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1

Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion  

PubMed Central

Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Kernéis, Solen

2014-01-01

2

Analysis of failure in medical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical abortion opens a new choice to women wishing to terminate a pregnancy. Increasingly, providers in the developing and developed world will begin to offer this option. Yet, the nomenclature and concepts used for measuring failure of surgical abortion are not directly adaptable because of important differences inherent in the method and in the way it is offered in a

Beverly Winikoff; Charlotte Ellertson; Shelley Clark

1996-01-01

3

Abortion  

MedlinePLUS

An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

4

Shuttle abort landing site emergency medical services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and DOD studies of medical-planning and logistical problems are reviewed as applicable to providing emergency medical care at remote transoceanic abort landing (TAL) sites. Two options are analyzed including a modified surgical response team and a combination physician/medical technician team. The two concepts are examined in terms of cost-effectiveness, specific types of medical support such as blood procurement, and search-and-rescue requirements. It is found that the physician/technician team is more economically efficient, and the description of the concept permits the development of an effective TAL-site astronaut medical-support system. A balance is struck between the competing problems of cost and medical capability by planning for on-scene medical stabilization and air evacuation to DOD tertiary medical centers.

Mckenas, David K.; Jennings, Richard T.

1991-01-01

5

Delivering Medical Abortion at Scale: A Study of the Retail Market for Medical Abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background Medical abortion (mifepristone and misoprostol) has the potential to contribute to reduced maternal mortality but little is known about the provision or quality of advice for medical abortion through the private retail sector. We examined the availability of medical abortion and the practices of pharmacists in India, where abortion has been legal since 1972. Methods We interviewed 591 pharmacists in 60 local markets in city, town and rural areas of Madhya Pradesh. One month later, we returned to 359 pharmacists with undercover patients who presented themselves unannounced as genuine customers seeking a medical abortion. Results Medical abortion was offered to undercover patients by 256 (71.3%) pharmacists and 24 different brands were identified. Two thirds (68.5%) of pharmacists stated that abortion was illegal in India. Only 106 (38.5%) pharmacists asked clients the timing of the last menstrual period and 38 (13.8%) requested to see a doctor’s prescription – a legal requirement in India. Only 59 (21.5%) pharmacists correctly advised patients on the gestational limit for medical abortion, 97 (35.3%) provided correct information on how many and when to take the tablets in a combination pack, and 78 (28.4%) gave accurate advice on where to seek care in case of complications. Advice on post-abortion family planning was almost nonexistent. Conclusions The retail market for medical abortion is extensive, but the quality of advice given to patients is poor. Although the contribution of medical abortion to women’s health in India is poorly understood, there is an urgent need to improve the practices of pharmacists selling medical abortion. PMID:25822656

Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Acharya, Rajib; Filippi, Veronique; Ronsmans, Carine

2015-01-01

6

Latin American women's experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted.  

PubMed

Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used.Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades.This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women's experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal.Women's personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support.Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

Zamberlin, Nina; Romero, Mariana; Ramos, Silvina

2012-01-01

7

Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted  

PubMed Central

Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

2012-01-01

8

[Abortion].  

PubMed

The historical and current (1969) abortion laws in France as well as those in other Western countries are analyzed. France has had a series of punitive abortion codes since the Napoleonic Code of 1810 prescribing solitary confinement for the woman. The reforms of 1920 and 1923 made provocation of abortion or contraceptional propaganda a "crime" (felony), later a "delit" (misdemeanor), called for trial before magistr ate instead of jury, but resulted in only about 200 convictions a year. The decree of 1939 extended the misdemeanor to women who aborted even if they were not pregnant, and provided for professional licenses such as that of surgeon or pharmacist to be suspended. The law of 1942 made abortion a social crime and increased the maximum penalty to capital punishment, which was exercised in 2 cases. About 4000 per year were convicted from 1942-1944. Now the law still applies to all who intend to abort, whether or not pregnant or successful, but punishemnt is limited to 1-5 years imprisonment, and 72,000 francs fine, or suspension of medical practice for 5 years. About 500 have been convicted per year. Since 1955 legal abortion has been available (to about 130 women over 4 years) if it is the only means to save the woman's life. Although pregnancy tests are controlled, the population desregards the law by resorting to clandestine abortion. The wealthy travel to Switzerland (where 68% of legal abortions are done on French women) or to England. Numbers are estimated by the French government at 250,000-300,000 per year, or 1 for every 2 live births, but by hospital statistics at 400,000-1,000,000 per year. The rest of the review covers abortion laws in Scandinavian, Central European, and individual US states as of 1969. PMID:12333138

Dourlen-rollier, A M

1971-01-01

9

The introduction of first trimester medical abortion in Armenia.  

PubMed

In Armenia, abortion is the main means of fertility regulation; however, before research activities were initiated only surgical methods were available and the quality of services was low in some areas. Our clinical study from 2008-2011 aimed to show that early medical abortion is an acceptable and feasible option. A total of 700 eligible women with pregnancies up to 63 days LMP presenting for abortion were recruited for the study in five locations. Participants took 200 mg mifepristone and 800 ?g buccal misoprostol 24-48 hours later. They returned for a follow-up visit two weeks after mifepristone administration. 95% of the women had successful abortions and 95% were satisfied with the method. In 2012-2013, we conducted a follow-up assessment to examine the ongoing provision and quality of medical abortion services at the former research sites. Medical record reviews, interviews and observations were carried out three times approximately six months apart. The assessment found that all five sites had continued providing medical abortion, with about half of eligible women choosing the medical method. Four of the five sites were achieving high success rates. Staff turnover and the lack of trained providers likely contributed to the higher failure rate at the fifth site. These findings provide evidence that first trimester medical abortion is an acceptable and feasible option for Armenian women and providers, and that high quality services are being delivered. PMID:25702069

Louie, Karmen S; Chong, Erica; Tsereteli, Tamar; Avagyan, Gayane; Vardanyan, Susanna; Winikoff, Beverly

2015-02-01

10

Late-term abortion.  

PubMed

Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

1998-08-26

11

Early medical abortion in Cairns, Queensland: July 2006 - April 2007.  

PubMed

Mifepristone (RU486), which is used for early medical abortion, can only be obtained in Australia under the Authorised Prescriber legislation (Section 19[5] of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 [Cwlth]); two of the authors have permission to obtain, prescribe and administer this drug in Cairns, Queensland. From July 2006 to April 2007, 10 women who fulfilled the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) criteria of "life-threatening or otherwise serious" indications underwent medical abortion with mifepristone/misoprostol, and 12 women conforming with abortion requirements of Queensland law, but not TGA legislation for mifepristone administration, had medical abortions with the less preferable methotrexate/misoprostol combination. Although it is now more than a year since the cross-party vote in federal Parliament in February 2006 confirmed wide support for the right of Australian women to a medical abortion, we believe we are at present the only medical practitioners in Australia with permission to use mifepristone. Obtaining Authorised Prescriber status from the TGA is of necessity a complex and protracted process, involving ethics committee approval and auditing, and regular reporting to the TGA. Because of the current restrictions, we believe that women seeking medical abortion in Australia face barriers not experienced by women in other comparable countries, and that drug manufacturing and distributing companies may be discouraged from seeking to market mifepristone in Australia. PMID:17680745

de Costa, Caroline M; Russell, Darren B; de Costa, Naomi R; Carrette, Michael; McNamee, Heather M

2007-08-01

12

Knowledge and perceptions of medical abortion among potential users.  

PubMed

Nearly two-thirds of 73 women aged 18-34 who participated in focus groups on medical abortion conducted in three cities had heard about this new abortion method, but only a few could describe it accurately. Once the method was described to them, they cited its potential advantages over vacuum aspiration as being fewer major complications, the absence of surgery, a greater "naturalness," and its use earlier in pregnancy. Women listed as disadvantages the multiple visits needed for medical abortion, the unknown aspects of the new technology, especially regarding the expulsion of the conceptus, and concern that mifepristone would make an abortion too easy and lead some women to take the decision lightly. More than one-third of discussants said they would choose mifepristone if the method were available. PMID:9104607

Harvey, S M; Beckman, L J; Castle, M A; Coeytaux, F

1995-01-01

13

Towards safe abortion access: an exploratory study of medical abortion in Cambodia.  

PubMed

In 2010, following its approval by the Ministry of Health, the medical abortion combination pack Medabon (containing mifepristone and misoprostol) was made available at pharmacies and in a restricted number of health facilities in Cambodia. The qualitative study presented in this paper was conducted in 2012 as a follow-up to longer-term ethnographical research related to reproductive health and fertility regulation between 2008 and 2012. Observations were carried out at several clinic and pharmacy sites and in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 women who attended two MSI Cambodia centres and 10 women identified through social networks; six men (women's male partners); eight health care providers at the two MSI centres and four pill sellers at private or informal pharmacies (who also provided health care services in private clinics). Although the level of training among the drug sellers and providers varied, their knowledge about medical abortion regimens, correct usage and common side effects was good. Overall, women were satisfied with the services provided. Medical abortion was not always a women-only process in this study as some male partners were also involved in the care process. The study illustrates positive steps forward being taken in making abortion safe and preventing and reducing unsafe abortion practices in Cambodia. PMID:25702068

Petitet, Pascale Hancart; Ith, Leakhena; Cockroft, Melissa; Delvaux, Thérèse

2015-02-01

14

Late Presentation of Unsafe Abortion after 5 Years of Procedure  

PubMed Central

A majority of the unsafe abortions are performed by untrained birth attendants or quacks leading to complications in a large proportion of these cases. Complications like bowel injury, bladder injury, uterine perforation, and septic abortion are mostly caused by unskilled hands and are detected immediately or within few days of the procedure, owing to the need for tertiary level care. Here we present a very interesting case of unsafe abortion induced by a Ryle's tube in a 32-year-old lady, which was diagnosed five years after the procedure. Considering its atypical presentation, it is the first case of its kind in the literature. The details of the case and its management are described along with appropriate pictures. PMID:24649386

Nayak, Prasanta Kumar; Mitra, Subarna; Padma, Alaganandam; Agrawal, Sarita

2014-01-01

15

Medication Abortion within a Student Health Care Clinic: A Review of the First 46 Consecutive Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol has been available in the United States since 2000. The authors reviewed the first 46 medication abortion cases conducted at a university-based student health care clinic to determine the safety and feasibility of medication abortion in this type of clinical setting. Participants:…

Godfrey, Emily M.; Bordoloi, Anita; Moorthie, Mydhili; Pela, Emily

2012-01-01

16

Physicians' knowledge and opinions about medication abortion in four Latin American and Caribbean region countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine physicians' knowledge and attitudes in regard to medication abortion, we conducted focus-group discussions with general practice physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists in Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Puerto Rico. Physicians were familiar with the practice of several types of medication and surgical abortion methods. Medication abortion with misoprostol is most common among women of higher socioeconomic status and is prescribed by

Henry Espinoza; Katrina Abuabara; Charlotte Ellertson

2004-01-01

17

Medical abortion practices among private providers in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe medical abortion (MA) practices among private providers in Vietnam. Methods The study subjects were women (n = 258) undergoing early MA through 12 private providers in Hanoi during February–June 2012. The women were interviewed on the day of their procedure and were followed up by telephone 14 days after mifepristone administration. Results Of the 258 women in the study, 97% used a regimen of mifepristone plus misoprostol; 80% were instructed to administer misoprostol at home. MA resulted in a complete termination in 90.8% of cases. All women were provided with information on potential complications and were instructed to return for a follow-up visit. We successfully followed up 77.5% (n = 200) of participants by telephone, while nearly two-thirds of women returned to the clinic for a follow-up visit. At follow-up, 39.5% of women reported having used a Help line service, while 7% had sought help from a health provider. A high unmet need for postabortion family planning was identified. Conclusion Follow-up of women, postabortion care, and the provision of family planning have been identified as important areas to address for strengthening MA services in the private sector in Vietnam. PMID:24082795

Park, Min Hae; Nguyen, Thang Huu; Dang, Anh Thi Ngoc; Ngo, Thoai Dinh

2013-01-01

18

Abortion - surgical  

MedlinePLUS

Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion uses a vacuum to remove the fetus and related pregnancy material from the uterus. The procedure is ...

19

An effective regimen for early medical abortion: a report of 2000 consecutive cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of the anti-progesterone mifepristone and gemeprost provides an effective non-surgical method for the induction of abortion at gestations up to 63 days, achieving complete abortion rates of over 95%. We report our experience with an alternate regimen, comprising a reduced dose of mifepristone in combination with vaginal misoprostol. A consecutive series of 2000 women requesting early medical abortion

P. W. Ashok; G. C. Penney; G. M. M. Flett; A. Templeton

20

Induced Abortion  

MedlinePLUS

What is induced abortion? An induced abortion is a procedure that is done to end a pregnancy. Most induced abortions are done in ... What are the risks of this type of abortion? Abortion is a low-risk procedure; however, on ...

21

Comparison of medical abortion with surgical vacuum aspiration: women's preferences and acceptability of treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To assess women's preferences for, and the acceptability of, medical abortion and vacuum aspiration in the early first trimester. DESIGN--Patient centred, partially randomised trial. Medical abortion was performed with mifepristone 600 mg followed 48 hours later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginal pessary. Vacuum aspiration was performed under general anaesthesia. SETTING--Teaching hospital in Scotland. PATIENTS--363 women undergoing legal induced abortion at

R C Henshaw; S A Naji; I T Russell; A A Templeton

1993-01-01

22

Safety, efficacy, and acceptability of medical abortion in China, Cuba, and India: A comparative trial of mifepristone-misoprostol versus surgical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: We investigated safety, efficacy, and acceptability of an oral regimen of medical abortion compared with surgical abortion in three developing countries.STUDY DESIGN: Women (n = 1373) with amenorrhea ?56 days chose either surgical abortion (as provided routinely) or 600 mg of mifepristone followed after 48 hours by 400 ?g of misoprostol. This is the appropriate design for studying safety,

Beverly Winikoff; Irving Sivin; Kurus J. Coyaji; Evelio Cabezas; Xiao Bilian; Gu Sujuan; Du Ming-kun; Usha R. Krishna; Andrea Eschen; Charlotte Ellertson

1997-01-01

23

Comparing the World Health Organization-versus China-recommended protocol for first-trimester medical abortion: a retrospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the effectiveness, in terms of complete abortion, of the World Health Organization (WHO)- and the China-recommended protocol for first-trimester medical abortion. Methods A retrospective analysis of clinical data from women presenting for first trimester medical abortion between January 2009 and August 2010 at reproductive health clinics in Qingdao, Xi’an, Nanjing, Nanning, and Zhengzhou was conducted. One clinic in Qingdao administered the WHO-recommended protocol (200 mg mifepristone orally followed by 0.8 mg misoprostol buccally 36–48 hours later). Four clinics in the other locations provided the China-recommended procedure (Day 1: 50 mg of mifepristone in the morning, 25 mg in the afternoon; Day 2: 50 mg of mifepristone in the morning, 25 mg in the afternoon; Day 3: 0.6 mg oral misoprostol). Data on reproductive and demographic characteristics were extracted from clinic records, and complete termination was determined on day 14 (post-mifepristone administration). Results A total of 337 women underwent early medical abortion (167 WHO- and 170 China-recommended procedures). Complete abortion was significantly higher among women who had the WHO protocol than those who received the China protocol (91.0% vs 77.7%, respectively; P < 0.001). Women using the China-recommended protocol were three times more likely to require an additional dose of misoprostol than women using the WHO protocol (21.8% vs 7.8%, respectively; P < 0.001), and had significantly more bleeding on the day of misoprostol administration (12.5 mL vs 18.5 mL; P < 0.001). Conclusion This clinical audit provides preliminary evidence suggesting the WHO-recommended protocol may be more effective than the China-recommended protocol for early medical abortion. A larger scale study is necessary to compare the methods’ effectiveness and acceptability. PMID:22505831

Ngo, Thoai D; Park, Min Hae; Xiao, Yuanhong

2012-01-01

24

The role of auxiliary nurse-midwives and community health volunteers in expanding access to medical abortion in rural Nepal.  

PubMed

Medical abortion was introduced in Nepal in 2009, but rural women's access to medical abortion services remained limited. We conducted a district-level operations research study to assess the effectiveness of training 13 auxiliary nurse-midwives as medical abortion providers, and 120 female community health volunteers as communicators and referral agents for expanding access to medical abortion for rural women. Interviews with service providers and women who received medical abortion were undertaken and service statistics were analysed. Compared to a neighbouring district with no intervention, there was a significant increase in the intervention area in community health volunteers' knowledge of the legal conditions for abortion, the advantages and disadvantages of medical abortion, safe places for an abortion, medical abortion drugs, correct gestational age for home use of medical abortion, and carrying out a urine pregnancy test. In a one-year period in 2011-12, the community health volunteers did pregnancy tests for 584 women and referred 114 women to the auxiliary nurse-midwives for abortion; 307 women in the intervention area received medical abortion services from auxiliary nurse-midwives. There were no complications that required referral to a higher-level facility except for one incomplete abortion. Almost all women who opted for medical abortion were happy with the services provided. The study demonstrated that auxiliary nurse-midwives can independently and confidently provide medical abortion safely and effectively at the sub-health post level, and community health volunteers are effective change agents in informing women about medical abortion. PMID:25702073

Puri, Mahesh; Tamang, Anand; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Joshi, Deepak

2015-02-01

25

Review of medical abortion using mifepristone in combination with a prostaglandin analogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced abortion is still a major health problem in the world and the most frequently performed intervention in obstetrics and gynecology with an estimated total of 46 million worldwide each year. Medical abortion with mifepristone and prostaglandin was first introduced in 1988 and is now approved in 31 countries. This combination of drugs has recently been included in the List

Christian Fiala; Kristina-Gemzell Danielsson

2006-01-01

26

The Potential of Medical Abortion to Reduce Maternal Mortality in Africa: What Benefits for Tanzania and Ethiopia?  

PubMed Central

Background Unsafe abortion is estimated to account for 13% of maternal mortality globally. Medical abortion is a safe alternative. Methods By estimating mortality risks for unsafe and medical abortion and childbirth for Tanzania and Ethiopia, we modelled changes in maternal mortality that are achievable if unsafe abortion were replaced by medical abortion. We selected Ethiopia and Tanzania because of their high maternal mortality ratios (MMRatios) and contrasting situations regarding health care provision and abortion legislation. We focused on misoprostol-only regimens due to the drug's low cost and accessibility. We included the impact of medical abortion on women who would otherwise choose unsafe abortion and on women with unwanted/mistimed pregnancies who would otherwise carry to term. Results Thousands of lives could be saved each year in each country by implementing medical abortion using misoprostol (2122 in Tanzania and 2551 in Ethiopia assuming coverage equals family planning services levels: 56% for Tanzania, 31% for Ethiopia). Changes in MMRatios would be less pronounced because the intervention would also affect national birth rates. Conclusions This is the first analysis of impact of medical abortion provision which takes into account additional potential users other than those currently using unsafe abortion. Thousands of women's lives could be saved, but this may not be reflected in as substantial changes in MMRatios because of medical abortion's demographic impact. Therefore policy makers must be aware of the inability of some traditional measures of maternal mortality to detect the real benefits offered by such an intervention. PMID:20948995

Baggaley, Rebecca F.; Burgin, Joanna; Campbell, Oona M. R.

2010-01-01

27

Laboratory Procedures for Medical Assistants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the manual is to provide the medical assisting student a text which presents the common laboratory procedures in use today in physician's offices. The procedures for performing a complete urinalysis are outlined, along with those for carrying out various hematological tests. Information is also presented to help the student learn to…

Johnson, Pauline

28

ABORTION COST LIST I Hartford Sites  

E-print Network

ABORTION COST LIST I Hartford Sites: 1. Hartford Gyn Center 860-525-1900 Medical- $550 + $30 if Rh for Abortion info/scheduling 1-877-529-3689 www.ppct.org Procedure Sites in Norwich, New Haven, West Hartford. Both, Dr. Byrd and Dr. Flagg are willing to perform therapeutic abortions. Dr. Beverly Byrd 852

Royer, Dana

29

Induced abortion in Indonesia.  

PubMed

Induced abortion is one of the most difficult sociomedical problems facing the Indonesian government. While well-known in traditional society, the practice was discouraged by all Indonesian religious groups, and forbidden by the Dutch colonial authorities. Although abortion was technically illegal under the criminal code, a judicial interpretation in the early 1970s permitted medical professionals to offer the procedure so long as they were discreet and careful. The numbers of medical abortions carried out in Indonesia rose dramatically, and there was evidence of matching declines in the incidence of morbidity and mortality caused by dangerous illegal procedures. Medical and community groups campaigned for a more liberal abortion law to protect legal practitioners and stamp out illegal traditional practices. Their efforts appeared to bear fruit in the draft Health Law, but when the law was passed by the legislature in late 1992, the issue was again clouded by contradictions and inconsistencies. PMID:8212094

Hull, T H; Sarwono, S W; Widyantoro, N

1993-01-01

30

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm hidden behind septic abortion: pseudoaneurysm without preceding procedure.  

PubMed

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) can occur after cesarean section or traumatic delivery, usually manifesting as postpartum hemorrhage. Here we report a patient with UAP possibly caused by septic abortion. She had high fever and bleeding with positive urine pregnancy test. We diagnosed this condition as septic abortion. Ultrasound revealed an intrauterine echogenic mass and color Doppler revealed swirling blood flow within the mass. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a heterogeneously enhanced intrauterine mass. Selective internal iliac artery angiography revealed contrast medium within the mass immediately after medium injection. Bilateral uterine artery embolization was performed, after which medium no longer accumulated in the uterus, and hemostasis was achieved, confirming the diagnosis as UAP. Antibiotic treatment ameliorated the infection and the uterine content was expelled and absorbed. UAP can occur even without preceding procedures and may manifest abortive, and not postpartum, hemorrhage. UAP may be hidden behind septic abortion. PMID:24118644

Matsubara, Shigeki; Nakata, Manabu; Baba, Yosuke; Suzuki, Haruna; Nakamura, Hiroyasu; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

2014-02-01

31

Procedural abortion rights: Ireland and the European Court of Human Rights.  

PubMed

The Irish Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act seeks to clarify the legal ground for abortion in cases of risk to life, and to create procedures to regulate women's access to services under it. This article explores the new law as the outcome of an international human rights litigation strategy premised on state duties to implement abortion laws through clear standards and procedural safeguards. It focuses specifically on the Irish law reform and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, including A. B. and C. v. Ireland (2010). The article examines how procedural rights at the international level can engender domestic law reform that limits or expands women's access to lawful abortion services, serving conservative or progressive ends. PMID:25555760

Erdman, Joanna N

2014-11-01

32

Comparative effectiveness, safety and acceptability of medical abortion at home and in a clinic: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To compare medical abortion practised at home and in clinics in terms of effectiveness, safety and acceptability. Methods A systematic search for randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies comparing home-based and clinic-based medical abortion was conducted. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Popline were searched. Failure to abort completely, side-effects and acceptability were the main outcomes of interest. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Estimates were pooled using a random-effects model. Findings Nine studies met the inclusion criteria (n?=?4522 participants). All were prospective cohort studies that used mifepristone and misoprostol to induce abortion. Complete abortion was achieved by 86–97% of the women who underwent home-based abortion (n?=?3478) and by 80–99% of those who underwent clinic-based abortion (n?=?1044). Pooled analyses from all studies revealed no difference in complete abortion rates between groups (odds ratio?=?0.8; 95% CI: 0.5–1.5). Serious complications from abortion were rare. Pain and vomiting lasted 0.3 days longer among women who took misoprostol at home rather than in clinic. Women who chose home-based medical abortion were more likely to be satisfied, to choose the method again and to recommend it to a friend than women who opted for medical abortion in a clinic. Conclusion Home-based abortion is safe under the conditions in place in the included studies. Prospective cohort studies have shown no differences in effectiveness or acceptability between home-based and clinic-based medical abortion across countries. PMID:21556304

Park, Min Hae; Shakur, Haleema; Free, Caroline

2011-01-01

33

Peri-Abortion Contraceptive Choices of Migrant Chinese Women: A Retrospective Review of Medical Records  

PubMed Central

Background Migrant Asian women reportedly have low levels of contraceptive use and high rates of abortion in New Zealand. Chinese make up the largest proportion of migrant Asian in New Zealand. This study aimed to describe the contraceptive choices of Chinese women seeking abortion; to examine method choice in relation to demographic characteristics (including length of stay) and to determine whether Chinese women were over-represented among abortion clinic attendees. Methods Retrospective review of medical records at a public hospital abortion clinic involving 305 Chinese women. Previously collected data for European (n?=?277) and Maori women (n?=?128) were used for comparative analyses. Regression analyses explored correlates of contraceptive method choice. Population census data were used to calculate rates of clinic attendance across ethnic groups. Results Chinese women were not over-represented among clinic attendees, and had similar rates of contraceptive non-use pre-abortion as women in comparison groups. Use of the oral contraceptive pill by Chinese was lower pre-abortion than for other ethnic groups, but choice of this method post-abortion was similar for Chinese (46.9%, 95% CI 41–52.7) and European women (43.7%, 95% CI 37.8–49.7). Post-abortion choice of an intrauterine device did not differ significantly between Chinese (28.9%, 95% CI 23.8–34.3) and Maori women (37%, 95% CI 28.4–45.7), but was higher than uptake of this method by European women (21.7%, 95% CI 17–27.0). Age, parity and previous abortion were significant predictors of post-abortion method choice by Chinese women (p<0.05). Conclusions Following contraceptive counseling at the clinic, Chinese women chose more effective contraceptive methods for use post-abortion than they had used previously. As the population of migrant Chinese in New Zealand continues to increase, strategies are urgently needed to provide new arrivals with appropriate information and advice about contraception and where to access it, so women can be better prepared to avoid unplanned pregnancy. PMID:22768231

Rose, Sally B.; Wei, Zhang; Cooper, Annette J.; Lawton, Beverley A.

2012-01-01

34

Mid-gestational abortion for medical or genetic indications.  

PubMed

Women who have major medical complications, such as cardiovascular conditions leading to cardiac, renal, or cerebral impairment, which interfere with their lifestyle or who have fetuses with major malformations or chromosomal abnormalities are eligible for pregnancy terminations before the fetus has reached a viable stage. Any method for uterine evacuation may be offered at any time if the woman's life is threatened or if the fetal chromosomal abnormality (e.g. triploidy) or malformation is considered to be definitely incompatible with life. Such malformations would include bilateral renal agenesis, anencephaly, lethal forms of chondrodysplasia, holoprosencephaly, and severe pulmonary hypoplasia. Prostaglandin vaginal suppository therapy is the primary method for cervical dilation and induction of uterine contractions at most perinatal centres. This therapy is particularly useful when a fetal abnormality is suspected, since the fetus is usually delivered intact for gross and histological evaluation. Postmortem findings are helpful to the parents and other family members for future childbearing and family history. Disadvantages of such therapy include side-effects from the medication, prolonged labour discomfort, and delivery of a viable rather than stillborn infant. A surgical dilation and evacuation of the uterus may be undertaken between 12 and 20 weeks' gestation for women with prior uterine surgery, contraindication to prostaglandin use, no future childbearing being desired, and a fetus having a known lethal chromosomal abnormality (e.g. trisomy 13 or 18). This form of therapy is rapid, less painful, and fetal blood and tissue may be gathered for analysis although complete morphological examination of the fetus is not possible. Instillation of hypertonic saline or urea is no longer widely used for pregnancy termination, although intra-amniotic urea may be used adjunctively. Prolonged instillation-to-evacuation times and potential metabolic concerns are limitations. This therapy may be particularly useful when a stillborn infant is desired or when prior prostaglandin therapy has been unsuccessful. Abdominal operations such as hysterectomy or hysterotomy are also unnecessary unless there is an accompanying gynaecological complication or unless other pregnancy termination methods have been unsuccessful or unavailable. Women experiencing mid-gestation pregnancy terminations undergo a grief process which involves disbelief, sadness, guilt, anger and acceptance before and after the pregnancy termination. This is common and understandable. Parental counselling is recommended both before the procedure and several weeks thereafter. PMID:3709014

Rayburn, W F; Laferla, J J

1986-03-01

35

Reduction in Infection-Related Mortality since Modifications in the Regimen of Medical Abortion  

PubMed Central

Background From 2001 to March 2006 Planned Parenthood health centers throughout the United States provided medical abortion by a regimen of oral mifepristone followed 24 to 48 hours later by vaginal misoprostol. In response to concerns about serious infections, in early 2006 Planned Parenthood changed the route of misoprostol administration to buccal and required either routine antibiotic coverage or universal screening and treatment for chlamydia; in July 2007, Planned Parenthood began requiring routine antibiotic coverage for all medical abortions. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of Planned Parenthood cases assessing the rates of mortality caused by infection following medical abortion during a time period when misoprostol was administered vaginally (2001 through March 2006), as compared with the rate from April 2006 to the end of 2012 after a change to buccal administration of misoprostol and after initiation of new infection-reduction strategies. Results The mortality rate dropped significantly in the 81-month period after the joint change to 1) buccal misoprostol replacing vaginal misoprostol and 2) either sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening or routine preventative antibiotic coverage (15 month period) or universal routine preventative antibiotic coverage as part of the medical abortion (66 month period), from 1.37/100,000 to 0.00/100,000, p=0.013 (difference=1.37/100,000, 95% CI 0.47-4.03 per 100,000). Conclusion The infection-caused mortality rate following medical abortion declined by 100% following a change from vaginal to buccal administration of misoprostol combined with screen-and-treat or, far more commonly, routine antibiotic coverage. PMID:24405798

Trussell, James; Nucatola, Deborah; Fjerstad, Mary; Lichtenberg, E Steve

2014-01-01

36

‘The Trial the World is Watching’: The 1972 Prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, Abortion, and the Regulation of the Medical Profession in Apartheid South Africa  

PubMed Central

After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman’s life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country’s newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary’s stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their ‘duty’ to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites’ attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa’s extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430

Klausen, Susanne M.

2014-01-01

37

Medical and social aspects of pregnancy among adolescents. Part II. Comparative study of abortions and deliveries.  

PubMed

Socio-medical aspects concerning 193 pregnant patients under the age of 18 were analysed. Of these patients 131 had an interruption of the pregnancy and 62 gave birth to a baby. All the abortion patients were unmarried. The mean age in the abortion group was 16.8 years and in the delivery group 17.2 years. The girls of this study had their first experience of sexual intercourse very early, 32% under the age of 15. The frequency of complications after abortion was 18.5%. In the delivery group the prematurity and prenatal mortality were at least twice as great as in the general population. The girls who gave birth to their babies often came from lower social strata and the relationships in their families were more harmonious than in those who had had abortions. The birth of the baby or the decision to have an abortion is not accidental. The different behaviour patterns have a different background regarding both the personal and the environmental characteristics. The decision of the patient whether to abort or not was influenced by the attitude of the immediate family. The relations between family members were better in the homes of the girls who had a baby than in the homes of those who belonged to the abortion group. In both groups more than 40% of the subjects had suffered the risk of being emotionally deprived because of environmental conditions, including crowded housing and limited economic means. Almost all the subjects knew about the means of prevention, although they may not have had proper instruction and sufficient knowledge of their use. The services given by the goverment to adolescent pregnant patients are insufficient and require immediate attention by society. PMID:560171

Rautanen, E; Kantero, R L; Widholm, O

1977-01-01

38

Abortion in Hawaii.  

PubMed

Abortion experience in Hawaii, which was the first state to legalize induce abortion (in March 1970), at the request of the patient, is reviewed after its first year in terms of the number of abortions performed, the demographic and social characteristics of women seeking abortion, implementation of the law, and medical and legal complications. 3643 abortions were performed in 15 hospitals during the first year of legalized abortion. The ratio of abortions to live births was 1:45. Of the patients, 42.9% had been born and lived in Hawaii, 19.8% had lived in the state for less than 1 year, and the 90-day residency requirement was unfulfilled by 13.0%. Comparisons of women seeking abortions in Hawaii are similar to the statistics for the U.S. as a whole as reported by the Joint Program for the Study of Abortion. 20% were teenagers, 51% had no prior pregnancies, and 54% had never been married although 71% indicated involvement in a continuing relationship. Ethnic distribution showed 47% Caucasians, 21% Japanese, 10% Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian, 8.4% Filipino and 5.0% Chinese. Marital status by ethnic origin at the time of conception suggested that Filipin o women are more likely to use abortion to limit family size (69% were married) than the others. The abortion patients were considerably better educated than the state's population of women of childbearing age although 66.5% of the women reported lack of contraceptive use as the reason for having to seek abortion to terminate their pregnancies. This figure suggests a group of women in need of contraceptive information and services. Most frequent complications were cervical laceration (22.5% of all complications), hemorrhage (19.5%), and infection (16%). Hawaii's law stipulates that abortion must be performed in hospitals by licensed physicians prior to viability of the fetus (undefined but generally regarded as after the twentieth week of gestation). Women under 18 experienced the most frequent frustration in delay, largely because of the required parental consent. Legal and financial barriers appeared to be the greatest cause of delays with most other patients. Average abortion costs were about $350, and 57.5% of the abortions were paid for by personal funds or loans obtained by the patients. Recommendations based on the year's experience suggest greater assistance to the patient through state and private agencies in covering abortion costs either through subsidies or low-interest loans with minim al delay. Improved procedures to provide lowest cost service while maintaining standards of good health and increased efforts in disseminating information on family planning, contraception and sex education are also necessary. PMID:4805720

Diamond, M; Palmore, J A; Smith, R G; Steinhoff, P G

1973-01-01

39

‘Miscarriage or abortion?’ Understanding the medical language of pregnancy loss in Britain; a historical perspective  

PubMed Central

Clinical language applied to early pregnancy loss changed in late twentieth century Britain when doctors consciously began using the term ‘miscarriage’ instead of ‘abortion’ to refer to this subject. Medical professionals at the time and since have claimed this change as an intuitive empathic response to women's experiences. However, a reading of medical journals and textbooks from the era reveals how the change in clinical language reflected legal, technological, professional and social developments. The shift in language is better understood in the context of these historical developments, rather than as the consequence of more empathic medical care for women who experience miscarriage. PMID:23429567

Moscrop, Andrew

2013-01-01

40

Safe, accessible medical abortion in a rural Tamil Nadu clinic, India, but what about sexual and reproductive rights?  

PubMed

Women's control over their own bodies and reproduction is a fundamental prerequisite to the achievement of sexual and reproductive health and rights. A woman's ability to terminate an unwanted pregnancy has been seen as the exercise of her reproductive rights. This study reports on interviews with 15 women in rural South India who had a medical abortion. It examines the circumstances under which they chose to have an abortion and their perspectives on medical abortion. Women in this study decided to have an abortion when multiple factors like lack of spousal support for child care or contraception, hostile in-laws, economic hardship, poor health of the woman herself, spousal violence, lack of access to suitable contraceptive methods, and societal norms regarding reproduction and sexuality converged to oppress them. The availability of an easy and affordable method like medical abortion pills helped the women get out of a difficult situation, albeit temporarily. Medical abortion also fulfilled their special needs by ensuring confidentiality, causing least disruption of their domestic schedule, and dispensing with the need for rest or a caregiver. The study concludes that medical abortion can help women in oppressive situations. However, this will not deliver gender equality or women's empowerment; social conditions need to change for that. PMID:25702077

B, Subha Sri; Ravindran, Tk Sundari

2015-02-01

41

Mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion: home administration of misoprostol in guadeloupe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion promises to revolutionize reproductive health-care. Several simplifications of the standard three clinic visit regimen may be possible, however. Particularly in developing countries, access to the method can be greatly increased by eliminating the longest clinic visit. Indeed, shortly after mifepristone’s introduction in Guadeloupe, a semi-developed Caribbean territory administered by France, in 1991, two of the authors conducted

Jean-Pierre Guengant; Jacques Bangou; Batya Elul; Charlotte Ellertson

1999-01-01

42

Mifepristone and misoprostol for early medical abortion: 18 months experience in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first 18 months since mifepristone was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use with misoprostol for early medical abortion, approximately 80,000 women have been treated. One-hundred thirty-nine adverse events were reported to Danco Laboratories LLC and subsequently reported to the FDA. Thirteen patients required blood transfusions, 10 patients were treated with antibiotics for infection and

Richard Hausknecht

2003-01-01

43

Methods for induced abortion.  

