret the widely shared idea that human life is sacred. At the heart of the abortion debate is the essentially religious notion that human life has value which transcends its value to any particular person; abortion is therefore at bottom a religious issue. Dworkin hopes to use this analysis to show that the religion clauses of the First Amendment provide a "textual home" for a woman's right to choose abortion. I wish to scrutinize this suggestion here; I want to probe the precise consequences for abortion rights of such an understanding of their basis. I will argue that the consequences are more radical than Dworkin seems to realize. The other work I will examine here is the important 1992 Supreme Court decision on abortion, Planned Parenthood v. Casey. The controlling opinion in that case, written jointly by Justices Kennedy, O'Connor, and Souter, strongly reaffirmed Roe v. Wade, but also upheld most of the provisions of a Pennsylvania statute that had mandated various restrictions on abortion. The justices' basis for upholding these restictions was their introduction of a new constitutional standard for abortion regulations, an apparently weaker standard than those that had governed previous Supreme Court abortion decisions. I think there is a flaw in Casey's new constitutional test for abortion regulations, and I will explain, when we turn to Casey, what it is and why it bears a close relation to Dworkin's reluctance to carry his argument as far as it seems to go. PMID:11660187

  9. Abortion in a just society.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized. PMID:12178856

  10. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure personhood, the government should not define it. The right to an abortion is secured in the same Constitution that secures the right to speak out and to pray to whomever one wants. Moral values are not eht issue but the value of individual freedom is. It is necessary at this time to reintroduce the women into the public dialogue. She seems to be forgotten in this most recent wave of concern over fetal rights. The task is to present a "heart" argument, that is, to remember the woman. The opponents of abortion want to spread the belief that women who have abortions are all the same -- selfish and cold hearted people who choose abortion simply as a matter of convenience. This is not the case, and it is necessary to remind people of the woman's point of view. PMID:12340405

  11. 'High profile health facilities can add to your trouble': Women, stigma and un/safe abortion in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Egesa, Carolyne; Okelo, Rispah

    2015-09-01

    Public health discourses on safe abortion assume the term to be unambiguous. However, qualitative evidence elicited from Kenyan women treated for complications of unsafe abortion contrasted sharply with public health views of abortion safety. For these women, safe abortion implied pregnancy termination procedures and services that concealed their abortions, shielded them from the law, were cheap and identified through dependable social networks. Participants contested the notion that poor quality abortion procedures and providers are inherently dangerous, asserting them as key to women's preservation of a good self, management of stigma, and protection of their reputation, respect, social relationships, and livelihoods. Greater public health attention to the social dimensions of abortion safety is urgent. PMID:26233296

  12. Evaluating newly acquired authority of nurse practitioners and physician assistants for reserved medical procedures in the Netherlands: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    De Bruijn-Geraets, Daisy P; Van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne JL; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM

    2014-01-01

    Aim The study protocol is designed to evaluate the effects of granting independent authorization for medical procedures to nurse practitioners and physician assistants on processes and outcomes of health care. Background Recent (temporarily) enacted legislation in Dutch health care authorizes nurse practitioners and physician assistants to indicate and perform specified medical procedures, i.e. catheterization, cardioversion, defibrillation, endoscopy, injection, puncture, prescribing and simple surgical procedures, independently. Formerly, these procedures were exclusively reserved to physicians, dentists and midwives. Design A triangulation mixed method design is used to collect quantitative (surveys) and qualitative (interviews) data. Methods Outcomes are selected from evidence-based frameworks and models for assessing the impact of advanced nursing on quality of health care. Data are collected in various manners. Surveys are structured around the domains: (i) quality of care; (ii) costs; (iii) healthcare resource use; and (iv) patient centredness. Focus group and expert interviews aim to ascertain facilitators and barriers to the implementation process. Data are collected before the amendment of the law, 1 and 2·5 years thereafter. Groups of patients, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, supervising physicians and policy makers all participate in this national study. The study is supported by a grant from the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport in March 2011. Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained in July 2011. Conclusion This study will provide information about the effects of granting independent authorization for medical procedures to nurse practitioners and physician assistants on processes and outcomes of health care. Study findings aim to support policy makers and other stakeholders in making related decisions. The study design enables a cross-national comparative analysis. PMID:24684631

  13. Therapeutic abortion in Islam: contemporary views of Muslim Shiite scholars and effect of recent Iranian legislation

    PubMed Central

    Hedayat, K M; Shooshtarizadeh, P; Raza, M

    2006-01-01

    Abortion is forbidden under normal circumstances by nearly all the major world religions. Traditionally, abortion was not deemed permissible by Muslim scholars. Shiite scholars considered it forbidden after implantation of the fertilised ovum. However, Sunni scholars have held various opinions on the matter, but all agreed that after 4 months gestation abortion was not permitted. In addition, classical Islamic scholarship had only considered threats to maternal health as a reason for therapeutic abortion. Recently, scholars have begun to consider the effect of severe fetal deformities on the mother, the families and society. This has led some scholars to reconsider the prohibition on abortion in limited circumstances. This article reviews the Islamic basis for the prohibition of abortion and the reasons for its justification. Contemporary rulings from leading Shiite scholars and from the Sunni school of thought are presented and reviewed. The status of abortion in Muslim countries is reviewed, with special emphasis on the therapeutic abortion law passed by the Iranian Parliament in 2003. This law approved therapeutic abortion before 16 weeks of gestation under limited circumstances, including medical conditions related to fetal and maternal health. Recent measures in Iran provide an opportunity for the Muslim scholars in other countries to review their traditional stance on abortion. PMID:17074823

  14. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide... the pregnancy to full term or to have an elective abortion. If an inmate chooses to have an...

