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Sample records for abortus live vaccine

  1. DeltaznuADeltapurE Brucella abortus 2308 mutant as a live vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinghong; Thornburg, Theresa; Walters, Nancy; Pascual, David W

    2010-01-22

    To create a new, safe brucellosis live vaccine, a double mutant strain was constructed from Brucella abortus 2308. Using the DeltaznuA B. abortus 2308 mutant, a second mutation was introduced by deleting purE gene. The DeltaznuA DeltapurE B. abortus 2308 strain was less capable of surviving in macrophages. When evaluated in vivo, it was cleared within 8 weeks (wks) from mice, causing significantly less inflammation than spleens obtained from wild-type B. abortus 2308-infected mice. Furthermore, two doses of DeltaznuA DeltapurE B. abortus 2308 conferred 0.79 log protection, similar to S19 as did a single dose of DeltaznuA B. abortus 2308. Thus, this study shows the DeltaznuA DeltapurE B. abortus 2308 strain to be a potential livestock vaccine candidate. PMID:19914192

  2. 9 CFR 113.65 - Brucella Abortus Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Bacterial Vaccines § 113.65 Brucella Abortus Vaccine. Brucella Abortus Vaccine shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine from smooth colonial forms of the Brucella abortus organism... shall be incubated at 35 to 37 ° C for 96 hours. If growth not typical of Brucella abortus organisms...

  3. A potent Brucella abortus 2308 Δery live vaccine allows for the differentiation between natural and vaccinated infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junbo; Yin, Shuanghong; Guo, Fei; Meng, Ren; Chen, Chuangfu; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zhiqiang; Fu, Qiang; Shi, Huijun; Hu, Shengwei; Ni, Wei; Li, Tiansen; Zhang, Ke

    2014-08-01

    Brucellosis is a globally distributed zoonotic disease that causes animal and human diseases. However, the current Brucella abortus vaccines (S19 and RB51) are deficient; they can cause abortion in pregnant animals. Moreover, when the vaccine S19 is used, tests cannot differentiate natural from vaccinated infection. Therefore, a safer and more potent vaccine is needed. A Brucella abortus 2308 ery promoter mutant (Δery) was constructed to overcome these drawbacks. The growth of the Δery mutant was significantly attenuated in macrophages and mice and induced high protective immunity in mice. Moreover, Δery induced an anti-Brucella-specific IgG (immunoglobulin G) response and stimulated the expression of interferon-gamma (INF-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Furthermore, the expression of EryA antigen allowed for the serological differentiation between natural and vaccinated infection in mice. These results indicate that the Δery mutant is a potential attenuated live vaccine candidate against virulent Brucella abortus 2308 (S2308) infection. PMID:24994009

  4. Evaluation of Brucella abortus Phosphoglucomutase (pgm) Mutant as a New Live Rough-Phenotype Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ugalde, Juan Esteban; Comerci, Diego José; Leguizamón, M. Susana; Ugalde, Rodolfo Augusto

    2003-01-01

    Brucella abortus S19 is the vaccine most frequently used against bovine brucellosis. Although it induces good protection levels, it cannot be administered to pregnant cattle, revaccination is not advised due to interference in the discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals during immune-screening procedures, and the vaccine is virulent for humans. Due to these reasons, there is a continuous search for new bovine vaccine candidates that may confer protection levels comparable to those conferred by S19 but without its disadvantages. A previous study characterized the phenotype associated with the phosphoglucomutase (pgm) gene disruption in Brucella abortus S2308, as well as the possible role for the smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in virulence and intracellular multiplication in HeLa cells (J. E. Ugalde, C. Czibener, M. F. Feldman, and R. A. Ugalde, Infect. Immun. 68:5716-5723, 2000). In this report, we analyze the protection, proliferative response, and cytokine production induced in BALB/c mice by a Δpgm deletion strain. We show that this strain synthesizes O antigen with a size of approximately 45 kDa but is rough. This is due to the fact that the Δpgm strain is unable to assemble the O side chain in the complete LPS. Vaccination with the Δpgm strain induced protection levels comparable to those induced by S19 and generated a proliferative splenocyte response and a cytokine profile typical of a Th1 response. On the other hand, we were unable to detect a specific anti-O-antigen antibody response by using the fluorescence polarization assay. In view of these results, the possibility that the Δpgm mutant could be used as a vaccination strain is discussed. PMID:14573645

  5. Comparison of living and nonliving vaccines for Brucella abortus in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed Central

    Montaraz, J A; Winter, A J

    1986-01-01

    The BALB/c mouse was selected as a model for infection with Brucella abortus on the basis of protracted nonclinical infection produced by strain 2308, virulent for cattle, and relatively rapid clearance of strain 19, an attenuated strain used to vaccinate cattle. Protection in mice vaccinated with strain 19 was compared with that obtained with nonliving vaccines at early (1 week) and later (4 weeks) intervals after challenge with strain 2308 and assessed by enumeration of B. abortus organisms in the spleen. Mice challenged 4 weeks after vaccination with strain 19 exhibited significant protection at 1 and 4 weeks postinfection (p.i.), with an increased magnitude of protection at the later time. When challenged 6 weeks after vaccination with strain 19, the level of protection diminished between 1 and 4 weeks p.i. and at the later time was not always significantly different from controls. Mice immunized 4 weeks earlier with nonliving vaccines in mineral oil with t trehalose dimycolate (TDM) and muramyl dipeptide (MDP) demonstrated patterns of protection similar to those obtained following the 6 week vaccination-challenge interval with strain 19. Vaccination with cell envelopes derived from strain 2308 produced equivalent protection at 1 week p.i. whether administered in phosphate-buffered saline, incomplete Freund adjuvant, or the TDM and MDP adjuvant. Equivalent protection also followed vaccination with strain 2308 killed whole cells, cell envelopes, or outer membrane proteins in phosphate-buffered saline or in the TDM and MDP adjuvant. The TDM and MDP adjuvant alone induced nonspecific resistance, which peaked at 1 day p.i. and was still present at 1 week p.i., although by this time its magnitude was significantly less than the protection induced by antigen combined with the adjuvant. These data, together with the results of antibody assays and passive and adoptive transfer studies, suggested that protection at 1 week p.i. could be accounted for largely by an effect

  6. A combined vaccine against Brucella abortus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Govindasamy; Chinchkar, Shankar R; Rajendra, Lingala; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2009-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the immune response in calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccines in monovalent form and combined vaccine containing both antigen. The seroconversion of monovalent and combined vaccines was tested in seronegative cattle calves. IBR vaccine alone and combination with live Brucella abortus S19 vaccine elicited an anamnestic response on day 60 post booster but started declining from day 90 onwards against IBR. B. abortus S19 alone and in combination with IBR vaccine gave more than 2 log protection in mice two weeks post challenge. Fluorescence polarization assay analysis with sera samples of calves vaccinated with B. abortus S19 monovalent vaccine alone and in combination with IBR vaccine revealed the presence of B. abortus antibodies. The components of the combined vaccine did not show any evidence of interference in the development of immunity. This combined vaccine may provide economical and affordable biological for the control of brucellosis and IBR. PMID:23100765

  7. Brucella suis S2, brucella melitensis Rev. 1 and Brucella abortus S19 living vaccines: residual virulence and immunity induced against three Brucella species challenge strains in mice.

    PubMed

    Bosseray, N; Plommet, M

    1990-10-01

    Live attenuated Brucella suis S2 vaccine was compared to living vaccines B. abortus S19 and B. melitensis Rev. 1 in mice. Residual virulence was estimated by ability to multiply and persist in spleen and lymph nodes. Immunogenicity was estimated by spleen counts of control and vaccinated mice challenged either with the reference B. abortus 544 strain or with virulent B. melitensis H38 and B. suis 1330 strains. S2 vaccine had lower residual virulence; expressed as 50% recovery time, persistence was 4.3 weeks, compared to 7.1 and 9.0 weeks for S19 and Rev. 1 vaccines. Immunity induced by the three vaccines was similar 45 days after vaccination. At 150 days, immunity by S19 and Rev.1 was still similar against the three challenge strains. In contrast, immunity induced by S2 had declined against the B. melitensis strain. Thus, a recall vaccination may be required for vaccination of sheep to confer a long-lasting immunity. PMID:2123586

  8. 9 CFR 113.65 - Brucella Abortus Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucella Abortus Vaccine. 113.65 Section 113.65 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.65 Brucella...

  9. 9 CFR 113.65 - Brucella Abortus Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucella Abortus Vaccine. 113.65 Section 113.65 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.65 Brucella...