PubMed

We describe present methods for induced abortion used in the United States. The most common procedure is first-trimester vacuum curettage. Analgesia is usually provided with a paracervical block and is not completely effective. Pretreatment with nonsteroidal analgesics and conscious sedation augment analgesia but only to a modest extent. Cervical dilation is accomplished with conventional tapered dilators, hygroscopic dilators, or misoprostol. Manual vacuum curettage is as safe and effective as the electric uterine aspirator for procedures through 10 weeks of gestation. Common complications and their management are presented. Early abortion with mifepristone/misoprostol combinations is replacing some surgical abortions. Two mifepristone/misoprostol regimens are used. The rare serious complications of medical abortion are described. Twelve percent of abortions are performed in the second trimester, the majority of these by dilation and evacuation (D&E) after laminaria dilation of the cervix. Uterine evacuation is accomplished with heavy ovum forceps augmented by 14-16 mm vacuum cannula systems. Cervical injection of dilute vasopressin reduces blood loss. Operative ultrasonography is reported to reduce perforation risk of D&E. Dilation and evacuation procedures have evolved to include intact D&E and combination methods for more advanced gestations. Vaginal misoprostol is as effective as dinoprostone for second-trimester labor-induction abortion and appears to be replacing older methods. Mifepristone/misoprostol combinations appear more effective than misoprostol alone. Uterine rupture has been reported in women with uterine scars with misoprostol abortion in the second trimester. Fetal intracardiac injection to reduce multiple pregnancies or selectively abort an anomalous twin is accepted therapy. Outcomes for the remaining pregnancy have improved with experience. PMID:15229018

Stubblefield, Phillip G; Carr-Ellis, Sacheen; Borgatta, Lynn

2004-07-01

44

Abortion - medical  

MedlinePLUS

... in obstetric practice. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies . 6th ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 13. Simpson JL, Jauniaux ERM. Pregnancy loss. In: Gabbe SG, ...

45

Women's experiences with the use of medical abortion in a legally restricted context: the case of Argentina.  

PubMed

This article presents the findings of a qualitative study exploring the experiences of women living in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, Argentina, with the use of misoprostol for inducing an abortion. We asked women about the range of decisions they had to make, their emotions, the physical experience, strategies they needed to use, including seeking health care advice and in dealing with a clandestine medical abortion, and their overall evaluation of the experience. An in-depth interview schedule was used. The women had either used misoprostol and sought counselling or care at a public hospital (n=24) or had used misoprostol based on the advice of a local hotline, information from the internet or from other women (n=21). Four stages in the women's experiences were identified: how the decision to terminate the pregnancy was taken, how the medication was obtained, how the tablets were used, and reflections on the outcome whether or not they sought medical advice. Safety and privacy were key in deciding to use medical abortion. Access to the medication was the main obstacle, requiring a prescription or a friendly drugstore. Correct information about the number of pills to use and dosage intervals was the least easy to obtain and caused concerns. The possibility of choosing a time of privacy and having the company of a close one was highlighted as a unique advantage of medical abortion. Efforts to improve abortion law, policy and service provision in Argentina in order to ensure the best possible conditions for use of medical abortion by women should be redoubled. PMID:25702064

Ramos, Silvina; Romero, Mariana; Aizenberg, Lila

2015-02-01

46

Road map to scaling-up: translating operations research study’s results into actions for expanding medical abortion services in rural health facilities in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying unsafe abortion among the major causes of maternal deaths and respecting the rights to health of women, in 2002, the Nepali parliament liberalized abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy on request. However, enhancing women’s awareness on and access to safe and legal abortion services, particularly in rural areas, remains a challenge in Nepal despite a decade of the initiation of safe abortion services. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, an operations research study was carried out using quasi-experimental design to determine the effectiveness of engaging female community health volunteers, auxiliary nurse midwives, and nurses to provide medical abortion services from outreach health facilities to increase the accessibility and acceptability of women to medical abortion. This paper describes key components of the operations research study, key research findings, and follow-up actions that contributed to create a conducive environment and evidence in scaling up medical abortion services in rural areas of Nepal. Results It was found that careful planning and implementation, continuous advocacy, and engagement of key stakeholders, including key government officials, from the planning stage of study is not only crucial for successful completion of the project but also instrumental for translating research results into action and policy change. While challenges remained at different levels, medical abortion services delivered by nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives working at rural outreach health facilities without oversight of physicians was perceived to be accessible, effective, and of good quality by the service providers and the women who received medical abortion services from these rural health facilities. Conclusions This research provided further evidence and a road-map for expanding medical abortion services to rural areas by mid-level service providers in minimum clinical settings without the oversight of physicians, thus reducing complications and deaths due to unsafe abortion. PMID:24886393

2014-01-01

47

Assessment of completion of early medical abortion using a text questionnaire on mobile phones compared to a self-administered paper questionnaire among women attending four clinics, Cape Town, South Africa.  

PubMed

In-clinic follow-up to assess completion of medical abortion is no longer a requirement according to World Health Organization guidance, provided adequate counselling is given. However, timely recognition of ongoing pregnancy, complications or incomplete abortion, which require treatment, is important. As part of a larger trial, this study aimed to establish whether women having a medical abortion could self-assess whether their abortion was complete using an automated, interactive questionnaire on their mobile phones. All 469 participants received standard abortion care and all returnees filled in a self-assessment on paper at clinic follow-up 2-3 weeks later. The 234 women allocated to receive the phone messages were also asked to do a mobile phone assessment at home ten days post-misoprostol. Completion of the mobile assessment was tracked by computer and all completed assessments, paper and mobile, were compared to providers' assessments at clinic follow-up. Of the 226 women able to access the mobile phone assessment, 176 (78%) completed it; 161 of them (93%) reported it was easy to do so. Neither mobile nor paper self-assessments predicted all cases needing additional treatment at follow-up. Prediction of complete procedures was good; 71% of mobile assessments and 91% of paper assessments were accurate. We conclude that an interactive questionnaire assessing completion of medical abortion on mobile phones is feasible in the South African setting; however, it should be done later than day 10 and combined with an appropriate pregnancy test to accurately detect incomplete procedures. PMID:25702072

Constant, Deborah; de Tolly, Katherine; Harries, Jane; Myer, Landon

2015-02-01

48

18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Special procedure: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701...306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting...described in § 701.310(a). Records containing medical or psychological...

2010-04-01

49

5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative...PRIVACY § 2412.7 Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which,...

2010-01-01

50

5 CFR 2504.6 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Special procedures for medical records. 2504.6 Section 2504...6 Special procedures for medical records. (a) When the Privacy...individual for access to those official medical records which belong to the...

2010-01-01

51

12 CFR 261a.7 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 261a.7 Section 261a.7 Banks and Banking...Pertains § 261a.7 Special procedures for medical records. Medical or psychological records requested...

2010-01-01

52

29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611...1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission...pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including...

2010-07-01

53

12 CFR 1403.6 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Banks and Banking...REGULATIONS § 1403.6 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit System...

2010-01-01

54

19 CFR 201.27 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Special procedures: Medical records. 201.27 Section 201...27 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) While an individual...which pertain to him or her, medical and psychological records merit special...

2010-04-01

55

37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 102.26 Section 102...102.26 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by an individual will be...

2010-07-01

56

32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7 Section 319.7 National Defense...PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records, requested pursuant to § 319.5 of this...

2010-07-01

57

12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Special procedure: Medical records. 1102.104 Section... Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...individual requests access to records pertaining to the individual that include medical and/or...

2010-01-01

58

29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor ...PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which,...

2010-07-01

59

12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6 Section 310.6 Banks and Banking...REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on request to the...

2010-01-01

60

22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6 Section 215.6...215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director...directly to the individual of medical records maintained by the...

2010-04-01

61

12 CFR 603.325 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 603.325 Section 603.325 Banks and...REGULATIONS § 603.325 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit...

2010-01-01

62

7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1.115...115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives...pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including...

2010-01-01

63

12 CFR 1070.55 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1070.55 Section 1070.55...1070.55 Special procedures for medical records. If an individual requests medical or psychological records pursuant to § 1070.53...

2014-01-01

64

29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor ...PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which,...

2012-07-01

65

5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative...PRIVACY § 2412.7 Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which,...

2014-01-01

66

5 CFR 2504.6 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Special procedures for medical records. 2504.6 Section 2504...6 Special procedures for medical records. (a) When the Privacy...individual for access to those official medical records which belong to the...

2011-01-01

67

29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor ...PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which,...

2013-07-01

68

5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative...PRIVACY § 2412.7 Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which,...

2013-01-01

69

12 CFR 1403.6 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Banks and Banking...REGULATIONS § 1403.6 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit System...

2014-01-01

70

19 CFR 201.27 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Special procedures: Medical records. 201.27 Section 201...27 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) While an individual...which pertain to him or her, medical and psychological records merit special...

2011-04-01

71

37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 102.26 Section 102...102.26 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by an individual will be...

2014-07-01

72

29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611...1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission...pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including...

2013-07-01

73

29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611...1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission...pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including...

2012-07-01

74

29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor ...PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which,...

2014-07-01

75

32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7 Section 319.7 National Defense...PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records, requested pursuant to § 319.5 of this...

2014-07-01

76

12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Special procedure: Medical records. 1102.104 Section... Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...individual requests access to records pertaining to the individual that include medical and/or...

2014-01-01

77

12 CFR 1070.55 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1070.55 Section 1070.55...1070.55 Special procedures for medical records. If an individual requests medical or psychological records pursuant to § 1070.53...

2012-01-01

78

7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1.115...115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives...pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including...

2013-01-01

79

5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative...PRIVACY § 2412.7 Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which,...

2011-01-01

80

29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor ...PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which,...

2011-07-01

81

12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6 Section 310.6 Banks and Banking...REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on request to the...

2011-01-01

82

5 CFR 2504.6 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Special procedures for medical records. 2504.6 Section 2504...6 Special procedures for medical records. (a) When the Privacy...individual for access to those official medical records which belong to the...

2014-01-01

83

12 CFR 1403.6 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Banks and Banking...REGULATIONS § 1403.6 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit System...

2012-01-01

84

12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6 Section 310.6 Banks and Banking...REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on request to the...

2013-01-01

85

12 CFR 261a.7 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 261a.7 Section 261a.7 Banks... § 261a.7 Special procedures for medical records. If you request medical or psychological records pursuant to § 261a.5, we...

2012-01-01

86

12 CFR 603.325 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 603.325 Section 603.325 Banks and...REGULATIONS § 603.325 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit...

2012-01-01

87

7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1.115...115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives...pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including...

2014-01-01

88

19 CFR 201.27 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special procedures: Medical records. 201.27 Section 201...27 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) While an individual...which pertain to him or her, medical and psychological records merit special...

2013-04-01

89

12 CFR 603.325 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 603.325 Section 603.325 Banks and...REGULATIONS § 603.325 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit...

2014-01-01

90

22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6 Section 215.6...215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director...directly to the individual of medical records maintained by the...

2012-04-01

91

12 CFR 261a.7 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 261a.7 Section 261a.7 Banks... § 261a.7 Special procedures for medical records. If you request medical or psychological records pursuant to § 261a.5, we...

2011-01-01

92

18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Special procedure: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701...306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting...described in § 701.310(a). Records containing medical or psychological...

2012-04-01

93

29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611...1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission...pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including...

2011-07-01

94

37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 102.26 Section 102...102.26 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by an individual will be...

2013-07-01

95

5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative...PRIVACY § 2412.7 Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which,...

2012-01-01

96

32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7 Section 319.7 National Defense...PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records, requested pursuant to § 319.5 of this...

2011-07-01

97

32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7 Section 319.7 National Defense...PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records, requested pursuant to § 319.5 of this...

2012-07-01

98

29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611...1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission...pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including...

2014-07-01

99

12 CFR 603.325 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 603.325 Section 603.325 Banks and...REGULATIONS § 603.325 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit...

2011-01-01

100

12 CFR 261a.7 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 261a.7 Section 261a.7 Banks... § 261a.7 Special procedures for medical records. If you request medical or psychological records pursuant to § 261a.5, we...

2014-01-01

101

5 CFR 2504.6 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special procedures for medical records. 2504.6 Section 2504...6 Special procedures for medical records. (a) When the Privacy...individual for access to those official medical records which belong to the...

2013-01-01

102

12 CFR 1070.55 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1070.55 Section 1070.55...1070.55 Special procedures for medical records. If an individual requests medical or psychological records pursuant to § 1070.53...

2013-01-01

103

22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6 Section 215.6...215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director...directly to the individual of medical records maintained by the...

2013-04-01

104

12 CFR 603.325 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 603.325 Section 603.325 Banks and...REGULATIONS § 603.325 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit...

2013-01-01

105

7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1.115...115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives...pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including...

2012-01-01

106

12 CFR 261a.7 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 261a.7 Section 261a.7 Banks... § 261a.7 Special procedures for medical records. If you request medical or psychological records pursuant to § 261a.5, we...

2013-01-01

107

37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 102.26 Section 102...102.26 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by an individual will be...

2012-07-01

108

22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6 Section 215.6...215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director...directly to the individual of medical records maintained by the...

2011-04-01

109

12 CFR 1403.6 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Banks and Banking...REGULATIONS § 1403.6 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit System...

2013-01-01

110

37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 102.26 Section 102...102.26 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by an individual will be...

2011-07-01

111

22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6 Section 215.6...215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director...directly to the individual of medical records maintained by the...

2014-04-01

112

19 CFR 201.27 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Special procedures: Medical records. 201.27 Section 201...27 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) While an individual...which pertain to him or her, medical and psychological records merit special...

2012-04-01

113

12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6 Section 310.6 Banks and Banking...REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on request to the...

2012-01-01

114

12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6 Section 310.6 Banks and Banking...REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on request to the...

2014-01-01

115

18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Special procedure: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701...306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting...described in § 701.310(a). Records containing medical or psychological...

2014-04-01

116

7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1.115...115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives...pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including...

2011-01-01

117

18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Special procedure: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701...306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting...described in § 701.310(a). Records containing medical or psychological...

2011-04-01

118

12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Special procedure: Medical records. 1102.104 Section... Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...individual requests access to records pertaining to the individual that include medical and/or...

2013-01-01

119

12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Special procedure: Medical records. 1102.104 Section... Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...individual requests access to records pertaining to the individual that include medical and/or...

2011-01-01

120

32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7 Section 319.7 National Defense...PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records, requested pursuant to § 319.5 of this...

2013-07-01

121

19 CFR 201.27 - Special procedures: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Special procedures: Medical records. 201.27 Section 201...27 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) While an individual...which pertain to him or her, medical and psychological records merit special...

2014-04-01

122

18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... true Special procedure: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701...306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting...described in § 701.310(a). Records containing medical or psychological...

2013-04-01

123

5 CFR 2504.6 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Special procedures for medical records. 2504.6 Section 2504...6 Special procedures for medical records. (a) When the Privacy...individual for access to those official medical records which belong to the...

2012-01-01

124

12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Special procedure: Medical records. 1102.104 Section... Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...individual requests access to records pertaining to the individual that include medical and/or...

2012-01-01

125

12 CFR 1403.6 - Special procedures for medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Special procedures for medical records. 1403.6 Section 1403.6 Banks and Banking...REGULATIONS § 1403.6 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit System...

2011-01-01

126

17 CFR 200.305 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Special procedure: Medical records. 200.305 Section... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS...305 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...pertaining to him that include medical and/or...

2014-04-01

127

17 CFR 200.305 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Special procedure: Medical records. 200.305 Section... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS...305 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...pertaining to him that include medical and/or...

2010-04-01

128

17 CFR 200.305 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Special procedure: Medical records. 200.305 Section... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS...305 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...pertaining to him that include medical and/or...

2011-04-01

129

17 CFR 200.305 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special procedure: Medical records. 200.305 Section... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS...305 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...pertaining to him that include medical and/or...

2013-04-01

130

17 CFR 200.305 - Special procedure: Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Special procedure: Medical records. 200.305 Section... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS...305 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement...pertaining to him that include medical and/or...

2012-04-01

131

Medical Office Laboratory Procedures: Course Proposal. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia course, entitled "Medical Office Laboratory Procedures," which provides a laboratory introduction to microscopic and chemical analysis of blood and urine as performed in the physician's office. Following a standard cover form, a statement of the purpose of the course discusses course…

Baker, Eleanor

132

A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study to assess the effect of oral contraceptive pills on the outcome of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) pills taken immediately after medical abortion on the duration of bleeding and complete abortion rate. Two hundred women in the first 49 days of pregnancy were given 200 mg mifepristone orally followed by 400 mg misoprostol vaginally 48 h later. One day later, they were

Oi Shan Tang; Pei Pei Gao; Linan Cheng; Sharon W. H. Lee; Pak Chung Ho

1999-01-01

133

Attributes and perspectives of public providers related to provision of medical abortion at public health facilities in Vietnam: a cross-sectional study in three provinces  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate attributes of public service providers associated with the provision of medical abortion in Vietnam. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study via interviewer-administered questionnaire among abortion providers from public health facilities in Hanoi, Khanh Hoa, and Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam between August 2011 and January 2012. We recruited abortion providers at all levels of Vietnam’s public health service delivery system. Participants were questioned about their medical abortion provision practices and perspectives regarding abortion methods. Results A total of 905 providers from 62 health facilities were included, comprising 525 (58.0%) from Hanoi, 122 (13.5%) from Khanh Hoa, and 258 (28.5%) from Ho Chi Minh City. The majority of providers were female (96.7%), aged ?25 years (94%), married (84.4%), and had at least one child (89%); 68.9% of providers offered only manual vacuum aspiration and 31.1% performed both medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration. Those performing both methods included physicians (74.5%), midwives (21.7%), and nurses (3.9%). Unadjusted analyses showed that female providers (odds ratio 0.1; 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.30) and providers in rural settings (odds ratio 0.3; 95% confidence interval 0.08–0.79) were less likely to provide medical abortion than their counterparts. Obstetricians and gynecologists were more likely to provide medical abortion than providers with nursing/midwifery training (odds ratio 22.2; 95% confidence interval 3.81–129.41). The most frequently cited advantages of medical abortion for providers were that no surgical skills are required (61.7%) and client satisfaction is better (61.0%). Conclusion Provision of medical abortion in Vietnam is lower than provision of manual vacuum aspiration. While the majority of abortion providers are female midwives in Vietnam, medical abortion provision is concentrated in urban settings among physicians. Individuals providing medical abortion found that the method yields high client satisfaction. PMID:25152635

Ngo, Thoai D; Free, Caroline; Le, Hoan T; Edwards, Phil; Pham, Kiet HT; Nguyen, Yen BT; Nguyen, Thang H

2014-01-01

134

Integrating Mobile Phones into Medical Abortion Provision: Intervention Development, Use, and Lessons Learned From a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Medical abortion is legal in South Africa but access and acceptability are hampered by the current protocol requiring a follow-up visit to assess abortion completion. Objective To assess the feasibility and efficacy of information and follow-up provided via mobile phone after medical abortion in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods Mobile phones were used in three ways in the study: (1) coaching women through medical abortion using short message service (SMS; text messages); (2) a questionnaire to assess abortion completion via unstructured supplementary service data (USSD, a protocol used by GSM mobile telephones that allows the user to interact with a server via text-based menus) and the South African mobile instant message and social networking application Mxit; and (3) family planning information via SMS, mobisite and Mxit. A needs and context assessment was done to learn about women’s experiences undergoing medical abortion and their use of mobile phones. After development, the mobile interventions were piloted. Recruitment was done by field workers at the clinics. In the RCT, women were interviewed at baseline and exit. Computer logs were also analyzed. All study participants received standard of care at the clinics. Results In the RCT, 234 women were randomized to the intervention group. Eight did not receive the intervention due to invalid numbers, mis-registration, system failure, or opt-out, leaving 226 participants receiving the full intervention. Of the 226, 190 returned and were interviewed at their clinic follow-up visit. The SMSs were highly acceptable, with 97.9% (186/190) saying that the SMSs helped them through the medical abortion. In terms of mobile phone privacy, 86.3% (202/234) said that it was not likely or possible that someone would see SMSs on their phone, although at exit, 20% (38/190) indicated that they had worried about phone privacy. Having been given training at baseline and subsequently asked via SMS to complete the self-assessment questionnaire, 90.3% (204/226) attempted it, and of those, 86.3% (176/204) reached an endpoint of the questionnaire. For the family planning information, a preference for SMS was indicated by study clients, although the publicly available Mxit/mobisite was heavily used (813,375 pages were viewed) over the study duration. Conclusions SMS provided a good medium for timed, "push" information that guided and supported women through medical abortion. Women were able to perform a self-assessment questionnaire via mobile phones if provided training and prompted by SMS. Phone privacy needs to be protected in similar settings. This study may contribute to the successful expansion of medical abortion provision aided by mobile phones. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR): PACTR201302000427144; http://www.pactr.org/ATMWeb/appmanager/atm/atmregistry?dar=true&tNo=PACTR201302000427144 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6N0fnZfzm). PMID:25098569

Constant, Deborah

2014-01-01

135

Parity is a major determinant of success rate in medical abortion: a retrospective analysis of 3161 consecutive cases of early medical abortion treated with reduced doses of mifepristone and vaginal gemeprost.  

PubMed

The antiprogesterone mifepristone in combination with a suitable prostaglandin provides an effective method for induction of abortion in early pregnancy up to 63 days of gestation. The combination of 600 mg mifepristone followed by 1 mg of gemeprost vaginal pessary 48 h later is one of the standard regimens in practice, which is registered in several countries in Europe. In 1995, we reduced the doses for both mifepristone and gemeprost to 200 mg and 0.5 mg respectively, as this was shown to decrease significantly the incidence of side effects whilst maintaining a high efficacy. In this article, we report our experience with this regimen in routine clinical practice by analysing 3161 consecutive medical abortions retrospectively. Twelve case notes (0.4%) were not available, and for 310 (9.8%) women, the outcome was not known with certainty as they did not return for their follow up visit. Of the remaining 2839 women, 2732 (96.2%) had a complete abortion following their treatment. One-hundred-two (3.6%) women required an evacuation of the uterus: for incomplete abortion in 63 (2.2%) and ongoing pregnancy in 39 (1.4%). Three women had to undergo surgery for ectopic pregnancies. The surgical intervention rate was significantly higher at gestation of >49 days compared to < or = 49 days (5.7% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.002) and at >56 days than among those at < or = 56 days (6.7% vs. 3.1%; p <0.001). However, for incomplete abortion a significant increase was only seen at gestation >49 days compared to < or = 49 days (3% vs. 1.6%, p = 0.017). The incidence of ongoing pregnancies increased significantly only after 56 days of gestation compared to < or = 56 days (3.8% vs. 0.9%; p <0.001). Parity was related to the outcome with parous women having significantly more incomplete/ongoing abortions compared to nulliparous women (5.4% vs. 2.0%; p <0.001), although parous women did present earlier in pregnancy for termination than nulliparous women (p = 0.01). The incidence of complications was low: 165 (5.8%) women were given antibiotics for presumed genital infection and severe haemorrhage occurred in 11 (0.4%) women, of whom only two required blood transfusion. In summary, the recommended regimen with the reduced doses of mifepristone and gemeprost is highly effective, meeting the anticipated efficacy with a complete abortion rate of >95%. We have concluded from the data that gestation and parity are strong predictors for clinicians to anticipate the probability of a successful medical termination of pregnancy. PMID:11239616

Bartley, J; Tong, S; Everington, D; Baird, D T

2000-12-01

136

Prenatal testing for Tay?Sachs disease in the light of Jewish views regarding abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tay?Sachs is a fatal genetic ailment preponderant among Jews. Modern medical techniques can detect carriers of the disease as well as identify affected fetuses, permitting the option of abortion. Abortion, however, is more than a simple medical procedure. It also has ethical and religious implications and these have a long history of discussion within Jewish tradition. While all forms of

Judith Baskin

1983-01-01

137

11 CFR 1.6 - Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved] 1.6 Section 1.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.6 Special procedure: Medical records....

2010-01-01

138

11 CFR 1.6 - Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved] 1.6 Section 1.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.6 Special procedure: Medical records....

2013-01-01

139

11 CFR 1.6 - Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved] 1.6 Section 1.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.6 Special procedure: Medical records....

2012-01-01

140

11 CFR 1.6 - Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved] 1.6 Section 1.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.6 Special procedure: Medical records....

2011-01-01

141

11 CFR 1.6 - Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedure: Medical records. [Reserved] 1.6 Section 1.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.6 Special procedure: Medical records....

2014-01-01

142

Violence against abortion increases in US clinics.  

PubMed

In the US, violence against abortion clinics is escalating. In July 1994, a doctor who performed abortions and one of his escorts was gunned down outside of an abortion clinic. In March of 1993, another doctor was killed outside of a clinic. That killing prompted passage of a federal law designed to protect abortion providers and clinics from violence. In addition to the individuals murdered, the number of violent incidents against abortion clinics increased four-fold to 250 in 1993. Some elderly physicians feel compelled to continue to perform the procedure instead of retiring because there are no young practitioners to replace them. These physicians note that the young practitioners have no experience with the deaths and illness which resulted from illegal abortions and have not been properly trained by their medical schools. The US Attorney General has dispatched federal marshalls to guard abortion clinics, and local police are increasing their protection of clinics. Abortion protestors say that the new federal law will cause some formerly peaceful protestors to resort to violence. PMID:7920122

Roberts, J

1994-08-13

143

Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion  

MedlinePLUS

... abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • What happens during an abortion procedure? • What are ... abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? State laws vary about access to abortion. Some ...

144

Safety, efficacy and acceptability of outpatient mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion through 70 days since last menstrual period in public sector facilities in Mexico City.  

PubMed

Extensive evidence exists regarding the efficacy and acceptability of medical abortion through 63 days since last menstrual period (LMP). In Mexico City's Secretariat of Health (SSDF) outpatient facilities, mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion is the first-line approach for abortion care in this pregnancy range. Recent research demonstrates continued high rates of complete abortion through 70 days LMP. To expand access to legal abortion services in Mexico City (where abortion is legal through 12 weeks LMP), this study sought to assess the efficacy and acceptability of the standard outpatient approach through 70 days in two SSDF points of service. One thousand and one women seeking pregnancy termination were enrolled and given 200 mg mifepristone followed by 800 ?g misoprostol 24-48 hours later. Women were asked to return to the clinic one week later for evaluation. The great majority of women (93.3%; 95% CI: 91.6-94.8) had complete abortions. Women with pregnancies ?8 weeks LMP had significantly higher success rates than women in the 9th or 10th weeks (94.9% vs. 90.5%; p = 0.01). The difference in success rates between the 9th and 10th weeks was not significant (90.0% vs. 91.2%; p = 0.71). The majority of women found the side effects (82.9%) and the use of misoprostol (84.4%) to be very acceptable or acceptable. This study provides additional evidence supporting an extended outpatient medical abortion regimen through 10 weeks LMP. PMID:25702071

Sanhueza Smith, Patricio; Peña, Melanie; Dzuba, Ilana G; Martinez, María Laura García; Peraza, Ana Gabriela Aranguré; Bousiéguez, Manuel; Shochet, Tara; Winikoff, Beverly

2015-02-01

145

Making abortions safe: a matter of good public health policy and practice.  

PubMed Central

Globally, abortion mortality accounts for at least 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Preventing mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. This article examines the changes in policy and health service provision required to make abortions safe. It is based on a wide-ranging review of published and unpublished sources. In order to be effective, public health measures must take into account the reasons why women have abortions, the kind of abortion services required and at what stages of pregnancy, the types of abortion service providers needed, and training, cost and counselling issues. The transition from unsafe to safe abortions demands the following: changes at national policy level; abortion training for service providers and the provision of services at the appropriate primary level health service delivery points; and ensuring that women access these services instead of those of untrained providers. Public awareness that abortion services are available is a crucial element of this transition, particularly among adolescent and single women, who tend to have less access to reproductive health services generally. PMID:10859852

Berer, M.

2000-01-01

146

Abortion and compelled physician speech.  

PubMed

Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

Orentlicher, David

2015-03-01

147

France: late abortion.  

PubMed

In France, under the terms of a law passed by Parliament in 1975, a woman may have an abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy if she is a French resident and, in the event that she is a minor, she has parental consent. The woman must also have 2 medical consultations, a week apart. The woman is reimbursed by the state up to 70% of the cost of the abortion. After 12 weeks, abortion, except for therapeutic abortion, under the terms of Article 317 of the Criminal Code, is a crime, punishable by 6 months to 10 years in prison, a fine of between 1800 and 250,000 Francs, and loss of professional license. Moreover, Article 647 of the Health Code bans any advertising, incitement or propaganda for abortion or abortion-inducing products. Many French women go to Britain or Holland for abortions after 12 weeks, but they face the financial burden of traveling as well as the difficulties of getting help in a strange country and the stigma of having done something illegal. The Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial, which won the legalization of contraception in 1967, is now fighting for legal abortion as well as the distribution of information about sexuality, contraception, and abortion in the schools. 2 charges of incitement to abortion have been brought against the organization. PMID:12315825

Gaudry, D; Sadan, G

1989-01-01

148

Unintended Consequences: Abortion Training in the Years After Roe v Wade  

PubMed Central

The US Supreme Court’s 1973 Roe v Wade decision had clear implications for American women’s reproductive rights and physician ability to carry out patient choices. Its effect on physician abortion training was less apparent. In an effort to increase patient access to abortions after Roe, provision shifted from hospitals to nonhospital clinics. However, these procedures and patients were taken out of the medical education realm, and physicians became vulnerable to intimidation. The consequent provider shortage created an unexpected barrier to abortion access. Medical Students for Choice was founded in 1993 to increase abortion-training opportunities for medical students and residents. Its mission ensures that motivated medical students will learn and a growing number of physicians will commit to comprehensive abortion provision. PMID:23327239

Fein, Lydia; Ketterer, Em; Young, Emily; Backus, Lois

2013-01-01

149

Medical confidentiality and patient safety: reporting procedures.  

PubMed

Medical confidentiality is of individual and of general interest. Medical confidentiality is not absolute. European countries differ in their legislative approaches of consent for data-sharing and lawful breaches of medical confidentiality. An increase of interference by the legislator with medical confidentiality is noticeable. In The Netherlands for instance this takes the form of new mandatory duties to report resp. of legislation providing for a release of medical confidentiality in specific situations, often under the condition that reporting takes place on the basis of a professional code that includes elements imposed by the legislator (e.g. (suspicion of) child abuse, domestic violence). Legislative interference must not result in the patient loosing trust in healthcare. To avoid erosion of medical confidentiality, (comparative) effectiveness studies and privacy impact assessments are necessary (European and national level). Medical confidentiality should be a subject of permanent education of health personnel. PMID:25065032

Abbing, Henriette Roscam

2014-06-01

150

A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the use of mifepristone with sublingual or vaginal misoprostol for medical abortions of less than 9 weeks gestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A combination of mifepristone and misoprostol provides an effective method of medical abortion for early pregnancy. This is the first randomized trial comparing the use of sublingual misoprostol with vaginal misoprostol in combination with mifepristone for termination of early pregnancies up to 63 days. METHODS: A total of 224 women who requested legal termination of pregnancy up to 63

Oi Shan Tang; Carina C. W. Chan; Ernest H. Y. Ng; Sharon W. H. Lee; Pak Chung Ho

2003-01-01

151

Bolstering the Evidence Base for Integrating Abortion and HIV Care: A Literature Review  

PubMed Central

HIV-positive women have abortions at similar rates to their HIV-negative counterparts, yet little is known about clinical outcomes of abortion for HIV-positive women or the best practices for abortion provision. To fill that gap, we conducted a literature review of clinical outcomes of surgical and medication abortion among HIV-positive women. We identified three studies on clinical outcomes of surgical abortion among HIV-positive women; none showed significant differences in infectious complications by HIV status. A review of seven articles on similar gynecological procedures found no differences in complications by HIV status. No studies evaluated medication abortion among HIV-positive women. However, we did find that previously expressed concerns regarding blood loss and vomiting related to medication abortion for HIV-positive women are unwarranted based on our review of data showing that significant blood loss and vomiting are rare and short lived among women. We conclude that although there is limited research that addresses clinical outcomes of abortion for HIV-positive women, existing data suggest that medication and surgical abortion are safe and appropriate. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV integration efforts must include both options to prevent maternal mortality and morbidity and to ensure that HIV-positive women and women at risk of HIV can make informed reproductive decisions. PMID:23316350

Blanchard, Kelly; Lince, Naomi

2012-01-01

152

Abortion in Poland.  

PubMed

As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother. PMID:1777450

Szawarski, Z

1991-12-01

153

Bio-medical flow sensor. [intrvenous procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bio-medical flow sensor including a packageable unit of a bottle, tubing and hypodermic needle which can be pre-sterilized and is disposable. The tubing has spaced apart tubular metal segments. The temperature of the metal segments and fluid flow therein is sensed by thermistors and at a downstream location heat is input by a resistor to the metal segment by a control electronics. The fluids flow and the electrical power required for the resisto to maintain a constant temperature differential between the tubular metal segments is a measurable function of fluid flow through the tubing. The differential temperature measurement is made in a control electronics and also can be used to control a flow control valve or pump on the tubing to maintain a constant flow in the tubing and to shut off the tubing when air is present in the tubing.

Winkler, H. E. (inventor)

1981-01-01

154

Adult–Child Interaction During Invasive Medical Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult–child interactions during stressful medical procedures were investigated in 43 pediatric patients videotaped during a venipuncture procedure in the course of cancer treatment. Relations among six adult behavior categories (explain, distract, command to engage in coping behavior, give control to the child, praise, and criticize\\/threat\\/bargain) and three child behavior categories (momentary distress, cry\\/scream, and cope) were examined using correlational and

Sharon L. Manne; Roger Bakeman; Paul B. Jacobsen; Kenneth Gorfinkle; Donna Bernstein; William H. Redd

1992-01-01

155

Medical Tourism: The Trend toward Outsourcing Medical Procedures to Foreign Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rising costs of medical treatment in the United States are fueling a movement to outsource medical treatment. Estimates of the number of Americans traveling overseas for treatment range from 50,000 to 500,000. Charges for common procedures such as heart bypass can be $11,000 in Thailand compared to $130,000 in the United States. Knee…

York, Diane

2008-01-01

156

Abortion incidence in Cambodia, 2005 and 2010.  