  15. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide... the pregnancy to full term or to have an elective abortion. If an inmate chooses to have an...

  16. TRAP abortion laws and partisan political party control of state government.

    PubMed

    Medoff, Marshall H; Dennis, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Targeted Regulation of Abortion Providers (or TRAP) laws impose medically unnecessary and burdensome regulations solely on abortion providers in order to make abortion services more expensive and difficult to obtain. Using event history analysis, this article examines the determinants of the enactment of a TRAP law by states over the period 1974–2008. The empirical results find that Republican institutional control of a state's legislative/executive branches is positively associated with a state enacting a TRAP law, while Democratic institutional control is negatively associated with a state enacting a TRAP law. The percentage of a state's population that is Catholic, public anti-abortion attitudes, state political ideology, and the abortion rate in a state are statistically insignificant predictors of a state enacting a TRAP law. The empirical results are consistent with the hypothesis that abortion is a redistributive issue and not a morality issue. PMID:22141177

  17. Clients' reports on postabortion family planning services provided in Mexico City's public sector legal abortion program

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Davida; Díaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia, Sandra G.; Harper, Cynthia C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective First trimester abortion was decriminalized in Mexico City in 2007. We studied client views of family planning services provided during abortion care at public facilities and acceptance of postabortion contraception. Methods We surveyed 402 clients seeking first trimester abortion care in Mexico City. We used logistic regression to test whether postabortion contraception varied by abortion visit characteristics or client sociodemographics. Results Most participants (81.6%) reported being offered contraception at their visit and 89.5% selected a contraceptive method postabortion, with 58.9% selecting the IUD. Surgical abortion clients were more likely to report being offered contraception than medical abortion clients (p<.001), as were clients attended by a female physician (p<.05). Clients at the general hospital were less likely to report being offered contraception (p<.001). Conclusion Public sector facilities in Mexico City are providing a generally high level of postabortion family planning care and uptake of postabortion contraception is high. PMID:23499047

  18. Divergent views on abortion and the period of ensoulment.

    PubMed

    Khitamy, Badawy A B

    2013-02-01

    A Muslim woman in her sixteenth week of pregnancy was informed that her ultrasound scan showed spina bifida, and laboratory results confirmed the diagnosis. The child would have various complications and, most probably, would need medical care for life. With the consent of her husband she decided to terminate the pregnancy. Her decision sparked controversy among Muslim clerics in her community, sparking debate between those who would allow abortion for medical reasons and those who oppose abortion for any reason. This paper will review the philosophical and theological arguments of the pro-life and pro-choice groups as well as the Islamic perspective concerning a woman's autonomy over her reproductive system, the sanctity of the fetus and the embryo, therapeutic abortion, and ensoulment. PMID:23573379

  19. Divergent Views on Abortion and the Period of Ensoulment

    PubMed Central

    Khitamy, Badawy A. B.

    2013-01-01

    A Muslim woman in her sixteenth week of pregnancy was informed that her ultrasound scan showed spina bifida, and laboratory results confirmed the diagnosis. The child would have various complications and, most probably, would need medical care for life. With the consent of her husband she decided to terminate the pregnancy. Her decision sparked controversy among Muslim clerics in her community, sparking debate between those who would allow abortion for medical reasons and those who oppose abortion for any reason. This paper will review the philosophical and theological arguments of the pro-life and pro-choice groups as well as the Islamic perspective concerning a woman’s autonomy over her reproductive system, the sanctity of the fetus and the embryo, therapeutic abortion, and ensoulment. PMID:23573379

  20. Publicly funded abortions in FY 1980 and FY 1981.

    PubMed

    Gold, R B

    1982-01-01

    In 1980 the state and federal government spent about 60 million dollars in aid to indigent women seeking abortion under the joint federal-state Medicaid program. The picture remained essentially the same in 1981. Since the implementation of the Hyde Amendment in 1977 (with the exception of a 7 month period in 1978) severe restrictions on federal funding of abortions have been the rule. As a result, state rather than federal funding has accounted for 82% and 92% of public funds spent to finance abortions for poor women in 1981 and 1982, respectively. In a recent survey by the Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) in which all states except Alaska, Nebraska, Oregon and Arizona responded, 14 states were found to have voluntarily paid for all or all medically necessary abortions for the entire 2-year period. Since the implementation of the Hyde Amendment the trend has been for the federal government to assume 90% of the cost of contraceptive and voluntary sterilization services for Medicaid recipients, with the vast majority of abortions being paid for by the state. Since the 1980 Supreme court decision upholding the constitutionality of the Hyde Amendment, and the 1980 elections which moved antiabortion supporters into power in the White House, prochoice supporters have been pessimistic about continued funding for abortions for indigent women. However, the AGI survey shows encouraging indications that the funding situation may have stabilized and may improve slightly in the future. PMID:6811313