  10. Recent advances in Brucella abortus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Elaine M S; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Lage, Andrey P

    2015-01-01

    Brucella abortus vaccines play a central role in bovine brucellosis control/eradication programs and have been successfully used worldwide for decades. Strain 19 and RB51 are the approved B. abortus vaccines strains most commonly used to protect cattle against infection and abortion. However, due to some drawbacks shown by these vaccines much effort has been undertaken for the development of new vaccines, safer and more effective, that could also be used in other susceptible species of animals. In this paper, we present a review of the main aspects of the vaccines that have been used in the brucellosis control over the years and the current research advances in the development of new B. abortus vaccines. PMID:26155935

  11. Efficacy of Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 compared to the reference vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 in water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Caporale, Vincenzo; Bonfini, Barbara; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Provvido, Andrea; Forcella, Simona; Giovannini, Armando; Tittarelli, Manuela; Scacchia, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 250,000 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) live in the Campania region of southern Italy where the breeding of this species is very popular. Of these animals, almost 150,000 are concentrated in the Caserta province where the prevalence of Brucella abortus in this species represents approximately 20% at herd level. The Italian brucellosis eradication programme provides a slaughter and vaccination strategy for this province. B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51) has become the official vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in cattle in several countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RB51 in water buffalo compared to the B. abortus S19 vaccine (S19). The study was performed in accordance with a protocol described in mice. Female buffalo aged five months were inoculated. Five received a RB51 dosage on two occasions that was three times greater than that approved for use in cattle and a booster after one month, five received B. abortus S19 vaccine at the standard dosage and three controls received a phosphate buffer solution. Buffalo were then challenged with a virulent B. abortus strain 544 thirty days post vaccination. Antibodies that developed in the five animals vaccinated with RB51 were not detected by the Rose Bengal test or complement fixation test (CFT) and were also tested by CFT prepared with RB51 antigen. After culling, B. abortus was cultured from the spleen, retropharyngeal and supra-mammary lymph nodes. A statistical evaluation was performed to assess the immunogenicity values obtained in buffalo vaccinated with S19, compared to those obtained in buffalo vaccinated with the RB51 vaccine and in the unvaccinated control group. PMID:20391363

  12. Immune response triggered by Brucella abortus following infection or vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Elaine M S; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Araújo, Márcio S S; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Lage, Andrey P

    2015-07-17

    Brucella abortus live vaccines have been used successfully to control bovine brucellosis worldwide for decades. However, due to some limitations of these live vaccines, efforts are being made for the development of new safer and more effective vaccines that could also be used in other susceptible species. In this context, understanding the protective immune responses triggered by B. abortus is critical for the development of new vaccines. Such understandings will enhance our knowledge of the host/pathogen interactions and enable to develop methods to evaluate potential vaccines and innovative treatments for animals or humans. At present, almost all the knowledge regarding B. abortus specific immunological responses comes from studies in mice. Active participation of macrophages, dendritic cells, IFN-γ producing CD4(+) T-cells and cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cells are vital to overcome the infection. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of the immune responses triggered by vaccination versus infection by B. abortus, in different hosts. PMID:26048781

  13. Cytokine responses in camels (Camelus bactrianus) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Odbileg, Raadan; Purevtseren, Byambaa; Gantsetseg, Dorj; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Buyannemekh, Tumurjav; Galmandakh, Zagd; Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Konnai, Satoru; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we determined the levels of cytokines produced by camel (Camelus bactrianus) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to live attenuated Brucella abortus (B. abortus) S19 vaccine. Seven camels were vaccinated with commercial B. abortus S19 vaccine, and their cytokine responses were determined using a real-time PCR assay. Cytokine responses to B. abortus S19 were examined at 6 hr, 48 hr and 1, 2 and 3 weeks post-vaccination. Serological tests were performed to further confirm these immune responses. The results revealed that IFN-gamma and IL-6 were upregulated during the first week post-vaccination. Low level expressions of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TNFalpha and IL-10 and no expression of IL-2 and IL-4 were observed compared with the control camels. The findings showed that B. abortus stimulates cell-mediated immunity by directly activating camel Th1 cells to secrete IFN-gamma. This quantification of cytokine expression in camels is essential for understanding of Camelidae disease development and protective immune responses. This is the first report of in vivo camel cytokine quantification after vaccination. PMID:18319583

  14. A Live Vaccine from Brucella abortus Strain 82 for Control of Cattle Brucellosis in the Russian Federation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the first half of the 20th century, widespread regulatory efforts to control cattle brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were essentially nonexistent, and control was limited to selective test and slaughter of serologic agglutination reactors. By the 1950...

  15. Brucella abortus RB51 in milk of vaccinated adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Karina Leite; Poester, Fernando Padilla; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Resende, Thiago Magalhães; Vaz, Adil Knackfuss; Ferraz, Sandra Maria; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shedding of Brucella abortus in the milk of cows vaccinated with a full dose of RB51 during lactation. Eighteen cows, nine previously vaccinated with S19 as calves and nine non-vaccinated, were immunized subcutaneously with 1.3×10(10)CFU of B. abortus RB51, 30-60days after parturition. Milk samples from all animals were collected daily until day 7, and at weekly interval for the next 9 weeks after vaccination. To evaluate the shedding of B. abortus, milk samples were submitted for culture and PCR. No B. abortus was isolated from any sample tested. Only one sample, collected on first day after vaccination from a cow previously vaccinated, was faintly positive in the PCR. In conclusion, the public health hazard associated with milk consumption from cows vaccinated with RB51 in post-partum is very low, despite vaccination with the full dose and regardless of previous S19 vaccination. PMID:27143220

  16. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  17. Vector Development for the Expression of Foreign Proteins in the Vaccine Strain Brucella abortus S19

    PubMed Central

    Comerci, Diego J.; Pollevick, Guido D.; Vigliocco, Ana M.; Frasch, Alberto C. C.; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.

    1998-01-01

    A vector for the expression of foreign antigens in the vaccine strain Brucella abortus S19 was developed by using a DNA fragment containing the regulatory sequences and the signal peptide of the Brucella bcsp31 gene. This fragment was cloned in broad-host-range plasmid pBBR4MCS, resulting in plasmid pBEV. As a reporter protein, a repetitive antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi was used. The recombinant fusion protein is stably expressed and secreted into the Brucella periplasmic space, inducing a good antibody response against the T. cruzi antigen. The expression of the repetitive antigen in Brucella neither altered its growth pattern nor generated a toxic or lethal effect during experimental infection. The application of this strategy for the generation of live recombinant vaccines and the tagging of B. abortus S19 vaccine is discussed. This is the first time that a recombinant protein has been expressed in the periplasm of brucellae. PMID:9673273

  18. Proteomic analysis of Brucella abortus cell envelope and identification of immunogenic candidate proteins for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Joseph P; Comerci, Diego; Alefantis, Timothy G; Walz, Alexander; Quan, Marian; Chafin, Ryan; Grewal, Paul; Mujer, Cesar V; Ugalde, Rodolfo A; DelVecchio, Vito G

    2006-07-01

    Brucella abortus is the etiologic agent of bovine brucellosis and causes a chronic disease in humans known as undulant fever. In livestock the disease is characterized by abortion and sterility. Live, attenuated vaccines such as S19 and RB51 have been used to control the spread of the disease in animals; however, they are considered unsafe for human use and they induce abortion in pregnant cattle. For the development of a safer and equally efficacious vaccine, immunoproteomics was utilized to identify novel candidate proteins from B. abortus cell envelope (CE). A total of 163 proteins were identified using 2-DE with MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS. Some of the major protein components include outer-membrane protein (OMP) 25, OMP31, Omp2b porin, and 60 kDa chaperonin GroEL. 2-DE Western blot analyses probed with antiserum from bovine and a human patient infected with Brucella identified several new immunogenic proteins such as fumarate reductase flavoprotein subunit, F0F1-type ATP synthase alpha subunit, and cysteine synthase A. The elucidation of the immunome of B. abortus CE identified a number of candidate proteins for developing vaccines against Brucella infection in bovine and humans. PMID:16739129

  19. Complement Fixation Test To Assess Humoral Immunity in Cattle and Sheep Vaccinated with Brucella abortus RB51

    PubMed Central

    Adone, Rosanna; Ciuchini, Franco

    1999-01-01

    The live attenuated Brucella abortus strain RB51 is a rifampin-resistant, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-chain-deficient mutant of virulent B. abortus 2308. The reduced O-chain content in RB51 prevents this bacterium from inducing antibodies detectable by the conventional serologic tests for bovine brucellosis diagnosis that mainly identify antibodies to LPS. The absence of available serologic tests for RB51 also complicates the diagnosis of possible RB51 infections in humans exposed to this strain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a complement fixation (CF) test performed with the rough strain B. abortus RB51, previously deprived of anticomplementary activity, in detecting anti-B. abortus RB51 antibodies in cattle and sheep experimentally vaccinated with this strain. The results of this study showed that a CF test with RB51 as the antigen is able to specifically detect antibodies following RB51 vaccination in cattle and sheep. In addition, this method could be a useful tool for detecting B. abortus RB51 infection in humans. PMID:10548564

  20. Increases of efficacy as vaccine against Brucella abortus infection in mice by simultaneous inoculation with avirulent smooth bvrS/bvrR and rough wbkA mutants.

    PubMed

    Grilló, María Jesús; Manterola, Lorea; de Miguel, María Jesús; Muñoz, Pilar María; Blasco, José María; Moriyón, Ignacio; López-Goñi, Ignacio

    2006-04-01

    The Brucella abortus S19 and RB51 strains are the most widely used live vaccines against bovine brucellosis. However, both can induce abortion and milk excretion, S19 vaccination interferes in serological tests, and RB51 is less effective. We have shown previously that a rough wbkAB. abortus mutant is attenuated and a better vaccine than RB51 in BALB/c mice, and that mutants in the two-component regulatory system bvrS/bvrR are markedly attenuated while keeping a smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS). In this work, we tested whether simultaneous inoculation with live bvrS increases wbkA vaccine efficacy in mice. Even at high doses, the bvrS mutant was cleared much faster from spleens than the wbkA mutant. The splenic persistence of the wbkA mutant increased when inoculated along with the bvrS mutant, but also with inactivated bvrS cells or with purified B. abortus S-LPS, strongly suggesting that S-LPS in the bvrS mutant played a determinant role in the wbkA persistence. When inoculated alone, both mutants protected against virulent B. abortus but less than when inoculated simultaneously, and the protection afforded by the combination was better than that obtained with B. abortus S19. Increased protection was also obtained after simultaneous inoculation of the wbkA mutant and inactivated bvrS cells or purified S-LPS, showing again the role played by the S-LPS in the bvrS cells. In mice, the bvrS-wbkA combination induced an antibody response reduced with respect to B. abortus S19 vaccination. Thus, the simultaneous use of live bvrS and wbkA B. abortus mutants seems a promising approach to overcome the problems of the S19 andRB51 vaccines. PMID:16439039

  1. Occupational infection due to Brucella abortus S19 among workers involved in vaccine production in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Wallach, J C; Ferrero, M C; Victoria Delpino, M; Fossati, C A; Baldi, P C

    2008-08-01

    The pathological consequences of exposure to the vaccine strain Brucella abortus S19 were evaluated in 30 employees from vaccine-manufacturing plants. Active brucellosis was diagnosed in 21 subjects, of whom only five recalled an accidental exposure. Clinical manifestations were mild, and only one patient presented a complication. After antimicrobial therapy, initially symptomatic patients either experienced clinical remission or had mild persistent symptoms. This is the first study reporting infection by B. abortus S19 among workers from vaccine-manufacturing plants, which in many cases was acquired from unnoticed exposures. Measures to improve the safety of B. abortus S19 handling should be implemented. PMID:18727806

  2. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to saline (control; n=7) or single vaccination (n=24) with 1010 CFU of B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51). Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with 10**10 CFU of RB51 at 11 months after initial vaccination (n=16). When comp...