PubMed

Although Cambodia now permits elective abortion, scarcity of research on this topic means that information on abortion incidence is limited to regional estimates. This estimation model combines national survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with national prospective data of abortion procedures from government health facilities, collected in 2005 and 2010, to calculate the national incidence of safe and unsafe abortion. According to DHS, the proportion of all induced abortions that took place in a health facility in the five years preceding each survey increased from almost 52% to 60%. Projecting from facility-based abortions to national estimates, the national abortion rate increased from 21 to 28 per 1000 women aged 15-44. The abortion ratio also increased from 19 to 28 per 100 live births. This research quantifies an increase in safely induced abortions in Cambodia and provides a deeper understanding of induced abortion trends in Cambodia. PMID:25649162

Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh

2015-04-01

157

Undue burden of abortion.  

PubMed

In Planned Parenthood vs. Casey, the US Supreme Court upheld all but 1 provision of Pennsylvania law that further restricts access to abortion. The law has a 24-hour waiting period, parental consent for minors with a judicial bypass, husband notification, and the circumstances of each abortion are to be reported to the state for statistical purposes. The Court overturned the husband notification provision even though it had a bypass procedure. The most important aspect of the decision was the change from the strict scrutiny in which abortion was to be left alone unless the state could show a compelling need to regulate it to an undue burden test in which the state is allowed to regulate abortion so long as it does not place an undue burden on women trying to seek abortion services. The 24-hour waiting period was upheld; however, it was also acknowledged that since 83% of women live in counties without abortion services, this may turn out to be an undue burden and it is open to review at later date when statistical evidence is available. The Opinion was written by Justices O'Connor, Kennedy, and Souter. Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justices Scalia, White, and Thomas dissented saying that the undue burden standard was unprecedented in constitutional law and undefinable in practice. It is likely now that the Court will begin writing abortion policy as it clarifies each specific point of the law rather than ruling on fundamental legal principles. PMID:1351612

Charo, A

1992-07-01

158

32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1801.31 Section...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general...or amendment involves medical or psychological records and when the...

2010-07-01

159

32 CFR 1701.13 - Special procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. 1701.13...procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. Current...access to their medical, psychiatric...psychological testing records by...

2010-07-01

160

29 CFR 2400.7 - Special procedures for requesting medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special procedures for requesting medical records. 2400.7 Section 2400...Special procedures for requesting medical records. (a) Upon an individual's request for access to his medical records, including psychological...

2010-07-01

161

32 CFR 1901.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1901.31 Section...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general...or amendment involves medical or psychological records and when the...

2010-07-01

162

32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1801.31 Section...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general...or amendment involves medical or psychological records and when the...

2013-07-01

163

32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1801.31 Section...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general...or amendment involves medical or psychological records and when the...

2011-07-01

164

32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1801.31 Section...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general...or amendment involves medical or psychological records and when the...

2014-07-01

165

32 CFR 1901.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1901.31 Section...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general...or amendment involves medical or psychological records and when the...

2012-07-01

166

29 CFR 2400.7 - Special procedures for requesting medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Special procedures for requesting medical records. 2400.7 Section 2400...Special procedures for requesting medical records. (a) Upon an individual's request for access to his medical records, including psychological...

2011-07-01

167

32 CFR 1901.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1901.31 Section...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general...or amendment involves medical or psychological records and when the...

2013-07-01

168

32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1801.31 Section...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general...or amendment involves medical or psychological records and when the...

2012-07-01

169

32 CFR 1701.13 - Special procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. 1701.13...procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. Current...access to their medical, psychiatric...psychological testing records by...

2013-07-01

170

29 CFR 2400.7 - Special procedures for requesting medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Special procedures for requesting medical records. 2400.7 Section 2400...Special procedures for requesting medical records. (a) Upon an individual's request for access to his medical records, including psychological...

2012-07-01

171

32 CFR 1901.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1901.31 Section...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general...or amendment involves medical or psychological records and when the...

2011-07-01

172

32 CFR 1701.13 - Special procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. 1701.13...procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. Current...access to their medical, psychiatric...psychological testing records by...

2011-07-01

173

32 CFR 1901.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1901.31 Section...Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general...or amendment involves medical or psychological records and when the...

2014-07-01

174

29 CFR 2400.7 - Special procedures for requesting medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Special procedures for requesting medical records. 2400.7 Section 2400...Special procedures for requesting medical records. (a) Upon an individual's request for access to his medical records, including psychological...

2014-07-01

175

32 CFR 1701.13 - Special procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. 1701.13...procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. Current...access to their medical, psychiatric...psychological testing records by...

2014-07-01

176

32 CFR 1701.13 - Special procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. 1701.13...procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. Current...access to their medical, psychiatric...psychological testing records by...

2012-07-01

177

29 CFR 2400.7 - Special procedures for requesting medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special procedures for requesting medical records. 2400.7 Section 2400...Special procedures for requesting medical records. (a) Upon an individual's request for access to his medical records, including psychological...

2013-07-01

178

ACOG Committee opinion no. 612: Abortion training and education.  

PubMed

Access to safe abortion hinges upon the availability of trained abortion providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports education for students in health care fields as well as clinical training for residents and advanced practice clinicians in abortion care in order to increase the availability of trained abortion providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the expansion of abortion education and an increase in the number and types of trained abortion providers in order to ensure women's access to safe abortions. Integrated medical education and universal opt-out training policies help to lessen the stigma of abortion provision and improve access by increasing the number of abortion providers. This Committee Opinion reviews the current status of abortion education, describes initiatives to ensure the availability of appropriate and up-to-date abortion training, and recommends efforts for integrating and improving abortion education in medical schools, residency programs, and advanced practice clinician training programs. PMID:25437741

2014-11-01

179

"Abortion will deprive you of happiness!": Soviet reproductive politics in the post-Stalin era.  

PubMed

This article examines Soviet reproductive politics after the Communist regime legalized abortion in 1955. The regime's new abortion policy did not result in an end to the condemnation of abortion in official discourse. The government instead launched an extensive campaign against abortion. Why did authorities bother legalizing the procedure if they still disapproved of it so strongly? Using archival sources, public health materials, and medical as well as popular journals to investigate the antiabortion campaign, this article argues that the Soviet government sought to regulate gender and sexuality through medical intervention and health "education" rather than prohibition and force in the post-Stalin era. It also explores how the antiabortion public health campaign produced "knowledge" not only about the procedure and its effects, but also about gender and sexuality, subjecting both women and men to new pressures and regulatory norms. PMID:22145180

Randall, Amy E

2011-01-01

180

Advanced medical life support procedures in vitally compromised children by a helicopter emergency medical service  

PubMed Central

Background To determine the advanced life support procedures provided by an Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) for vitally compromised children. Incidence and success rate of several procedures were studied, with a distinction made between procedures restricted to the HEMS-physician and procedures for which the HEMS is more experienced than the EMS. Methods Prospective study of a consecutive group of children examined and treated by the HEMS of the eastern region of the Netherlands. Data regarding type of emergency, physiological parameters, NACA scores, treatment, and 24-hour survival were collected and subsequently analysed. Results Of the 558 children examined and treated by the HEMS on scene, 79% had a NACA score of IV-VII. 65% of the children had one or more advanced life support procedures restricted to the HEMS and 78% of the children had one or more procedures for which the HEMS is more experienced than the EMS. The HEMS intubated 38% of all children, and 23% of the children intubated and ventilated by the EMS needed emergency correction because of potentially lethal complications. The HEMS provided the greater part of intraosseous access, as the EMS paramedics almost exclusively reserved this procedure for children in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The EMS provided pain management only to children older than four years of age, but a larger group was in need of analgesia upon arrival of the HEMS, and was subsequently treated by the HEMS. Conclusions The Helicopter Emergency Medical Service of the eastern region of the Netherlands brings essential medical expertise in the field not provided by the emergency medical service. The Emergency Medical Service does not provide a significant quantity of procedures obviously needed by the paediatric patient. PMID:20211021

2010-01-01

181

20 CFR 702.418 - Procedure for requesting medical care; employee's duty to notify employer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for requesting medical care; employee's duty to...AND PROCEDURE Medical Care and Supervision Medical...for requesting medical care; employee's duty to...exercise of reasonable diligence should be aware...thereof to the district director having...

2010-04-01

182

Emergency Physician Awareness of Prehospital Procedures and Medications  

PubMed Central

Introduction Maintaining patient safety during transition from prehospital to emergency department (ED) care depends on effective handoff communication between providers. We sought to determine emergency physicians’ (EP) knowledge of the care provided by paramedics in terms of both procedures and medications, and whether the use of a verbal report improved physician accuracy. Methods We conducted a 2-phase observational survey of a convenience sample of EPs in an urban, academic ED. In this large ED paramedics have no direct contact with physicians for non-critical patients, giving their report instead to the triage nurse. In Phase 1, paramedics gave verbal report to the triage nurse only. In Phase 2, a research assistant (RA) stationed in triage listened to this report and then repeated it back verbatim to the EPs caring for the patient. The RA then queried the EPs 90 minutes later regarding their patients’ prehospital procedures and medications. We compared the accuracy of these 2 reporting methods. Results There were 163 surveys completed in Phase 1 and 116 in Phase 2. The oral report had no effect on EP awareness that the patient had been brought in by ambulance (86% in Phase 1 and 85% in Phase 2.) The oral report did improve EP awareness of prehospital procedures, from 16% in Phase 1 to 45% in Phase 2, OR=4.28 (2.5–7.5). EPs were able to correctly identify all oral medications in 18% of Phase 1 cases and 47% of Phase 2 cases, and all IV medications in 42% of Phase 1 cases and 50% of Phase 2 cases. The verbal report led to a mild improvement in physician awareness of oral medications given, OR=4.0 (1.09–14.5), and no improvement in physician awareness of IV medications given, OR=1.33 (0.15–11.35). Using a composite score of procedures plus oral plus IV medications, physicians had all three categories correct in 15% of Phase 1 and 39% of Phase 2 cases (p<0.0001). Conclusion EPs in our ED were unaware of many prehospital procedures and medications regardless of the method used to provide this information. The addition of a verbal hand-off report resulted in a modest improvement in overall accuracy. PMID:25035759

Waldron, Rachel; Sixsmith, Diane M.

2014-01-01

183

Unsafe abortion: the preventable pandemic.  

PubMed

Ending the silent pandemic of unsafe abortion is an urgent public-health and human-rights imperative. As with other more visible global-health issues, this scourge threatens women throughout the developing world. Every year, about 19-20 million abortions are done by individuals without the requisite skills, or in environments below minimum medical standards, or both. Nearly all unsafe abortions (97%) are in developing countries. An estimated 68 000 women die as a result, and millions more have complications, many permanent. Important causes of death include haemorrhage, infection, and poisoning. Legalisation of abortion on request is a necessary but insufficient step toward improving women's health; in some countries, such as India, where abortion has been legal for decades, access to competent care remains restricted because of other barriers. Access to safe abortion improves women's health, and vice versa, as documented in Romania during the regime of President Nicolae Ceausescu. The availability of modern contraception can reduce but never eliminate the need for abortion. Direct costs of treating abortion complications burden impoverished health care systems, and indirect costs also drain struggling economies. The development of manual vacuum aspiration to empty the uterus, and the use of misoprostol, an oxytocic agent, have improved the care of women. Access to safe, legal abortion is a fundamental right of women, irrespective of where they live. The underlying causes of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion today are not blood loss and infection but, rather, apathy and disdain toward women. PMID:17126724

Grimes, David A; Benson, Janie; Singh, Susheela; Romero, Mariana; Ganatra, Bela; Okonofua, Friday E; Shah, Iqbal H

2006-11-25

184

Abortion law reform in Nepal.  

PubMed

Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

Upreti, Melissa

2014-08-01

185

Medical futility procedures: what more do we need to know?  

PubMed

Unilateral medical futility policies, which allow health-care providers to limit or withdraw life-sustaining treatment over patient or surrogate objections, are increasingly designed around a procedural approach. Medical or ethics committees follow a prespecified process, the culmination of which is a justified decision about whether ongoing treatment should be withheld or withdrawn. These procedures have three stages. First, health-care providers must decide to refer patients for consideration of whether ongoing treatment is futile. Second, the committees involved must decide whether ongoing treatment is actually futile. Third, there is a clinical outcome that often is, but not always, patient death. We review the available data on procedure-based futility policies, arguing that there is limited information on their potential harms and how these harms are distributed. We consider the ethical implications of policy-making under informational uncertainty, invoking the precautionary principle--in the absence of clear data, if a policy has significant risk of significant harm, the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those recommending the policy--as the guiding moral standard for hospitals and professional organizations considering whether to adopt a procedural approach to medical futility. On the basis of this principle, we argue that any new futility guideline must include a significant commitment to collecting prospective data on its application. PMID:24189864

Rubin, Emily; Courtwright, Andrew

2013-11-01

186

Parity is a major determinant of success rate in medical abortion: a retrospective analysis of 3161 consecutive cases of early medical abortion treated with reduced doses of mifepristone and vaginal gemeprost  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiprogesterone mifepristone in combination with a suitable prostaglandin provides an effective method for induction of abortion in early pregnancy up to 63 days of gestation. The combination of 600 mg mifepristone followed by 1 mg of gemeprost vaginal pessary 48 h later is one of the standard regimens in practice, which is registered in several countries in Europe. In

Julia Bartley; Stephen Tong; Dawn Everington; David T Baird

2000-01-01

187

Safe abortion: WHO technical and policy guidance.  

PubMed

In 2003, the World Health Organization published its well referenced handbook Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems to address the estimated almost 20 million induced abortions each year that are unsafe, imposing a burden of approximately 67 thousand deaths annually. It is a global injustice that 95% of unsafe abortions occur in developing countries. The focus of guidance is on abortion procedures that are lawful within the countries in which they occur, noting that in almost all countries, the law permits abortion to save a woman's life. The guidance treats unsafe abortion as a public health challenge, and responds to the problem through strategies concerning improved clinical care for women undergoing procedures, and the appropriate placement of necessary services. Legal and policy considerations are explored, and annexes present guidance to further reading, international consensus documents on safe abortion, and on manual vacuum aspiration and post-abortion contraception. PMID:15207687

Cook, R J; Dickens, B M; Horga, M

2004-07-01

188

Medical devices and procedures in the hyperbaric chamber.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to present current controversies concerning the safety of medical devices and procedures under pressure in a hyperbaric chamber including: defibrillation in a multiplace chamber; implantable devices during hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) and the results of a recent European questionnaire on medical devices used inside hyperbaric chambers. Early electrical defibrillation is the only effective therapy for cardiac arrest caused by ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. The procedure of defibrillation under hyperbaric conditions is inherently dangerous owing to the risk of fire, but it can be conducted safely if certain precautions are taken. Recently, new defibrillators have been introduced for hyperbaric medicine, which makes the procedure easier technically, but it must be noted that sparks and fire have been observed during defibrillation, even under normobaric conditions. Therefore, delivery of defibrillation shock in a hyperbaric environment must still be perceived as a hazardous procedure. Implantable devices are being seen with increasing frequency in patients referred for HBOT. These devices create a risk of malfunction when exposed to hyperbaric conditions. Some manufacturers support patients and medical practitioners with information on how their devices behave under increased pressure, but in some cases an individual risk-benefit analysis should be conducted on the patient and the specific implanted device, taking into consideration the patient's clinical condition, the indication for HBOT and the capability of the HBOT facility for monitoring and intervention in the chamber. The results of the recent survey on use of medical devices inside European hyperbaric chambers are also presented. A wide range of non-CE-certified equipment is used in European chambers. PMID:25596835

Kot, Jacek

2014-12-01

189

First trimester abortion with mifepristone and vaginal misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the efficacy and side effects of first trimester medical abortion using mifepristone and vaginally administered misoprostol. Medical abortion was first introduced in Denmark in December 1997, and the acceptability of this new approach in a Danish population was evaluated. The study included the first 100 women seeking medical abortion. The gestational age was from 33 to 56

Ulla Breth Knudsen

2001-01-01

190

Medical & Emotional Emergency Policy The College has a medical/emotional emergency procedure to maintain the safety of  

E-print Network

to maintain the safety of individual students, as well as the community. The medical/emotional emergencyMedical & Emotional Emergency Policy The College has a medical/emotional emergency procedure-4314; or Campus Police, 221-4596 to alert the On-Call Clinician. When the College medical/emotional emergency

Shaw, Leah B.

191

Characteristics and motivations of women receiving abortions.  

PubMed

In March, 1970, Hawaii became the first state to allow abortion on demand. A comparison was made between women receiving abortions and women delivering babies at 2 large medical facilites in Honolulu in the June 1-July 15, 1970, period. Reasons the women cited for wanting an abortion were: 1) age; 2) marital status; 3) employment or student status; and 4) income. The comparison data indicate that the abortion patients were assessing objectively their ability to provide for a child. Definite differences in all these criteria did exist between the aborters and the deliverers. PMID:12333117

Steinhoff, P G; Smith, R G; Diamond, M

1972-01-01

192

Brazilian adolescents’ knowledge and beliefs about abortion methods: a school-based internet inquiry  

PubMed Central

Background Internet surveys that draw from traditionally generated samples provide the unique conditions to engage adolescents in exploration of sensitive health topics. Methods We examined awareness of unwanted pregnancy, abortion behaviour, methods, and attitudes toward specific legal indications for abortion via a school-based internet survey among 378 adolescents aged 12–21 years in three Rio de Janeiro public schools. Results Forty-five percent knew peers who had undergone an abortion. Most students (66.0%) did not disclose abortion method knowledge. However, girls (aOR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.2), those who had experienced their sexual debut (aOR1.76, 95% CI 1.1-3.0), and those attending a prestigious magnet school (aOR 2.7 95% CI 1.4-6.3) were more likely to report methods. Most abortion methods (79.3%) reported were ineffective, obsolete, and/or unsafe. Herbs (e.g. marijuana tea), over-the-counter medications, surgical procedures, foreign objects and blunt trauma were reported. Most techniques (85.2%) were perceived to be dangerous, including methods recommended by the World Health Organization. A majority (61.4%) supported Brazil’s existing law permitting abortion in the case of rape. There was no association between gender, age, sexual debut, parental education or socioeconomic status and attitudes toward legal abortion. However, students at the magnet school supported twice as many legal indications (2.7, SE.27) suggesting a likely role of peers and/or educators in shaping abortion views. Conclusions Abortion knowledge and attitudes are not driven simply by age, religion or class, but rather a complex interplay that includes both social spaces and gender. Prevention of abortion morbidity and mortality among adolescents requires comprehensive sexuality and reproductive health education that includes factual distinctions between safe and unsafe abortion methods. PMID:24521075

2014-01-01

193

Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion  

PubMed Central

Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children - vulnerable with respect to repeat abortion. PMID:25005363

2014-01-01

194

Photoacoustic monitoring of circulating tumor cells released during medical procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many cancer deaths are related to metastasis to distant organs due to dissemination of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) shed from the primary tumor. For many years, oncologists believed some medical procedures may provoke metastasis; however, no direct evidence has been reported. We have developed a new, noninvasive technology called in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC), which provides ultrasensitive detection of CTCs. When CTCs with strongly light-absorbing intrinsic melanin pass through a laser beam aimed at a peripheral blood vessel, laser-induced acoustic waves from CTCs were detected using an ultrasound transducer. We focused on melanoma as it is one of the most metastatically aggressive malignancies. The goal of this research was to determine whether melanoma manipulation, like compression, incisional biopsy, or tumor excision, could enhance penetration of cancer cells from the primary tumor into the circulatory system. The ears of nude mice were inoculated with melanoma cells. Blood vessels were monitored for the presence of CTCs using in vivo PAFC. We discovered some medical procedures, like compression of the tumor, biopsy, and surgery may either initiate CTC release in the blood which previously contained no CTCs, or dramatically increased (10-30-fold) CTC counts above the initial level. Our results warn oncologists to use caution during physical examination, and surgery. A preventive anti-CTC therapy during or immediately after surgery, by intravenous drug administration could serve as an option to treat the resulting release of CTCs.

Juratli, Mazen A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Galanzha, Ekaterina; Suen, James Y.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

2013-03-01

195

Medical practice, procedure manuals and the standardisation of hospital death.  

PubMed

This paper examines how death is managed in a larger regional hospital within the Norwegian health-care. The central focus of my paper concerns variations in how healthcare personnel enact death and handle the dead patient. Over several decades, modern standardised hospital death has come under critique in the western world. Such critique has resulted in changes in the standardisation of hospital deaths within Norwegian health-care. In the wake of the hospice movement and with greater focus on palliative care, doors have gradually been opened and relatives of the deceased are now more often invited to participate. I explore how the medical practice around death along with the procedure manual of post-mortem care at Trondheim University Hospital has changed. I argue that in the late-modern context, standardisation of hospital death is a multidimensional affair, embedded in a far more comprehensive framework than the depersonalized medico-legal. In the late-modern Norwegian hospital, interdisciplinary negotiation and co-operation has allowed a number of different agendas to co-exist, without any ensuing loss of the medical power holder's authority to broker death. I follow Mol's notion of praxiographic orientation of the actor-network approach while exploring this medical practice. PMID:19228301

Hadders, Hans

2009-03-01

196

Sociology and abortion: legacies and strategies.  

PubMed

A survey essay sees the sociological view of abortion practice in 1979 appearing as a dense web of philosophical conundrums and at times violent political strategies; with abortion still not typically seen as 1 form of birth control among others. Attention is called to the variety of approaches to abortion in books and articles about its medical, demographic, religious, historical, political, philosophical, psychological, practical, and personal aspects. These include: James C. Mohr's Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy 1800-1900; Abortion, by Potts, Diggory, and Peel; Abortion in Psychosocial Perspective: Trends in Transnational Research, edited by Davis, Friedman, Van der Tak, and Seville; Linda Francke's The Ambivalence of Abortion; Mary K. Zimmerman's Passage Through Abortion: The Personal and Social Reality of Women's Experiences; Abortion Politics: The Hawaii Experience, by Steinhoff and Diamond; John Connery's Abortion: the Development of the Roman Catholic Perspective; Abortion: New Directions for Policy Studies, by Manier, Liu, and Solomon; and Harry Harris' Prenatal Diagnosis and Selective Abortion. PMID:12261937

Imber, J B

1979-11-01

197

The horror of unsafe abortion: case report of a life threatening complication in a 29-year old woman  

PubMed Central

Background Every year 42 million women with unintended pregnancies choose abortion, and fifty percent of these procedures, 20 million are unsafe. An unsafe abortion is defined as a procedure for terminating an unintended pregnancy carried out either by person lacking the necessary skills or in an environment that does not conform to minimal medical standards or both. Pakistan is the one of the six countries where more than 50% of the world’s all maternal deaths occur. It is estimated that 890,000 induced abortions are performed annually in Pakistan, and estimate an annual abortion rate of 29 per 1000 women aged 15-49. Case presentation Here we present a case report of a 29-year old woman who underwent an unsafe abortion for unintended pregnancy resulting in uterine perforation. The unskilled provider pulled out her bowel through vagina after perforating the uterus, as a result she lost major portion of her small intestine resulting in short bowel syndrome. Conclusion The law of Pakistan only allows abortion during early stages of pregnancy for purpose of saving the life of a mother but does not cater for cases of rape, incest and fetal abnormalities or social reasons. Only legalization of abortion is not sufficient, preventing unintended pregnancy should be the priority of all the nations and for this reason contraception should be widely accessible. Practitioners need to become better trained in safer abortion methods and be to able transfer the patient to health facility when complications occur. PMID:24131627

2013-01-01

198

Early abortion in a family planning clinic.  

PubMed

The successful integration of sessions for very early abortion in the Planned Parenthood Clinic of San Francisco is described. Abortion sessions replaced 2 one- half days of contraceptive clinics per week. Flexible Karman cannulas and foot, or electrically-operated vacuum pumps were used. Routine testing for RhD antibody and gonorrhea were done at each abortion. 560 women were aborted during the year and 4 had repeat abortion. Problems encountered were 1.8% failed abortion requiring repeat suction, 1.6% bleeding heavier than a menstrual period, 3% infection in the uterus or surrounding tissues, and 1 ecotopic pregnancy. The abortion service in the Clinic was well accepted by patients, staff, the medical community, and the community at large. PMID:4218815

Goldsmith, S

1974-01-01

199

Simplified follow-up after medical abortion using a low-sensitivity urinary pregnancy test and a pictorial instruction sheet in Rajasthan, India – study protocol and intervention adaptation of a randomised control trial  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organisation suggests that simplification of the medical abortion regime will contribute to an increased acceptability of medical abortion, among women as well as providers. It is expected that a home-based follow-up after a medical abortion will increase the willingness to opt for medical abortion as well as decrease the workload and service costs in the clinic. Methods/Design This study protocol describes a study that is a randomised, controlled, non-superiority trial. Women screened to participate in the study are those with unwanted pregnancies and gestational ages equal to or less than nine weeks. The randomisation list will be generated using a computerized random number generator and opaque sealed envelopes with group allocation will be prepared. Randomization of the study participants will occur after the first clinical encounter with the doctor. Eligible women randomised to the home-based assessment group will use a low-sensitivity pregnancy test and a pictorial instruction sheet at home, while the women in the clinic follow-up group will return to the clinic for routine follow-up carried out by a doctor. The primary objective of the study this study protocol describes is to evaluate the efficacy of home-based assessment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test and a pictorial instruction sheet 10–14 days after an early medical abortion. Providers or research assistants will not be blinded during outcome assessment. To ensure feasibility of the self-assessment intervention an adaption phase took place at the selected study sites before study initiation. This resulted in an optimized, tailor-made intervention and in the development of the pictorial instruction sheet with a guide on how to use the low-sensitivity pregnancy test and the danger signs after a medical abortion. Discussion In this paper, we will describe the study protocol for a randomised control trial investigating the efficacy of simplified follow-up in terms of home-based assessment, 10–14 days after a medical abortion. Moreover, a description of the adaptation phase is included for a better understanding of the implementation of the intervention in a setting where literacy is low and the road-connections are poor. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01827995. Registered 04 May 2013. PMID:25127545

2014-01-01

200

The experiences of women who face abortions.  

PubMed

Seventy-two Israeli women who were about to have abortions were interviewed. These women experienced intense emotions of sadness, ambivalence, confusion, and fear. To help them deal with this crisis, the women expressed a need for a professional counselor who provides information such as where to go, how to get money for the abortion, and how the operation is performed. The women also wished that the professional counselor would support them emotionally throughout the pregnancy experience and the abortion procedure. PMID:1885339

Slonim-Nevo, V

1991-01-01

201

Medical Expenses not covered by health insurance: These are monthly recurring medical expenses for medications, procedures, etc. (A receipt or letter stating your expenses MUST be provided.)  

E-print Network

1a - 1b - 1c - 5a - 7 - 8a - 8b - 8c - 8d - Medical Expenses not covered by health insurance: These are monthly recurring medical expenses for medications, procedures, etc. (A receipt or letter stating your are received for the current term, the applications will be processed all at once. Before money

Escher, Christine

202

Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.  

PubMed

Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA. PMID:24338232

Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

2014-02-01

203

Spontaneous Abortion and the Pathology of Early Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical profession classifi es abortion as induced or spontaneous. The lay public, however, tends to equate the term abortion\\u000a with one that is induced, whether therapeutically, self, or criminal, and to associate the term miscarriage with spontaneous\\u000a abortion (Beard et al. 1985).\\u000a \\u000a Spontaneous abortion is usually defi ned as the involuntary loss of a conceptus before the fetus has

T. Yee Khong

204

Establishment of medical surveillance in industry: problems and procedures  

SciTech Connect

The establishment of standard history-taking will be discussed and will include examples of such histories developed in the clinic. The development of a protocol for performing and recording physical examinations will also be described. Special tests, such as pulmonary function and sputum cytology, will then be discussed. The integration of medical data into a data base will also be discussed with examples taken from the program in Pittsburgh. Presentation of the problems of obtaining adequate early medical information leads to the conclusion that medical surveillance programs must be integrated with industrial hygiene surveillance. The use of exposure measures to make and implement preventive medical decisions is essential until medical science provides tests with enhanced sensitivity and specificity for use in early detection of workplace disease.

Parkinson, D.K.; Grennan, M.J.

1986-08-01

205

Space Shuttle ascent aborts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific guidance functions and trajectory design of return to launch site (RTLS) and transoceanic abort landing (TAL) intact abort profiles, as well as the increasing emphasis on contingency aborts, are presented. Various systems failures including Space Shuttle main engine failures and detailed technical analyses, including the design of powered flight abort trajectories, are considered. The most critical of flight abort situations is the RTLS, while TAL is the preferred abort when uphill capability is no longer available. It is concluded that one principle must remain to ensure continuing success of Space Shuttle flights: namely that intact and contingency aborts necessitate development to ensure safe return of the vehicle, payload, and crew whenever possible.

Schmidgall, Richard A.

1989-09-01

206

Abortion Before & After Roe  

PubMed Central

We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

2013-01-01

207

Complications of first-trimester abortion: a report of 170,000 cases.  

PubMed

One hundred seventy thousand first-trimester abortions were performed in three free-standing clinics of Planned Parenthood of New York City from 1971-1987. Seventy percent of the procedures were done under local anesthesia; the remainder under intravenous methohexital. No preoperative medications or routine postoperative antibiotics were given. High-risk patients were referred to a hospital. The clinics operated under uniform written guidelines. Experienced physicians performed the procedures. There were no deaths in this series of patients. One hundred twenty-one patients were hospitalized (0.71 per 1000) for suspected perforation, ectopic pregnancy, hemorrhage, sepsis, or recognized incomplete abortion. There was no major extirpative surgery performed. There were an additional 1438 minor complications (8.46 per 1000). Overall, there were 9.05 complications per 1000 abortions. The complication rates for procedures done under general anesthesia and local anesthesia were similar. We conclude that outpatient abortion on selected patients to the 14th week from the last menstrual period is a safe procedure. PMID:2359559

Hakim-Elahi, E; Tovell, H M; Burnhill, M S

1990-07-01

208

Irish women who seek abortions in England.  

PubMed

In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted. PMID:1483530

Francome, C

1992-01-01

209

Mid-trimester induced abortion: a review.  

PubMed

Mid-trimester abortion constitutes 10-15% of all induced abortion. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the current literature of mid-trimester methods of abortion with respect to efficacy, side effects and acceptability. There have been continuing efforts to improve the abortion technology in terms of effectiveness, technical ease of performance, acceptability and reduction of side effects and complications. During the last decade, medical methods for mid-trimester induced abortion have shown a considerable development and have become safe and more accessible. The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol is now an established and highly effective method for termination of pregnancy (TOP). Advantages and disadvantages of medical versus surgical methods are discussed. Randomized studies are lacking, and more studies on pain treatment and the safety of any method used in patients with a previous uterine scar are debated, and data are scarce. Pain management in abortion requires special attention. This review highlights the need for randomized studies to set guidelines for mid-trimester abortion methods in terms of safety and acceptability as well as for better analgesic regimens. PMID:17050523

Lalitkumar, S; Bygdeman, M; Gemzell-Danielsson, K

2007-01-01

210

Distress Behavior in Children With Leukemia Undergoing Medical Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving prognosis for many forms of childhood cancer has resulted in increased attention on the quality-of-life experience. Conditioned anxiety and pain associated with recurrent diagnostic and treatment procedures have been identified as major sources of distress in children with malignant disease. To evaluate the efficacy of various…

Katz, Ernest R.

211

The Marquis de Sade and induced abortion.  

PubMed Central

In 1795 the Marquis de Sade published his La Philosophic dans le boudoir, in which he proposed the use of induced abortion for social reasons and as a means of population control. It is from this time that medical and social acceptance of abortion can be dated, although previously the subject had not been discussed in public in modern times. It is suggested that it was largely due to de Sade's writing that induced abortion received the impetus which resulted in its subsequent spread in western society. PMID:6990001

Farr, A D

1980-01-01

212

Office-Based Surgical and Medical Procedures: Educational Gaps  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, the number of procedures performed in office-based settings by a variety of practitioners—including surgeons, gastroenterologists, ophthalmologists, radiologists, dermatologists, and others—has grown significantly. At the same time, patient safety concerns have intensified and include issues such as proper patient selection, safe sedation practices, maintenance of facilities and resuscitation equipment, facility accreditation and practitioner licensing, and the office staff's ability to deal with emergencies and complications. An urgent need exists to educate practitioners about safety concerns in the office-based setting and to develop various educational strategies that can meet the continued growth of these procedures. This review outlines educational needs and possible solutions such as simulation exercises and education during residency training. PMID:23267269

Urman, Richard D.; Punwani, Nathan; Shapiro, Fred E.

2012-01-01

213

Abortive segmental perineal hemangioma  

E-print Network

spine, abdomen, and pelvis were normal. Histopathology None Discussion Abortive hemangiomasspine, and pelvis, was negative. We report a unique case of an ulcerated, segmental abortive hemangiomaspine, abdomen, and pelvis. For patients over three months old, any lumbar hemangioma

Tlougan, Brook E; Gonzalez, Mercedes E; Orlow, Seth J

2011-01-01

214

Teenage pregnancies and abortion.  

PubMed

The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more likely to reject the abortion alternative. Vital statistics suggest that, for the most part, it is abortion rather than contraception that exerts an ameliorating effect on the birthrate of the younger mothers. The most disturbing aspect of these statistics is the magnitude of the very real problems associated with children bearing children. 2/3 of all women who have their 1st baby before the age of 20 will be below the poverty level. A correlation exists between poor marital adjustment and early childbearing. The divorce rate is 3 times higher when 1 spouse is younger than age 20. There are also problems for the infant of the teenage mother, including an increase in stillbirths and prematurity, and increase in small for date infants, and physical, psychological and social disadvantages over time for children born to mothers in their early teens. PMID:6608673

Morgenthau, J E

1984-01-01

215

Abortion among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

2003-01-01

216

Informatics-based medical procedure assistance during space missions.  

PubMed

Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-modal format and, in each step, clinical instructions are provided simultaneously in voice, text, pictures video or animations. An example application of the system to diagnosis and treatment of space Decompression Sickness is presented. Astronauts performing space walks from the International Space Station are at risk for decompression sickness because the atmospheric pressure of the Extra-vehicular Activity space- suit is significantly less that that of the interior of the Station. PMID:19048089

Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

2008-08-01

217

Unwanted pregnancy--medical and ethical dimensions.  