  3. Studies on recombinant glucokinase (r-glk) protein of Brucella abortus as a candidate vaccine molecule for brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Vrushabhendrappa; Singh, Amit Kumar; Balakrishna, Konduru; Sripathy, Murali Harishchandra; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2014-09-29

    Brucellosis is one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases of worldwide distribution caused by the infection of genus Brucella. Live attenuated vaccines such as B. abortus S19, B. abortus RB51 and B. melitensis Rev1 are found most effective against brucellosis infection in animals, contriving a number of serious side effects and having chances to revert back into their active pathogenic form. In order to engineer a safe and effective vaccine candidate to be used in both animals and human, a recombinant subunit vaccine molecule comprising the truncated region of glucokinase (r-glk) gene from B. abortus S19 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 host. Female BALB/c mice immunized with purified recombinant protein developed specific antibody titer of 1:64,000. The predominant IgG2a and IgG2b isotypes signified development of Th1 directed immune responses. In vitro cell cytotoxicity assay using anti-r-glk antibodies incubated with HeLa cells showed 81.20% and 78.5% cell viability against lethal challenge of B. abortus 544 and B. melitensis 16M, respectively. The lymphocyte proliferative assay indicated a higher splenic lymphocyte responses at 25μg/ml concentration of protein which implies the elevated development of memory immune responses. In contrast to control, the immunized group of mice intra-peritoneal (I.P.) challenged with B. abortus 544 were significantly protected with no signs of necrosis and vacuolization in their liver and spleen tissue. The elevated B-cell response associated with Th1 adopted immunity, significant in vitro cell viability as well as protection afforded in experimental animals after challenge, supplemented with histopathological analysis are suggestive of r-glk protein as a prospective candidate vaccine molecule against brucellosis. PMID:25131740

  4. Influenza viral vectors expressing the Brucella OMP16 or L7/L12 proteins as vaccines against B. abortus infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    comparable to those induced by a commercial live B. abortus 19 vaccine. Conclusion Thus, influenza vectors expressing Brucella protective antigens can be developed as novel influenza vectored vaccine against B. abortus infection. PMID:24716528

  5. 9 CFR 113.65 - Brucella Abortus Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 113.65 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... shall be incubated at 35 to 37 °C for 96 hours. If growth not typical of Brucella abortus organisms is... subserial is unsatisfactory. If organisms or growth not characteristic of Brucella abortus are found,...

  6. 9 CFR 113.65 - Brucella Abortus Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 113.65 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... shall be incubated at 35 to 37 °C for 96 hours. If growth not typical of Brucella abortus organisms is... subserial is unsatisfactory. If organisms or growth not characteristic of Brucella abortus are found,...

  7. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge.

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C; Rhyan, Jack C; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P; Hennager, Steven G; Pavuk, Alana A; Sprino, Phillip J; Boyle, Stephen M; Berrier, Randall J; Salman, Mo D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk. PMID:26904509

  8. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P.; Hennager, Steven G.; Pavuk, Alana A.; Sprino, Phillip J.; Boyle, Stephen M.; Berrier, Randall J.; Salman, Mo D.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk. PMID:26904509

  9. The Brucella abortus S19 DeltavjbR live vaccine candidate is safer than S19 and confers protection against wild-type challenge in BALB/c mice when delivered in a sustained-release vehicle.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Gamboa, A M; Ficht, T A; Kahl-McDonagh, M M; Gomez, G; Rice-Ficht, A C

    2009-02-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of nearly worldwide distribution. Despite the availability of live vaccine strains for bovine (S19, RB51) and small ruminants (Rev-1), these vaccines have several drawbacks, including residual virulence for animals and humans. Safe and efficacious immunization systems are therefore needed to overcome these disadvantages. A vjbR knockout was generated in the S19 vaccine and investigated for its potential use as an improved vaccine candidate. Vaccination with a sustained-release vehicle to enhance vaccination efficacy was evaluated utilizing the live S19 DeltavjbR::Kan in encapsulated alginate microspheres containing a nonimmunogenic eggshell precursor protein of the parasite Fasciola hepatica (vitelline protein B). BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with either encapsulated or nonencapsulated S19 DeltavjbR::Kan at a dose of 1 x 10(5) CFU per animal to evaluate immunogenicity, safety, and protective efficacy. Humoral responses postvaccination indicate that the vaccine candidate was able to elicit an anti-Brucella-specific immunoglobulin G response even when the vaccine was administered in an encapsulated format. The safety was revealed by the absence of splenomegaly in mice that were inoculated with the mutant. Finally, a single dose with the encapsulated mutant conferred higher levels of protection compared to the nonencapsulated vaccine. These results suggest that S19 DeltavjbR::Kan is safer than S19, induces protection in mice, and should be considered as a vaccine candidate when administered in a sustained-release manner. PMID:19047401

  10. Protection levels in vaccinated heifers with experimental vaccines Brucella abortus M1-luc and INTA 2.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, M A; Campos, E; Cravero, S; Arese, A; Paolicchi, F; Campero, C; Rossetti, O

    2008-12-10

    Brucella abortus M1-luc is a mutant strain derived from S19 vaccine strain in which most of bp26 sequence has been replaced by the luciferase coding gene. Strain I2 is a double mutant derived from M1-luc in which most of omp19 has been deleted without introduction of any genetic markers. In BALB/c mice, M1-luc presented equivalent performance to S19 regarding persistence, splenomegaly and protection against challenge. Interestingly, I2 was more attenuated than S19, with no reduction of protection against challenge. In order to evaluate the potential for vaccine use of these strains in the natural host, four groups of 15 heifers, 6-month old, were either non-vaccinated or vaccinated with S19, M1-luc or I2. To at reached 17-month old, heifers were synchronized with two doses of PGF2alpha and received natural service during 60 days with two bulls. Pregnant heifers were challenged at approximately six gestation months with virulent B. abortus S2308. Blood samples post-challenge of heifers were collected for serologic test as well as specimens of aborted fetuses and premature calves for bacterial isolation and histopathological analyses. Protection levels against abortion were 78.6% for S19, 81.8% for M1-luc and 45.5% for I2, compared to the 25% that did not abort from the non-vaccinated group. These results indicate that in bovines BP26 had no influence in protective capacity of S19, correlating with the results obtained in mice. However, contrarily to what was previously observed in mice, lack of expression of Omp19 rendered in less protection capacity of S19 in the natural host. PMID:18565697

  11. A combined DNA vaccine provides protective immunity against Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella abortus in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xi-Dan; Yu, Da-Hai; Chen, Su-Ting; Li, Shu-Xia; Cai, Hong

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a combined DNA vaccine containing six genes encoding immunodominant antigens from Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella abortus. The number of lymph node and spleen cultures positive for M. bovis and B. abortus from calves immunized with the combined DNA vaccine was significantly reduced (p < 0.01) compared with unvaccinated calves after challenge with virulent M. bovis and B. abortus 544. The combined DNA vaccine group displayed stronger antigen-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses and antigen-specific IFN-gamma ELISPOT activities 2 months after final immunization and after challenge. Antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses in the combined DNA vaccine group were higher than either the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-positive or S19-positive control group. Likewise, more calves in the DNA vaccine group exhibited antigen-specific IgG titers and had higher IgG titers than those in the BCG- or S19-immunized groups 2 months after the final immunization. Moreover, two antigens in the combined DNA vaccine induced significant antigen-specific IFN-gamma responses 6 months after challenge (p < 0.05). Bacterial counts and pathological analyses of the challenged animals indicated that the combined DNA vaccine provided significantly better protection than the BCG vaccine against M. bovis, and the protection level induced by the combined DNA vaccine was comparable to S19 against B. abortus. This is the first report to demonstrate that a single combined DNA vaccine protects cattle against two infectious diseases. PMID:19364278

  12. Prime-booster vaccination of cattle with an influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine induces a long-term protective immune response against Brucella abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Yespembetov, Bolat; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Zinina, Nadezhda; Kydyrbayev, Zhailaubay; Kozhamkulov, Yerken; Inkarbekov, Dulat; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2016-01-20

    This study analyzed the duration of the antigen-specific humoral and T-cell immune responses and protectiveness of a recently-developed influenza viral vector Brucella abortus (Flu-BA) vaccine expressing Brucella proteins Omp16 and L7/L12 and containing the adjuvant Montadine Gel01 in cattle. At 1 month post-booster vaccination (BV), both humoral (up to 3 months post-BV; GMT IgG ELISA titer 214±55 to 857±136, with a prevalence of IgG2a over IgG1 isotype antibodies) and T-cell immune responses were observed in vaccinated heifers (n=35) compared to control animals (n=35, injected with adjuvant/PBS only). A pronounced T-cell immune response was induced and maintained for 12 months post-BV, as indicated by the lymphocyte stimulation index (2.7±0.4 to 10.1±0.9 cpm) and production of IFN-γ (13.7±1.7 to 40.0±3.0 ng/ml) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-BV. Prime-boost vaccination provided significant protection against B. abortus infection at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (study duration) post-BV (7 heifers per time point; alpha=0.03-0.01 vs. control group). Between 57.1 and 71.4% of vaccinated animals showed no signs of B. abortus infection (or Brucella isolation) at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-BV; the severity of infection, as indicated by the index of infection (P=0.0003 to <0.0001) and rates of Brucella colonization (P=0.03 to <0.0001), was significantly lower for vaccinated diseased animals than appropriate control animals. Good protection from B. abortus infection was also observed among pregnant vaccinated heifers (alpha=0.03), as well as their fetuses and calves (alpha=0.01), for 12 months post-BV. Additionally, 71.4% of vaccinated heifers calved successfully whereas all pregnant control animals aborted (alpha=0.01). Prime-boost vaccination of cattle with Flu-BA induces an antigen-specific humoral and pronounced T cell immune response and most importantly provides good protectiveness, even in pregnant heifers, for at least 12 months post-BV. PMID:26709638