PubMed

Globally, abortion mortality accounts for approximately 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high maternal mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Unplanned and unwanted pregnancies constitute a serious public health responsibility. While fertility has declined by half in developing countries, the motivation to control and space births has risen faster than the rate of contraceptive use. Preventing maternal mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. A range of positive steps has been taken to reduce deaths and morbidity from abortion in a growing number of countries over the past 15 years. Making abortion legal is an essential prerequisite in making it safe. In this respect, changing the law does matter and assertions to the contrary are ill conceived and unsupported in practice. Although, in many countries, trends towards safer abortion have often occurred prior to or in the absence of changes in the law, legal changes need to take place if safety is to be sustained for all women. Religious laws may also require attention when legal change is being contemplated. There are three main ways of approaching this problem: liberalizing the existing law within the penal or criminal code; partially or fully legalizing abortion through a positive law or a court ruling; and decriminalising abortion by taking it out of the law. Women's health groups and other advocates, parliamentarians and health professionals, can work together to support the right of women not to die from unsafe abortions and to ensure they receive treatment for complications. Committed doctors can make a difference by providing treatment for abortion complications, interpreting the law in a liberal way and providing safe services where these are legal as well as training providers in the safest techniques to reduce mortality and morbidity. Although law, policy and women's rights are central to this issue, making abortions safe is above all a public health responsibility of governments. Moreover, reducing maternal mortality by making abortions safe is also an important part of the international commitment made in Cairo in 1994 at the ICPD and reaffirmed at the Cairo meeting in 1999. PMID:14556348

Ravindran, J

2003-03-01

218

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LAWS AND PROCEDURES PERTAINING TO THE MEDICAL RECORDS RETENTION IN SELECTED COUNTRIES  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The health record serves several purposes and must be retained to meet those purposes. These varied purposes influence how long health records must be kept, or their retention period. Aim: Present study aimed to recognize laws and procedures pertaining to retention of health records in selected countries and provide a proposed guideline for Iran. Methods: This was an applied and descriptive-comparative research on laws and procedures pertaining to retention of medical records in USA, United Kingdom, Australia and Iran that performed in 2011. The data were collected via library sources, websites, and consultation with specialists in and out of the country. The validity of the data was confirmed by experts. Finally, the recommendations were provided for medical record retention in Iran. Results: The study revealed that, there are complete and transparent record retention schedules in selected counties so that retention situation for adults, minors, emergency, outpatients and deaths records is clearly recommended. But in Iran, either there aren’t specific laws and procedures for medical record or they are unspecified. Conclusion: The lack of a complete, transparent and update medical record retention schedule in Iran, lead to confusion for hospitals. Some of hospitals maintain medical records more than of determined retention period and some of them destruct them before expiring of essential retention period. In order to optimize the situation of health records retention in Iran, it is necessary to review, correction and correction and completion of medical records retention schedule on the provided recommendations for kinds of medical record. PMID:23322974

Tavakoli, Nahid; Saghaiannejad, Sakineh; Reza Habibi, Mohammad

2012-01-01

219

Beam dumping system and abort gap  

E-print Network

The performance of the beam dumping systems and the abort gap cleaning are reviewed in the context of the general machine protection system. Details of the commissioning experience and setting up, encountered equipment problems, the experience with and status of the eXternal Post Operational Checks (XPOC) and the importance of operational procedures are presented for the beam dumping system. The brief experience with the abort gap cleaning is also presented.

Uythoven, J

2010-01-01

220

Complications of abortion performed under local anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the incidence of complications of abortion performed under local anesthesia.Design. Prospective study.Setting. A family planning center in the Paris area.Population. Eight hundred and fifty-eight women admitted for abortion under local anesthesia.Main outcome measures. Incidence of immediate (the day of vacuum aspiration) and delayed complications (at the follow-up visit 2 weeks after the procedure).Results. Among the 858 women

Patrick Thonneau; Beatrice Fougeyrollas; Beatrice Ducot; Dominique Boubilley; Jouda Dif; Martine Lalande; Catherine Soulat

1998-01-01

221

ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

2002-06-03

222

Estimating abortion incidence in Burkina Faso using two methodologies.  

PubMed

Abortion is illegal in Burkina Faso except in cases of incest, rape, fetal defect, or when the woman's life or physical health is endangered. As a result, abortion procedures are often conducted illegally and unsafely and measuring incidence proves difficult. We estimate incidence of abortion and associated morbidity using two methodologies. The first is the Abortion Incidence Complications Method (AICM), which uses information on women hospitalized for abortion-related complications as well as health professionals' assessments of the proportion of women who seek treatment for complications from unsafe abortions. The second is the Anonymous Third Party Reporting (ATPR) method, which entails surveying women about their confidantes' abortions. We conclude that the AICM yields a more accurate result. We estimate that 87,200 abortion procedures were carried out in 2008, representing 25 for every 1,000 women aged 15-49. More than one in four procedures resulted in complications treated at a health facility. The abortion rate estimated using the ATPR approach was 72 percent of that estimated with the AICM. The ATPR method yields information on the characteristics of the women who have abortions as well as the providers and methods they use. PMID:21972666

Sedgh, Gilda; Rossier, Clémentine; Kaboré, Idrissa; Bankole, Akinrinola; Mikulich, Meridith

2011-09-01

223

Developing Physiologic Models for Emergency Medical Procedures Under Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several technological enhancements have been made to METI's commercial Emergency Care Simulator (ECS) with regard to how microgravity affects human physiology. The ECS uses both a software-only lung simulation, and an integrated mannequin lung that uses a physical lung bag for creating chest excursions, and a digital simulation of lung mechanics and gas exchange. METI's patient simulators incorporate models of human physiology that simulate lung and chest wall mechanics, as well as pulmonary gas exchange. Microgravity affects how O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs. Procedures were also developed to take into affect the Glasgow Coma Scale for determining levels of consciousness by varying the ECS eye-blinking function to partially indicate the level of consciousness of the patient. In addition, the ECS was modified to provide various levels of pulses from weak and thready to hyper-dynamic to assist in assessing patient conditions from the femoral, carotid, brachial, and pedal pulse locations.

Parker, Nigel; OQuinn, Veronica

2012-01-01

224

South Africa plans to liberalise abortion law.  

PubMed

The South African parliament will consider a law that permits abortion on demand until the twelfth week of pregnancy, and, thereafter, under certain conditions (rape and incest). Parental or spousal permission would be unnecessary. Doctors who were unwilling to perform abortions would be required to make referrals to avoid 10 years in jail. The Medical Research Council informed parliament that nearly 45,000 unsafe, "backstreet" abortions (84% to Black women) resulted in admission to public hospitals annually, at a cost of $4.5m (R19m) per year. Present law is restrictive, and White women can afford to pay for abortions. Dr. Nkosazana Diamini-Zuma, the Minister of Health, favors the bill; he describes the 425 deaths from septic abortions as the equivalent of a jumbo jet crash in which all the passengers are killed, most of whom are poor with limited access to family planning and with inadequate support systems for unwanted children. Backstreet abortions may number 400,000 per year. Some hospitals have said they will refuse to allow abortions to be performed, and pro-life and religious groups have argued and demonstrated against the law; however, other religious groups have argued for it. The African National Congress will vote for the bill, in spite of opposition from older members, which ensures passage of the bill; the Catholic church intends to contest the law in a constitutional court, which could delay its implementation. PMID:8898589

Sidley, P

1996-10-26

225

Abortion: a reader's guide.  

PubMed

This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom." PMID:12178914

Hisel, L M

1996-01-01

226

'And they kill me, only because I am a girl'...a review of sex-selective abortions in South Asia.  

PubMed

The low social status of women and the preference for sons determine a high rate of sex-selective abortion or, more specifically, female feticide, in South Asian countries. Although each of them, irrespective of its abortion policy, strictly condemns sex-selective abortion, data suggest high rates of such procedures in India, Nepal, China and Bangladesh. This paper reviews the current situation of sex-selective abortion, the laws related to it and the factors contributing to its occurrence within these countries. Based on this review, it is concluded that sex selective abortion is a public health issue as it contributes to high maternal mortality. Abortion policies of South Asian countries vary greatly and this influences the frequency of reporting of cases. Several socio-economic factors are responsible for sex-selective abortion including gender discriminating cultural practices, irrational national population policies and unethical use of technology. Wide social change promoting women's status in society should be instituted whereby women are offered more opportunities for better health, education and economic participation through gender sensitive policies and programmes. A self-regulation of the practices in the medical profession and among communities must be achieved through behavioural change campaigns. PMID:19241297

Abrejo, Farina Gul; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Rizvi, Narjis

2009-02-01

227

Surgical abortion in the second trimester.  

PubMed

The development of dilatation and evacuation (D&E) as a method of second trimester surgical abortion occurred soon after abortion law reform took place in the 1960s and 1970s in Europe and the United States. Today, D&E is the predominant method of second trimester abortion in many parts of the world. Debate still exists as to whether surgical or medical methods are optimal for second trimester pregnancy termination. A continuing challenge to provision of D&E is the availability of a large enough pool of skilled providers. This article reviews the current surgical methods used in second trimester abortion, as well as their safety, advantages and disadvantages, acceptability and associated complications. Methods used to ensure safe and efficient surgical termination of second trimester pregnancies such as cervical preparation and ultrasound guidance are also reviewed. PMID:18772096

Lohr, Patricia A

2008-05-01

228

Human Factors and ISS Medical Systems: Highlights of Procedures and Equipment Findings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering Critical Questions Roadmap, a three year Technology Development Project (TDP) was funded by NASA Headquarters to examine emergency medical procedures on ISS. The overall aim of the emergency medical procedures project was to determine the human factors issues in the procedures, training, communications and equipment, and to recommend solutions that will improve the survival rate of crewmembers in the event of a medical emergency. Currently, each ISS crew remains on orbit for six month intervals. As there is not standing requirement for a physician crewmember, during such time, the maintenance of crew health is dependant on individual crewmembers. Further, in the event of an emergency, crew will need to provide prolonged maintenance care, as well as emergency treatment, to an injured crewmember while awaiting transport to Earth. In addition to the isolation of the crew, medical procedures must be carried out within the further limitations imposed by the physical environment of the space station. For example, in order to administer care on ISS without the benefit of gravity, the Crew Medical Officers (CMOs) must restrain the equipment required to perform the task, restrain the injured crewmember, and finally, restrain themselves. Both the physical environment and the physical space available further limit the technology that can be used onboard. Equipment must be compact, yet able to withstand high levels of radiation and function without gravity. The focus here is to highlight the human factors impacts from our three year project involving the procedures and equipment areas that have been investigated and provided valuable to ISS and provide groundwork for human factors requirements for medical applications for exploration missions.

Byrne, V. E.; Hudy, C.; Smith, D.; Whitmore, M.

2005-01-01

229

RU 486: an alternative to surgical abortion.  

PubMed

After 5 years of use in more than 100,000 European women, RU 486, an antiprogestin medication used as a medical abortifacient, has recently come under scrutiny in the United States. This article discusses the current and potential uses of RU 486. Also addressed are the history, advantages, and disadvantages of medical abortion (including the acceptability of the method from a woman-centered perspective); new clinical trials; and ethical issues. PMID:7996306

Donaldson, K; Briggs, J; McMaster, D

1994-09-01

230

Behavioral distress in children with cancer undergoing medical procedures: Developmental considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditioned anxiety in response to recurrent medical procedures poses a significant problem in the adjustment of children with cancer. Though there is evidence that behavioral approaches can play a role in reducing anxiety, research in this area is hampered by the lack of objective measures of situation-specific anxiety. In the present study, an observational behavior rating scale was developed to

Ernest R. Katz; Jonathan Kellerman; Stuart E. Siegel

1980-01-01

231

A Stress Inoculation Program for Parents Whose Children Are Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared program efficacy in helping parents cope with children's painful medical procedures. Parents (n=72) of pediatric leukemia patients participated in either stress inoculation program or observed child participating in cognitive behavior therapy. Found parents in stress inoculation program reported lower anxiety scores and higher positive…

Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles H.

1990-01-01

232

[History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979].  

PubMed

History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979 is reviewed. The 1st Danish law of 1200 did not touch upon the question of induced abortion. From the beginning of the 13th century to Religious Reformation in 1536, Roman Catholic law influenced every aspect of Danish life including induced abortion. In 1683 in King Christian V's constitution called Dansk Lov induced abortion was discussed. Immoral women who aborted fetuses or killed newborn babies were decapitated. In Copenhagen in the years 1624-1632 and 1638-1663 17 women were executed because of induced abortion or murder of newborn babies. Although Dansk Lov was effective till 1866, Danish kings came to treat female criminals less severely since about 1780-1800. For example, between 1855 and 1866 42 women convicted of murder of newborn babies or abortion were given pardon (12 years of imprisonment instead of life sentence). In 1866, abortion and murder of babies were treated separately in the Danish criminal law. Induced abortion meant up to 8 years of imprisonment and labor. In 1930 life sentence was abolished; induced abortion called for only up to 2 years of imprisonment, while those who assisted for money were punished more severely (up to 8 years in prison). In 1937 the Danes legalized induced abortion for medical, ethical, (e.g. rape case) and eugenic reasons. By 1973 legalized abortion was available, free of charge, to every Danish female resident within 12 weeks of pregnancy. In 1980 abortion rate was about 41% of total births. It is estimated 2/3 of Danish women experience abortion. Lastly, illegitimate births and miscarriages are on the rise due to changes in women's social status and role. PMID:6759731

Manniche, E

1982-10-01

233

[Psychopathology and abortion].  

PubMed

The author explores the possible relationship between psychopathology and abortion. The paper starts with the updating of epidemiological data regarding the incidence of abortion, especially in the current Spanish society. In this partnership there are three sections in the study of these possible relations between the abortion and the psychopathology: (a) in the new emerging sexual behaviour, especially among young people, and psychopathological factors possibly determining their sexual behaviour; (b) in the psychological and psychopathological context that makes the decision to abort, in regard to the factors of the couple and their families of origin and social context, and (c) in the frequent psychopathological disorders that seem to arise from the abortion, according to recent data reported by many researchers in the international scientific community. The study of the so-called Post-Abortion Syndrome (PAS) puts an end to this cooperation, distinguishing psychopathological profile characteristic that distinguishes the various stages of this syndrome. PMID:19799478

Polaino Lorente, Aquilino

2009-01-01

234

Scientific evaluation and pricing of medical devices and associated procedures in France.  

PubMed

Medical devices are many and various, ranging from tongue spatulas to implantable or invasive devices and imaging machines; their lifetimes are short, between 18 months and 5 years, due to incessant incremental innovation; and they are operator-dependent: in general, the clinical user performs a fitting procedure (hip implant or pacemaker), a therapeutic procedure using a non-implantable invasive device (arrhythmic site ablation probe, angioplasty balloon, extension spondyloplasty system, etc.) or follow-up of an active implanted device (long-term follow-up of an implanted cardiac defibrillator or of a deep brain stimulator in Parkinson's patients). A round-table held during the XXVIII(th) Giens Workshops meeting focused on the methodology of scientific evaluation of medical devices and the associated procedures with a view to their pricing and financing by the French National Health Insurance system. The working hypothesis was that the available data-set was sufficient for and compatible with scientific evaluation with clinical benefit. Post-registration studies, although contributing to the continuity of assessment, were not dealt with. Moreover, the focus was restricted to devices used in health establishments, where the association between devices and technical medical procedures is optimally representative. An update of the multiple regulatory protocols governing medical devices and procedures is provided. Issues more specifically related to procedures as such, to non-implantable devices and to innovative devices are then dealt with, and the proposals and discussion points raised at the round-table for each of these three areas are presented. PMID:23981256

Gilard, Martine; Debroucker, Frederique; Dubray, Claude; Allioux, Yves; Aper, Eliane; Barat-Leonhardt, Valérie; Brami, Michèle; Carbonneil, Cédric; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Coqueblin, Claire; Fare, Sandrine; Giri, Isabelle; Goehrs, Jean-Marie; Levesque, Karine; Maugendre, Philippe; Parquin, François; Sales, Jean-Patrick; Szwarcensztein, Karine

2013-01-01

235

Acceptability of suction curettage and mifepristone abortion in the United States: A prospective comparison study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to compare the acceptability of suction curettage abortion with that of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol in American women. Study Design: We performed a prospective, serially enrolled, cohort analysis. The study population consisted of 152 subjects receiving mifepristone and misoprostol and 174 subjects undergoing suction curettage abortion aged ?18 years with intrauterine pregnancies of up to

Jeffrey T Jensen; S. Marie Harvey; Linda J Beckman

2000-01-01

236

Time to follow guidelines, protocols, and structured procedures in medical care and time to leap out  

PubMed Central

Present medical practice encourages management according to written guidelines, protocols, and structured procedures (GPPs). Daily medical practice includes instances in which “leaping” from one patient management routine to another is a must. We define “frozen patient management”, when patient management leaping was required but was not performed. Frozen patient management may cause significant damage to patient safety and health and the treatment quality. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of GPP-guided medical practice and gives an explanation of the problem of frozen patient management in light of quality engineering, control engineering, and learning processes. Our analysis of frozen patient management is based on consideration of medical care as a process. By considering medical care processes as a closed-loop control process, it is possible to explain why, when an indication for deviation from the expected occurs, it does not necessarily attract the medical teams’ attention, thereby preventing the realization that leaping to an alternative patient management is needed. We suggest that working according to GPPs intensifies the frozen patient management problem since working according to GPPs relates to “exploitation learning behavior”, while leaping to new patient management relates to “exploration learning behavior”. We indicate practice routines to be incorporated into GPP-guided medical care, to reduce frozen patient management. PMID:25473321

Kobo-Greenhut, Ayala; Notea, Amos; Ruach, Meir; Onn, Erez; Hasin, Yehunatan

2014-01-01

237

Abortions bring economic pressure to bear on hospitals.  

PubMed

The current abortion controversy has serious potential economic consequences for U.S. hospitals, from boycotts and other political actions, but also because of lack of reimbursement for procedures performed on indigent women. An example was given of a threatened boycott of a private hospital in Washington state by evangelical residents and their physicians. Another example of boycott of hospital blood donations was cited. 1078, or 28.7%, of 3752 U.S. hospitals that are equipped to perform abortions do so. 90% of abortions are done by 31% of U.S. hospitals. 90% of these are 1st trimester abortions, costing $200-300. Many employer-sponsored health insurance plans pay for abortions, but Medicaid programs pay for limited numbers of abortions: all abortions for poor women in 13 states, but only those need to save the woman's life in most states. The federal government paid $62,235 for 84 abortions in 13 states in 1988. California and New York have extensive abortion programs for the poor. Hospitals keep a low profile about abortion services, declining to advertise their activity. PMID:10303809

Taravella, S

1989-08-25

238

Psychosocial aspects of abortion  

PubMed Central

The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

1976-01-01

239

Abortion: a history.  

PubMed

This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap labor, and greater consumerism. The legal history of abortion in the US illustrates dramatically that it was doctors, not women, who defined the morality surrounding abortion. Women continue to have to cope with the legacy of this fact. The seemingly benign 2-sphere family of the 19th century cut a deep wound in the human community. Men had public power and authority and were encouraged to be sexual. Women were offered the alternative of being powerful only as sexual beings who could thus enforce a domestic moral order. The legacy of the 2-sphere family continues, but much has changed. By 1973 pressure for reform had led 14 states to liberalize their existing abortin laws, and the US Supreme Court finally ruled that abortion is a private matter between a woman and her doctor. The current problem is that despite new laws and new attitudes toward women and abortion, male dominated and male defined institutions still determine what is possible. Women's right to abortion will never be safe and secure as long as this situation continues. PMID:12340403

Hovey, G

1985-01-01

240

Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

1971-01-01

241

Perceptions of misoprostol among providers and women seeking post-abortion care in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

In Zimbabwe, abortions are legally restricted and complications from unsafe abortions are a major public health concern. This study in 2012 explored women's and providers' perspectives in Zimbabwe on the acceptability of the use of misoprostol as a form of treatment for complications of abortion in post-abortion care. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 participants at seven post-abortion care facilities. Participants included 73 women of reproductive age who received services for incomplete abortion and 42 providers, including physicians, nurses, midwives, general practitioners and casualty staff. Only 29 providers had previously used misoprostol with their own patients, and only 21 had received any formal training in its use. Nearly all women and providers preferred misoprostol to surgical abortion methods because it was perceived as less invasive, safer and more affordable. Women also generally preferred the non-surgical method, when given the option, as fears around surgery and risk were high. Most providers favoured removing legal restrictions on abortion, particularly medical abortion. Approving use of misoprostol for post-abortion care in Zimbabwe is important in order to reduce unsafe abortion and its related sequelae. Legal, policy and practice reforms must be accompanied by effective reproductive health curricula updates in medical, nursing and midwifery schools, as well as through updated training for current and potential providers of post-abortion care services nationwide. Our findings support the use of misoprostol in national post-abortion care programmes, as it is an acceptable and potentially life-saving treatment option. PMID:25702065

Maternowska, M Catherine; Mashu, Alexio; Moyo, Precious; Withers, Mellissa; Chipato, Tsungai

2015-02-01

242

Radiological health risks to astronauts from space activities and medical procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection standards for space activities differ substantially from those applied to terrestrial working situations. The levels of radiation and subsequent hazards to which space workers are exposed are quite unlike anything found on Earth. The new more highly refined system of risk management involves assessing the risk to each space worker from all sources of radiation (occupational and non-occupational) at the organ level. The risk coefficients were applied to previous space and medical exposures (diagnostic x ray and nuclear medicine procedures) in order to estimate the radiation-induced lifetime cancer incidence and mortality risk. At present, the risk from medical procedures when compared to space activities is 14 times higher for cancer incidence and 13 times higher for cancer mortality; however, this will change as the per capita dose during Space Station Freedom and interplanetary missions increases and more is known about the risks from exposure to high-LET radiation.

Peterson, Leif E.; Nachtwey, D. Stuart

1990-01-01

243

Radiological health risks to astronauts from space activities and medical procedures  

SciTech Connect

Radiation protection standards for space activities differ substantially from those applied to terrestrial working situations. The levels of radiation and subsequent hazards to which space workers are exposed are quite unlike anything found on Earth. The new more highly refined system of risk management involves assessing the risk to each space worker from all sources of radiation (occupational and non-occupational) at the organ level. The risk coefficients were applied to previous space and medical exposures (diagnostic x ray and nuclear medicine procedures) in order to estimate the radiation-induced lifetime cancer incidence and mortality risk. At present, the risk from medical procedures when compared to space activities is 14 times higher for cancer incidence and 13 times higher for cancer mortality; however, this will change as the per capita dose during Space Station Freedom and interplanetary missions increases and more is known about the risks from exposure to high-LET radiation.

Paterson, L.E.; Nachtwey, D.S.

1990-08-01

244

Abortion and the search for public policy.  

PubMed

The social policy towards abortion determined by the Roe vs. Wade decision can be overturned at any time depending upon how the US Supreme Court reacts to challenges to its earlier ruling. Roe vs. Wade was decided by a 7 to 2 vote, and the members of the Supreme Court appointed by Presidents Reagan and Bush were chosen to uphold a conservative (anti-abortion) ideology. Although more than half of the present Court was appointed by these presidents, President Clinton now has the opportunity to appoint 2 more Justices. The public policy positions which are currently available to the Supreme Court or to Congress can be ranked on a chart from liberal to conservative. In this article, 7 different positions are described in detail, and the public policy implications of the implementation of each position are described. The first position considered is the extreme conservative position of "no abortion; no exceptions" as defined by author and Roman Catholic theologian Gerald Kelly. The only procedures allowed which would end the life of a fetus would be those to remove an ovary or fallopian tube in the case of an extrauterine pregnancy (permissible under the doctrine of double effect). In the most extreme interpretation of this situation (which Kelly does not seem to hold), those who perform abortions would be prosecuted for murder. The next position considered is the most liberal position, which is espoused by Michael Tooley, and which holds that abortion and early infanticide are both permissible. The third position is that which allows no abortion but has limited exceptions in cases of rape or incest. The appropriate consideration for abortion presented next is that of the late Joseph Fletcher who believed that whatever love requires is the proper response to the situation. Philosopher Dan Callahan espouses the notion that abortion should be performed for compelling reasons only (after effective counseling). The trimester approach to the problem of abortion is that set forth by Justice Harry Blackmun in Roe vs. Wade. This approach gives a woman freedom to decide to have an abortion during the first 2 trimesters of her pregnancy only. This approach has essentially dictated public policy in the US since 1973. The last position considered is that which maintains that a woman's right to equality demands that she have sole control over whether or not to have an abortion. PMID:8118140

McIntyre, R L

1993-01-01

245

Teen Motherhood and Abortion Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate the effect of abortion access on teen birthrates using county-level panel data. Past research suggested that prohibiting abortion led to higher teen birthrates. Perhaps surprisingly, the authors find that more recent restrictions in abortion access, including the closing of abortion clinics and restrictions on Medicaid funding, had the opposite effect. Small declines in access were related to

Thomas J Kane; Douglas Staiger

1996-01-01

246

Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance of concerted efforts to improve access. Other countries contemplating changes to abortion policy can draw on the evidence and implementation strategies observed in Nepal. PMID:23741391

Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.

2013-01-01

247

Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post-abortion care is daunting. There is the need for policymakers to intensify public education against indiscriminate abortion and to reduce unwanted pregnancies. In effect, there is need for effective alternative family planning methods. This is likely to reduce the demand for abortion. Further, with income found as a major constraint, post abortion services should be made accessible to both the rich and poor alike so as to prevent unnecessary maternal deaths as a result of abortion related complications. PMID:25024929

2014-01-01

248

Abortion: Approaches from Virtue  

E-print Network

Abortion: Approaches from Virtue Eric M. Rovie Washington University in St. Louis It is a platitude that the issue of abortion polarizes people into extreme positions. In this paper, I explore the oft-neglected gray area between the pro...-life stance and pro-choice views. In particular, I am interested in the fact that some defenders of abortion rights claim that they could or would never have one themselves. Similarly, I am struck by the fact that advocates of the right to choose often...

Rovie, Eric M.

249

The role of human drug self-administration procedures in the development of medications  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to illustrate the utility and value of employing human self-administration procedures in medication development, including abuse liability assessments of novel medications and evaluation of potential pharmacotherapies for substance use disorders. Traditionally, human abuse liability testing has relied primarily on subjective reports describing drug action by use of questionnaires; similarly, drug interactions between putative treatment agents and the drugs of abuse have relied on these measures. Subjective reports are highly valued because they provide qualitative and quantitative information about the characteristics of central and peripheral pharmacodynamic effects as well as safety and tolerability. However, self-administration procedures directly examine the behavior of interest – that is, drug taking. The present paper 1) reviews the most commonly used human self-administration procedures, 2) discusses the concordance of subjective reports and self-administration within the context of medications development for substance use disorders, focusing primarily on illustrative examples from development efforts with opioid and cocaine dependence, and 3) explores the utility of applying self-administration procedures to assess the abuse liability of novel compounds, including “abuse deterrent” formulations (ADFs). The review will focus on opioid and cocaine dependence because a rich database from both clinical laboratory and clinical trial research exists for these two drug classes. The data reviewed suggest that drug-induced changes in self-administration and subjective effects are not always concordant. Therefore, assessment of self-administration in combination with subjective effects provides a more comprehensive picture that may have improved predictive validity for translating to the clinical setting. PMID:18436394

Comer, SD; Ashworth, JB; Foltin, RW; Johanson, CE; Zacny, JP; Walsh, SL

2008-01-01

250

The Abortion Law Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This privately posted page offers extensive and highly credible information on legislation and jurisprudence relating to abortion in the US. The site offers thoroughly linked discussions of constitutional law, Roe v. Wade, Planned Parenthood v. Casey, state and federal abortion laws, including partial-birth abortion laws, and much more. The hypertext links are to primary documents including court decisions, texts of legislation, court briefs, and oral argument transcripts. There is also an index to primary documents for ease of access. We found the page to have no political agenda. As the author states, "this page is being constructed to help people, regardless of their political bent, understand the background and state of abortion law in America, and access related legal material--especially that which is less available and less well known."

251

Abortion and Selection  

E-print Network

Abortion legalization in the early 1970s led to dramatic changes in fertility. Some research has suggested that it altered cohort outcomes, but this literature has been limited and controversial. In this paper, we provide ...

Gruber, Jonathan

252

Serbian gynaecologists' views on contraception and abortion.  

PubMed

Objectives To examine Serbian gynaecologists' attitudes and practices related to contraception and abortion, as the principal alternative to contraception. Methods A self-reported questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of gynaecologists attending educational meetings of a medical society from October 2012 to October 2013. The data gathered were assessed by means of univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Almost half of the respondents had ethical objections and would refuse to provide certain contraceptives to patients. Two thirds of the gynaecologists (63%) considered fertility awareness methods to be a poor option for most women. Twenty-three percent objected to abortion. Those who objected to contraceptives were less likely to object to abortions (OR: 0.422). This attitude was more prevalent in Southern and Eastern Serbia, where gynaecologists were more likely to object (OR: 4.892) and to refuse to prescribe contraceptives (OR: 4.161), but less likely to object to abortion (OR: 0.278) than in other regions. Conclusions A large proportion of Serbian gynaecologists objected to some contraceptive methods and were more in favour of abortions, especially in the least developed regions. PMID:25431888

Milosavljevic, Jelena; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Mitrovic-Jovanovic, Ana

2015-04-01

253

Dresden Faculty selection procedure for medical students: what impact does it have, what is the outcome?  

PubMed Central

Since 2004 German universities have been able to use a selection procedure to admit up to 60 percent of new students. In 2005, the Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine at Dresden introduced a new admission procedure. In order to take account of cognitive as well as non-cognitive competencies the Faculty used the following selection criteria based on the legal regulations for university-admissions: the grade point average of the school-leaving exam (SSC, Abitur), marks in relevant school subjects; profession and work experience; premedical education; and a structured interview. In order to evaluate the effects of the Faculty admission procedures applied in the years 2005, 2006 and 2007, the results on the First National Medical Examination (FNME) were compared between the candidates selected by the Faculty procedures (CSF-group) and the group of candidates admitted by the Central Office for the Allocation of Places in Higher Education (the ZVS group, comprising the subgroups: ZVS best, ZVS rest and ZVS total). The rates of participation in the FNME within the required minimum time of 2 years of medical studies were higher in the CSF group compared to the ZVS-total group. The FNME pass rates were lowest in the ZVS rest group and highest in the ZVS best group. The ZVS best group and the ZVS total group showed the best FMNE results, whereas the results of the CSF-group were equal or worse compared to the ZVS rest group. No correlation was found between the interview results and the FNME results. According to studies of the prognostic value of various selection instruments, the school leaving grade point average seems the best predictor of success on the FNME. In order to validate the non-cognitive selection instruments of the Faculty procedure, complementary instruments are needed to measure non-cognitive aspects that are not captured by the FNME-results. PMID:21818194

Hänsel, Mike; Klupp, S.; Graupner, Anke; Dieter, Peter; Koch, Thea

2010-01-01

254

An analysis of the differences between national and local coverage determinations of medical procedures in the US  

E-print Network

Medicare coverage policies of medical procedures can be promulgated at a national level by the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) as National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) or at a local level by Medicare ...

Díaz Treviño, Rafael

2010-01-01

255

CRIMINAL ABORTION—A Consideration of Ways to Reduce Incidence  

PubMed Central

The problem of criminal abortion in the United States is of enormous magnitude, both in terms of incidence and of resultant morbidity and mortality. Several studies suggest that one of every five pregnancies terminates in criminal abortion, or a total of more than one million abortions for 1960, with a possibility of more than 5,000 deaths resulting therefrom. The inadequate laws regarding therapeutic abortion in most jurisdictions contribute much to the problem. Tracing the origins of these laws provides additional clues concerning the development of this enigma. Suggested answers to the problem include: (1) Broadening and clarifying therapeutic abortion laws to reflect current medical practice, yet provide stringent controls; (2) prevention of unwanted pregnancy through consultation centers for women, encouragement of contraceptive research and education of the public. PMID:13755105

Kummer, Jerome M.; Leavy, Zad

1961-01-01

256

Against the law: Irish women and abortion.  

PubMed

In both the Republic of Ireland and the North of Ireland, it is impossible to obtain a legal abortion unless the life of the mother would otherwise be lost. Thus, an estimated 10-12,000 women travel from Ireland to England each year to have an abortion. These women can receive support from the Irish Women's Abortion Support Group (IWASG) which is made up of volunteer women who are Irish or of Irish descent. The IWASG provides accommodations, emotional and practical support, and information about how to obtain an abortion in the UK. It makes appointments, negotiates fees, and monitors services offered. The group can also provide financial assistance to women in need. IWASG liaises with pro-choice groups in Ireland, such as the underground Women's Information Network (WIN), which has branches in Dublin, Galway, and Cork. WIN provides confidential, nondirective counseling to women in need. Abortion is a very difficult choice for Irish women because of the legal strictures and because of the guilt which often results from government and religious propaganda. The prospect of finding their way around London is often as daunting to the Irish women as the procedure itself, and many of the women travel to England absolutely alone with no one at home even aware of what they are doing. IWASG is seeking new members to help them support these women. For information, write IWASG, 52 Featherstone Street, London ECIY 8RT. PMID:12222519

1995-02-01

257

Debate on abortion in Colombia and Uruguay.  

PubMed

Colombia and Uruguay are the sites of active movements aimed at decriminalizing abortion. The Colombian Network for Women's Sexual and Reproductive Rights supported a decriminalization bill that was based on operationalization of rights guaranteed in the country's Constitution as well as United Nations resolutions adopted by the Republic; however, the bill lacked sufficient public and legislative support to be presented. Although Colombia's Constitution acknowledges the right of couples to determine their family size, there is no sex education and effective methods of contraception are not available. In Uruguay, representatives of the four political parties have introduced a bill that permits abortion in the first trimester, although the reason for pregnancy termination must be stipulated and the father must agree. Second-trimester abortions would be legal only if necessary to save the life of the mother or in cases of fetal deformities. Specific regulations are outlined for adolescents and the disabled. Finally, physicians with moral objections to abortion are excused from performing the procedure. The observance of a Day of Action to Decriminalize Abortion in Latin America and the Caribbean (September 28, 1994) is indicative of the growing strength of the pro-choice movement. PMID:12318725

1994-01-01

258

Alternative pathways for abortion services.  

PubMed

The interests of women seeking abortion and of doctors opposed to abortion are best served by alternative referral abortion facilities. Of 22 area health authorities in England with day-care gynecology in 1977, only 13 had day-care abortion units. The 2 abortion charities were doing about 3 times as many abortions as all National Health Service Hospitals put together. At day-care abortion facilities, part-time nurses and doctors sympathetic to abortion are supportive to women in a vulnerable situation. There is no pressure for valuable hospital beds. Women being treated for infertility are not housed next to abortion patients. Resources are not available for women seeking abortion under the 1967 Abortion Act. In 1 district 66% women succeeded in obtaining their abortion through the National Health Service (NHS). Over half the women in Wessex had to go to another region to obtain abortions. Many local gynecologists have conscientious objections to abortion. Subcontracting or referral of NHS patients to charitable organizations running day-care facilities is one answer to the lack of facilities. PMID:6103449

1980-05-24

259

Patients' Preferences for Risk Disclosure and Role in Decision Making for Invasive Medical Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a OBJECTIVE:  To assess the level of involvement patients want in decision making related to the acceptance or rejection of an invasive\\u000a medical intervention and whether their preference for decision making is related to their preference for qualitative (verbal)\\u000a or quantitative (numeric) information about the risks of the procedure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN:  Cross-sectional study using structured interviews of consecutive patients seen for continuity care visits

Dennis J. Mazur; David H. Hickam

1997-01-01

260

Introduction of emerging medical devices on the market: a new procedure in Belgium.  

PubMed

When new medical technologies enter the market, there is often uncertainty about the added value for the patient and for society, hampering well-considered decision making about reimbursement. Current Belgian legislation already offered opportunities for the managed uptake of possibly innovative emerging implants. However, it has also some shortcomings such as the lack of a clear research design, rendering the scientific evaluation of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and patient or organizational issues more difficult. Against this background, a new procedure was elaborated by the Belgian health insurance institute and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre. PMID:17937833

Vinck, Imgard; Neyt, Mattias; Thiry, Nancy; Louagie, Marleen; Ramaekers, Dirk

2007-01-01

261

International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.  

PubMed

International developments in abortion laws have been diverse, but the general thrust of legislation and court decisions has been towards decriminalization and liberalization of laws and the reduction of legal barriers to access to therapuetic abortion services presented by spousal and parental authorization requirements. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but other indications have also been created, such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. Several jurisdictions established stages of early gestation within which abortion could be undertaken with minimal legal scrutiny. In Canada, the entire prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. Under medical and public health guidance, several countries have amended their constitutions to recognize and protect human life from contraception. Cyprus, Italy, and Taiwan have created an indication for abortion of welfare of the women's family, while France and the Netherlands recognize the women's distress and Hungary cites cases where the women is single or separated for 6 months, where appropriate housing is lacking or where she is 35 years or older and has had 3 deliveries. National health services and insurance schemes vary in their coverage of abortion costs, but generally tend to fund the major park of lawful services. In Britain, France, Israel, the US and Yugoslavia husband's claims to veto abortions have been rejected. Courts have also established that mature adolescents, although legally minors, may give autonomous consent to abortion and are entitled to confidentiality. Few countries' laws define when criminal abortion liability commences or when conception occurs, but the law has moved to restrict abortion in Israel, Honduras, Romania and Finland. PMID:12315868

Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

1989-08-01

262

Mifepristone and misoprostol and methotrexate\\/misoprostol in clinical practice for abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, side-effect profile, and follow-up rates in women who obtain a medical abortion in a nonresearch setting. Study Design: From December 1, 2000, to June 30, 2001, we prospectively followed 218 women who had been evaluated in our private office for medical abortion. Women received either mifepristone 200 mg orally

Mitchell D. Creinin; Cynthia Potter; Maria Holovanisin; Lynn Janczukiewicz; Helen C. Pymar; Jill L. Schwartz; Leslie Meyn

2003-01-01

263

Soft Tissue Infection Caused by Rapid Growing Mycobacterium following Medical Procedures: Two Case Reports and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Non-tubecrulosis mycobacterium infections were increasingly reported either pulmonary or extrapulmonary in the past decades. In Taiwan, we noticed several reports about the soft tissue infections caused by rapid growing mycobacterium such as Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium chelonae, on newspaper, magazines, or the multimedia. Most of them occurred after a plastic surgery, and medical or non-medical procedures. Here, we reported two cases of these infections following medical procedures. We also discussed common features and the clinical course of the disease, the characteristics of the infected site, and the treatment strategy. The literatures were also reviewed, and the necessity of the treatment guidelines was discussed. PMID:24882980

Lin, Shih-Sen; Lee, Chin-Cheng

2014-01-01

264

38 CFR 17.38 - Medical benefits package.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a) and (b) of this section, the “medical benefits package” does not include the following: (1) Abortions and abortion counseling. (2) In vitro fertilization. (3) Drugs, biologicals, and medical devices not...

2011-07-01

265

The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

Medoff, Marshall H.

2008-01-01

266

The "gag rule" revisited: physicians as abortion gatekeepers.  

PubMed

In this article, I explore this failure [of the therapeutic exception as a compromise device in federal abortion counseling regulations] with an eye toward its broader lessons about the social uses of medical discretion and the difficulty of achieving an abortion compromise in America. I begin by examining the legal underpinning beneath the widespread belief that the "gag rule" imposed a near-absolute ban on discussion of the abortion option. This conventional wisdom, I conclude, collapses on careful inspection. It fails utterly to account for the strong support to be found in the Title X regulations and their larger legal context for a therapeutic exception unconstrained by administrative or judicial definition. Next, I observe that this legal unboundedness would have empowered Title X clinic physicians (and perhaps others who do counseling) to exercise broad discretion over abortion access, under the rubric of medical indication.... By so doing, however, physicians would have become abortion gatekeepers. This would have raised difficult ethical and clinical questions about the extent to which medical judgment should be allowed to incorporate (and shield) socially-disputed moral choices. I briefly consider some of these questions, along with the countervailing appeal of preserving a measure of intimate freedom under medical cover. I then conclude by positing some connections between the moral infirmities of medical gatekeeping and the political failure of the therapeutic exception. I suggest, in essence, that this failure was ensured by a strong resonance between the exception's moral infirmities and the fears of the medical leaders, pro-choice activists, and abortion opponents who framed the public debate over the "gag rule." The potential breadth of the therapeutic exception went unrecognized and unexplored because professional and popular understanding of the abortion counseling regulations was molded by the activists who framed the debate... PMID:11651561

Bloche, M Gregg

1992-01-01

267

Men and abortion decisions.  

PubMed

The male sexual partner often has no voice in the decision about whether to go forward with a pregnancy, and the standard view in bioethics is that he ought not to have. The consensus is that the decision to instead have an abortion is and should be exclusively the pregnant woman's. By and large, the pro-choice and pro-life sides are united in this view even though they are divided about the morality of abortion. After all, the developing fetus is in the woman's body; she bears the physical and lifestyle changes involved in being pregnant and the health risks associated with the pregnancy and with either childbirth or abortion. Consequently, so the consensus goes, the decision about having an abortion is her decision, and it is a private decision. Preservation of her privacy can legitimately be used to prevent her partner from knowing about the pregnancy or the decisions being made about it. As if having a baby were the end of the matter. If it were, I would agree that the choice is the pregnant woman's. But pregnancy-inconvenient, uncomfortable, stigmatizing, and even slightly dangerous though it be-is a very small part of what's involved in having a child. We must get over the idea that abortion decisions are simply about whether to have a baby. If the burden of an unplanned pregnancy or even of an unavoidable childbirth (because an abortion is unavailable) is only a small part of the burden of being a parent, then it is no longer clear why the decision about having the child should be hers alone. PMID:25677781

Hardwig, John

2015-03-01

268

Abortion: Strong’s counterexamples fail  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis’s argument against abortion fail. Strong’s basic idea is that there are cases—for example, terminally ill patients—where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally wrong even though that human being is not being deprived of a “valuable future”. So

E Di Nucci

2009-01-01

269

Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

Joyce, Ted

2004-01-01

270

Abortion clinic violence as terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence against abortion clinics and other activities directed toward patients and staff of abortion facilities have been termed terrorism by the pro?choice movement. However, the Federal Bureau of Investigation denies that these actions are terrorism. Instances of abortion clinic violence for 1982–1987 were examined in order to determine whether there is a correspondence between these incidents and definitions or models

Michele Wilson; John Lynxwiler

1988-01-01

271

Experiences of abortion: A narrative review of qualitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP) has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a narrative review of qualitative studies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods.

Mabel LS Lie; Stephen C Robson; Carl R May

2008-01-01

272

INDUCED ABORTION FROM AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE: IS IT CRIMINAL OR JUST ELECTIVE?  

PubMed Central

Background: Induced Abortion for social reasons is spreading all over the world. It is estimated that globally 50 million unborn babies are killed annually, resulting in the deaths of 200,000 pregnant women and the suffering of millions. The complications of illegal abortion are very serious. Abortion is still used in many countries as a means of family planning. The medical reasons for abortion are limited and con-sti-tute a small proportion of all abortion cases. This paper discusses the different views on abortion, its history, its evolution over time, and the present legal circumstances. The emphasis is on the situation in Islamic countries and the effect of Islamic Fatwas on abortion. PMID:23008648

Albar, Mohammed A.

2001-01-01

273

Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil.  

PubMed

Two folk medical conditions, "delayed" (atrasada) and "suspended" (suspendida) menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to "regulate" these conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also described, including ingesting herbal remedies, patent drugs, and modern pharmaceuticals. The ingestion of such self-administered remedies is facilitated by the cognitive ambiguity, euphemisms, folklore, etc., which surround conception and gestation. The authors argue that the ethnomedical conditions of "delayed" and "suspended" menstruation and subsequent menstrual regulation are part of the "hidden reproductive transcript" of poor and powerless Brazilian women. Through popular culture, they voice their collective dissent to the official, public opinion about the illegality and immorality of induced abortion and the chronic lack of family planning services in Northeast Brazil. While many health professionals consider women's explanations of menstrual regulation as a "cover-up" for self-induced abortions, such popular justifications may represent either an unconscious or artful manipulation of hegemonic, anti-abortion ideology expressed in prudent, unobtrusive and veiled ways. The development of safer abortion alternatives should consider women's hidden reproductive transcripts. PMID:9194245

Nations, M K; Misago, C; Fonseca, W; Correia, L L; Campbell, O M

1997-06-01

274

Abortion and contraceptive failure.  

PubMed

Persona, marketed by Unipath, is a new method of natural family planning which has been on the market since 1996. It works by measuring the hormone levels in a woman's urine and letting her know when she is not fertile and may have sex without using a barrier method of contraception. The British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS) found that their surveyed clients who reported using Persona had 188 abortions in 3 months and concluded that there was a need for better information and more advice for couples who plan to use the method. The other major non-NHS abortion provider, Marie Stopes International, reported similar findings, with about 60 women per month visiting their clinics for abortions after having used the method. The BPAS survey also showed that 43% of the women who had an abortion after using Persona were aged 24 years or younger even though Persona is intended for use by women aged 25-40 years in stable relationships. A similar proportion also reported having sex on days when the method told them that they were most fertile. These latter women were not asked if they used another method of contraception on fertile days. An additional 13% reported ignoring the instructions to wait for 3 natural periods after terminating pill use before beginning to use Persona. PMID:12321444

1998-01-01

275

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 21.01.08.V0.03 Vehicle Use Reports: Automobiles/Trucks  

E-print Network

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 21.01.08.V0.03 Vehicle Use Reports Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 21.01.08.V0.03 Vehicle Use Reports statutes of the State of Texas, Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) has adopted

276

Genetic abortion: considerations for patient care.  

PubMed

Women who receive abnormal prenatal diagnosis results potentially face two emotionally difficult decisions. In this article, the first decision--whether or not to terminate the pregnancy--is presented with a discussion of the factors that may influence a women's choice. Women who choose to terminate the pregnancy face a second decision when more than one type of abortion procedure is available. Two second trimester abortion procedures--dilation and evacuation and labor induction--are compared and contrasted to delineate potential advantages and disadvantages of each. The decision-making process is examined, emphasizing the individual ways in which women may weigh this information to make a fully informed decision. In addition, a number of recommendations are offered to health care providers in the role of discussing options and supporting women in their choices. PMID:10818853

Bourguignon, A; Briscoe, B; Nemzer, L

1999-09-01

277

Medical physicists' implication in radiological diagnostic procedures: results after 1 y of experience.  

PubMed

Since January 2008-de facto 2012-medical physics experts (MPEs) are, by law, to be involved in the optimisation process of radiological diagnostic procedures in Switzerland. Computed tomography, fluoroscopy and nuclear medicine imaging units have been assessed for patient exposure and image quality. Large spreads in clinical practice have been observed. For example, the number of scans per abdominal CT examination went from 1 to 9. Fluoroscopy units showed, for the same device settings, dose rate variations up to a factor of 3 to 7. Quantitative image quality for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations varied significantly depending on the local image reconstruction algorithms. Future work will be focused on promoting team cooperation between MPEs, radiologists and radiographers and on implementing task-oriented objective image quality indicators. PMID:25480839

Ryckx, Nick; Gnesin, Silvano; Meuli, Reto; Elandoy, Christel; Verdun, Francis R

2015-04-01

278

A learning tool in medical imaging: using procedure graphs in radiographic process simulation.  

PubMed

Teaching the procedural elements of imaging protocols and understanding the interrelationships and interdependencies of diagnostic X-ray system parameters and their effects on image quality, are among the main objectives of medical imaging training programs. A teaching tool is designed and implemented to support these goals. Tool design is influenced by hybrid learning system architectures and it is based on a graph approach, which is described. Implementation is carried out using a hypermedia development environment (Toolbook) coupled with a database (Paradox). The core of the system is an attributed priority graph, capable of supporting the organization of the domain knowledge, monitoring of user-machine interaction and managing the user-system dialogue. Use of this approach resulted in an interactive simulation tool, which provides computer aided learning support, to radiology related personnel, such as radiologists and radiographers. The potential value of the tool is not restricted only to didactic tasks, but may include trouble-shooting and documentation. PMID:8882563

Costaridou, L; Hatzis, K; Panayiotakis, G; Proimos, B; Pallikarakis, N

1995-01-01

279

A study on the discourse and reality of abortion in Korea: 1920s~1930s.  

PubMed

This paper tried to collect, classify and analyse the discourse about abortion in 1920~1930. In Korea, modern medical abortion operation started in 1920~30s. At that time abortion was prohibited by the Japanese Government-General of Korea, because the Japanese Government-General of Korea needed large population which was used for labor and exploitation. Hence, the Empire of Japan de-penalized Japanese criminal law related to birth control but Korean law was not revised between 1910~1945. Nevertheless, there were quite a few women who wanted abortion when they had children born in sin or they were too poor to raise their children, so they had abortion secretly. At that time the women generally had abortion through toxic drugs or foods and violence (dropping from a high place or beating their stomach). But high class women did it by medical operation. In 1920s, there was few Korean (modern) medical doctors who could operate for abortion, instead Japanese immigrant medical doctors did it--as the newspaper of that time showed(there were many pieces of news that Japanese doctor who helped abortion was arrested by the police). As time went by Korean doctors got their say about the technique and various knowledge of abortion in newspapers, magazines, and academic Journals; this was especially the case starting in 1930. It is worth noting that they were sometimes arrested for illegal abortion operations. Furthermore, from the late 1920s the insist that abortion should be permitted for women and poor people, appeared. This insist was affected by Japan, the Soviet Union and other countries which was generous with abortion. PMID:23695751

Lee, Young- Ah

2013-04-01

280

Parents’ perspectives on supporting children during needle-related medical procedures  

PubMed Central

When children endure needle-related medical procedures (NRMPs), different emotions arise for the child and his/her parents. Despite the parents’ own feelings, they have a key role in supporting their child through these procedures. The aim of this study is to describe the meanings of supporting children during NRMPs from the perspective of the parents. Twenty-one parents participated in this study. A reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach was used and phenomenological analysis was applied. The essential meaning of the phenomenon—supporting children during an NRMP—is characterized as “keeping the child under the protection of one’s wings,” sometimes very close and sometimes a little further out under the wingtips. The essential meaning is additionally described through its constituents: paying attention to the child’s way of expressing itself, striving to maintain control, facilitating the child’s understanding, focusing the child’s attention, seeking additional support, and rewarding the child. The conclusion is that parents’ ability to be supportive can be affected when seeing their child undergo an NRMP. To regain the role as the child’s protector and to be able to keep the child “under the protection of one’s wings,” parents need support from the staff. PMID:25008196

Karlsson, Katarina; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim; Enskär, Karin; Rydström, Ingela

2014-01-01

281

Contraceptive use among women seeking repeat abortion in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Limited access to modern contraceptives in populations that desire smaller families can lead to repeat unintended pregnancy and repeat abortions. We conducted an analysis of the medical records of 1,200 women seeking abortion-related services in public and private facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from October 2008 to February 2009. We examined the characteristics of initial and repeat abortion clients including prior contraceptive use and subsequent method selection. The incidence of repeat abortion was 30%. Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives and they were nearly twice as likely to leave the facility with a method. However, repeat abortion clients were significantly more likely to have ever used short-term reversible methods and to choose short-term methods post-abortion. Contraceptive counseling services for repeat abortion clients' should address reasons for previous contraceptive failure, discontinuation, or non-use. Post-abortion family planning services should be strengthened to help decrease repeat abortion. PMID:24558782

Prata, Ndola; Holston, Martine; Fraser, Ashley; Melkamu, Yilma

2013-12-01

282

Attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation. A model for understanding reactions to medical procedures after death.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to reach a deeper understanding of factors influencing the attitudes toward organ donation and other procedures with the dead body. From a survey of 400 inhabitants of Uppsala, a city in the middle of Sweden, concerning attitudes toward transplantation issues, 38 individuals with different attitudes toward donation of their own organs were selected for follow-up interviews. From the interviews, more than 600 statements concerning motives and reactions to medical procedures with the dead body were listed. These statements were summarized in 20 motive categories, in which 17 the nature of the motives were negative to organ donation and three promoting such a procedure. The categories were then analyzed and interpreted within a frame of reference of psychodynamic defense theory. In several cases it was possible to relate them to common death anxiety defenses. Six different motive complexes were extracted. These are called (1) illusion of lingering life; (2) protection of the value of the individual; (3) distrust, anxiety and alienation; (4) respecting the limits set by Nature or God; (5) altruism; and (6) rationality. Individuals not willing to donate their own organs were judged as either (a) reacting out of strenthened death anxiety defenses, or (b) as having a special outlook on life, where the idea of what is 'natural' was emphasized. The adverse reactions of the positive attitude group were seen as initial reactions perceived as derivations of common death anxiety defenses and weakened when confronted with altruistic and fact-stressing arguments. In the 'undecided group' of 14 persons, 11 arrived at a definite opinion. Seven decided for organ donation when their mistaken beliefs were corrected or when they took time to work through their initial uneasiness, while 4 persons actually were clearly negative. Three still remained uncertain. The stability of these attitudes seems to be high, often being experienced as a part of one's philosophy of life. PMID:8042059

Sanner, M

1994-04-01

283

12 CFR 792.57 - Special procedures: Information furnished by other agencies; medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...furnished by other agencies; medical records. 792.57 Section 792...furnished by other agencies; medical records. (a) When a request for...the system manager. (b) Medical records may be disclosed on request...

2010-01-01

284

45 CFR 5b.6 - Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for notification of or access to medical records. 5b.6 Section 5b.6...for notification of or access to medical records. (a) General. An individual...notification of or access to his medical records, including psychological...

2010-10-01

285

12 CFR 792.57 - Special procedures: Information furnished by other agencies; medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...furnished by other agencies; medical records. 792.57 Section 792...furnished by other agencies; medical records. (a) When a request for...the system manager. (b) Medical records may be disclosed on request...

2012-01-01

286

12 CFR 792.57 - Special procedures: Information furnished by other agencies; medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...furnished by other agencies; medical records. 792.57 Section 792...furnished by other agencies; medical records. (a) When a request for...the system manager. (b) Medical records may be disclosed on request...

2014-01-01

287

45 CFR 5b.6 - Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for notification of or access to medical records. 5b.6 Section 5b.6...for notification of or access to medical records. (a) General. An individual...notification of or access to his medical records, including psychological...

2012-10-01

288

12 CFR 792.57 - Special procedures: Information furnished by other agencies; medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...furnished by other agencies; medical records. 792.57 Section 792...furnished by other agencies; medical records. (a) When a request for...the system manager. (b) Medical records may be disclosed on request...

2013-01-01

289

12 CFR 792.57 - Special procedures: Information furnished by other agencies; medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...furnished by other agencies; medical records. 792.57 Section 792...furnished by other agencies; medical records. (a) When a request for...the system manager. (b) Medical records may be disclosed on request...

2011-01-01

290

45 CFR 5b.6 - Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for notification of or access to medical records. 5b.6 Section 5b.6...for notification of or access to medical records. (a) General. An individual...notification of or access to his medical records, including psychological...

2011-10-01

291

45 CFR 5b.6 - Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for notification of or access to medical records. 5b.6 Section 5b.6...for notification of or access to medical records. (a) General. An individual...notification of or access to his medical records, including psychological...

2013-10-01

292

45 CFR 5b.6 - Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for notification of or access to medical records. 5b.6 Section 5b.6...for notification of or access to medical records. (a) General. An individual...notification of or access to his medical records, including psychological...

2014-10-01

293

49 CFR 390.115 - Procedure for removal from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The reinstated medical examiner must...applicable State laws and regulations to perform physical...390.111. The medical examiner must...applicable State laws and regulations to perform physical...390.111. The medical examiner...

2013-10-01

294

49 CFR 390.115 - Procedure for removal from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...The reinstated medical examiner must...applicable State laws and regulations to perform physical...390.111. The medical examiner must...applicable State laws and regulations to perform physical...390.111. The medical examiner...

2014-10-01

295

49 CFR 390.115 - Procedure for removal from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The reinstated medical examiner must...applicable State laws and regulations to perform physical...390.111. The medical examiner must...applicable State laws and regulations to perform physical...390.111. The medical examiner...

2012-10-01

296

Medical Spending Differences in the United States and Canada: The Role of Prices, Procedures, and Administrative Expenses  

PubMed Central

The United States far outspends Canada on health care, but the sources of additional spending are unclear. We evaluated the importance of incomes, administration, and medical interventions in this difference. Pooling various sources, we calculated medical personnel incomes, administrative expenses, and procedure volume and intensity for the United States and Canada. We found that Canada spent $1,589 per capita less on physicians and hospitals in 2002. Administration accounted for the largest share of this difference (39%), followed by incomes (31%), and more intensive provision of medical services (14%). Whether this additional spending is wasteful or warranted is unknown. PMID:20812461

Pozen, Alexis; Cutler, David M.

2011-01-01

297

Denial of Abortion Because of Provider Gestational Age Limits in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the factors influencing delay in seeking abortion and the outcomes for women denied abortion care because of gestational age limits at abortion facilities. Methods. We compared women who presented for abortion care who were under the facilities’ gestational age limits and received an abortion (n?=?452) with those who were just over the gestational age limits and were denied an abortion (n?=?231) at 30 US facilities. We described reasons for delay in seeking services. We examined the determinants of obtaining an abortion elsewhere after being denied one because of facility gestational age limits. We then estimated the national incidence of being denied an abortion because of facility gestational age limits. Results. Adolescents and women who did not recognize their pregnancies early were most likely to delay seeking care. The most common reason for delay was having to raise money for travel and procedure costs. We estimated that each year more than 4000 US women are denied an abortion because of facility gestational limits and must carry unwanted pregnancies to term. Conclusions. Many state laws restrict abortions based on gestational age, and new laws are lowering limits further. The incidence of being denied abortion will likely increase, disproportionately affecting young and poor women. PMID:23948000

Weitz, Tracy A.; Jones, Rachel K.; Barar, Rana E.; Foster, Diana Greene

2014-01-01

298

Bodies, rights and abortion.  

PubMed

The issue of abortion is discussed with reference to the claim that people have a right of control over their own bodies. Do people "own" their own bodies? If so, what would be entailed? These questions are discussed in commonsense terms and also in relation to the jurisprudence of Hohfeld, Honore, Munzer and Waldron. It is argued that whether or not women are morally and/or should be legally entitled to have abortions, such entitlements cannot be derived from a general moral entitlement to do what we will with our own bodies since there is no such entitlement. Whether or not we "own" them, we can have rights duties, liabilities, restrictions and disadvantages as well as rights concerning our own bodies. PMID:9220332

McLachlan, H V

1997-06-01

299

Spontaneous abortion and occupation.  

PubMed

Occupational factors in spontaneous abortion were studied in the current and previous pregnancies of 56,012 women interviewed in 11 Montreal maternity departments, 1982 to 1984. Ratios of observed to expected abortions (RR), after allowance for nonoccupational confounders, were significantly increased (P less than .05) among nursing assistants and attendants (RR 1.24 in current and 1.13 in previous pregnancies), food and beverage servers (RR 1.31 in current and 1.11 in previous pregnancies) and sales persons (RR 1.18 in current and 1.12 in previous pregnancies). Women whose work entailed heavy lifting, other physical effort, long hours, exposure to noise, and exposure to cold had also significantly increased risk ratios. However, when occupational groups were ranked according to work demands, thus avoiding potential bias from prior knowledge of outcome, increased risks were associated consistently only with heavy lifting and other physical effort. PMID:3806263

McDonald, A D; Armstrong, B; Cherry, N M; Delorme, C; Diodati-Nolin, A; McDonald, J C; Robert, D

1986-12-01

300

Mifepristone-misoprostol abortion: a trial in rural and urban Maharashtra, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

As several important policy questions remain regarding the use of medical abortion in developing countries, we investigated the safety, efficacy, and acceptability of mifepristone-misoprostol abortion in the outpatient family planning departments of two urban hospitals and one rural hospital in India. Nine-hundred women (with gestations of ?63 days in the urban sites and ?56 days in the rural site) received

Kurus Coyaji; Batya Elul; Usha Krishna; Suhas Otiv; Shubha Ambardekar; Arti Bopardikar; Veena Raote; Charlotte Ellertson; Beverly Winikoff

2002-01-01

301

Uneasy allies: pro-choice physicians, feminist health activists and the struggle for abortion rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abortion represents a particularly interesting subject for a social movements analysis of healthcare issues because of the involvement of both feminist pro-choice activists and a segment of the medical profession. Although both groups have long shared the same general goal of legal abortion, the alliance has over time been an uneasy one, and in many ways a contradictory one. This

C. E. Joffe; T. A. Weitz; C. L. Stacey

2004-01-01

302

CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

DREES,A.FLILLER,R.III.FU,W.MICHNOFF,R.

2004-07-05

303

Abortions in Byzantine times (325-1453 AD).  

PubMed

The legislation and the texts of the most important medical writers of Byzantine times have been studied with reference to abortions, the ethical aspect of this social and medico-legal problem, the theological and the scientific approach. The theoretical basis of the permanent and absolute condemnation of all kinds of abortions except those permitted for medical reasons, is greatly influenced by the spirit of Christianity. In fact, religion supported the view that the reception of the seed in the uterus and the conception of the embryo means the beginning of life and accepted that the foetus is already a living creature. All legislation of Byzantium from the earliest times also condemned abortions. Consequently, foeticide was considered equal to murder and infanticide and the result was severe punishments for all persons who participated in an abortive technique reliant on drugs or other methods. The punishments could extend to exile, confiscation of property and death. The physicians followed the tradition of Ancient Greece, incorporated in the Hippocratic Oath, representative of the ideas of previous philosophers. According to this famous document, it is forbidden them to give a woman "an abortive suppository". The Orthodox faith reinforced this attitute, protective of every human life. On the other hand, the Church and the State accepted selective abortion based on medical data, such as prevention of dangerous conditions in pregnancy or anatomical difficulties involved. In conclusion, science, church and legislation had a common attitude to matters concerning abortion and this fact reveals an effort to apply a fair policy for the rights of the embryo and the protection of human life in Byzantine society. PMID:11618574

Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Lascaratos, J; Marketos, S G

1996-01-01

304

Abortion in a just society.  

PubMed

A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized. PMID:12178856

Hunt, M E

1993-01-01

305

Changes in Racial Differences in Use of Medical Procedures and Diagnostic Tests Among Elderly Persons: 1986–1997  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We used 1997 Medicare data to replicate an earlier study that used data from 1986 to examine racial differences in usage of specific medical procedures or tests among elderly persons. Methods. We used 1997 physician claims data to obtain a random sample of 5% of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. We used this sample to study 30 procedures and tests that were analyzed in the 1986 study, as well as several new procedures that became more widely used in the early 1990s. Results. Racial differences remain in the rates of use of these procedures; in general, Blacks have lower rates of use than do Whites. Between 1986 and 1997, the ratio of White to Black use moved in favor of Blacks for all but 4 of the established procedures studied. Conclusions. The White–Black gap in health care use under Medicare is narrowing. PMID:15451752

Escarce, José J.; McGuire, Thomas G.

2004-01-01

306

Everything is not abortion stigma.  

PubMed

The topic of abortion stigma has caught the attention of researchers and activists working on reproductive health and rights around the world. But as research on abortion stigma grows, I fear that the concept is in danger of becoming so large and all-encompassing that it may mask deeply rooted inequalities. In addition, abortion stigma may be seen as too complex and tangled an issue, thereby leading to paralysis. It is important that we become more precise in our understanding of abortion stigma so that we can carry out better research to understand and measure it, design interventions to mitigate it, and evaluate those interventions. PMID:24183406

Kumar, Anuradha

2013-01-01

307

Teaching first-year medical students in basic clinical and procedural skills ? A novel course concept at a medical school in Austria  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Clerkships are still the main source for undergraduate medical students to acquire necessary skills. However, these educational experiences may not be sufficient, as there are significant deficiencies in the clinical experience and practical expertise of medical students. Project description: An innovative course teaching basic clinical and procedural skills to first-year medical students has been implemented at the Medical University of Graz, aiming at preparing students for clerkships and clinical electives. The course is based on several didactic elements: standardized and clinically relevant contents, dual (theoretical and virtual) pre-course preparation, student peer-teaching, small teaching groups, hands-on training, and the use of medical simulation. This is the first course of its kind at a medical school in Austria, and its conceptual design as well as the implementation process into the curriculum shall be described. Evaluation: Between November 2011 and January 2013, 418 students have successfully completed the course. Four online surveys among participating students have been performed, with 132 returned questionnaires. Students’ satisfaction with all four practical course parts was high, as well as the assessment of clinical relevance of contents. Most students (88.6%) strongly agreed/agreed that they had learned a lot throughout the course. Two thirds of the students were motivated by the course to train the acquired skills regularly at our skills laboratory. Narrative feedbacks revealed elements contributing most to course success. Conclusions: First-year medical students highly appreciate practical skills training. Hands-on practice, peer-teaching, clinically relevant contents, and the use of medical simulation are valued most. PMID:24575157

Mileder, Lukas; Wegscheider, Thomas; Dimai, Hans Peter

2014-01-01

308

Divergent Views on Abortion and the Period of Ensoulment  

PubMed Central

A Muslim woman in her sixteenth week of pregnancy was informed that her ultrasound scan showed spina bifida, and laboratory results confirmed the diagnosis. The child would have various complications and, most probably, would need medical care for life. With the consent of her husband she decided to terminate the pregnancy. Her decision sparked controversy among Muslim clerics in her community, sparking debate between those who would allow abortion for medical reasons and those who oppose abortion for any reason. This paper will review the philosophical and theological arguments of the pro-life and pro-choice groups as well as the Islamic perspective concerning a woman’s autonomy over her reproductive system, the sanctity of the fetus and the embryo, therapeutic abortion, and ensoulment. PMID:23573379

Khitamy, Badawy A. B.

2013-01-01

309

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion...counseling to aid her in making the decision whether to carry the pregnancy to full term or to have an elective abortion. If an...

2011-07-01

310

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion...counseling to aid her in making the decision whether to carry the pregnancy to full term or to have an elective abortion. If an...

2012-07-01

311

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion...counseling to aid her in making the decision whether to carry the pregnancy to full term or to have an elective abortion. If an...

2010-07-01

312

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion...counseling to aid her in making the decision whether to carry the pregnancy to full term or to have an elective abortion. If an...

2014-07-01

313

28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion...counseling to aid her in making the decision whether to carry the pregnancy to full term or to have an elective abortion. If an...

2013-07-01

314

TRAP abortion laws and partisan political party control of state government.  

PubMed

Targeted Regulation of Abortion Providers (or TRAP) laws impose medically unnecessary and burdensome regulations solely on abortion providers in order to make abortion services more expensive and difficult to obtain. Using event history analysis, this article examines the determinants of the enactment of a TRAP law by states over the period 1974–2008. The empirical results find that Republican institutional control of a state's legislative/executive branches is positively associated with a state enacting a TRAP law, while Democratic institutional control is negatively associated with a state enacting a TRAP law. The percentage of a state's population that is Catholic, public anti-abortion attitudes, state political ideology, and the abortion rate in a state are statistically insignificant predictors of a state enacting a TRAP law. The empirical results are consistent with the hypothesis that abortion is a redistributive issue and not a morality issue. PMID:22141177

Medoff, Marshall H; Dennis, Christopher

2011-01-01

315

Adolescent pregnancy: a study of aborters and non-aborters.  

PubMed

In a June 1970 through January 1971 study of 99 single girls seeking abortion and 33 single girls choosing to complete the pregnancy, knowledge of and/or access to contraceptives were not the problem. Emotional factors such as guilt over sexual activity, acting-out disorders (rebellious attitude, hippie lifestyle, indifference toward others), or severe reactions to loss of a love relationship contributed to pregnancy in both groups. The girls who became pregnant, especially the ones who chose to complete the pregnancy, viewed pregnancy and motherhood as a source of gratification and self-esteem. Research on motivational factors in adolescent pregnancy is needed to prevent high recidivism. The majority of state abortion laws requiring phychiatric deficiencies for abortions are misguided, since the girls who chose not to abort were more psychiatrically disturbed than the ones who had abortions. PMID:4742821

Kane, F J; Lachenbruch, P A

1973-10-01

316

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.01.03.V1.01 Financial Conflict of Interest in Research  

E-print Network

of Interest in Research Page 1 of 3 PROCEDURE STATEMENT Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic LaboratoryTexas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.01.03.V1.01 Financial Conflict of Interest in Research Approved: February 2, 2012 Revised: August 1, 2012 Next Scheduled Review: August 1

317

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Procedures 33.04.01.V0.01 Use of Agency Resources for External Employment  

E-print Network

for External Employment Approved: December 28, 2012 Next Scheduled Review: December 28, 2014 Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Procedures 33.04.01.A0.01 Use of Agency Resources for External Employment Resources for External Employment, and this procedure, Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory

318

Women who obtain repeat abortions: a study based on record linkage.  

PubMed

The proportion of induced abortions in a year that are repeat procedures rises over time, but this rate is as low as can be expected given the shortcomings of currently available contraceptives. There is no evidence that women substitute abortion for contraception. Teenagers and poor women have greater difficulty avoiding unwanted pregnancies. PMID:421875

Steinhoff, P G; Smith, R G; Palmore, J A; Diamond, M; Chung, C S

1979-01-01

319

Trends in the Characteristics of Women Obtaining Abortions, 1974 to 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

n Overall rates of abortion in the United States peaked soon after the procedure was legalized in 1973, remained fairly constant through the 1980s, and have declined steadily since then. However, the overall rate masks large differences and varying patterns across time for demo- graphic subgroups. n A substantial drop in the abortion rates of teenagers and women aged 20-24

Stanley K. Henshaw; Kathryn Kost

2008-01-01

320

Using Functional Analysis Procedures To Monitor Medication Effects in an Outpatient and School Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional analysis methods were used to monitor medication used to reduce vocal and physical tics of a child with Tourettes Syndrome. Post-medication results demonstrated a reduced level of tics by the participant. Although preliminary, the findings suggest that functional analysis methods can be used to monitor the effects of medication in…

Anderson, Mark T.; Vu, Chau; Derby, K. Mark; Goris, Mary; McLaughlin, T. F.