  13. Evaluation of Brucella abortus S19 vaccines commercialized in Brazil: immunogenicity, residual virulence and MLVA15 genotyping.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Karina Leite; Poester, Fernando Padilla; Minharro, Silvia; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2013-06-24

    Live attenuated Brucella abortus S19 is the most effective vaccine against brucellosis in cattle. The assessment of the immunological parameters is essential to guarantee the biological quality of live anti-bacteria vaccines. The evaluation of genetic stability of live bacterial vaccines is also important in quality control. The aims of the present study were to compare (i) the immunogenicity and residual virulence, and (ii) the genotypic profile (MLVA15) of the eight S19 vaccines commercialized in Brazil to the USDA S19 reference strain. Two batches of each of the eight S19 commercial vaccines used in Brazil (A-H) were tested. They were submitted to the potency and residual virulence in vivo tests recommended by OIE and typed by the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) described for Brucella spp. Our results demonstrated that all S19 vaccines commercialized in Brazil would be approved by Brazilian and OIE recommendations for potency and residual virulence. Furthermore, the S19 vaccine is genetically very homogeneous, as all but two batches (from the same manufacturer) tested showed identical MLVA15 profile. The two batches with different profiles presented six repeat units in locus Bruce07, instead of the five found in all other strains, including the USDA S19 reference strain. Although presenting a slightly different profile, this vaccine was also protective, as demonstrated by the immunogenicity and residual virulence assays performed. Therefore, the commercial Brazilian S19 vaccines were in accordance to Brazilian and international standards for immunogenicity and residual virulence tests. Moreover, our results also show that MLVA could be a useful inclusion to the list of in vitro tests required by the official control authorities to be applied to the commercial S19 vaccines, as an efficient assay to guarantee the quality and stability of the vaccine strains. PMID:23664986

  14. A diagnostic protocol to identify water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tittarelli, Manuela; Atzeni, Marcello; Calistri, Paolo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Ferri, Nicola; Marchi, Enrico; Martucciello, Alessandra; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The use of live vaccine strain RB51 for vaccination of domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at risk of infection with Brucella abortus is permitted notwithstanding the plans for the eradication and only under strict veterinary control. The antibodies induced by RB51 vaccination are not detectable using conventional diagnostic techniques; therefore, it is necessary to have a specific diagnostic tool able to discriminate vaccinated from unvaccinated animals. The combination of a complement fixation test (CFT) with specific RB51 antigen (RB51-CFT) and a brucellin skin test has been demonstrated to be a reliable diagnostic system to identify single cattle (Bos taurus) vaccinated with RB51. So far, no data are available in the international scientific literature regarding the use of this test association in water buffalo. For this reason the suitability of this test combination has been evaluated in a water buffalo herd. One hundred twenty-seven animals farmed in a herd of Salerno province (Campania, Southern Italy), in the context of a presumptive unauthorized use of RB51 vaccine were chosen for this study. All tested animals resulted negative to Rose Bengal test (RBT) and complement fixation test (CFT) used for the detection of specific antibodies against Brucella field strains. Seventy-one animals (56%) developed RB51 antigen-specific CFT (RB51-CFT) antibodies against RB51 vaccine in a first sampling, while 104 animals (82%) gave positive result to a second serum sampling conducted 11 days after the intradermal inoculation of the RB51 brucellin. One hundred and seven animals (84%) showed a positive reaction to the RB51-CFT in at least 1 sampling, while 111 animals (87%) resulted positive to the RB51 brucellin skin test. Thus, analysing the results of the 3 testing in parallel, 119 animals (94%) were positive to at least 1 of the performed tests. The results suggest that the use in parallel of the RB51 brucellin skin test with RB51-CFT may represent a reliable

  15. Efficacy of dart or booster vaccination with strain RB51 in protecting bison against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination is an effective tool for reducing the prevalence of brucellosis in natural hosts. In this study, we characterized the efficacy of the Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccine in bison when delivered by single intramuscular vaccination (Hand RB51), single pneumatic dart delivery (Dart ...

  16. Immunoproteomics of Brucella abortus reveals differential antibody profiles between S19-vaccinated and naturally infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Pajuaba, Ana C A M; Silva, Deise A O; Almeida, Karine C; Cunha-Junior, Jair P; Pirovani, Carlos P; Camillo, Luciana R; Mineo, José R

    2012-03-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that causes infectious abortion in food-producing animals and chronic infection in humans. This study aimed to characterize a B. abortus S19 antigen preparation obtained by Triton X-114 (TX-114) extraction through immunoproteomics to differentiate infected from vaccinated cattle. Three groups of bovine sera were studied: GI, 30 naturally infected cows; GII, 30 S19-vaccinated heifers; and GIII, 30 nonvaccinated seronegative cows. One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of TX-114 hydrophilic phase antigen revealed a broad spectrum of polypeptides (10-79 kDa). 1D immunoblot showed widespread seroreactivity profile in GI compared with restricted profile in GII. Three antigenic components (10, 12, 17 kDa) were recognized exclusively by GI sera, representing potential markers of infection and excluding vaccinal response. The proteomic characterization revealed 56 protein spots, 27 of which were antigenic spots showing differential seroreactivity profile between GI and GII, especially polypeptides <20 kDa that were recognized exclusively by GI. MS/MS analysis identified five B. abortus S19 proteins (Invasion protein B, Sod, Dps, Ndk, and Bfr), which were related with antigenicity in naturally infected cattle. In conclusion, immunoproteomics of this new antigen preparation enabled the characterization of proteins that could be used as tools to develop sensitive and specific immunoassays for serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis, with emphasis on differentiation between S19 vaccinated and infected cattle. PMID:22539433

  17. Characterisation of Brucella abortus strain 19 cultures isolated from vaccinated cattle.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E L; Bracewell, C D; Corbel, M J

    1981-01-31

    Thirty-four cultures recovered from material of bovine origin in England, Scotland and Wales were identified unequivocally as Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19). All had the properties of carbon dioxide-independent B abortus biotype 1 strains, were inhibited by penicillin G and thionin blue at standard concentrations and behaved in oxidative metabolism and guinea pig virulence tests as typical S19. Their sensitivity to i-erythritol varied somewhat between cultures as did reference subcultures of S19. Of the total number of isolates, 11 were recovered from abortion material or cyetic products, 10 were from calves which died from a hypersensitivity reaction within 24 hours of S19 vaccination and the remainder were from milk or internal organs. From the evidence available, there is little to suggest that calfhood vaccination with S19 has resulted in persistent systemic infection in other than a very small proportion of the animals inoculated. PMID:6789543

  18. Efficacy of single calfhood vaccination of elk with Brucella abortus strain 19

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, T.J.; Jones, L.C.; Coffin, K.; Drew, M.L.; Sweeney, Steven J.; Hagius, S.D.; Elzer, P.H.; Davis, D.

    2004-01-01

    Brucellosis has been eradicated from cattle in the states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho, USA. However, free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) that use feedgrounds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks still have high seroprevalence to the disease and have caused loss of brucellosis-free status in Wyoming. Management tools to control or eliminate the disease are limited; however, wildlife vaccination is among the methods currently used by wildlife managers in Wyoming. We conducted a controlled challenge study of single calfhood vaccination. Elk calves, caught in January and February of 1999 and 2000 and acclimated to captivity for 3 weeks, were randomly assigned to control or vaccinate groups. The vaccinate groups received Brucetta abortus vaccine strain 19 (S19) by hand-delivered intramuscular injection. Calves were raised to adulthood and bred at either 2.5 or 3.5 years of age for 2000 and 1999 captures, respectively. Eighty-nine (44 controls, 45 vaccinates) pregnant elk entered the challenge portion of the study. We challenged elk at mid-gestation with pathogenic B. abortus strain 2308 by intraconjunctival instillation. Abortion occurred in significantly more (P = 0.002) controls (42; 93%) than vaccinates (32; 71%), and vaccine protected 25% of the vaccinate group. We used Brucella culture of fetus/calf tissues to determine the efficacy of vaccination for preventing infection, and we found that the number of infected fetuses/calves did not differ between controls and vaccinates (P = 0.14). Based on these data, single calfhood vaccination with S19 has low efficacy, will likely have only little to moderate effect on Brucella prevalence in elk, and is unlikely to eradicate the disease in wildlife of the GYA.