2002-01-01

321

The stigmatisation of abortion: a qualitative analysis of print media in Great Britain in 2010  

PubMed Central

The media play a significant part in shaping public perceptions of health issues, and abortion attracts continued media interest. Detailed examination of media constructions of abortion may help to identify emerging public discourse. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine if and how the print media in contributes to the stigmatisation of abortion. Articles from seven British and five Scottish national newspapers from 2010 were analysed for overall framings of abortion and emergent themes, including potentially stigmatising discursive constructs and language. Abortion was found to be presented using predominantly negative language and discursive associations as ‘risky’, and in association with other ‘discredited’ social practices. Key perspectives were found to be absent or marginalised, including those of women who have sought abortion. Few articles framed abortion as a positive and legitimate choice. Negative media representations of abortion contribute to the stigmatisation of the procedure and of women who have it, and reflect a discrediting of women's reproductive decision-making. There is a need to challenge the notion that abortion stigma is inevitable, and to encourage positive framings of abortion in the media and other public discourse. PMID:25115952

Purcell, Carrie; Hilton, Shona; McDaid, Lisa

2014-01-01

322

Abortion as a Policy Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most literature dealing with the attitudes of the mass public toward abortion addresses the question in terms of the individual woman seeking termination. This study attempts to explain attitudes when abortion is framed as a public policy question. Three dependent variables are investigated. These are the issues of public funding, when human life begins, and the Human Life Amendment. This

Jerome S. Legge Jr

1987-01-01

323

Size Selective Characterization and Particle Emission Rates during a Simulated Medical Laser Procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory-based simulated surgical procedure was designed to characterize the medical laser-generated air contaminant (LGAC) particles generated during surgical procedures and to estimate exposures in theoretical rooms. Laser operational parameter settings were varied between levels to investigate the influence of parameter settings on LGAC generation. Two medical lasers, the carbon dioxide at a wavelength of 10,600 nanometers (CO2, lambda =10,600 nm) and the holmium yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:YAG) laser at the wavelength of 2100 nanometers (Ho:YAG, lambda =2100 nm) were used, varying three operational parameters (beam diameter, pulse-repetition frequency [PRF], and power) between two levels and the resultant plume was collected using two real-time size selective particle counters in a laboratory emission chamber. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the influence of operational parameter settings on size-specific particle emission rate. Particles from a limited number of experiments were also collected on polycarbonate filters and imaged using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in backscatter mode to study the particle characteristics and if mechanism of formation could be determined. Particles on each filter were counted and a determination on shape (irregular versus homogenous) and diameter was made. Size-specific particle emission rates were then used to demonstrate potential concentration range using a two-zone exposure model. Results indicate power and beam diameter were statistically significant influential parameters for both lasers and for all particle size ranges, but pulse repetition frequency was only a statistically significant influential parameter for the smallest particles generated. An increase in power and decrease in beam diameter led to an increase in particle emission for the Ho:YAG laser. For the CO2 laser, higher power led to a decrease in emission rates of small particles and an increase for large particles while a smaller beam diameter led to an increase of particle emissions for most size ranges (<10microm). Beam diameter was the most influential variable in the generation of laser-generated particles at all sizes, and the three operational parameters we tested had the most influence on the generation of the smallest particle size ranges. Particle size varied, with the Ho:YAG laser producing particles in the 1--10 microm range and the CO2 laser producing particles between 1 and 50 microm in diameter. Particle shape was variable, with fibers, foam, and conglomerate particles present in our samples. Modeled concentrations for the near-field ranged between 0.03 and 0.5 mg/m3 and between 0.01 and 0.4 mg/m3 in the far-field. Results indicate concentrations in the simulated scenarios were similar to those obtained from previously reported field assessments conducted in hospital operating rooms (ORs). The methods used in this study provide a foundation for future investigations to better estimate particle-size dependent emission rates for additional laser operational parameters in order to inform occupational exposure control strategies.

Lopez, Ramon

324

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.99.01.V0.01 Human Participants in Research  

E-print Network

in Research Approved: March 26, 2013 Next Scheduled Review: March 26, 2015 Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Participants in Research, Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) will comply with all&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory Procedures 15.99.01.V0.01 Human Participants in Research Page 2

325

Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Procedures 31.03.05.X0.01 Family and Medical Leave  

E-print Network

as confidential medical records and kept separate from personnel records, in accordance with AgriLife Extension.2.2 in a Confidential Personal Medical folder. Records management for this folder with follow the System recordsTexas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Procedures 31.03.05.X0.01 Family and Medical Leave Approved

326

Texas A&M AgriLife Research Procedures 31.03.05.A0.01 Family and Medical Leave  

E-print Network

Texas A&M AgriLife Research Procedures 31.03.05.A0.01 Family and Medical Leave Approved: September, 2014 Texas A&M AgriLife Research Procedures 31.03.05.A0.01 Family and Medical Leave Page 1 of 2 as confidential medical records and kept separate from personnel records, in accordance with AgriLife Research

327

[Preselection procedure for medical devices suppliers at the essential medicines and generic drugs purchasing central in Togo (CAMEG-Togo)].  

PubMed

One of the main objectives of pharmaceutical policies in developing countries is to ensure accessibility and affordability of good quality medicines for the population. The Essential Medicines and Generic Drugs Purchasing Central (French acronym, CAMEG-Togo) is a not-for-profit association established in 1998 to ensure procurement for public and not-for-profit private public health facilities within the framework of recovery of costs. Although attention has been focused mainly on medicines, medical devices account for a growing part of the pharmaceutical products purchased by central stores, hospitals and health programs. Recognizing this need in 2002, CAMEG-Togo in collaboration with the French cooperation agency decided to upgrade its competency in evaluating the quality of medical devices. For that purpose the information sheet used to preselect suppliers for international tenders and the technical specifications sheet for medical devices was revised and pharmacists responsible for processing these files were given specific training. European directive N 93/42/CEE of 14 June 1993 is currently used by CAMEG-Togo as the regulatory basis for preselection of medical device suppliers. Referencing based on American regulatory requirements is now under way to widen the scope of suppliers eligible for preselection. The purpose of this article is first to describe the main guidelines of the European directive used by medical device manufacturers to obtain EC certification and second to present the procedures used by the CAMEG-Togo to preselect medical device suppliers, with special focus on the technical specifications sheet. PMID:17286037

Babaley, M

2006-12-01

328

Necessity is the mother of invention: video recording firsthand perspectives of critical medical procedures to make simulated training more effective.  

PubMed

The traditional apprenticeship model for training doctors requires ample opportunities in the clinic for trainees to learn core procedures under the supervision of skilled doctors. In this issue, Kyser and colleagues document that the learning opportunities for residents to master certain core procedures, such as forceps and vacuum deliveries, are insufficient in many teaching hospitals. To address this serious problem, this author argues that learning techniques (i.e., deliberate practice and simulator use) from other domains of expertise, such as chess, music, and sports, must be adapted for use in medicine. For example, medical procedures should be videotaped and indexed for access over the Internet. Trainees then could view recordings of rare emergency procedures and complications and practice their decision-making skills. Evidence suggests that training outside the constraints of the clinic could be more effective in improving performance because trainees are able to engage in deliberate practice and focus on their individual weaknesses in executing procedures and making decisions. For example, with video and simulator training, trainees have the opportunity to repeatedly perform only the parts of a procedure that they find challenging until they have attained a level of acceptable speed and control. More generally, training could be structured around the particular needs of individual learners and scheduled when the learners are rested and able to concentrate fully on learning. Training also should include opportunities for learners to practice repeatedly with different patient descriptions requiring the same or different, yet related, procedures to teach trainees effective discrimination and execution. PMID:24280862

Ericsson, K Anders

2014-01-01

329

Epidemiology of recurrent spontaneous abortion.  

PubMed

With recent scientific advances leading to better understanding of the immunobiology of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), interest has now focused upon the epidemiology of RSA. A cohort of 214 couples with a history of two or more consecutive abortions were studied for the prevalence of etiologic factors and association with other reproductive failures. The prevalence of causes of RSA in this cohort was compared with etiologic factors among 179 couples with a history of three or more consecutive abortions. The obstetrical histories of 214 women with RSA were analyzed for the total number of pregnancies, live births, stillbirths, spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies, and hydatidiform moles. These numbers were compared with the expected frequency of each in the general population. The prevalence of etiologies among 214 with RSA were as follows: chromosomal-6%, anatomic-1%, hormonal-5%, immunologic-65%, and unexplained-23%. No differences in the prevalence of etiologic factors exist when couples with a history of two or more abortions are compared with three or more abortions. When the number of ectopic pregnancies, molar pregnancies, and stillbirths among 214 women with RSA were compared with the expected numbers, the odds ratios were 2.2 for ectopic pregnancies, 6.0 for molar pregnancies, and 2.3 for stillbirths. These data indicate that no difference in the prevalence of etiologies of RSA exist when couples with two or more abortions are compared with three or more and a comorbidity between RSA and other types of reproductive failure exists. PMID:1741935

Coulam, C B

1991-08-01

330

Induced abortion and contraception use  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine what proportion of women seeking induced abortion in the Calgary census metropolitan area were immigrants. Design For 2 months, eligible women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Women who refused were asked to provide their country of birth (COB) to assess for selection bias. Setting Two abortion clinics in Calgary, Alta. Participants Women presenting at or less than 15 weeks’ gestational age for induced abortion for maternal indications. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of women seeking induced abortion services who were immigrants. Secondary outcomes compared socioeconomic characteristics and contraception use between immigrant and Canadian-born women. Results A total of 752 women either completed a questionnaire (78.6%) or provided their COB (21.4%). Overall, 28.9% of women living in the Calgary census metropolitan area who completed the questionnaire were immigrants, less than the 31.2% background proportion of immigrant women of childbearing age. However, 46.0% of women who provided only COB were immigrants. When these data were combined, 34.2% of women presenting for induced abortion identified as immigrant, a proportion not significantly different from the background proportion (P = .127). Immigrant women presenting for induced abortion tended to be older, more educated, married with children, and have increased parity. They were similar to Canadian-born women in number of previous abortions, income status, and employment status. Conclusion This study suggests that immigrant women in Calgary are not presenting for induced abortion in disproportionately higher numbers, which differs from existing European literature. This is likely owing to differing socioeconomic characteristics among the immigrant women in our study from what have been previously described in the literature (typically lower socioeconomic status). Much still needs to be explored with regard to factors influencing the use of abortion services by immigrant women. PMID:25217694

du Prey, Beatrice; Talavlikar, Rachel; Mangat, Rupinder; Freiheit, Elizabeth A.; Drummond, Neil

2014-01-01

331

The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater

John J. Donohue; Steven D. Levitt

2000-01-01

332

The Impact Of Legalized Abortion On Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly eighteen years after abortion legalization. The five states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater

John J. Donohue; Steven D. Levitt

2001-01-01

333

Abortion work: strains, coping strategies, policy implications.  

PubMed

As a result of the moral and social conflicts surrounding abortion, workers involved in counseling potential abortion recipients are subject to certain strains. The author uses observations made at one abortion clinic to support her conclusion that these strains, as well as the methods of coping developed by staff and administration, must be considered in formulating any policy on abortion. PMID:10244755

Joffe, C

1979-11-01

334

Western juniper-induced abortions in beef cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective—To determine if the bark from western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) will induce late term abortions in cattle. Animals—6 two-year-old Angus heifers. Procedures—Bark from western juniper trees was collected, dried, and finely ground. Pregnant cows were dosed starting on day 250 of gesta...

335

A Foreign Body in the Cervix after Spontaneous Abortion: A Rare Case of a Traumatic Fetal Decapitation  

PubMed Central

Although incomplete spontaneous abortions are common in early pregnancy, fetal decapitation does not specifically appear in the medical literature as a known complication of spontaneous abortion. We present a rare and unusual case of an incomplete spontaneous abortion occurring at home with the mother presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a decapitated fetus and a retained fetal head in the cervical os. PMID:25180106

2014-01-01

336

[Abortion and misoprostol: health practices and scientific controversy].  

PubMed

This article puts into perspective the controversy between the association of the use of misoprostol for abortion and teratogenicity studies of the type found in a case report. The use of herbal medicinal drugs and the medical-obstetric and national and international norms governing the registration and circulation of pharmaceutical products were examined. Official documents of ANVISA, the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization on the use of misoprostol, as well as 68 articles such as case reports published in national journals, linking abortion, misoprostol and teratogenicity were reviewed, systematically filed and analyzed using the monographic method. The legal prohibition of abortion prevents the proper prescription and use of a drug such as misoprostol that is both safe and effective. Thus, the danger for the health of women is linked not to the intrinsic characteristics of the drug, but to the moral arguments that constitute negligence and disregard for the fundamental rights of women. PMID:22872339

Corrêa, Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela; Mastrella, Miryam

2012-07-01

337

Measuring Unsafe Abortion-Related Mortality: A Systematic Review of the Existing Methods  

PubMed Central

Background The WHO estimates that 13% of maternal mortality is due to unsafe abortion, but challenges with measurement and data quality persist. To our knowledge, no systematic assessment of the validity of studies reporting estimates of abortion-related mortality exists. Study Design To be included in this study, articles had to meet the following criteria: (1) published between September 1st, 2000-December 1st, 2011; (2) utilized data from a country where abortion is “considered unsafe”; (3) specified and enumerated causes of maternal death including “abortion”; (4) enumerated ?100 maternal deaths; (5) a quantitative research study; (6) published in a peer-reviewed journal. Results 7,438 articles were initially identified. Thirty-six studies were ultimately included. Overall, studies rated “Very Good” found the highest estimates of abortion related mortality (median 16%, range 1–27.4%). Studies rated “Very Poor” found the lowest overall proportion of abortion related deaths (median: 2%, range 1.3–9.4%). Conclusions Improvements in the quality of data collection would facilitate better understanding global abortion-related mortality. Until improved data exist, better reporting of study procedures and standardization of the definition of abortion and abortion-related mortality should be encouraged. PMID:23341939

Gerdts, Caitlin; Vohra, Divya; Ahern, Jennifer

2013-01-01

338

Induced abortion: What's happening in rural Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study was done in rural Bangladesh among the women seeking abortion-related care at six health facilities in two rural sub-districts of Bangladesh in 1996–1997. It looked at contraceptive use, why women had abortions, who made the abortion decision, who provided the abortions, the complications of abortion that developed, where and how soon the women sought treatment. A majority

Shameem Ahmed; Ariful Islam; Parveen A. Khanum

1999-01-01

339

Medical tongue piercing – development and evaluation of a surgical protocol and the perception of procedural discomfort of the participants  

PubMed Central

Background A system providing disabled persons with control of various assistive devices with the tongue has been developed at Aalborg University in Denmark. The system requires an activation unit attached to the tongue with a small piercing. The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a safe and tolerable procedure for medical tongue piercing and to evaluate the expected and perceived procedural discomfort. Methods Four tetraplegic subjects volunteered for the study. A surgical protocol for a safe insertion of a tongue barbell piercing was presented using sterilized instruments and piercing parts. Moreover, post-procedural observations of participant complications such as bleeding, edema, and infection were recorded. Finally, procedural discomforts were monitored by VAS scores of pain, changes in taste and speech as well as problems related to hitting the teeth. Results The piercings were all successfully inserted in less than 5 min and the pain level was moderate compared with oral injections. No bleeding, infection, embedding of the piercing, or tooth/gingival injuries were encountered; a moderate edema was found in one case without affecting the speech. In two cases the piercing rod later had to be replaced by a shorter rod, because participants complained that the rod hit their teeth. The replacements prevented further problems. Moreover, loosening of balls was encountered, which could be prevented with the addition of dental glue. No cases of swallowing or aspiration of the piercing parts were recorded. Conclusions The procedure proved simple, fast, and safe for insertion of tongue piercings for tetraplegic subjects in a clinical setting. The procedure represented several precautions in order to avoid risks in these susceptible participants with possible co-morbidity. No serious complications were encountered, and the procedure was found tolerable to the participants. The procedure may be used in future studies with tongue piercings being a prerequisite for similar systems, and this may include insertion in an out-patient setting. PMID:24684776

2014-01-01

340

Absence Notification Procedure Office of Administrative Responsibility: Undergraduate Medical Education Program  

E-print Network

will be liable under the Code of Student Behaviour. Any student who is incapacitated because of illness. a. Where the cause is incapacitating illness i. A medical note is not required. ii. If a student

MacMillan, Andrew

341

Doctors, pregnancy, childbirth and abortion during the Third Reich.  

PubMed

This paper does not attempt to deal with the legitimate ethical or moral debate on abortion. Utilizing abortion as a subject I will show how science and medicine in general, and abortion in particular, were used as weapons of mass destruction by Nazi physicians in their zeal to comply with the political climate of the time. Nazi policy on abortion and childbirth was just one of the methods devised and designed to ensure the extermination of those whom the Nazis deemed had "lives not worth living." Physicians implemented these policies, not with the fate of their patients in mind, but rather in the name of the "state." When discussing pregnancy, abortion and childbirth during the Holocaust it is imperative to include an essay of how these issues affected the Jewish prisoner doctors in the ghettos and camps. Nazi policy dictated their actions too. From an extensive search of their testimonies, I conclude that for these doctors ethical discourse comprised a fundamental component of their functioning. I do not propose to judge them in any way and one should not, in my opinion, argue whether their behavior was or was not morally acceptable under such duress; nevertheless, unlike their Nazi counterparts, a key theme in their testimonies was to "keep their medical values." PMID:17402341

Chelouche, Tessa

2007-03-01

342

Contraception and abortion in Romania.  

PubMed

After the downfall of the Ceausescu regime in December, 1989, the new Government of Romania abolished the law that prohibited abortions on request. Subsequently, the rate of legally induced abortions increased significantly while the rate of maternal mortality declined dramatically. Despite the large number of women who request induced abortions, most women and gynaecologists say that they would prefer to prevent unwanted pregnancies through the use of modern contraception. In this paper we examine factors that contribute to the disparity between women's desire to use modern contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies and their practice of having induced abortions to prevent unwanted births. The results show that women (and suggest that men) need a wide choice of dependably available high-quality contraceptives; they need to be able to obtain information, counselling, and methods from a wide range of sources/health-care providers; both women's and men's perceptions about, and use of, modern contraception could be positively affected through sexual education started in secondary school; and, to reduce repeat abortions, women's post-abortion family-planning needs must not be neglected. PMID:8096575

Johnson, B R; Horga, M; Andronache, L

1993-04-01

343

Pitch Guidance Optimization for the Orion Abort Flight Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration created the Constellation program to develop the next generation of manned space vehicles and launch vehicles. The Orion abort system is initiated in the event of an unsafe condition during launch. The system has a controller gains schedule that can be tuned to reduce the attitude errors between the simulated Orion abort trajectories and the guidance trajectory. A program was created that uses the method of steepest descent to tune the pitch gains schedule by an automated procedure. The gains schedule optimization was applied to three potential abort scenarios; each scenario tested using the optimized gains schedule resulted in reduced attitude errors when compared to the Orion production gains schedule.

Stillwater, Ryan Allanque

2010-01-01

344

Launch pad abort of the HL-20 lifting body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of the HL-20 lifting-body spacecraft to perform an abort maneuver from the launch pad to a horizontal landing was studied. This study involved both piloted and batch simulation models of the vehicle. A point-mass model of the vehicle was used for trajectory optimization studies. The piloted simulation was performed in a fixed-base simulator. A candidate maneuver was developed and refined for the worst-case launch-pad-to-landing-site geometry using an iterative procedure of off-line maneuver analysis followed by piloted evaluations and heuristic improvements to the candidate maneuver. The resulting maneuver demonstrates the launch site abort capability of the HL-20 and dictates requirements for nominal abort motor performance. The sensitivity of the maneuver to variations in several design parameters was documented.

Jackson, E. Bruce; Rivers, Robert A.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.; Ragsdale, W. A.; Geyer, David W.

1994-11-01

345

Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary design drivers for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is to ensure crew safety. Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of CEV systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage. These studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the CEV, driving requirements for abort scenarios, and an overview of current ascent abort modes. Example analysis results are then discussed. Finally, future areas for abort analysis are addressed.

Davidson, John B., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Burt, Richard; McFarland, Mike

2007-01-01

346

A Multipurpose Interactive Videodisc with Ethical, Legal, Medical, Educational and Research Implications: The Informed Patient Decision-Making Procedure  

PubMed Central

An interactive videodisc (using a single screen Macintosh II, HyperCard driven, Level III, CAV interactive videodisc) has been designed, produced, and pretested to permit patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), facing a choice of surgery or watchful waiting, to take an active role in decision-making. The Informed Patient Decision-Making Procedure (IPDP) educates the patient about the benefits and harms of two treatment choices: prostatectomy and watchful waiting for BPH, by presenting patient-specific data derived from an analysis of medical outcomes. and video testimonials from patients with good and unfortunate outcomes of the therapeutic options. The IPDP standardizes the information provided to the patients, provides informed consent, gathers follow-up outcomes research data, and permits automated assessment of patient preferences and utilities. In this demonstration, the development of the IPDP is discussed, the videodisc program is presented, and lessons learned in creating medical videodiscs are shared.

Lyon, Harold C.; Henderson, Joseph V.; Beck, J. Robert; Mulley, Albert G.; Barry, Michael J.; Fowler, Floyd J.; Wennberg, Coralea N.; Wennberg, John E.

1989-01-01

347

From medical invention to clinical practice: the reimbursement challenge facing new device procedures and technology--part 2: coverage.  

PubMed

This paper, the second of 3 that discuss the reimbursement challenges facing new medical device technology in various issues of this journal, explains the key aspects of coverage that affect the adoption of medical devices. The process Medicare uses to make coverage determinations has become more timely and open over the past several years, but it still lacks the predictability that product innovators prefer. The continued uncertainty surrounding evidence requirements undermines the predictability needed for optimal product planning and innovation. Recent steps taken by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to provide coverage in return for evidence development should provide patients with access to promising new technologies and procedures while generating important evidence concerning their effectiveness. PMID:17412167

Raab, G Gregory; Parr, David H

2006-10-01

348

Antiprogestin drugs: ethical, legal and medical issues.  

PubMed

RU 486 allows women the choice of a medical rather than a surgical abortion, and, for most women, the choice is one of procedure, not of whether to have an abortion. Issues surrounding RU 486 were explored in an American Society of Law and Medicine conference in December 1991 entitled "Antiprogestin Drugs: Ethical, Legal and Medical Issues." An introduction to 14 conference papers provides an overview of the proceedings. Baulieu, the father of RU 486, described updated developments in its use and the medically supervised method of abortion. Bygdeman and Swahn presented their work in Sweden on combining RU 486 with a prostaglandin to make abortion more effective. They suggested that the drug may be an attractive postovulation contraceptive. Greenslad et al. discussed service delivery aspects of the use of RU 486. Holt considered the implications of use of the drug in low-resource settings. A survey of obstetricians and gynecologists, presented by Heilig, indicates that 22% more physicians would perform a medical abortion. Patient perspectives were addressed by David, who stated that measuring acceptability of an abortion technique is difficult; women have historically used whatever method is available. A collaborative research project in India and Cuba on why women chose certain methods was reported by Winikoff et al. (90% of women would choose medical abortion if faced with the choice again). Berer analyzed French data on women's perspectives on medical vs. surgical abortion. The question of adolescent use of the drug was considered by Senderowitz, who lamented the lack of data on the subject and described what is known about adolescent pregnancy. Macklin proposed a framework for ethical analysis and used facts to address ethical questions. Weinstein provided another ethical framework, to analyze whether pharmacists have a right to refuse to provide abortifacient drugs. Buc approached the subject from a legal point of view and concluded that, whereas legal problems are minimal, political problem are of first concern. Boland described differences in introduction of the drug in France and Britain and the US. The theory of "use it or lose it" in patent legislation is applied differently in the US, France, and the UK. Hayhurst, in a complementary legal analysis, noted that Canadian importation would open access to affluent US women. Pine reported on the legal case Benten vs. Kessler, which did not result in successful importation of the drug for personal use, but resulted in some supportive language from the courts. By refusing to apply to the FDA for marketing approval, RU 486's manufacturer may be setting itself up for a boycott. Approaching the problem from these various perspectives addressed the challenge between medical advances and politics and highlighted the need to balance the benefits to women with perceived threats to values. PMID:1434754

Cook, R J; Grimes, D A

1992-01-01

349

Learning the facts in medical school is not enough: which factors predict successful application of procedural knowledge in a laboratory setting?  

PubMed Central

Background Medical knowledge encompasses both conceptual (facts or “what” information) and procedural knowledge (“how” and “why” information). Conceptual knowledge is known to be an essential prerequisite for clinical problem solving. Primarily, medical students learn from textbooks and often struggle with the process of applying their conceptual knowledge to clinical problems. Recent studies address the question of how to foster the acquisition of procedural knowledge and its application in medical education. However, little is known about the factors which predict performance in procedural knowledge tasks. Which additional factors of the learner predict performance in procedural knowledge? Methods Domain specific conceptual knowledge (facts) in clinical nephrology was provided to 80 medical students (3rd to 5th year) using electronic flashcards in a laboratory setting. Learner characteristics were obtained by questionnaires. Procedural knowledge in clinical nephrology was assessed by key feature problems (KFP) and problem solving tasks (PST) reflecting strategic and conditional knowledge, respectively. Results Results in procedural knowledge tests (KFP and PST) correlated significantly with each other. In univariate analysis, performance in procedural knowledge (sum of KFP+PST) was significantly correlated with the results in (1) the conceptual knowledge test (CKT), (2) the intended future career as hospital based doctor, (3) the duration of clinical clerkships, and (4) the results in the written German National Medical Examination Part I on preclinical subjects (NME-I). After multiple regression analysis only clinical clerkship experience and NME-I performance remained independent influencing factors. Conclusions Performance in procedural knowledge tests seems independent from the degree of domain specific conceptual knowledge above a certain level. Procedural knowledge may be fostered by clinical experience. More attention should be paid to the interplay of individual clinical clerkship experiences and structured teaching of procedural knowledge and its assessment in medical education curricula. PMID:23433202

2013-01-01

350

Medical equipment for physical therapy of the spine using a spine stretching procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience of TMM, Ltd. (Biysk, Altai Federal ResearchManufacturing Association, Russia) in devel? opment and introduction into medical practice of hori? zontal and vertical systems for underwater spine stretch? ing and apparatuses for cervical spine vibrotraction has accumulated for 10 years. The main direction in the activity of TMM, Ltd. is the development of physiotherapeutic equipment includ? ing equipment for

N. N. Galakhov

2007-01-01

351

Planning and Optimization Algorithms for Image-Guided Medical Procedures Ron Alterovitz  

E-print Network

. Results using prostate medical images indicate a statistically significant improvement in registration of mathematically optimal solutions and the statistical validation of interna- tionally used clinical planning accuracy compared to previous methods. Second, we develop a motion plan- ning algorithm for traditional

Alterovitz, Ron

352

Specific Disgust Sensitivities Differentially Predict Interest in Careers of Varying Procedural-Intensity among Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mismatches between the needs of public health systems and student interests have led to renewed study on the factors predicting career specializations among medical students. While most work examines career and lifestyle values, emotional proclivities may be important; disgust sensitivity may help explain preferences for careers with greater and…

Consedine, Nathan S.; Windsor, John A.

2014-01-01

353

Disposal of Hazardous Medical Waste Policy and Procedures Commencement Date: 27 November, 1996  

E-print Network

Cytotoxins Means materials which are carcinogenic, cytotoxic, mutagenic and/or teratogenic and include containing or used in work involving cytotoxic substances. Hazardous Medical Waste Means any substance by the Health Department of Western Australia. 7.3 Disposal of Drugs 7.3.1 Suitable Containers i. Pharmaceutical

354

A Structured Interview for Medical School Admission, Phase 1: Initial Procedures and Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested the reliability and validity of a structured admission interview to a public medical school residency program. Found that interrater agreement was good; moderate-to-low correlations between interview scores and other admission criteria suggested that the interview provided additional useful information and accounted for a substantial…

Patrick, Luke E.; Altmaier, Elizabeth M.; Kuperman, Samuel; Ugolini, Kathleen

2001-01-01

355

Primitive robotic procedures: Automotions for medical liquids in 12th century Asia minor.  

PubMed

In recent years, day by day, robotic surgery applications have increase their role in our medical life. In this article, we reported the discovery of the first primitive robotic applications as automatic machines for the sensitive calculation of liquids such as blood in the literature. Al-Jazari who wrote the book "Elcâmi 'Beyne'l - 'ilm ve'l - 'amel en-nâfi 'fi es-s?naâ 'ti'l - hiyel", lived in Anatolian territory between 1136 and 1206. In this book that was written in the twelfth century, Al-Jazari described nearly fifty graphics of robotic machines and six of them that were designed for medical purposes. We found that some of the robots mentioned in this book are related to medical applications. This book reviews approximately 50 devices, including water clocks, candle clocks, ewers, various automata used for amusement in drink assemblies, automata used for ablution, blood collection tanks, fountains, music devices, devices for water lifting, locks, a protractor, a boat-shaped water clock, and the gate of Diyarbakir City in south-east of Turkey, actually in northern Mesopotamia. We found that automata used for ablution and blood collection tanks were related with medical applications; therefore, we will describe these robots. PMID:25641458

Penbegul, Necmettin; Atar, Murat; Kendirci, Muammer; Bozkurt, Yasar; Hatipoglu, Nam?k Kemal; Verit, Ayhan; Kad?oglu, Ates

2014-12-01

356

Procedural Manual and Guidelines for Derivation of Data on Funding Medical School Program Resources. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual is the result of several years' effort toward developing a methodology to depict program resources-funding. The guidelines were developed based on a 1975 feasibility study and tested in seven medical colleges. It is hoped that the guidelines will be useful in analyzing the fiscal mechanisms for funding of the individual resources…

Agro, Gerlandino; Rosenthal, Joseph

357

Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR?=?4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR?=?0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR?=?0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR?=?0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

2014-01-01

358

The politics of unsafe abortion in Burkina Faso: The interface of local norms and global public health practice  

PubMed Central

In Burkina Faso, abortion is legally restricted and socially stigmatised, but also frequent. Unsafe abortions represent a significant public health challenge, contributing to the country's very high maternal mortality ratio. Inspired by an internationally disseminated public health framing of unsafe abortion, the country's main policy response has been to provide post-abortion care (PAC) to avert deaths from abortion complications. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article describes how Burkina Faso's PAC policy emerged at the interface of political and moral negotiations between public health professionals, national bureaucrats and international agencies and NGOs. Burkinabè decision-makers and doctors, who are often hostile to induced abortion, have been convinced that PAC is ‘life-saving care’ which should be delivered for ethical medical reasons. Moreover, by supporting PAC they not only demonstrate compliance with international standards but also, importantly, do not have to contend with any change in abortion legislation, which they oppose. Rights-based international NGOs, in turn, tactically focus on PAC as a ‘first step’ towards their broader institutional objective to secure safe abortion and abortion rights. Such negotiations between national and international actors result in widespread support for PAC but stifled debate about further legalisation of abortion. PMID:25132157

Storeng, Katerini T.; Ouattara, Fatoumata

2014-01-01

359

Abortion and the law: the Supreme Court, privacy, and abortion.  

PubMed

This article examines the impact of the continuing politicization of the abortion issue in the US on the rights of women and on the emerging concept of fetal rights. The introduction 1) attributes the "final and total politicization" of a woman's right to control her reproduction to the "undue burden" standard introduced by the Supreme Court in its 1992 Casey decision and 2) claims that, if unchecked, the concept of fetal rights may give the state's interest in protecting potential life supremacy over women's rights. The next section presents an in-depth discussion of the politicization of the right to abortion that covers such topics as how the courts before Casey became the forum for debating abortion policy, how the "undue burden" standard fails to set definite parameters of acceptable state behavior, how the Casey decision in effect abandons the trimester-based framework of reference provided in Roe vs. Wade, how Casey allows states to subtly coerce women seeking abortions, how the Casey decision failed to reduce the intense politicization of abortion, and how the court failed to protect individual rights to health care and abortion funding from states. Part 3 of the article begins its exploration of the concept of "fetal rights" with a sketch of the history of this concept in the US courts starting in 1884 when damages for miscarriage were denied. Ways in which fetal rights compete with the rights of a pregnant woman are described, the Supreme Court is blamed for allowing states to develop this concept, and issues of patient confidentiality versus reporting requirements are considered. It is concluded that the Supreme Court will have to act to limit fetal rights. PMID:12348324

Marsh, F H

1997-01-01

360

Just another reproductive technology? The ethics of human reproductive cloning as an experimental medical procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human reproductive cloning (HRC) has not yet resulted in any live births. There has been widespread condemnation of the practice in both the scientific world and the public sphere, and many countries explicitly outlaw the practice. Concerns about the procedure range from uncertainties about its physical safety to questions about the psychological well-being of clones. Yet, key aspects such as

D Elsner

2006-01-01

361

Behavioral Distress in Children with Cancer Undergoing Medical Procedures: Developmental Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amount of anxiety suggested the need for clinical intervention to reduce procedure-related distress in children with cancer. Younger children exhibited consistently higher levels of distress than older children and displayed a greater variety of anxious responses over a longer time span. (Author/BEF)

Katz, Ernest R.; And Others

1980-01-01

362

Attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation : A model for understanding reactions to medical procedures after death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this study was to reach a deeper understanding of factors influencing the attitudes toward organ donation and other procedures with the dead body. From a survey of 400 inhabitants of Uppsala, a city in the middle of Sweden, concerning attitudes toward transplantation issues, 38 individuals with different attitudes toward donation of their own organs were selected

Margareta Sanner

1994-01-01

363

Using a Task Modeling Formalism in the Design of Serious Games for Emergency Medical Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of standard methodologies to guide and organize game design can result in longer and less predictable game production processes. Moreover, the need for interaction among domain experts (providing the instructional content) and game developers is a pec uliar aspect of serious games that makes their development more difficult. This paper focuses on the design of games for procedural training,

Alberto Cabas Vidani; Luca Chittaro

2009-01-01

364

Racial differences in performance of invasive cardiac procedures in a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial differences have recently been described in hospital practice, most notably with regard to cardiac procedure utilization. To evaluate the possible reasons behind these differences, we analyzed statistics generated from a surgical referral conference at a large, tertiary care Veterans Affairs hospital between the years 1988 and 1996. In this setting, there is no financial incentive for physicians to recommend

Steven P. Sedlis; Vincent J. Fisher; David Tice; Rick Esposito; Lori Madmon; Eric H. Steinberg

1997-01-01

365

Mechanization of Library Procedures in the Medium-Sized Medical Library: XIII. Computer Applications in Hospital Departmental Libraries *  

PubMed Central

To test the hypothesis that a standard library system could be designed for hospital departmental libraries, a system was developed and partially tested for four departmental libraries in the Washington University School of Medicine and Associated Hospitals. The system from determination of needs through design and evaluation, is described. The system was limited by specific constraints to control of the monograph collection. Products of control include catalog cards, accessions list, new book list, location list, fund list, missing book list, and discard book list. Sample data form and pages from a procedure manual are given, and conversion from a manual to an automated system is outlined. The question of standardization of library records and procedures is discussed, with indications of the way in which modular design, as utilized in this system, could contribute to greater flexibility in design of future systems. Reference is made to anticipating needs for organizing departmental libraries in developing regional medical library programs and to exploring the role of the departmental library in a medical library network. PMID:5054309

Howard, Ellen; Kharibian, Gloria

1972-01-01

366

Continuous Improvements to East Coast Abort Landings for Space Shuttle Aborts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvement initiatives in the areas of guidance, flight control, and mission operations provide increased capability for successful East Coast Abort Landings (ECAL). Automating manual crew procedures in the Space Shuttle's onboard guidance allows faster and more precise commanding of flight control parameters needed for successful ECALs. Automation also provides additional capability in areas not possible with manual control. Operational changes in the mission concept allow for the addition of new landing sites and different ascent trajectories that increase the regions of a successful landing. The larger regions of ECAL capability increase the safety of the crew and Orbiter.

Butler, Kevin D.

2003-01-01

367

Remembering Aborted Foetuses in a Japanese Shrine  

E-print Network

In a shrine beside a temple in Kyoto there are a large number of small effigies. They commemorate aborted foetuses. In the absence of proper contraception, the Japanese for centuries have had to use abortion and, in the past, infanticide...

Macfarlane, Alan

2004-07-29

368

Abortable Reader-Writer Locks are No More Complex Than Abortable Mutex Locks  

E-print Network

Abortable Reader-Writer Locks are No More Complex Than Abortable Mutex Locks Dartmouth Computer on designing abortable mutual exclusion locks, and fairly efficient algorithms of O(log n) RMR complexity have). The abort feature is just as important for a reader-writer lock as it is for a mutual exclusion lock

369

Diagnosing Abortion Problems Abortions can represent a significant loss of (potential)  

E-print Network

Diagnosing Abortion Problems Abortions can represent a significant loss of (potential) income- hood of diagnosing the cause of any abortions that may occur. In some situations, the prompt diagnosis of an abortion may help reduce the severity of an impending outbreak. Well-kept records can be very useful

Liskiewicz, Maciej

370

Prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion.  

PubMed

The Abortion and Sterilisation Act, 1975, has been in force for 1 year. Experience gained in the Johannesburg area in the operation of the Act with respect to termination of pregnancies for abnormalities of the unborn child, is outlined. Relatively few abortions have, in fact, been carried out for this reason, but the number is likely to increase. Prenatal diagnosis of disease in the fetus, although not possible in all cases, has greatly facilitated the management of families in which a child with a heritable disorder may be born. PMID:137537

Jenkins, T; Kromberg, J G

1976-12-11

371

Achievements of the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences in South-Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Since 2008, the FIGO Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences has contributed to ensuring the substitution of sharp curettage by manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and medical abortion in selected hospitals in participating countries of South-Southeast Asia. This initiative facilitated the registration of misoprostol in Pakistan and Bangladesh, and the approval of mifepristone for "menstrual regulation" in Bangladesh. The Pakistan Nursing Council agreed to include MVA and medical abortion in the midwifery curriculum. The Bangladesh Government has approved the training of nurses and paramedics in the use of MVA to treat incomplete abortion in selected cases. The Sri Lanka College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, in collaboration with partners, has presented a draft petition to the relevant authorities appealing for them to liberalize the abortion law in cases of rape and incest or when lethal congenital abnormalities are present. Significantly, the initiative has introduced or strengthened the provision of postabortion contraception. PMID:24743025

Zaidi, Shahida; Begum, Ferdousi; Tank, Jaydeep; Chaudhury, Pushpa; Yasmin, Haleema; Dissanayake, Mangala

2014-07-01

372

Compliance with new ban means no mention of abortion.  

PubMed

Most family planning clinics dependent on Title 10 funds will have few options but to comply with the gag rule banning any discussion of abortion, and physicians at such clinics may choose to resign in fear that of medical malpractice. As Michael Astrue from the US Department of Health and Human Services explains, the Supreme Court's decision on the gag rule is unambiguous -- abortion cannot be discussed in any way. Clinics may not try to side-step the ban by employing euphemisms for the term "abortion." Failure to comply will result in the loss of federal funding. The gag rule will affect primarily public health, government-managed clinics, and rural clinics -- institutions dependent on government assistance. Physicians at these clinics may find themselves in a tough situation, unable to discuss all options with a patient. This will be particularly difficult in cases where the pregnancy is life-threatening, a situation in which the physician could be held medically liable. However, Astrue denies that physicians could be held liable, since a state malpractice law can't override a federal law. But despite the stringent gag rule, the director of family planning for the Colorado Department of Health in Denver, Joan Henneberry, predicts that clinics will look for a way to provide information about abortion to clients. One possible way might be for clinics to refer all women asking for a pregnancy to a prenatal or walk-in clinics which are not government-funded. Nonetheless, Henneberry says that the ban will be difficult to side-step, since anti-abortion groups have said that they will send people masquerading as patients to see if the ban is being enforced. PMID:12284062

1991-07-01

373

It's not Just Abortion, Stupid: Progressives and Abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Progressive men and women have found it extremely difficult to address issues of reproductive and sexual behavior-abortion, above all. Reproductive politics, in left circles, is not just about fighting the antiabortion movement or right-wing sexual conservatives for the hearts and minds of \\

Carole Joffe

2005-01-01

374

A review article on the benefits of early mobilization following spinal surgery and other medical/surgical procedures  

PubMed Central

Background: The impact of early mobilization on perioperative comorbidities and length of stay (LOS) has shown benefits in other medical/surgical subspecialties. However, few spinal series have specifically focused on the “pros” of early mobilization for spinal surgery, other than in acute spinal cord injury. Here we reviewed how early mobilization and other adjunctive measures reduced morbidity and LOS in both medical and/or surgical series, and focused on how their treatment strategies could be applied to spinal patients. Methods: We reviewed studies citing protocols for early mobilization of hospitalized patients (day of surgery, first postoperative day/other) in various subspecialties, and correlated these with patients’ perioperative morbidity and LOS. As anticipated, multiple comorbid factors (e.g. hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, hypothyroidism, obesity/elevated body mass index hypothyroidism, osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease and other factors) contribute to the risks and complications of immobilization for any medical/surgical patient, including those undergoing spinal procedures. Some studies additionally offered useful suggestions specific for spinal patients, including prehabilitation (e.g. rehabilitation that starts prior to surgery), preoperative and postoperative high protein supplements/drinks, better preoperative pain control, and early tracheostomy, while others cited more generalized recommendations. Results: In many studies, early mobilization protocols reduced the rate of complications/morbidity (e.g. respiratory decompensation/pneumonias, deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, urinary tract infections, sepsis or infection), along with the average LOS. Conclusions: A review of multiple medical/surgical protocols promoting early mobilization of hospitalized patients including those undergoing spinal surgery reduced morbidity and LOS. PMID:24843814

Epstein, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

375

Abortion, Moral Maturity and Civic Journalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributes to rhetoric, moral reasonings scholarship, and journalism scholarship by examining public rhetoric on abortion and American popular media coverage (1940s to 1990s). Finds that the feminine means of moral reasoning has emerged into the foreground of discourse on abortion. Compares emergence of a common-ground rhetoric on abortion with a…

Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hall, Megan Williams

1998-01-01

376

Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

2009-01-01

377

Aborting a Message Flowing Through Social Communities  

E-print Network

Aborting a Message Flowing Through Social Communities Cindy Hui Rutgers University Piscataway, New that incorporate group structures and the distribution of trust in designing a useful abort mechanism. Index Terms is spreading and we wish to spread a counter rumor. We investigate the aborting of a message that is currently

Magdon-Ismail, Malik

378

Aborting a Message Flowing Through Social Communities  

E-print Network

Aborting a Message Flowing Through Social Communities Cindy Hui, Malik Magdon-Ismail, William A in designing a useful abort mechanism. Index Terms--agent-based simulation, information diffusion, information investigate the aborting of a message that is currently diffusing through a network, with the purpose

Goldberg, Mark

379

Contesting the cruel treatment of abortion-seeking women.  

PubMed

This article draws on legal arguments made by civil society organisations to challenge the legal reasoning that apparently produced the decision in the Ms Y case in Ireland in August 2014. I show how legal standards of reasonableness and practicality ought to be interpreted in ways that are respectful of the patient's wishes and rights. The case concerned a decision by the Health Service Executive, the Irish public health authority, to refuse an abortion to a pregnant asylum seeker and rape survivor on the grounds that a caesarean section and early live delivery were practicable and reasonable alternatives justified by the need to protect fetal life. I argue that the abortion refusal may not have been a reasonable decision, as required by the terms of relevant legislation, for four different reasons. First, the alternative of a caesarean section and early live delivery was not likely to avert the risk of suicide, and in fact did not do so. Second, the consent to the caesarean section alternative may not have been a real consent in the legal sense if it was not voluntary. Third, an abortion refusal and forcible treatment fall below the norms of good medical practice as interpreted through a patient-centred perspective. Fourth, an abortion refusal that entails forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment ought not to be a reasonable action under the legislation. PMID:25555759

Fletcher, Ruth

2014-11-01

380

Human rights and abortion laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rights protections have developed to resist governmental intrusion in private life and choices. Abortion laws have evolved in legal practice to protect not fetuses as such but state interests, particularly in prenatal life. National and international tribunals are increasingly called upon to resolve conflicts between state enforcement of continuation of pregnancy against women's wishes and women's reproductive choices. Legal

R. J Cook; B. M Dickens

1999-01-01

381

The Deprivation Argument Against Abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTThe most plausible pro-life argument claims that abortion is seriously wrong because it deprives the foetus of something valuable. This paper examines two recent versions of this argument. Don Marquis's version takes the valuable thing to be a ‘future like ours’, a future containing valuable experiences and activities. Jim Stone's version takes the valuable thing to be a future containing

Dean Stretton

2004-01-01

382

A consideration of abortion survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesized that children who have siblings terminated by abortion have similar psychological conflicts to those children who survive disasters or siblings who die of accident or illness. There is evidence that children are aware of their mother's pregnancy termination. Having been chosen to survive these children may have considerable conflicts regarding their existence. Since their life depended upon

Philip G. Ney

1983-01-01

383

Estimating the Annual Incidence of Abortions in Iran Applying a Network Scale-up Approach  

PubMed Central

Background: Abortions are of major public health concern in developing countries. In settings in which abortion is highly prohibited, the direct interview is not a reliable method to estimate the abortion rate. The indirect estimation methods to measure the rate of abortion might overcome this dilemma; They are practical methods to estimate the size of the hidden group who do not agree to participate in a direct interview. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the practicality of an indirect method for estimating the abortion rate , Known as Network Scale-up, and to provide an estimate about the episode of abortion with and without medical indications (AWMI+ and AWMI-) in Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 31 provinces of Iran in 2012. A random sample between 200 and 1000 was selected in each province by the multistage sampling method that 75% of the data were collected from the capital and 25% from one main city. We selected samples from urban people more than 18 years old (12960) and we asked them about the number of abortion in women they knew who had experienced the medical and non-medical abortions in the past year. A range for the transparency factor was estimated based on the expert opinion. Results: The range of the transparency factors for AWMI+ and AWOMI- were 0.43-0.75 and 0.2-0.34, respectively. Regarding the AWMI+, our minimum and maximum estimations (per 1000 pregnancies) were 70.54 and 116.9, respectively. The corresponding figures for AWMI- were 93.18, and 148.7. Conclusions: The frequency rates for AWMI+ and AWMI- were relatively high. Therefore, the system has to address to this hidden problem using the appropriate preventive policies. PMID:25558379

Rastegari, Azam; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Haji-maghsoudi, Saiedeh; Nakhaee, Nowzar; Eslami, Mohammad; Malekafzali, Hossein; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

384

LHC abort gap cleaning studies during luminosity operation  

E-print Network

The presence of significant intensities of un-bunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC. Procedures using damper kickers for cleaning both the Abort Gap (AG) and the buckets targeted for injection, are currently in operation at flat bottom. Recent observations of relatively high population of the AG during physics runs brought up the need for AG cleaning during luminosity operation. In this paper the results of experimental studies performed in October 2011 are presented.

Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Jeff, A; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Roncarolo, F; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

2012-01-01

385

LHC Abort Gap Cleaning Studies During Luminosity Operation  

SciTech Connect

The presence of significant intensities of un-bunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC. Procedures using damper kickers for cleaning both the Abort Gap (AG) and the buckets targeted for injection, are currently in operation at flat bottom. Recent observations of relatively high population of the AG during physics runs brought up the need for AG cleaning during luminosity operation. In this paper the results of experimental studies performed in October 2011 are presented.

Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; /Fermilab; Bartmann, W.; Boccardi, A.; Bracco, C.; Bravin, E.; Goddard, B.; Hofle, W.; Jacquet, D.; Jeff, A.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; /CERN

2012-05-11

386

Post-abortion syndrome: creating an affliction.  

PubMed

The contention that abortion harms women constitutes a new strategy employed by the pro-life movement to supplement arguments about fetal rights. David C. Reardon is a prominent promoter of this strategy. Post-abortion syndrome purports to establish that abortion psychologically harms women and, indeed, can harm persons associated with women who have abortions. Thus, harms that abortion is alleged to produce are multiplied. Claims of repression are employed to complicate efforts to disprove the existence of psychological harm and causal antecedents of trauma are only selectively investigated. We argue that there is no such thing as post-abortion syndrome and that the psychological harms Reardon and others claim abortion inflicts on women can usually be ascribed to different causes. We question the evidence accumulated by Reardon and his analysis of data accumulated by others. Most importantly, we question whether the conclusions Reardon has drawn follow from the evidence he cites. PMID:19594725

Dadlez, E M; Andrews, William L

2010-11-01

387

Abortion returns to haunt US presidential campaign.  

PubMed

The abortion issue has infested national politics since 1973, now it returns to haunt the US presidential election politics. However, rather than serving as a customary rallying cause for Republicans, it is now a millstone around the neck of their candidate, Governor George Bush, who seeks a broad ideological span of voters to win his candidacy. Bush expressed strong anti-abortion sentiments to attract the die-hard right-to-life vote in the hard-fought primary campaign. For many years, the anti-abortion language in the US remains strident, however, it is clear that most voters support, or at least tolerate, the availability of abortion services. In his presidential campaign, Bush shied away from endorsing a constitutional amendment to ban abortion, and declared his opposition to any exceptions to an abortion ban. He is now on the record with numerous anti-abortion declarations, and holds endorsements from the pro-life camp. PMID:10791389

Greenberg, D S

2000-04-01

388

Characterization of size-specific particulate matter emission rates for a simulated medical laser procedure-a pilot study.  

PubMed

Prior investigation on medical laser interaction with tissue has suggested device operational parameter settings influence laser generated air contaminant emission, but this has not been systematically explored. A laboratory-based simulated medical laser procedure was designed and pilot tested to determine the effect of laser operational parameters on the size-specific mass emission rate of laser generated particulate matter. Porcine tissue was lased in an emission chamber using two medical laser systems (CO2, ? = 10600nm; Ho:YAG, ? = 2100nm) in a fractional factorial study design by varying three operational parameters (beam diameter, pulse repetition frequency, and power) between two levels (high and low) and the resultant plume was measured using two real-time size-selective particle counters. Particle count concentrations were converted to mass emission rates before an analysis of variance was used to determine the influence of operational parameter settings on size-specific mass emission rate. Particle shape and diameter were described for a limited number of samples by collecting particles on polycarbonate filters, and photographed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine method of particle formation. An increase in power and decrease in beam diameter led to an increase in mass emission for the Ho:YAG laser at all size ranges. For the CO2 laser, emission rates were dependent on particle size and were not statistically significant for particle ranges between 5 and 10 µm. When any parameter level was increased, emission rate of the smallest particle size range also increased. Beam diameter was the most influential variable for both lasers, and the operational parameters tested explained the most variability at the smallest particle size range. Particle shape was variable and some particles observed by SEM were likely created from mechanical methods. This study provides a foundation for future investigations to better estimate size-specific mass emission rates and particle characteristics for additional laser operational parameters in order to estimate occupational exposure, and to inform control strategies. PMID:25587187

Lopez, Ramon; Lacey, Steven E; Lippert, Julia F; Liu, Li C; Esmen, Nurtan A; Conroy, Lorraine M

2015-05-01

389

Costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households. Our aim was to study both costs and consequences of induced and spontaneous abortions and complications. We carried out a cross-sectional study between February and September 2012 in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Quantitative data of 305 women whose pregnancy ended with either an induced or a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic, asset ownership, medical and health expenditures including pre-referral costs following the patient’s perspective. Descriptive analysis and regression analysis of costs were performed. We found that women with induced abortion were often single or never married, younger, more educated and had earlier pregnancies than women with spontaneous abortion. They also tended to be more often under parents’ guardianship compared with women with spontaneous abortion. Women with induced abortion paid much more money to obtain abortion and treatment of the resulting complications compared with women with spontaneous abortion: US$89 (44 252 CFA ie franc of the African Financial Community) vs US$56 (27 668 CFA). The results also suggested that payments associated with induced abortion were catastrophic as they consumed 15% of the gross domestic product per capita. Additionally, 11–16% of total households appeared to have resorted to coping strategies in order to face costs. Both induced and spontaneous abortions may incur high expenses with short-term economic repercussions on households’ poverty. Actions are needed in order to reduce the financial burden of abortion costs and promote an effective use of contraceptives. PMID:24829315

Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Greco, Giulia; Sundby, Johanne; Torsvik, Gaute

2015-01-01

390

Illegal abortion: an attempt to assess its cost to the health services and its incidence in the community.  

PubMed

This article describes a study designed to test a method for assessing the cost to the health services of illegally induced abortion and the feasibility of estimating the incidence of induced abortion by a field interviewing approach. The participating centers included three hospitals in Ankara, Turkey; three hospitals in Ibadan, Nigeria; one hospital in Caracas and one in Valencia, Venezuela; and two hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Hospitalized abortion cases were classified as induced or spontaneous or as "probably induced," "possibly induced," or "unknown" according to a classification scheme comprising certain medical criteria. The sociodemographic characteristics of induced and spontaneous abortion cases were subjected to discriminant function analysis and the discriminating variables best characterizing the induced versus the spontaneous abortion groups were identified for each center. On the basis of this analysis, the "probably" and "possibly" induced and "unknown" categories were further classified as induced or spontaneous abortion, with stated probabilities. Thus an overall estimate is made of the proportion of all hospitalized abortions that can be considered illegally induced outside the hospital. Selected results on costs of induced and spontaneous abortion are shown. The method further tested the feasibility of obtaining valid survey data on abortion from the communities studied by re-interviewing the women hospitalized for induced and spontaneous abortion six months later in their homes. This exercise showed a degree of under-reporting of abortion that varied widely among centers, even among women who had admitted illegal induction at the time of hospitalization. The feasibility of estimating the incidence of illegal abortion by field studies is discussed in the light of these findings. PMID:3733306

Figà-Talamanca, I; Sinnathuray, T A; Yusof, K; Fong, C K; Palan, V T; Adeeb, N; Nylander, P; Onifade, A; Akin, A; Bertan, M

1986-01-01

391

Implementation of legal abortion in Nepal: a model for rapid scale-up of high-quality care  

PubMed Central

Unsafe abortion's significant contribution to maternal mortality and morbidity was a critical factor leading to liberalization of Nepal's restrictive abortion law in 2002. Careful, comprehensive planning among a range of multisectoral stakeholders, led by Nepal's Ministry of Health and Population, enabled the country subsequently to introduce and scale up safe abortion services in a remarkably short timeframe. This paper examines factors that contributed to rapid, successful implementation of legal abortion in this mountainous republic, including deliberate attention to the key areas of policy, health system capacity, equipment and supplies, and information dissemination. Important elements of this successful model of scaling up safe legal abortion include: the pre-existence of postabortion care services, through which health-care providers were already familiar with the main clinical technique for safe abortion; government leadership in coordinating complementary contributions from a wide range of public- and private-sector actors; reliance on public-health evidence in formulating policies governing abortion provision, which led to the embrace of medical abortion and authorization of midlevel providers as key strategies for decentralizing care; and integration of abortion care into existing Safe Motherhood and the broader health system. While challenges remain in ensuring that all Nepali women can readily exercise their legal right to early pregnancy termination, the national safe abortion program has already yielded strong positive results. Nepal's experience making high-quality abortion care widely accessible in a short period of time offers important lessons for other countries seeking to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity from unsafe abortion and to achieve Millennium Development Goals. PMID:22475782

2012-01-01

392

Costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

Little is known about the costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households. Our aim was to study both costs and consequences of induced and spontaneous abortions and complications. We carried out a cross-sectional study between February and September 2012 in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Quantitative data of 305 women whose pregnancy ended with either an induced or a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic, asset ownership, medical and health expenditures including pre-referral costs following the patient's perspective. Descriptive analysis and regression analysis of costs were performed. We found that women with induced abortion were often single or never married, younger, more educated and had earlier pregnancies than women with spontaneous abortion. They also tended to be more often under parents' guardianship compared with women with spontaneous abortion. Women with induced abortion paid much more money to obtain abortion and treatment of the resulting complications compared with women with spontaneous abortion: US$89 (44 252 CFA ie franc of the African Financial Community) vs US$56 (27 668 CFA). The results also suggested that payments associated with induced abortion were catastrophic as they consumed 15% of the gross domestic product per capita. Additionally, 11-16% of total households appeared to have resorted to coping strategies in order to face costs. Both induced and spontaneous abortions may incur high expenses with short-term economic repercussions on households' poverty. Actions are needed in order to reduce the financial burden of abortion costs and promote an effective use of contraceptives. PMID:24829315

Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Greco, Giulia; Sundby, Johanne; Torsvik, Gaute

2015-05-01

393

Effective Crew Operations: An Analysis of Technologies for Improving Crew Activities and Medical Procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's vision for space exploration (February 2004) calls for development of a new crew exploration vehicle, sustained lunar operations, and human exploration of Mars. To meet the challenges of planned sustained operations as well as the limited communications between Earth and the crew (e.g., Mars exploration), many systems will require crews to operate in an autonomous environment. It has been estimated that once every 2.4 years a major medical issue will occur while in space. NASA's future travels, especially to Mars, will begin to push this timeframe. Therefore, now is the time for investigating technologies and systems that will support crews in these environments. Therefore, this summer two studies were conducted to evaluate the technology and systems that may be used by crews in future missions. The first study evaluated three commercial Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS) (Versus, Ekahau, and Radianse) that can track equipment and people within a facility. While similar to Global Positioning Systems (GPS), the specific technology used is different. Several conclusions can be drawn from the evaluation conducted, but in summary it is clear that none of the systems provides a complete solution in meeting the tracking and technology integration requirements of NASA. From a functional performance (e.g., system meets user needs) evaluation perspective, Versus performed fairly well on all performance measures as compared to Ekahau and Radianse. However, the system only provides tracking at the room level. Thus, Versus does not provide the level of fidelity required for tracking assets or people for NASA requirements. From an engineering implementation perspective, Ekahau is far simpler to implement that the other two systems because of its wi-fi design (e.g., no required runs of cable). By looking at these two perspectives, one finds there was no clear system that met NASA requirements. Thus it would be premature to suggest that any of these systems are ready for implementation and further study is required.

Harvey, Craig

2005-01-01

394

Contraceptive knowledge and attitudes among women seeking induced abortion in Kathmandu, Nepal  

PubMed Central

Objective To map the knowledge about and attitudes toward birth control methods among women in Kathmandu, Nepal, and to compare the results between women seeking an induced abortion and a control group. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study with matched controls. Women aged 15–49 years seeking medical care at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Kathmandu Medical College were included and interviewed. A case was defined as a woman who sought an elective medical or surgical abortion. A control was defined as a woman who sought medical care at the outpatient department or had already been admitted to the ward for reasons other than elective abortion. A questionnaire developed for the study – dealing with different demographic characteristics as well as knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives – was filled out based on the interview. Results A total of 153 women were included: 64 women seeking an abortion and 89 controls. Women seeking an abortion had been pregnant more times than the control group and were more likely to have been informed about contraceptives. Women with higher education were less likely to seek an abortion than women with lower education. There was no significant difference in knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives between cases and controls. The women considered highest possible effectiveness to be the most important feature when deciding on a birth control method. Conclusion Women seeking abortion in Kathmandu had shorter education and a history of more pregnancies and deliveries than women in the control group. Education and counseling on sex and reproduction as well as on contraceptive methods probably need to be improved in Nepal to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Attitudes about contraceptives need to be further investigated to develop better and more effective methods to educate women about family planning in order to increase reproductive health. PMID:24672261

Berin, Emilia; Sundell, Micaela; Karki, Chanda; Brynhildsen, Jan; Hammar, Mats

2014-01-01

395

Termination of midtrimester missed abortion by extraovular instillation of normal saline.  

PubMed

Methods for inducing abortion in cases of intrauterine fetal death produce complications associated with the side effects of the drugs administered and with the difficulties of performing amniocentesis in missed abortion when there is little or no fluid left in the amniotic cavity. This study avoids these 2 sources of complications by using normal saline instilled through the cervix into the extraovular space; such method avoids the use of potentially dangerous substance and the difficulties of amniocentesis. During the period 1977-1979, 36 patients (aged 20 to 33 years; 14 nulliparous and 22 parous) with midtrimester missed abortion were admitted for evacuation of the uterus. Missed abortion was diagnosed by means of clinical examination, real time ultrasonography, and urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin (nCG) or estriol estimation. Uterine size in all patients was between 14 and 22 weeks gestation. Coagulation tests were done before and after abortion. The procedure was described in detail. Gentle curettage was performed under general anesthesia following expulsion of the fetus and the placenta. All patients aborted within 30 hours from time of instillation. 72% of the patients aborted within the first 24 hours after the saline instillation. Mean instillation-to-abortion interval was 15.4 hours. No significant differences were observed between parous and nulliparous women. Coagulation tests were normal, and there was no maternal morbidity during or after the procedure. The extraovular approach has the following advantages: 1) the procedure is simple, short and requires only a few instruments; 2) amniocentesis with its related risks and complications is avoided, an important advantage when there is little or no fluid left in the amniotic cavity; and 3) use of normal saline avoids the undesirable side effects of oxytocin, prostaglandins or hypertonic saline. PMID:7272266

Abramovici, H; Rofé, A; Atad, J; Lewin, A

1981-09-01

396

An obligation to provide abortion services: what happens when physicians refuse?  

PubMed Central

Access to abortion services in the United States continues to decline. It does so not because of significant changes in legislation or court rulings but because fewer and fewer physicians wish to perform abortions and because most states now have "conscientious objection" legislation that makes it easy for physicians to refuse to do so. We argue in this paper that physicians have an obligation to perform all socially sanctioned medical services, including abortions, and thus that the burden of justification lies upon those who wish to be excused from that obligation. That is, such persons should have to show how requiring them to perform abortions would represent a serious threat to their fundamental moral or religious beliefs. We use current California law as an example of legislation that does not take physicians' obligations into account and thus allows them too easily to declare conscientious objection. PMID:8731539

Meyers, C; Woods, R D

1996-01-01

397

An obligation to provide abortion services: what happens when physicians refuse?  

PubMed

Access to abortion services in the United States continues to decline. It does so not because of significant changes in legislation or court rulings but because fewer and fewer physicians wish to perform abortions and because most states now have "conscientious objection" legislation that makes it easy for physicians to refuse to do so. We argue in this paper that physicians have an obligation to perform all socially sanctioned medical services, including abortions, and thus that the burden of justification lies upon those who wish to be excused from that obligation. That is, such persons should have to show how requiring them to perform abortions would represent a serious threat to their fundamental moral or religious beliefs. We use current California law as an example of legislation that does not take physicians' obligations into account and thus allows them too easily to declare conscientious objection. PMID:8731539

Meyers, C; Woods, R D

1996-04-01

398

29 CFR 1913.10 - Rules of agency practice and procedure concerning OSHA access to employee medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concerning OSHA access to employee medical records. 1913.10 Section 1913...CONCERNING OSHA ACCESS TO EMPLOYEE MEDICAL RECORDS § 1913.10 Rules of agency...concerning OSHA access to employee medical records. (a) General policy....

2010-07-01

399

Religion and abortion: Roman Catholicism lost in the pelvic zone.  

PubMed

The Roman Catholic Church has held the most absolute and extreme position against abortion taken by any religious group. Opposition to abortion by US Catholic bishops has been unflagging since Roe vs. Wade was decided. The current strategy embraced by the bishops is to restrict access to abortion as a prelude to attaining a complete ban on the procedure. The bishops, of course, have a political and constitutional right to champion public policy issues. This ability is limited only by the laws regarding tax-exempt status which make it impossible for the bishops to endorse political candidates. Opponents of the positions of the bishops, in turn, have a right to challenge their positions. The bishops, acting jointly as the United States Catholic Conference (USCC), express their own opinions, not the opinions of the 53 million US Catholics and have been criticized by both conservative and progressive groups in the church. Since women can not become Catholic bishops, or even priests, they are excluded from meetings of the USCC. Catholic lay groups have expressed the view that there is more than one legitimate Catholic position regarding abortion and have even filed briefs in favor of retaining the decision reached in Roe vs. Wade. The bishops, however, are able to draw on a multitude of institutions to further their view and have enhanced the operations of their 28 statewide lobbying offices as the abortion battle has shifted to the states. The Webster decision signaled a return of the bishops to a prominent position in the anti-abortion campaign. Prior to Webster, they kept their distance from the Protestant religious right. With Webster, the bishops felt the time was right to press hard to further restrictions to access to abortion. As they began to apply pressure, a pro-choice backlash developed, with leading Catholic politicians adopting strong pro-choice positions. The bishops reacted by taking such aggressive actions as denouncing certain politicians by name. This behavior caused even more alienation of middle-of-the-road Catholics from the bishops' position. The bishops tried to recover by hiring a professional public relations firm and the pollster used by the Reagan administration. The public relations firm was dismissed within a year. Religious observers wonder why the church is so adamantly against abortion in every circumstance, despite the beliefs of its members. In fact, in 1974, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith noted the church's opposition to abortion but fell short of calling it murder and was honest about the church's ambiguity over the personhood of a fetus or at what stage in development the creator endows a fetus with a soul. This question has been debated by theologians since the early centuries of the church. Even the current Pope favors the term "that which is in the process of becoming" when discussing a fetus. In addition, church history and positions regarding the possibility of a "just war" make the church's adherence to the impossibility of a "just abortion" hard to justify. This hard-line position has removed the church from a position in which it could help women and society understand the values which must underly every decision to have an abortion. PMID:8274867

Kissling, F

1993-01-01

400

Departure phase aborts for manned Mars missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA goals are set on resumption of human activity on the Moon and extending manned missions to Mars. Abort options are key elements of any system designed to safeguard human lives and stated requirements stipulate the provision of an abort capability throughout the mission. The present investigation will focus on the formulation and analysis of possible abort modes during the Earth departure phase of manned Mars interplanetary transfers. Though of short duration, the departure phase encompasses a mission timeline where failures have frequently become manifest in historical manned spacecraft necessitating the inclusion of a departure phase abort capability. Investigated abort modes included aborts to atmospheric entry, and to Earth or Moon orbit. Considered interplanetary trajectory types included conjunction, opposition, and free-return trajectory classes. All abort modes were analyzed for aborts initiated at multiple points along each of these possible departure trajectories across all launch opportunities of the fifteen-year Earth-Mars inertial period. The consistently low departure velocities of the conjunction trajectories facilitated the greatest abort capability. An analysis of Mars transportation architectures was performed to determine the amount of available delta V inherent in each candidate architecture for executing departure aborts. Results indicate that a delta V of at least 4 km/s is required to achieve a continuous departure phase entry abort capability with abort flights less than three weeks duration for all transfer opportunity years. Less demanding transfer years have a corresponding increase in capability. The Earth orbit abort mode does not become widely achievable until more than 6 km/s delta V is provided; a capacity not manifest in any considered architecture. Optimization of the Moon abort mode resulted in slight departure date shifts to achieve improved lunar alignments. The Moon abort mode is only widely achievable for conjunction transfers during the optimum transfer years and delta V values greater than 4 km/s. A lesser delta V potential of 3 km/s is sufficient to enable entry aborts during the least demanding transfer opportunity years. Extensive abort capability is achievable for high delta V capable Mars architectures. Less propulsively capable architectures achieve moderate abort capability during favorable opportunity years.

Dissel, Adam F.

401

Abort Options for Potential Mars Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars trajectory design options were examined that would accommodate a premature termination of a nominal manned opposition class mission for opportunities between 2010 and 2025. A successful abort must provide a safe return to Earth in the shortest possible time consistent with mission constraints. In this study, aborts that provided a minimum increase in the initial vehicle mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) were identified by locating direct transfer nominal missions and nominal missions including an outbound or inbound Venus swing-by that minimized IMLEO. The ease with which these missions could be aborted while meeting propulsion and time constraints was investigated by examining free return (unpowered) and powered aborts. Further reductions in trip time were made to some aborts by the addition or removal of an inbound Venus swing-by. The results show that, although few free return aborts met the specified constraints, 85% of each nominal mission could be aborted as a powered abort without an increase in propellant. Also, in many cases, the addition or removal of a Venus swing-by increased the number of abort opportunities or decreased the total trip time during an abort.

Tartabini, P. V.; Striepe, S. A.; Powell, R. W.

1994-01-01

402

Differential Impact of Abortion on Adolescents and Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared adolescent and adult reactions to abortion among 252 women. Compared to adults, adolescents were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with choice of abortion and with services received, to have abortions later in gestational period, to feel forced by circumstances to have abortion, to report being misinformed at time of abortion,…

Franz, Wanda; Reardon, David

1992-01-01

403

Abortion Rights in Latin America (NYT) 539 words  

E-print Network

Abortion Rights in Latin America (NYT) 539 words Published: January 6, 2006 For proof that criminalizing abortion doesn't reduce abortion rates and only endangers the lives of women, consider Latin America. In most of the region, abortions are a crime, but the abortion rate is far higher than in Western

Lopez-Carr, David

404

College students’ attitudes toward abortion and commitment to the issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male and female participants were surveyed on abortion attitudes, commitment, and abortion experience. Results revealed a normal distribution of abortion attitudes rejecting the notion that the vast majority of the sample would have significantly pro-choice views. No significant difference was found in overall abortion attitudes of males vs. females, however, individuals with direct abortion experience were found to have significantly

Casey L Carlton; Eileen S Nelson; Priscilla K Coleman

2000-01-01

405

Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.  

PubMed

In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

Kumar, Ramya

2013-03-01

406

Abortion in Sri Lanka: The Double Standard  

PubMed Central

In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

2013-01-01

407

Women's perspectives on abortion in Romania.  

PubMed

Romanian women have commonly used abortion (both legal and clandestine) to prevent unwanted births. We introduce this paper with a brief summary of the recent history of abortion in Romania, then we combine quantitative data from a previous report ([1] Johnson et al., Lancet 341, 875, 1993) of the research with women's own words about the following issues: their decisions to have an abortion, the impact of abortion restrictions under the Ceau?escu government, and their needs and desires for improved reproductive health services. We also present gynaecologists' views of abortion restrictions and needs for improved family-planning services to make a compelling case for the need for safe, legal, comprehensive abortion care in Romania and elsewhere. PMID:8643978

Johnson, B R; Horga, M; Andronache, L

1996-02-01

408

What do abortion policies accomplish? : understanding how abortion laws and court cases affect public opinion  

E-print Network

Abortion is a loaded, controversial, and divisive sociocultural and political term, concept, and debate. Yet little empirical research has been conducted to examine what effects abortion rights legislation and court cases ...

Hernandez, Cory D

2014-01-01

409

Midwives and abortion care: a model for achieving competency.  

PubMed

Throughout history, the care of women's reproductive health needs has included termination of unwanted pregnancy. Unfortunately, access to safe first-trimester abortion is restricted by a lack of skilled providers. In an effort to provide data-based evidence and increase access to first-trimester abortion care in California, the University of California, San Francisco, under the auspices of the Health Workforce Pilot Program, developed a competency-based training model to increase the number of certified nurse-midwives, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants who can provide uterine aspiration. This article describes the training program, which uses a curriculum comprising both self-directed didactic material and supervised clinical experience with a minimum of 40 procedures. Successful completion of the program requires passing a written examination and satisfactory achievement of a competency-based clinical assessment. Thirty-eight trainees have completed the training to date, achieving competency following an average of 6 training days. Competency development in the clinical area is monitored by both the trainer and the trainee, using daily and final competency assessments in 4 domains: patient comfort, procedural completeness, speed, and ability to identify problems. Analysis of complications is used to identify concerns about clinician safety. The availability of a competency-based training curriculum for uterine aspiration has the potential to increase the number of first-trimester abortion providers by making training available to experienced clinicians, including nurse-midwives, who would like to provide this care. PMID:22594867

Levi, Amy; Angel James, Evelyn; Taylor, Diana

2012-01-01

410

To be presented at the RTO HFM Symposium on Combat Ca ualty Care in Ground-Based" s Tactical Situations: Trauma Technology and Emergency Medical Procedures,"  

E-print Network

To be presented at the RTO HFM Symposium on Combat Ca ualty Care in Ground-Based" s Tactical Situations: Trauma Technology and Emergency Medical Procedures," St. Pete Beach, U.S., 16-18 August 2004 Life uncertainty, sensory information patterns and reliability of the hardware. This information will be made

411

Abortion, embryonic stem cell research, and waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can one consistently deny the permissibility of abortion while endorsing the killing of human embryos for the sake of stem\\u000a cell research? The question is not trivial; for even if one accepts that abortion is prima facie wrong in all cases, there\\u000a are significant differences with many of the embryos used for stem cell research from those involved in abortion—most

David A. Jensen

2008-01-01

412

An AbortAn Abort--Aware Model ofAware Model of Transactional ProgrammingTransactional Programming  

E-print Network

An AbortAn Abort--Aware Model ofAware Model of Transactional ProgrammingTransactional Programming ­ An abort-aware semantics for transactions · Part 2: TSMs = Transactional State Machines ­ A finite-terminating transactions (known) ­ Ignores STM/HTM aborted transactions: for responsiveness, "abort" cannot be equal

Rajamani, Sriram K.