  19. Oral vaccination with microencapsuled strain 19 vaccine confers enhanced protection against Brucella abortus strain 2308 challenge in red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M; Ficht, Thomas A; Davis, Donald S; Elzer, Philip H; Kahl-McDonagh, Melissa; Wong-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Rice-Ficht, Allison C

    2009-10-01

    Bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), USA, are infected with Brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, and they serve as a wildlife reservoir for the disease. Bovine brucellosis recently has been transmitted from infected elk to cattle in Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho and has resulted in their loss of brucellosis-free status. An efficacious Brucella vaccine with a delivery system suitable for wildlife would be a valuable tool in a disease prevention and control program. We evaluated Strain 19 (S19) in a sustained release vehicle consisting of alginate microspheres containing live vaccine. In a challenge study using red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) as a model for elk, alginate, a naturally occurring polymer combined with a protein of Fasciola hepatica vitelline protein B was used to microencapsulate S19. Red deer were orally or subcutaneously immunized with 1.5 x 10(10) colony-forming units (CFUs) using microencapsulated S19. Humoral and cellular profiles were analyzed bimonthly throughout the study. The vaccinated red deer and nonvaccinated controls were challenged 1 yr postimmunization conjunctivally with 1 x 10(9) CFUs of B. abortus strain 2308. Red deer vaccinated with oral microencapsulated S19 had a statistically significant lower bacterial tissue load compared with controls. These data indicate for the first time that protection against Brucella-challenge can be achieved by combining a commonly used vaccine with a novel oral delivery system such as alginate-vitelline protein B microencapsulation. This system is a potential improvement for efficacious Brucella-vaccine delivery to wildlife in the GYA. PMID:19901378

  20. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S C; McGill, J L; Sacco, R E; Hennager, S G

    2015-04-01

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to receive saline or a single vaccination with 10(10) CFU of Brucella abortus strain RB51. Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with RB51 at 11 months after the initial vaccination. Mean antibody responses to RB51 were greater (P < 0.05) in vaccinated bison after initial and booster vaccination than in nonvaccinated bison. The proliferative responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the vaccinated bison were greater (P < 0.05) than those in the nonvaccinated bison at 16 and 24 weeks after the initial vaccination but not after the booster vaccination. The relative gene expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was increased (P < 0.05) in the RB51-vaccinated bison at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after the initial vaccination and at 8 weeks after the booster vaccination. The vaccinated bison had greater (P < 0.05) in vitro production of IFN-γ at all sampling times, greater interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in various samplings after the initial and booster vaccinations, and greater IL-6 production at one sampling time after the booster vaccination. Between 170 and 180 days of gestation, the bison were intraconjunctivally challenged with approximately 1 × 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308. The incidences of abortion and infection were greater (P < 0.05) in the nonvaccinated bison after experimental challenge than in the bison receiving either vaccination treatment. Booster-vaccinated, but not single-vaccinated bison, had a reduced (P < 0.05) incidence of infection in fetal tissues and maternal tissues compared to that in the controls. Compared to the nonvaccinated bison, both vaccination treatments lowered the colonization (measured as the CFU/g of tissue) of Brucella organisms in all tissues, except in retropharyngeal and supramammary lymph nodes. Our study suggests that RB51 booster vaccination is an effective vaccination strategy for enhancing herd immunity against

  1. Genetic stability of Brucella abortus S19 and RB51 vaccine strains by multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA16).

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; de Faria, Ana Paula Paiva; Pauletti, Rebeca Barbosa; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Caldeira, George Afonso Vítor; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Titze-de-Almeida, Ricardo; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2013-10-01

    The aims of the present study were (i) to assess the in vitro genetic stability of S19 and RB51 Brucella abortus vaccines strains and (ii) to evaluate the ability of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) as a tool to be used in the quality control of live vaccines against brucellosis. Sixty-three batches of commercial S19 (n=53) and RB51 (n=10) vaccines, produced between 2006 and 2009, were used in this study. S19 and RB51 vaccines were obtained from, respectively, seven and two different manufacturers. Ten in vitro serial passages were performed on reference strains and on selected batches of commercial vaccines. All batches, reference strains and strains of serial passages were typed by the MLVA16. The results demonstrated that B. abortus S19 and RB51 vaccine strains are genetically stable and very homogeneous in their respective groups. Anyway, batches of S19 from one manufacturer and batches of RB51 from another presented genotypes distincts from the reference vaccine strains. In both cases, differences were found on locus Bruce07, which had addition of one repeat unit in the case of S19 batches and the deletion of one repeat unit in the case of RB51 batches. In summary, MLVA16 proved to be a molecular tool capable of discriminating small genomic variations and should be included in in vitro official tests. PMID:23933375

  2. Effect of Preventive Chlamydia abortus Vaccination in Offspring Development in Sheep Challenged Experimentally

    PubMed Central

    García-Seco, Teresa; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Alejandro; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; García, Nerea; Pozo, Pilar; Goyache, Joaquín; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Ovine enzootic abortion, caused by Chlamydia abortus, leads to important economic losses worldwide. In addition to reproductive failures, infection may impact lamb growth during the first weeks after birth, yet this effect has not been well characterized. Vaccination can help to control the disease but variable efficacy values have been described, possibly related with factors associated with the host, the vaccine, the parameter used for efficacy determination, and the challenge conditions. In this context, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated standard commercial vaccine and a 1/2 diluted dose in pregnant sheep challenged with C. abortus by examining multiple indicators of vaccine effect (including incidence of reproductive failures, bacterial excretion, and evolution of weight gain of viable lambs during the first month of life). Three groups of ewes [control non-vaccinated, C (n = 18); vaccinated with standard dose, SV (n = 16); and vaccinated with 1/2 dose, DV (n = 17)], were challenged approximately 90 days post-mating and tested using direct PCR (tissue samples and vaginal swabs) and ELISA (serum) until 31 days post-reproductive outcome. There were not significant differences in the proportions of reproductive failures or bacterial shedding after birth/abortion regardless the vaccination protocol. However, a beneficial effect of vaccination on offspring growth was detected in both vaccinated groups compared with the controls, with a mean increase in weight measured at 30 days of life of 1.5 and 2.5 kg (p = 0.056) and an increase in the geometric mean of the daily gain of 8.4 and 9.7% in lambs born from DV and SV ewes compared with controls, respectively. Our results demonstrate the effect of an inactivated vaccine in the development of the offspring of C. abortus-infected ewes at a standard and a diluted dose, an interesting finding given the difficulty in achieving sufficient antigen concentration in the production of enzootic

  3. Effect of Preventive Chlamydia abortus Vaccination in Offspring Development in Sheep Challenged Experimentally.

    PubMed

    García-Seco, Teresa; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Alejandro; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; García, Nerea; Pozo, Pilar; Goyache, Joaquín; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Ovine enzootic abortion, caused by Chlamydia abortus, leads to important economic losses worldwide. In addition to reproductive failures, infection may impact lamb growth during the first weeks after birth, yet this effect has not been well characterized. Vaccination can help to control the disease but variable efficacy values have been described, possibly related with factors associated with the host, the vaccine, the parameter used for efficacy determination, and the challenge conditions. In this context, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated standard commercial vaccine and a 1/2 diluted dose in pregnant sheep challenged with C. abortus by examining multiple indicators of vaccine effect (including incidence of reproductive failures, bacterial excretion, and evolution of weight gain of viable lambs during the first month of life). Three groups of ewes [control non-vaccinated, C (n = 18); vaccinated with standard dose, SV (n = 16); and vaccinated with 1/2 dose, DV (n = 17)], were challenged approximately 90 days post-mating and tested using direct PCR (tissue samples and vaginal swabs) and ELISA (serum) until 31 days post-reproductive outcome. There were not significant differences in the proportions of reproductive failures or bacterial shedding after birth/abortion regardless the vaccination protocol. However, a beneficial effect of vaccination on offspring growth was detected in both vaccinated groups compared with the controls, with a mean increase in weight measured at 30 days of life of 1.5 and 2.5 kg (p = 0.056) and an increase in the geometric mean of the daily gain of 8.4 and 9.7% in lambs born from DV and SV ewes compared with controls, respectively. Our results demonstrate the effect of an inactivated vaccine in the development of the offspring of C. abortus-infected ewes at a standard and a diluted dose, an interesting finding given the difficulty in achieving sufficient antigen concentration in the production of enzootic

  4. A rapid cycleave PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus A19 in China.

    PubMed

    Nan, Wenlong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Xu, Zouliang; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Immunization with attenuated vaccines has proved to be an effective method of prevention; however, it may also interfere with diagnosis. Brucella abortus strain A19, which is homologous to B. abortus strain S19, is widely used for the prevention of bovine brucellosis in China. For effective monitoring of the control of brucellosis, it is essential to distinguish A19 from field strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based assays offer a new approach to such discrimination studies. In the current study, we developed a cycleave PCR assay that successfully distinguished attenuated vaccine strains A19 and S19 from 22 strains of B. abortus and 57 strains of 5 other Brucella species. The assay gave a negative reaction with 4 non-Brucella species. The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 7.6 fg for the A19 strain and 220 fg for the single non-A19/non-S19 Brucella strain tested (B. abortus 104M). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and interassay coefficients of variation: 0.003-0.01 and 0.004-0.025, respectively). The cycleave assay gave an A19/S19-specific reaction in 3 out of 125 field serum samples, with the same 3 samples being positive in an alternative A19/S19-specific molecular assay. The cycleave assay gave a total of 102 Brucella-specific reactions (3 being the A19/S19-specific reactions), whereas an alternative Brucella-specific assay gave 92 positive reactions (all also positive in the cycleave assay). Therefore, this assay represents a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific tool for use in brucellosis control. PMID:27075847

  5. Genome sequences of three live attenuated vaccine strains of Brucella species and implications for pathogenesis and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufei; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Zhoujia; Yuan, Xitong; Qiu, Yefeng; Zhen, Qing; Xu, Jie; Li, Tiefeng; Wang, Dali; Huang, Liuyu; Chen, Zeliang

    2012-11-01

    Live attenuated vaccines play essential roles in the prevention of brucellosis. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three vaccine strains, Brucella melitensis M5-10, B. suis S2-30, and B. abortus 104M. Primary genome sequence analysis identified mutations, deletions, and insertions which have implications for attenuation and signatures for differential diagnosis. PMID:23045513

  6. Recombinant bovine interleukin 2 enhances immunity and protection induced by Brucella abortus vaccines in cattle.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, John H; Howland, Jeri L; Scott, Catherine M O'Connell; Smith, Robert A; Confer, Anthony W