413

The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.  

PubMed

In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237

Sachdev, P

1994-01-01

414

Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

Allanson, Susie

2007-01-01

415

Why women are dying from unsafe abortion: narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers.  

PubMed

In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the life-threatening impact that stigma, financial restraints, and confusion regarding abortion law have on the women of Ghana who seek abortion. They posit that the vast majority of serious abortion complications arise in the setting of clandestine or self-induced second trimester attempts, suggesting that training greater numbers of physicians to perform second trimester abortion is prerequisite to reducing maternal mortality. They also recognized that an adequate supply of abortion providers alone is a necessary but insufficient step toward reducing death from unsafe abortion. Rather, improved accessibility and cultural acceptability of abortion are integral to the actual utilization of safe services. Their insights suggest that any comprehensive plan aimed at reducing maternal mortality must consider avenues that address the multiple dimensions which influence the practice and utilization of safe abortion, especially in the second trimester. PMID:24069757

Payne, Carolyn M; Debbink, Michelle Precourt; Steele, Ellen A; Buck, Caroline T; Martin, Lisa A; Hassinger, Jane A; Harris, Lisa H

2013-06-01

416

21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050 Section 884...884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to...

2014-04-01

417

21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050 Section 884...884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to...

2010-04-01

418

21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

2012-04-01

419

21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050 Section 884...884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to...

2011-04-01

420

21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

2013-04-01

421

21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

2014-04-01

422

21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

2010-04-01

423

21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

2011-04-01

424

21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050 Section 884...884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to...

2012-04-01

425

Abortion legislation: exploring perspectives of general practitioners and obstetrics and gynaecology clinicians.  

PubMed

Abortion legislation remains a contentious topic in the UK, which receives much attention from politicians, clinicians and professional bodies alike. In this study, the perspectives of general practitioners and obstetrics and gynaecology clinicians on the Abortion Act 1967 was explored. To this end, a short electronic questionnaire was distributed to all 211 GP and obstetrics and gynaecology clinicians affiliated with the University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine. Of the 100 anonymous responses collected, a significant majority felt that abortion law in Northern Ireland should be changed in line with the rest of the UK. The respondents' votes, however, were either opposed to or divided over any other changes to the Abortion Act, including altering the 24 week time limit, clarifying the legal definition of fetal abnormalities, introducing abortion purely on the woman's request, and modifying the requirement for two clinicians to approve any request for abortion. These perspectives were not entirely aligned with the recommendations of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee, or with current medical evidence and demographic data. PMID:25498561

Theodosiou, Anastasia A; Mitchell, Oliver R

2015-02-01

426

J-2X Abort System Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

2008-01-01

427

Anxiety Around Medical Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

428

The Effects of Bariatric Procedures versus Medical Therapy for Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the effects of bariatric surgery versus medical therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods. The Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, Chinese biomedical literature database, and Wanfang database up to February 2012 were searched. The literature searches strategies contained terms (“diabetes?”, “surg?”, and “medic?” were used), combined with the medical subject headings. Randomized controlled trails (RCTs) of frequently used bariatric surgery for obese patients with type 2 diabetes were included. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were performed according to the Cochrane standards. Results. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 170 patients in the bariatric surgery groups and 100 patients in the medical therapy group were selected. Compared with medical therapy, bariatric surgery for type 2 diabetes can significantly decrease the levels of HbA1c, FBG, weight, triglycerides, and the dose of hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering medicine, while increasing the rate of diabetes remission (RR = 9.74, 95%CI, (1.36, 69.66)) and the levels of high-density lipoprotein. However, there are no statistical differences in serious adverse events between the surgical and medical groups (RR = 1.23, 95%CI, (0.80, 1.87)). Conclusions. Surgical procedures were more likely to help patients achieve benefits than medical therapy alone. Further intensive RCTs of high-quality, multiple centers and long-term followup should be carried out to provide more reliable evidence. PMID:23971035

Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Youcheng

2013-01-01

429

Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

2002-01-01

430

Abortion and Social Change in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently collected data from a survey of the attitudes of 1,843 elite members of both traditional and new institutions towards abortion indicate that, barring a major religious revival, a relatively permissive abortion policy will probably continue whether or not the Supreme Court curtails or overturns Roe vs. Wade. (FMW)

Lerner, Robert; And Others

1990-01-01

431

Myths with Facts: SEX-SELECTIVE ABORTION  

E-print Network

Replacing Myths with Facts: SEX-SELECTIVE ABORTION LAWS IN THE UNITED STATES I N T E R N A T I O N, San Francisco. #12;Replacing Myths with Facts: SEX-SELECTIVE ABORTION LAWS IN THE UNITED STATES JUNE

Butler, Laurie J.

432

Induced abortions and unintended pregnancies in pakistan.  

PubMed

During the past decade, unmet need for family planning has remained high in Pakistan and gains in contraceptive prevalence have been small. Drawing upon data from a 2012 national study on postabortion-care complications and a methodology developed by the Guttmacher Institute for estimating abortion incidence, we estimate that there were 2.2 million abortions in Pakistan in 2012, an annual abortion rate of 50 per 1,000 women. A previous study estimated an abortion rate of 27 per 1,000 women in 2002. After taking into consideration the earlier study's underestimation of abortion incidence, we conclude that the abortion rate has likely increased substantially between 2002 and 2012. Varying contraceptive-use patterns and abortion rates are found among the provinces, with higher abortion rates in Baluchistan and Sindh than in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. This suggests that strategies for coping with the other wise uniformly high unintended pregnancy rates will differ among provinces. The need for an accelerated and fortified family planning program is greater than ever, as is the need to implement strategies to improve the quality and coverage of postabortion services. PMID:25469930

Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Rashida, Gul; Shah, Zakir; Niazi, Rehan

2014-12-01

433

Meeting the need for induced abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced abortion should be freely available as part of the strategy to prevent unwanted pregnancy and particularly to reduce teenage maternities. The service is an important public health measure and should be easily accessible to all women, especially those who live in socially deprived communities. In the short-term abortion rates may rise and this should be seen as a positive

Sarah H Wilson

2001-01-01

434

Clinical observations and management of a severe equine herpesvirus type 1 outbreak with abortion and encephalomyelitis  

PubMed Central

Latent equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection is common in horse populations worldwide and estimated to reach a prevalence nearing 90% in some areas. The virus causes acute outbreaks of disease that are characterized by abortion and sporadic cases of myeloencephalopathy (EHM), both severe threats to equine facilities. Different strains vary in their abortigenic and neuropathogenic potential and the simultaneous occurrence of EHM and abortion is rare. In this report, we present clinical observations collected during an EHV-1 outbreak caused by a so-called “neuropathogenic” EHV-1 G2254/D752 polymerase (Pol) variant, which has become more prevalent in recent years and is less frequently associated with abortions. In this outbreak with 61 clinically affected horses, 6/7 pregnant mares aborted and 8 horses developed EHM. Three abortions occurred after development of EHM symptoms. Virus detection was performed by nested PCR targeting gB from nasal swabs (11 positive), blood serum (6 positive) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (9 positive) of a total of 42 horses sampled. All 6 fetuses tested positive for EHV-1 by PCR and 4 by virus isolation. Paired serum neutralization test (SNT) on day 12 and 28 after the index case showed a significant (? 4-fold) increase in twelve horses (n = 42; 28.6%). This outbreak with abortions and EHM cases on a single equine facility provided a unique opportunity for the documentation of clinical disease progression as well as diagnostic procedures. PMID:23497661

2013-01-01

435

Seeing and knowingUltrasound images in the contemporary abortion debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foetal images have been central to the medicalized abortion debate since the 1960s. Feminists have extensively analysed such pictures, arguing that the pregnant body is separated from the foetus and erased from view, and that the rights of women and foetuses are set in opposition. In this article I introduce the latest image in this debate, the 3D sonogram, which

Julie Palmer

2009-01-01

436

Opinions of gynaecologists on prenatal diagnostics in first\\/second trimester and abortion - ethical aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of the study was the assessment of the influence of ethics or the lack of medical ethics on everyday gynaecological practice, particularly the usefulness and pur - pose of detecting genetic irregularities in the first and second trimester and abortions. Material and methods: A sample of 164 gynaecological doctors was encompassed by the study. A questionnaire survey

Knapp P

2007-01-01

437

Reproductive health information and abortion services: standards developed by the European Court of Human Rights.  

PubMed

In 3 recent judgments, the European Court of Human Rights addressed the issue of access to abortion and related reproductive health services. In 2 of the judgments, the Court declared that the state violated women's rights by obstructing access to legal health services, including abortion. In so doing, it referred to the state's failure to implement domestic norms on prenatal testing and conscientious objection, and recognized the relevance of international medical guidelines. This illustrates that domestic and international medical standards can serve as critical guidance to human rights courts. In the third case, the Court showed its unwillingness to declare access to abortion a human right per se, which is troubling from the perspective of women's right to health and dignity. The present article outlines the relevance of these cases for the reproductive health profession and argues that medical professional societies can influence human rights courts by developing and enforcing medical standards, not only for the benefit of abortion rights domestically but also for the advancement of women's human rights worldwide. PMID:23773435

Westeson, Johanna

2013-08-01

438

Posttraumatic stress among women after induced abortion: a Swedish multi-centre cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Induced abortion is a common medical intervention. Whether psychological sequelae might follow induced abortion has long been a subject of concern among researchers and little is known about the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and induced abortion. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of PTSD and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) before and at three and six months after induced abortion, and to describe the characteristics of the women who developed PTSD or PTSS after the abortion. Methods This multi-centre cohort study included six departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Sweden. The study included 1457 women who requested an induced abortion, among whom 742 women responded at the three-month follow-up and 641 women at the six-month follow-up. The Screen Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD) was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS, and anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Measurements were made at the first visit and at three and six months after the abortion. The 95% confidence intervals for the prevalence of lifetime or ongoing PTSD and PTSS were calculated using the normal approximation. The chi-square test and the Student’s t-test were used to compare data between groups. Results The prevalence of ongoing PTSD and PTSS before the abortion was 4.3% and 23.5%, respectively, concomitant with high levels of anxiety and depression. At three months the corresponding rates were 2.0% and 4.6%, at six months 1.9% and 6.1%, respectively. Dropouts had higher rates of PTSD and PTSS. Fifty-one women developed PTSD or PTSS during the observation period. They were young, less well educated, needed counselling, and had high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. During the observation period 57 women had trauma experiences, among whom 11 developed PTSD or PTSS and reported a traumatic experience in relation to the abortion. Conclusion Few women developed PTSD or PTSS after the abortion. The majority did so because of trauma experiences unrelated to the induced abortion. Concomitant symptoms of depression and anxiety call for clinical alertness and support. PMID:24364878

2013-01-01

439

Decommissioning procedures for an 11 MeV self-shielded medical cyclotron after 16 years of working time.  

PubMed

The present article describes the decommissioning of a compact, self-shielded, 11 MeV medical cyclotron. A Monte Carlo simulation of the possible nuclear reactions was performed in order to plan the decommissioning activities. In the course of the cyclotron dismantling, cyclotron components, shields, and floor concrete samples were measured. Residual activities were analyzed with a Ge(Li) detector and compared with simulation data. Doses to staff involved in the decommissioning procedure were monitored by individual TL dosimeters. The simulations identified five radioactive nuclides in shields and floor concrete: 55Fe and 45Ca (beta emitters, total specific activity: 2.29 x 10(4) Bq kg) and 152Eu, 154Eu, 60Co (gamma emitters, total specific activity: 1.62 x 10(3) Bq kg-1). Gamma-ray spectrometry confirmed the presence of gamma emitters, corresponding to a total specific activity of 3.40 x 10(2) Bq kg-1. The presence of the radioisotope 124Sb in the lead contained in the shield structure, corresponding to a simulated specific activity of 9.38 x 10(3) Bq kg-1, was experimentally confirmed. The measured dose from external exposure of the involved staff was <20 muSv, in accordance with the expected range of values between 10 and 20 muSv. The measured dose from intake was negligible. Finally, the decommissioning of the 11 MeV cyclotron does not represent a risk for the involved staff, but due to the presence of long-lived radioisotopes, the cyclotron components are to be treated as low level radioactive waste and stored in an authorized storage area. PMID:16691108

Calandrino, R; del Vecchio, A; Savi, A; Todde, S; Griffoni, V; Brambilla, S; Parisi, R; Simone, G; Fazio, F

2006-06-01

440

Effective analgesic dose of dexamethasone after painless abortion  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Dexamethasone is known to produce analgesic effects, but the optimal analgesic dosage of dexamethasone remains unclear, especially in patients without postoperative use of other analgesics. The purpose of this study was to explore the effective analgesic dose of dexamethasone in day surgery patients undergoing painless abortion. Methods: 287 patients undergoing painless abortion were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control group receiving saline and dexamethasone groups receiving 0.1, 0.15, or 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone. Drugs were intravenously injected 30 min before induction of anesthesia. All patients underwent the same anesthesia procedure using propofol and remifentan. The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and occurrence of nausea, vomiting and drug-induced side effects were recorded at 1, 2 and 24 h after operation. Results: There were no significant differences in patient’s clinical characteristics, surgical features and frequency of occurrence of nausea and vomiting among the four groups (P > 0.05). The VAS scores at rest and during coughing at 2 h after operation (time of discharge from the hospital) were significantly lower in patients receiving 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone compared with control patients (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Intravenous injection of 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone before induction of anesthesia can significantly reduce the VAS scores at 2 h after painless abortion. PMID:25232399

Quan, Zhe-Feng; Tian, Ming; Chi, Ping; Li, Xin; He, Hai-Li

2014-01-01

441

Evaluation of a multi-pronged intervention to improve access to safe abortion care in two districts in Jharkhand  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the adoption of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act in 1972, access to safe abortion services remains limited in India. Awareness of the legality of abortion also remains low, leading many women to seek services outside the health system. Medical abortion (MA) is an option that has the potential to expand access to safe abortion services. A multi-pronged intervention covering a population of 161,000 in 253 villages in the Silli and Khunti blocks of Jharkhand was conducted between 2007 and 2009, seeking to improve medical abortion services and create awareness at the community level by providing information through community intermediaries and creating an enabling environment through a behavior change communication campaign. The study evaluates the changes in knowledge about abortion-related issues, changes in abortion care-seeking, and service utilization as a result of this intervention. Methods A baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted pre-intervention (n?=?1,253) followed by an endline survey (n?=?1,290) one year after the completion of the intervention phase. In addition, monitoring data from intervention facilities was collected monthly over the study period. Results Nearly 85% of respondents reported being exposed to safe abortion messaging as a result of the intervention. Awareness of the legality of abortion increased significantly from 19.7% to 57.6% for women, as did awareness of the specific conditions for which abortion is allowed. Results were similar for men. There was also a significant increase in the proportion of men and women who knew of a legal and safe provider and place from where abortion services could be obtained. Multivariate analysis showed positive associations between exposure to any component of the intervention and increased knowledge about legality and gestational age limits, however only interpersonal communication was associated with a significant increase in knowledge of where to obtain safe services (OR 4.8, SE 0.67). Utilization of safe abortion services, and in particular MA, increased at all intervention sites over the duration of the intervention with a shift towards women seeking care earlier in pregnancy. Conclusion The evaluation demonstrates the success of the intervention and its potential for replication in similar contexts within India. PMID:24886273

2014-01-01

442

In Chile, therapeutic abortion still a crime. September 28: Latin American Day for Decriminalization of Abortion.  

PubMed

In September 1993, a two-day symposium on abortion legalization was held in Chile, where abortion, which had been legal since the 1930s, was banned by the outgoing military junta in 1989. Organizers of the symposium labeled the ban "a law to punish and to be flaunted," and, indeed, each year approximately 200,000 Chilean women resort to abortion and more than 30,000 are hospitalized for abortion complications. It has been estimated that one woman has died of abortion complications in Chile each week for the past five years. Legislation proposed in 1991 to reinstate therapeutic abortion has stalled because of broad spectrum political opposition, pressure from the Roman Catholic Church, and upcoming elections. In this politically hostile climate, 43% of respondents in a poll said abortion should be permitted in certain cases, 3% said it should be available to all women, and nearly 53% upheld the ban. Research on public support for abortion has indicated that opinions about abortion depend upon the phrasing of the questions and that women's attitudes towards abortion are shaped by their experiences and those of their relatives and friends rather than by legal or religious prohibitions. PMID:12179718

1993-01-01

443

Bills to decriminalize abortion in Brazil.  

PubMed

The National Congress in Brazil is currently considering 9 abortion bills, 2 of which were introduced by women. In this interview, the women senators--Jandira Feghall of the Communist Party and Eva Blay of the Social Democrat Party--discuss the likely outcome of the abortion debate. Although the Roman Catholic Church has announced its intentions to oppose any liberalization of the abortion law, there are divisions within the Church as evidenced by the existence of groups such as Catholics for a Free Choice. Both senators agree that decriminalization of abortion will depend upon the societal response and an effort must be made to reach the many people who are confused and undecided about the issue. Although the present debate fits within the broader current debate on population policies, it has been the insistence of the feminist movement that put abortion reform on the agenda. Blay's bill calls for the legalization of abortion on demand until the 12th week of pregnancy and in cases of rape or risk to the woman's life after that point. A controversial aspect of Feghall's bill is the inclusion of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection as a condition for abortion. Feghall notes that this is an option rather than a requirement, but she will eliminate this condition if it engenders discrimination against HIV-infected women. PMID:12318722

1994-01-01

444

Ascent abort capability for the HL-20  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HL-20 has been designed with the capability for rescue of the crew during all phases of powered ascent from on the launch pad until orbital injection. A launch-escape system, consisting of solid rocket motors located on the adapter between the HL-20 and the launch vehicle, provides the thrust that propels the HL-20 to a safe distance from a malfunctioning launch vehicle. After these launch-escape motors have burned out, the adapter is jettisoned and the HL-20 executes one of four abort modes. In three abort modes - return-to-launch-site, transatlantic-abort-landing, and abort-to-orbit - not only is the crew rescued, but the HL-20 is recovered intact. In the ocean-landing-by-parachute abort mode, which occurs in between the return-to-launch-site and the transatlantic-abort-landing modes, the crew is rescued, but the HL-20 would likely sustain damage from the ocean landing. This paper describes the launch-escape system and the four abort modes for an ascent on a Titan III launch vehicle.

Naftel, J. C.; Talay, T. A.

1993-10-01

445

Adolescent autonomy and minors' legal rights: contraception and abortion.  

PubMed

During adolescence, dependent children grow into independent and autonomous adults, and it is necessary to make difficult policy judgements about children's rights. Questions that arise include: shoudl minors have the right to work, to marry, to make legal contracts, and to obtain medical care without parental consent; or should parental consent be required by the state in order to protect minors and to preserve parental authority. This discussion focuses upon the area of family planning, a topic of special interest to policymakers because they now face many questions about minor's contraceptive and abortion rights in Congress, in state legislatures, and in the courts. comprehensive response to policy questions about family planning rights for minors would require information about adolescent development, maturity, and autonomy; about teenagers' sexual and contraceptive attitudes and behavior; about the nature of parent-child communication regarding sexual and contraceptive questions; and about politics and values. Many from the legal system want help in answering questions about minors' rights. As little research has been conducted, policymakers can obtain only limited guidance from social scientists. As the policy issue is fundamentally tied to developmental issues, the better the knowledge about the development of cognitive competence, social competence, and autonomy, the easier it will be to make the difficult legal and policy judgements about minor's rights. Regarding minors' access to contraceptives, the situation is somewhat cloudy. There is only 1 state statute that requires parental consent for access to contraceptive medical services, passed in Utah in 1981, and pertaining to services provided with public funds. Yet, common law requires parental consent for any medical treatment (with exceptions for emancipated or mature minors) and "physicians often hesitate to serve young people without first obtaining parental consent because they fear civil liability." The situation is even more cloudy in the case of abortion. The Supreme Court's present position seems to grant emancipated and mature minors access to abortion without a requirement for parental consent or notification, but states may place some requirements for parental involvement upon other minors, as long as these minors have an alternative route to abortion. A thorough search of the literature on adolescent development reveals that the policy questions loom larger than the alternatives. 2 policy alternatives are: to single out a reasonable age below which minors require either parental consent or some form of adult involvement; or treat family planning and fertility control as basic rights which cannot be abridged because of age. PMID:12266643

Rodman, H; Griffith, S B

1982-01-01

446

USA aborts international family planning.  

PubMed

The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been a leader in international family planning for almost 30 years, accounting for 46% of all funds in international family planning provided by OECD countries during 1991. Moreover, relative to other donor countries, the US supplies worldwide a disproportionate amount of contraceptives. While international family planning activities received $546 million in 1995, the budget was slashed in 1996 to $72 million. This unprecedented cut will have a profound effect upon the reproductive health and family planning choices of tens of millions of people in developing countries. Millions of additional unintended pregnancies and maternal and child deaths may result. 1996 began with the White House and Congress in political gridlock, with negotiations on foreign aid stalled on the issue of abortion. The Republican-led House of Representatives wanted to bar support of any nongovernmental organization (NGO) which also provided information on abortion, while Democratic President Bill Clinton affirmed that he would veto such legislation. At the end of January, the House passed the Balanced Budget and Down Payment Act (HR 2880) containing clauses which cut the aid budget by 35% and barring new money in the area of family planning until July 1. Spending was limited to the allocation of 6.5% of the total budget each month. Some social marketing programmers who distribute condoms and oral contraceptives are already feeling the pinch, and some programs will simply run out of contraceptives. This cut in funding also bodes ill for achieving the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. There is, however, hope that the cuts will be reversed for the next fiscal year. The author notes survey findings which indicate that US citizens support higher budgets for family planning. PMID:8596311

Potts, M

1996-03-01

447

On Avoiding Spare Aborts in Transactional Memory Idit Keidar  

E-print Network

On Avoiding Spare Aborts in Transactional Memory Idit Keidar Dept. of Electrical Engineering a theory for un- derstanding aborts in transactional memory systems (TMs). Existing TMs may abort many transactions that could, in fact, commit without violating correctness. We call such unnecessary aborts spare

Keidar, Idit

448

Introduction to Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test Overview  

E-print Network

#12;2 Agenda · Introduction to Orion · Pad Abort 1 Flight Test Overview · Pad Abort 1 Vehicle Description ­ Launch Abort System ­ Crew Module Simulator · Mission and Timeline · Test Objectives · Mission Success · WSMR Range and Test Day Plan #12;3 Launch Abort System · Safely removes the crew from launch

449

Solo-fast Universal Constructions for Deterministic Abortable Objects  

E-print Network

Solo-fast Universal Constructions for Deterministic Abortable Objects Claire Capdevielle, Colette. In this paper we study efficient implementations for deterministic abortable objects. Deterministic abortable abort to indicate that the operation failed (and did not take effect) when there is contention

Johnen, Colette

450

The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

Medoff, Marshall

2010-01-01

451

Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2  

E-print Network

To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 ?s long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

2015-01-01

452

A Collaborative Approach to Building a Terminology for Medical Procedures using a Web-based Application : From Specifications to daily use  

PubMed Central

The MAOUSSC (Model for Assistance in the Orientation of a User within Coding Systems) Web server supports a collaborative work on the description of medical procedures. The specifications for the MAOUSSC application are conceptual modeling, definition of semantically fully described procedures, re-use of an existing vocabulary, the UMLS, and sharability. This paper reports on some difficulties in applying those principles in a networked building and updating of the terminology. The users are physicians who have to represent procedure terms in the MAOUSSC formalism. They must apply the constraints of the underlying model, and re-use the representation of the UMLS knowledge base. In our experience, we found that the implementation of syntactic and semantic constraints was not sufficient. Guidelines for pragmatical aspects in representation are required to make a collaborative approach in terminology building more operational. PMID:10384524

Burgun, Anita; Bodenreider, Olivier; Denier, Patrick; Delamarre, Denis; Botti, Geneviève; Oberlin, Philippe; Lévêque, Jean-Michel; Brémond, Marc; Fieschi, Mario; Beux, Pierre Le

2015-01-01

453

Triangular Assessment of the Etiology of Induced Abortion in Iran: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background About 46 million induced abortions occur in the world annually. The studies have reported 80000 cases of induced abortions in Iran annually. Objectives This qualitative study was conducted to identify the causes of unsafe abortion in Iran from the standpoint of three groups of experts, women with a history of abortion or unwanted pregnancy and service providers. Patients and Methods A total of 72 in-depth semi structured interviews were conducted in 2012 in Tehran and Shahroud. After coordination with 8 experts, sampling from them was done using the Snowballing method in their offices. Sampling from 28 married and 10 engaged women with a history of unwanted pregnancy or unsafe abortion and 12 providers was done in health care centers and a in number of gynecologists’ and midwives’ offices. Sampling from women with a history of unwanted pregnancy or unsafe abortion such as single women, HIV positive women and drug users, and women who had sexual intercourse for money was started by referring to the social rehabilitation center for women and continued using the snowballing method due to difficulties in accessing them. Participants were from different ethnic groups including Fars, Gilaks, Mazandarani, Arab, Azerbaijani, and Lor. Content analysis was performed on collected data. Results Based on the results of the interviews, participants have abortion for following reasons: 1. Wanted pregnancy (sub categories: fetal abnormalities, Concern about fetal health and lack of trust to prenatal diagnostic methods, Fetal sex, Lack of independent and free decision making regarding pregnancy in women, 2. Unwanted pregnancy (sub-categories: Socio-economic factors, Beliefs and feelings, Lack of information about family planning) 3. Predisposing factors (sub-categories: Lack of information on religious aspects of abortion, Easy access to easy abortion methods). Some people, despite having unwanted pregnancy due to social, economic, cultural and family grounds, continued their pregnancy and did not have an abortion for the following reasons: Religious beliefs, Beliefs (fear of punishment in the afterlife and believing in fate) , Attachment to the unborn baby, Influence of the other people’s opinions (physician, mother or spouse) Late diagnosis of pregnancy, Unsuccessful abortion attempts (Self-treatment, Unsuccessful medical abortion), Economic weakness and arbitrary treatment. Conclusions In the present study, women who continued their pregnancy despite being unwanted were also interviewed. Although they had the same social, economic, cultural, and family problems as women with a history of unsafe abortion and had easy access to abortion, analysis showed that the difference in religious beliefs between the two groups was the most important factor that led women to choose two different approaches. The authors believe that in-depth analysis of people’s beliefs and opinions in this regard and correction of false beliefs plays a crucial role in decreasing the rate of unsafe abortion. PMID:24719694

Motaghi, Zahra; Keramat, Afsaneh; Shariati, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud

2013-01-01

454

[Cytotec and abortion: the police, the vendors and women].  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the illegal trade in misoprostol, the medication predominantly used for abortion in Brazil. The study analyzed ten cases that came to the attention of the Public Prosecution Service for the Federal District between 2004 and 2010. The cases were organized into three categories: 1. women's stories; 2. profile of the vendors; 3. maternal mortality cases. The research was reviewed by an ethics committee. The main outcomes were: 1. young women in steady relationships use misoprostol in the home or with the assistance of drug vendors. Of the seven women indicted, three were reported on arrival at the public hospital to finalize abortion; 2. the drug vendors work at the community drugstore and are local agents for the sale of misoprostol. They instruct women on how to use the drug and how to prevent infections, but refuse to provide them with care in case of emergency. Traffickers operate via the internet and have a larger inventory of drugs; 3. there were two cases of maternal mortality due to the combination of high risk methods, such as a vaginal probe and misoprostol. The main causes for maternal mortality are the delay in seeking medical care, as the women fear criminal prosecution, and the combined use of misoprostol with high risk methods. PMID:22872341

Diniz, Debora; Madeiro, Alberto

2012-07-01

455

Age Patterns of Unsafe Abortion in Developing Country Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, 19 million women are estimated to undergo unsafe abortions each year. Age patterns of unsafe abortion are critical for tailoring effective interventions to prevent unsafe abortion and for providing post-abortion care. This paper estimates the incidence and the rate of unsafe abortion among women aged 15–44 in the Africa, Asia (excluding Eastern Asia), and Latin America\\/Caribbean regions, where a

Iqbal Shah; Elisabeth Åhman

2004-01-01

456

A framework for analyzing sex-selective abortion: the example of changing sex ratios in Southern Caucasus  

PubMed Central

The paper proposes a socioeconomic framework of supply, demand, and regulation to explain the development of sex-selective abortion in several parts of the world. The framework is then applied to three countries of southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) where sex-selective abortion has developed since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The authors argue that sex-selective abortion cannot be explained simply by patriarchal social systems, sex discrimination, or son preference. The emphasis is put on the long-term acceptability of abortion in the region, on acceptability of sex-screening by both the medical establishment and by the population, on newly imported techniques of sex-screening, and on the changing demand for children associated with the major economic and social changes that followed the dismantlement of the Soviet Union. PMID:25349481

Hohmann, Sophie A; Lefèvre, Cécile A; Garenne, Michel L

2014-01-01

457

"Abortion--it is my own body": women's narratives about influences on their abortion decisions in Ghana.  

PubMed

Globally, abortion has emerged as a critical determinant of maternal morbidity and mortality. The Ghana government amended the country's abortion law in 1985 to promote safe abortion. This article discusses the findings of a qualitative study that explored the decision-making experiences of 28 female abortion seekers aged between 15 and 30 years in Ghana. Key findings from the study are that individuals claimed autonomy in their abortion decisions; underlying the abortion decisions were pragmatic concerns such as economic difficulties, child spacing, and fear of parental reaction. In conclusion, we examine the health implications of Ghanaian women's abortion decisions. PMID:24785835

Oduro, Georgina Yaa; Otsin, Mercy Nana Akua

2014-01-01

458

TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been studied include, for example, spontaneous abortions, congenital defects, low birt...

459

Lumbosacral abortive hemangioma with intradural extension.  

PubMed

Abortive hemangioma (AH) is a true hemangioma of infancy that expresses glucose transporter-1 protein in the endothelial cells, with an arrested growth cycle. We present the rare case of a lumbosacral AH with intramedullary extension. PMID:24117617

Martínez-Criado, Yolanda; Fernández-Pineda, Israel; Merchante, Elena; Bernabeu-Wittel, Jose

2014-01-01

460

Spiral Kicker for the beam abort system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system was determined. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

Martin, R. L.

461

Bovine abortion associated with Nocardia farcinica.  

PubMed

Nocardia spp. are recognized as a cause of bovine mastitis, cutaneous or subcutaneous abscesses, pneumonia, and disseminated disease. Abortion caused by Nocardia spp. is uncommon, and only a few sporadic cases have been reported in horses, pigs, and cattle. In all previous reports, of nocardial abortion, the causative agent was identified as Nocardia asteroides. The current report describes an aborted bovine fetus that was infected with Nocardia farcinica. Placenta, abomasal fluid, lung, liver, and kidney specimens from a late-term bovine abortion were submitted to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. The gross findings included purulent exudate in the placenta and numerous abscesses in lung. Histologically, there was necrotizing and suppurative placentitis, pyogranulomatous pneumonia, and nephritis with numerous intralesional branching and filamentous, Gram-positive bacteria. Nocardia farcinica was isolated by bacteriology, and the bacteriology result was confirmed by 2 established polymerase chain reaction protocols and by DNA sequencing. PMID:20093696

Bawa, Bhupinder; Bai, Jianfa; Whitehair, Mike; Purvis, Tanya; Debey, Brad M

2010-01-01

462

Receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use.  

PubMed

The negative health consequences of tobacco use are well documented. Some research finds women receiving abortions are at increased risk of subsequent tobacco use. This literature has methodological problems, most importantly, inappropriate comparison groups. This study uses data from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of women who all sought, but did not all receive, abortions at 30 facilities across the United States. Participants included women presenting just before an abortion facility's gestational age limit who received abortions (Near Limit Abortion Group, n = 452), just after the gestational limit who were denied abortions (Turnaways, n = 231), and who received first trimester abortions (First Trimester Abortion Group, n = 273). This study examined the association between receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use over 2-years. Trajectories of tobacco use over 2 years were compared using multivariate mixed effects regression. Women receiving abortion maintained their level of tobacco use over 2 years. Women denied abortion initially had lower levels of tobacco use than women receiving abortion, but increased their tobacco use from 1 week through 12-18 months post-abortion seeking and then decreased their use by 2 years post-abortion seeking. Baseline parity modified these associations. Receiving an abortion was not associated with an increase in tobacco use over time. Overall, women who carry unwanted pregnancies to term appear to demonstrate similar cessation and resumption patterns to other pregnant women. PMID:24880251

Roberts, Sarah C M; Foster, Diana Greene

2015-03-01

463

Delivering post-abortion care through a community-based reproductive health volunteer programme in Pakistan.  

PubMed

This qualitative study was conducted in May-June 2010 with women using post-abortion care (PAC) services provided by the Marie Stopes Society in Pakistan during the six month period preceding the study, more than 70% of whom had been referred to the clinics by reproductive health volunteers (RHVs). The aim of the study was to establish the socio-demographic profile of clients, determine their preferred method of treatment, explore their perceptions of the barriers to accessing post-abortion services and to understand the challenges faced by RHVs. The sample women were selected from six randomly selected districts of Sindh and Punjab. Eight focus group discussions were conducted with PAC clients and fifteen in-depth interviews with RHVs. In addition, a quantitative exit interview questionnaire was administered to 76 clients. Medical, rather than surgical, treatment for incomplete and unsafe abortions was preferred because it was perceived to 'cause less pain', was 'easy to employ' and 'having fewer complications'. Household economics influence women's decision-making on seeking post-abortion care. Other restraining factors include objection by husbands and in-laws, restrictions on female mobility, the views of religious clerics and a lack of transport. The involvement of all stakeholders could secure social approval and acceptance of the provision of safe post-abortion care services in Pakistan, and improve the quality of family planning services to the women who want to space their pregnancies. PMID:22652308

Azmat, Syed Khurram; Shaikh, Babar T; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hameed, Waqas; Bilgrami, Mohsina

2012-11-01

464

Unbiased consideration of applicants to medical schools.  

PubMed

Medical schools are discriminating against prospective students who do not support abortion on demand. Abortion is an important issue concerning the question of when life begins, the power of the goverment to protect the unborn, and a woman's decision to terminate her pregnancy. Congress enacted legislation that guaranteed freedom of conscience of medical practitioners. Dr. Eugene Diamond reported that on a survey of medical schools he found that a large number asked students their views on abortion and sterilization. Some reported that opposition to abortion would be a detriment to admission. Medical schools are discriminating on the basis of a person's opinion founded on religious or moral grounds. Medical schools may "by the actions they take today, eliminate...dissent" of many doctors who do not approve of the current state of the law on abortion. Senator Schweiker has introduced S 784 "to prevent any school or other institution that receives federal funds from inquiring into the abortion views of prospective students." PMID:852850

Schweiker, R S

1977-05-01