    2005-11-30

    Augmentation of immunization of cattle Brucella abortus S19 or a B. abortus soluble protein extract (SPEBA) vaccine through administration of recombinant bovine IL 2 (rBoIL 2) was evaluated. Seventy-five heifers were divided among 6 groups that were treated with the following: Group 1, no treatment; Group 2, rBoIL 2 (1microg/kg) on day 0; Group 3, SPEBA (2 mg) on day 0 and week 9; Group 4, SPEBA + rBoIL 2 on day 0, SPEBA on week 9; Group 5, S19 (10(7) CFU) on day 0 and week 9; Group 6, S19 + rBoIL 2 on day 0, S19 only on week 9. Approximately, 6 months after vaccination, cattle were bred by natural service, and at mid-gestation pregnant cattle were challenged intraconjunctivally with 9.1 x 10(5) CFU of virulent B. abortus S2308. Pre- and post-challenge antibody responses were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a particle concentration fluorescence assay, and the card test. Lymphoproliferation (LP) responses to gamma-irradiated B. abortus and SPEBA antigens were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After vaccination, antibody responses to B. abortus elevated rapidly in SPEBA- and S19-vaccinates with and without rBoIL 2, however, these responses were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in vaccinates which also received rBoIL 2. Antibody levels for all vaccinated groups had returned to those of negative control groups by the challenge date with the exception of the SPEBA/rBoIL 2 group. In general, LP responses were higher in vaccinated or rBoIL 2-treated cattle than for unvaccinated controls. Challenge of 48 pregnant heifers resulted in abortions in 4/9 of Group 1, 0/9 of Group 2, 4/8 of Group 3, 2/9 of Group 4, 1/7 of Group 5, and 0/6 of Group 6 cattle. Treatment with rBoIL 2 alone (Group 2) provided significant (P < 0.05) protection from infection, abortions and induction of sero-positive status compared to untreated (Group 1) cattle. Co-administration of rBoIL 2 with S19 resulted in significant (P < 0.05) augmentation in onset, duration and

  7. The Brucella abortus Phosphoglycerate Kinase Mutant Is Highly Attenuated and Induces Protection Superior to That of Vaccine Strain 19 in Immunocompromised and Immunocompetent Mice ▿

    PubMed Central

    Trant, Cyntia G. M. C.; Lacerda, Thais L. S.; Carvalho, Natalia B.; Azevedo, Vasco; Rosinha, Gracia M. S.; Salcedo, Suzana P.; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Oliveira, Sergio C.

    2010-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever in humans. The mechanism of virulence of Brucella spp. is not yet fully understood. Therefore, it is crucial to identify new molecules that can function as virulence factors to better understand the host-pathogen interplay. Herein, we identified the gene encoding the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) of B. abortus strain 2308. To test the role of PGK in Brucella pathogenesis, a pgk deletion mutant was constructed. Replacement of the wild-type pgk by recombination was demonstrated by Southern and Western blot analyses. The B. abortus Δpgk mutant strain exhibited extreme attenuation in bone marrow-derived macrophages and in vivo in BALB/c, C57BL/6, 129/Sv, and interferon regulatory factor-1 knockout (IRF-1 KO) mice. Additionally, at 24 h postinfection the Δpgk mutant was not found within the same endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartment as the wild-type bacteria, but, instead, over 60% of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) retained the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP1. Furthermore, the B. abortus Δpgk deletion mutant was used as a live vaccine. Challenge experiments revealed that the Δpgk mutant strain induced protective immunity in 129/Sv or IRF-1 KO mice that was superior to the protection conferred by commercial strain 19 or RB51. Finally, the results shown here demonstrated that Brucella PGK is critical for full bacterial virulence and that a Δpgk mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies. PMID:20194591

  8. The Brucella abortus phosphoglycerate kinase mutant is highly attenuated and induces protection superior to that of vaccine strain 19 in immunocompromised and immunocompetent mice.

    PubMed

    Trant, Cyntia G M C; Lacerda, Thais L S; Carvalho, Natalia B; Azevedo, Vasco; Rosinha, Gracia M S; Salcedo, Suzana P; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Oliveira, Sergio C

    2010-05-01

    Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever in humans. The mechanism of virulence of Brucella spp. is not yet fully understood. Therefore, it is crucial to identify new molecules that can function as virulence factors to better understand the host-pathogen interplay. Herein, we identified the gene encoding the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) of B. abortus strain 2308. To test the role of PGK in Brucella pathogenesis, a pgk deletion mutant was constructed. Replacement of the wild-type pgk by recombination was demonstrated by Southern and Western blot analyses. The B. abortus Delta pgk mutant strain exhibited extreme attenuation in bone marrow-derived macrophages and in vivo in BALB/c, C57BL/6, 129/Sv, and interferon regulatory factor-1 knockout (IRF-1 KO) mice. Additionally, at 24 h postinfection the Delta pgk mutant was not found within the same endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartment as the wild-type bacteria, but, instead, over 60% of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) retained the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP1. Furthermore, the B. abortus Delta pgk deletion mutant was used as a live vaccine. Challenge experiments revealed that the Delta pgk mutant strain induced protective immunity in 129/Sv or IRF-1 KO mice that was superior to the protection conferred by commercial strain 19 or RB51. Finally, the results shown here demonstrated that Brucella PGK is critical for full bacterial virulence and that a Delta pgk mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies. PMID:20194591

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Intermediate Rough Vaccine Strain Brucella abortus S19Δper Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Pallab; Goswami T, Tapas K.; Lalsiamthara, Jonathan; Kaur, Gurpreet; Vishnu, Udayakumar S.; Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence of the intermediate rough vaccine strain mutant, Brucella abortus S19Δper. The length of the draft genome was 3,271,238 bp, with 57.2% G+C content. A total of 3,204 protein-coding genes and 56 RNA genes were predicted. PMID:26564050

  10. An influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine induces good cross-protection against Brucella melitensis infection in pregnant heifers.

    PubMed

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2015-07-17

    Brucella melitensis can be transmitted and cause disease in cattle herds as a result of inadequate management of mixed livestock farms. Ideally, vaccines against Brucella abortus for cattle should also provide cross-protection against B. melitensis. Previously we created a novel influenza viral vector B. abortus (Flu-BA) vaccine expressing the Brucella ribosomal proteins L7/L12 or Omp16. This study demonstrated Flu-BA vaccine with adjuvant Montanide Gel01 provided 100% protection against abortion in vaccinated pregnant heifers and good cross-protection of the heifers and their calves or fetuses (90-100%) after challenge with B. melitensis 16M; the level of protection provided by Flu-BA was comparable to the commercial vaccine B. abortus S19. In terms of the index of infection and colonization of Brucella in tissues, both vaccines demonstrated significant (P=0.02 to P<0.0001) protection against B. melitensis 16M infection compared to the negative control group (PBS+Montanide Gel01). Thus, we conclude the Flu-BA vaccine provides cross-protection against B. melitensis infection in pregnant heifers. PMID:26093199

  11. Immune responses and resistance to brucellosis in mice vaccinated orally with Brucella abortus RB51.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, M G; Olsen, S C; Palmer, M V; Pugh, G W

    1996-01-01

    Immune responses and resistance to infection with Brucella abortus 2308 (S2308) were measured in mice following oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) vaccination with strain RB51 (SRB51). Bacteria persisted in the parotid lymph node for 4 weeks following oral vaccination of mice with 5 x 10(8) or 5 x 10(6) CFU of SRB51. Bacteria did not appear in the spleen during 12 weeks after oral vaccination, whereas they did appear in the spleen for 8 weeks following i.p. vaccination of mice with SRB51 (5 x 10(8) or 5 x 10(6) CFU). Increased resistance to S2308 infection occurred at 12 to 20 weeks in mice vaccinated i.p. with SRB51 (5 x 10(8) or 5 x 10(6) CFU) but occurred at 12 weeks only in mice vaccinated orally with SRB51 (5 x 10(8) CFU). Oral SRB51 vaccination induced lower levels of antibodies to the surface antigens of intact SRB51 bacteria than did i.p. vaccination. However, neither route of vaccination induced anamnestic antibody responses to the surface antigens of intact S2308 bacteria after challenge infection of the vaccinated mice with S2308. Mice vaccinated orally with SRB51 and challenged with S2308 at 12 to 20 weeks had lower and less persistent spleen cell proliferation and production of gamma interferon in response to S2308 and certain immunodominant S2308 proteins (32 to < or = 18 kDa) than did mice vaccinated i.p. with SRB51. However, mice vaccinated orally or i.p. with SRB51 and challenged with S2308 had similar spleen cell tumor necrosis factor alpha production. These results indicate that oral vaccination of mice with SRB51 was effective in inducing protective immunity to S2308 infection, although the immunity was lower and less persistent than that induced by i.p. vaccination. The lower protective immunity induced by oral vaccination may have resulted from lower and less persistent cell-mediated immunity and gamma interferon production in response to S2308 and S2308 proteins. PMID:8890203

  12. Vaccination of adult animals with a reduced dose of Brucella abortus S19 vaccine to control brucellosis on dairy farms in endemic areas of India.

    PubMed

    Chand, Puran; Chhabra, Rajesh; Nagra, Juhi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is an economically important disease which seriously affects dairy farming by causing colossal losses. It can be controlled by practicing vaccination of animals with Brucella abortus S19 vaccine (S19 vaccine). In the present study, adult bovines were vaccinated on seven dairy farms with a reduced dose of S19 vaccine to control brucellosis. Serological screening of adult animals (N = 1,082) by Rose Bengal test (RBT) and ELISA prior to vaccination revealed the presence and absence of brucellosis on five and two farms, respectively. The positive animals (N = 171) were segregated and those which tested negative (N = 911) were vaccinated by conjunctival route with a booster after 4 months. The conjunctival vaccination induced weak antibody response in animals, which vanished within a period of 9 to 12 weeks. Abortion in 12 animals at various stages of pregnancy and post-vaccination was recorded, but none was attributed to S19 vaccine. However, virulent B. abortus was incriminated in six heifers, and the cause of abortion could not be established in six animals. The six aborted heifers perhaps acquired infection through in utero transmission or from the environment which remained undetected until abortion. These findings suggested that vaccination of adult animals with a reduced dose of S19 vaccine by conjunctival route did not produce adverse effects like abortion in pregnant animals and persistent vaccinal antibody titers, which are the major disadvantages of subcutaneous vaccination of adult animals. PMID:25274621

  13. Development of a dual vaccine for prevention of Brucella abortus infection and Escherichia coli O157:H7 intestinal colonization.

    PubMed

    Iannino, Florencia; Herrmann, Claudia K; Roset, Mara S; Briones, Gabriel

    2015-05-01

    Zoonoses that affect human and animal health have an important economic impact. In the study now presented, a bivalent vaccine has been developed that has the potential for preventing the transmission from cattle to humans of two bacterial pathogens: Brucella abortus and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). A 66kDa chimeric antigen, composed by EspA, Intimin, Tir, and H7 flagellin (EITH7) from STEC, was constructed and expressed in B. abortus Δpgm vaccine strain (BabΔpgm). Mice orally immunized with BabΔpgm(EITH7) elicited an immune response with the induction of anti-EITH7 antibodies (IgA) that clears an intestinal infection of E. coli O157:H7 three times faster (t=4 days) than mice immunized with BabΔpgm carrier strain (t=12 days). As expected, mice immunized with BabΔpgm(EITH7) strain also elicited a protective immune response against B. abortus infection. A Brucella-based vaccine platform is described capable of eliciting a combined protective immune response against two bacterial pathogens with diverse lifestyles-the intracellular pathogen B. abortus and the intestinal extracellular pathogen STEC. PMID:25820069

  14. Brucella abortus S19 and RB51 vaccine immunogenicity test: Evaluation of three mice (BALB/c, Swiss and CD-1) and two challenge strains (544 and 2308).

    PubMed

    Miranda, Karina Leite; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Pauletti, Rebeca Barbosa; Poester, Fernando Padilla; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of different mouse strains (BALB/c, Swiss and CD-1) and different challenge strains (Brucella abortus 544 and 2308) in the study of B. abortus vaccine (S19 and RB51) immunogenicity test in the murine model. No significant difference in B. abortus vaccine potency assay was found with the use of B. abortus 544 or B. abortus 2308 as challenge strain. Results of variance analysis showed an interaction between treatment and mouse strain; therefore these parameters could not be compared separately. When CD-1 groups were compared, those vaccinated showed significantly lower counts than non-vaccinated ones (P<0.05), independently of the vaccine received (S19 or RB51). Similar results were observed on BALB/c groups. However, in Swiss mouse groups, S19 was more protective than RB51 (P<0.05), which showed protection when compared to the non-vaccinated group (P<0.05). In summary, data from the present study showed that CD-1, BALB/c and Swiss mice strains, as well as both challenge strains, B. abortus strains 544 and 2308, can be used in immunogenicity tests of S19 and RB51 vaccines. PMID:25498211

  15. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the next 7 days, who requires a protected environment (for example, following a bone marrow transplant). Sometimes ... The National Vaccine Injury Compensation ProgramThe National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP) is a federal program that was created to compensate people who may have ...

  16. Biosafety of parenteral Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine in bison calves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, T.J.; Olsen, S.C.; Gidlewski, T.; Jensen, A.E.; Palmer, M.V.; Huber, R.

    1999-01-01

    Vaccination is considered among the primary management tools for reducing brucellosis prevalence in Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) ungulates. Before their use, however, vaccine safety and efficacy must be demonstrated. Twenty-seven female bison (Bison bison) calves (approx 5 months old) were vaccinated with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 (1.5 x 1010 colony forming units [CFU], subcutaneously) as part of routine management. We assessed the persistence, pathology, shedding, and transmission associated with RB51 by serial necropsy, bacteriology, histopathology, and serology of 20 of these 27 vaccinated calves, and RB51 serology of 10 nonvaccinated, commingling adult females. With the exception of 1 calf, RB51 dot-blot titers at necropsy were <1:80. Strain RB51 was cultured from lymph nodes in 4 of 4 calves at 14 weeks postvaccination (PV), 4 of 4 calves at 18 weeks PV, 1 of 4 calves at 22 weeks PV, 3 of 4 at 26 weeks PV, and 0 of 4 calves at 30 weeks PV. No gross lesions were observed. Mild histologic changes occurred only in a few draining lymph nodes early in sampling. Adverse clinical effects were not observed in vaccinates. Swabs from nasopharynx, conjunctiva, rectum, and vagina were uniformly culture negative for RB51. Strain RB51 dot-blot assays of bison cows were negative at a 1:20 dilution at 26 weeks PV. Our results suggest that RB51 persists longer in bison calves than in domestic cattle and is systemically distributed within lymphatic tissues. However, bison apparently clear the RB51 vaccine strain without shedding, transmission, or significant adverse reactions.

  17. Effectiveness of Brucella abortus Strain 19 single calfhood vaccination in elk (Cervus elaphus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.; Jones, Lee C.; Coffin, Kenneth; Sweeney, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    Brucellosis in Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) bison and elk has been a source of controversy and focus of the Greater Yellowstone Interagency Brucellosis Committee (GYIBC) for years. Brucellosis has been eradicated from cattle in the 3 states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho and all three states currently are classified as “brucellosis free” with regard to livestock. Yet free-ranging elk that attend feedgrounds in the GYA, and bison in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, still have high seroprevalence to the disease and are viewed as a threat to the state-federal cooperative national brucellosis eradication program. Recently, cattle in eastern Idaho were found infected with brucellosis and transmission was apparently from fed elk. The GYIBC, formed of state and federal agencies involved in wildlife and livestock management in the 3 states, has committed to eventual elimination of the disease from wildlife. Management tools to control or eliminate the disease are limited; however, wildlife vaccination is one of the methods currently employed. Effective wildlife vaccination depends on dose efficacy, deliverability, and safety to non-targeted species. We commenced a single-dose efficacy study of vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19) in elk in 1999.

  18. Novel vector vaccine against Brucella abortus based on influenza A viruses expressing Brucella L7/L12 or Omp16 proteins: evaluation of protection in pregnant heifers.

    PubMed

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Yespembetov, Bolat; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2014-10-14

    The present study provides the first information about the protection of a novel influenza viral vector vaccine expressing the Brucella proteins ribosomal L7/L12 or Omp16 containing the adjuvant Montanide Gel01 in pregnant heifers. Immunization of pregnant heifers was conducted via the conjunctival (n=10) or subcutaneous (n=10) route using cross prime and booster vaccination schedules at an interval of 28 days. The vector vaccine was evaluated in comparison with positive control groups vaccinated with Brucella abortus S19 (n=10) or B. abortus RB51 (n=10) and a negative (PBS+Montanide Gel01; n=10) control group. Via both the conjunctival or subcutaneous route, evaluation of protectiveness against abortion, effectiveness of vaccination and index of infection (in heifers and their fetuses or calves) demonstrated the vector vaccine provided good protection against B. abortus 544 infection compared to the negative control group (PBS+Montanide Gel01) and comparable protection to commercial vaccines B. abortus S19 or B. abortus RB51. PMID:25218295

  19. Comparison between Immunization Routes of Live Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium Strains Expressing BCSP31, Omp3b, and SOD of Brucella abortus in Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won K; Moon, Ja Y; Kim, Suk; Hur, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Live, attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine candidate expressing BCSP31, Omp3b, and SOD proteins of Brucella abortus was constructed. Thirty BALB/c mice were divided equally into three groups, Group A, were intraperitoneally (IP) inoculated with 100 μl of approximately 1.2 × 10(6) colony-forming units (CFUs)/ml of the Salmonella containing vector only in 100 μl as a control. And groups B and C mice were orally and IP immunized with approximately 1.2 × 10(9) CFU/ml of the mixture of three delivery strains in 10 μl and IP immunized with approximately 1.2 × 10(6) CFU/ml of the mixture in 100 μl, respectively. The serum IgG, TNF-α and IFN-γ concentrations in groups B (except Omp3b) and C were significantly higher than those in group A. Following challenge with B. abortus strain 544; challenge strain was detected <10(3) CFU from the spleen of all mice of group C. These results suggest that IP immunization with the mixture of the vaccine candidate can induce immune responses, and can effectively protect mice against brucellosis. PMID:27148232

  20. Comparison between Immunization Routes of Live Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium Strains Expressing BCSP31, Omp3b, and SOD of Brucella abortus in Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won K.; Moon, Ja Y.; Kim, Suk; Hur, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Live, attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine candidate expressing BCSP31, Omp3b, and SOD proteins of Brucella abortus was constructed. Thirty BALB/c mice were divided equally into three groups, Group A, were intraperitoneally (IP) inoculated with 100 μl of approximately 1.2 × 106 colony-forming units (CFUs)/ml of the Salmonella containing vector only in 100 μl as a control. And groups B and C mice were orally and IP immunized with approximately 1.2 × 109 CFU/ml of the mixture of three delivery strains in 10 μl and IP immunized with approximately 1.2 × 106 CFU/ml of the mixture in 100 μl, respectively. The serum IgG, TNF-α and IFN-γ concentrations in groups B (except Omp3b) and C were significantly higher than those in group A. Following challenge with B. abortus strain 544; challenge strain was detected <103 CFU from the spleen of all mice of group C. These results suggest that IP immunization with the mixture of the vaccine candidate can induce immune responses, and can effectively protect mice against brucellosis. PMID:27148232

  1. A stable live bacterial vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kunda, Nitesh K; Wafula, Denis; Tram, Meilinn; Wu, Terry H; Muttil, Pavan

    2016-06-01

    Formulating vaccines into a dry form enhances its thermal stability. This is critical to prevent administering damaged and ineffective vaccines, and to reduce its final cost. A number of vaccines in the market as well as those being evaluated in the clinical setting are in a dry solid state; yet none of these vaccines have achieved long-term stability at high temperatures. We used spray-drying to formulate a recombinant live attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm; expressing Francisella tularensis immune protective antigen pathogenicity island protein IglC) bacterial vaccine into a thermostable dry powder using various sugars and an amino acid. Lm powder vaccine showed minimal loss in viability when stored for more than a year at ambient room temperature (∼23°C) or for 180days at 40°C. High temperature viability was achieved by maintaining an inert atmosphere in the storage container and removing oxygen free radicals that damage bacterial membranes. Further, in vitro antigenicity was confirmed by infecting a dendritic cell line with cultures derived from spray dried Lm and detection of an intracellularly expressed protective antigen. A combination of stabilizing excipients, a cost effective one-step drying process, and appropriate storage conditions could provide a viable option for producing, storing and transporting heat-sensitive vaccines, especially in regions of the world that require them the most. PMID:27020530

  2. Serological response to administration of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in beef and dairy heifers, using needle-free and standard needle-based injection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare immunologic responses of heifers vaccinated with 10**10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) by standard needle-and-syringe system or a needle-free injection system. Heifers were randomly assigned to control and vaccination gro...

  3. Immune responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strains RB51 or RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and Glycosyltransferase genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination is a tool that could be beneficial in managing the high prevalence of brucellosis in free-ranging bison in Yellowstone National Park. In this study, we characterized immunologic responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus stra...

  4. The immunogenic activity of ribosomal fractions derived from Brucella abortus.

    PubMed Central

    Corbel, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The immunizing activity of ribosome preparations derived from Brucella abortus strain 19 cells was examined in guinea-pigs and mice. After subcutaneous injections of Br. abortus ribosomes in Freund's incomplete adjuvant, both mice and guinea-pigs developed immunity to challenge by virulent Br. abortus 544 organisms which was at least as effective as the protection conferred by live strain 19 vaccine. Both mice and guinea-pigs also developed agglutinating and complement-fixing antibodies and delayed hypersensitivity to Br. Abortus antigens. Conversely, ribosome preparations elicited delayed hypersensitivity reactions on intracutaneous injection into guinea-pigs chronically infected with Br. abortus or Br. melitensis. On injection into rabbits, Br. abortus ribosomes incorporated in incomplete adjuvant induced high titres of agglutinins, complement fxing antibodies and precipitins for Br. abortus antigens. On immunochemical examination, the ribosome preparations were not grossly contaminated with antigens derived from the cell surface. They were chemically complex, however, and in addition to RNA contained numerous protein components identified by disk electrophoresis. The nature of the components responsible for conferring protection against Br. abortus was not determined. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:812900

  5. Influence of Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide as an adjuvant on the immunogenicity of HPV-16 L1VLP vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Kianmehr, Zahra; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Ardestani, Susan Kaboudanian; Fotouhi, Fatemeh; Abdoli, Asghar

    2015-04-01

    Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has less toxicity and no pyrogenic properties in comparison with other bacterial LPS. It is a toll-like receptor 4 agonist and has been shown to have the potential use as a vaccine adjuvant. In this study, the immunostimulatory properties of LPS from smooth and rough strains of B. abortus (S19 and RB51) as adjuvants were investigated for the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L1 virus-like particles (L1VLPs) vaccines. C57BL/6 mice were immunized subcutaneously three times either with HPV-16 L1VLPs alone, or in combination with smooth LPS (S-LPS), rough LPS (R-LPS), aluminum hydroxide or a mixture of them as adjuvant. The humoral immunity was evaluated by measuring the specific and total IgG levels, and also the T-cell immune response of mice was evaluated by measuring different cytokines such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17. Results showed that serum anti-HPV16 L1VLP IgG antibody titers was significantly higher in mice immunized with a combination of VLPs and R-LPS or S-LPS compared with other immunized groups. Co-administration of HPV-16 L1VLPs with R-LPS elicited the highest levels of splenocytes cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17 and TNF-α) and also effectively induced improvement of a Th1-type cytokine response characterized with a high ratio of IFN-γ/IL-10. The data indicate that B. abortus LPS particularly RB51-LPS enhances the immune responses to HPV-16 L1VLPs and suggests its potential as an adjuvant for the development of a potent prophylactic HPV vaccine and other candidate vaccines. PMID:25187406

  6. Photopolymerized hydrogel carriers for live vaccine ballistic delivery.

    PubMed

    Christie, R J; Findley, D J; Dunfee, M; Hansen, R D; Olsen, S C; Grainger, D W

    2006-02-27

    Photopolymerized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-crosslinked hydrogels were assessed for their ability to serve as a payload vehicle to deliver a viable bacterial vaccine (Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) to bison in Yellowstone National Park) ballistically using thermoplastic degradable Biobullets. PEG modified with degradable glycolide or lactide oligomers capped with photopolymerizable methacrylate groups served to crosslink the hydrogel vaccine carrier inside commercial hydroxypropylcellulose Biobullets. Release of 1 microm diameter model fluorescent particles from hydrogels followed known degradation trends for glycolide- and lactide-modified PEG hydrogels. All particles were released from PEG-co-glycolide hydrogels after approximately 10 days and PEG-co-lactide hydrogels after approximately 45 days following gel degradation. Minimal particle release was observed from pure PEG dimethacrylate hydrogels over 40 days. P. aeruginosa (strain PAO1) and RB51 live vaccines exhibit excellent viability following exposure to photopolymerization encapsulation within these gel matrices. Hydrogels photopolymerized into the payload chamber of Biobullets exhibit similar ballistic properties to commercially available Biobullets and penetrate and remain intact when fired intramuscularly into live elk for release of their gel payload in the host. PMID:16246467

  7. Genome Sequence of Brucella abortus Vaccine Strain S19 Compared to Virulent Strains Yields Candidate Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Crasta, Oswald R.; Folkerts, Otto; Fei, Zhangjun; Mane, Shrinivasrao P.; Evans, Clive; Martino-Catt, Susan; Bricker, Betsy; Yu, GongXin; Du, Lei; Sobral, Bruno W.

    2008-01-01

    The Brucella abortus strain S19, a spontaneously attenuated strain, has been used as a vaccine strain in vaccination of cattle against brucellosis for six decades. Despite many studies, the physiological and molecular mechanisms causing the attenuation are not known. We have applied pyrosequencing technology together with conventional sequencing to rapidly and comprehensively determine the complete genome sequence of the attenuated Brucella abortus vaccine strain S19. The main goal of this study is to identify candidate virulence genes by systematic comparative analysis of the attenuated strain with the published genome sequences of two virulent and closely related strains of B. abortus, 9–941 and 2308. The two S19 chromosomes are 2,122,487 and 1,161,449 bp in length. A total of 3062 genes were identified and annotated. Pairwise and reciprocal genome comparisons resulted in a total of 263 genes that were non-identical between the S19 genome and any of the two virulent strains. Amongst these, 45 genes were consistently different between the attenuated strain and the two virulent strains but were identical amongst the virulent strains, which included only two of the 236 genes that have been implicated as virulence factors in literature. The functional analyses of the differences have revealed a total of 24 genes that may be associated with the loss of virulence in S19. Of particular relevance are four genes with more than 60bp consistent difference in S19 compared to both the virulent strains, which, in the virulent strains, encode an outer membrane protein and three proteins involved in erythritol uptake or metabolism. PMID:18478107

  8. Genome sequence of Brucella abortus vaccine strain S19 compared to virulent strains yields candidate virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Crasta, Oswald R; Folkerts, Otto; Fei, Zhangjun; Mane, Shrinivasrao P; Evans, Clive; Martino-Catt, Susan; Bricker, Betsy; Yu, GongXin; Du, Lei; Sobral, Bruno W

    2008-01-01

    The Brucella abortus strain S19, a spontaneously attenuated strain, has been used as a vaccine strain in vaccination of cattle against brucellosis for six decades. Despite many studies, the physiological and molecular mechanisms causing the attenuation are not known. We have applied pyrosequencing technology together with conventional sequencing to rapidly and comprehensively determine the complete genome sequence of the attenuated Brucella abortus vaccine strain S19. The main goal of this study is to identify candidate virulence genes by systematic comparative analysis of the attenuated strain with the published genome sequences of two virulent and closely related strains of B. abortus, 9-941 and 2308. The two S19 chromosomes are 2,122,487 and 1,161,449 bp in length. A total of 3062 genes were identified and annotated. Pairwise and reciprocal genome comparisons resulted in a total of 263 genes that were non-identical between the S19 genome and any of the two virulent strains. Amongst these, 45 genes were consistently different between the attenuated strain and the two virulent strains but were identical amongst the virulent strains, which included only two of the 236 genes that have been implicated as virulence factors in literature. The functional analyses of the differences have revealed a total of 24 genes that may be associated with the loss of virulence in S19. Of particular relevance are four genes with more than 60 bp consistent difference in S19 compared to both the virulent strains, which, in the virulent strains, encode an outer membrane protein and three proteins involved in erythritol uptake or metabolism. PMID:18478107

  9. B Cells Are Essential for Moderating the Inflammatory Response and Controlling Bacterial Multiplication in a Mouse Model of Vaccination against Chlamydophila abortus Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Buendía, Antonio J.; Ortega, Nieves; Caro, María R.; Del Río, Laura; Gallego, María C.; Sánchez, Joaquín; Navarro, Jose A.; Cuello, Francisco; Salinas, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    The use of inactivated vaccines associated with suitable adjuvants has been demonstrated to confer a good level of protection against Chlamydophila abortus. However, the basis of the immune protective response induced by these vaccines has been poorly studied. B cells act as an immune regulatory population during primary infection by C. abortus. Thus, it was considered of interest to study the role of B cells in an infection after immunization with a killed vaccine. For this, C57BL/6 and B-cell-deficient mice were immunized with a killed vaccine against C. abortus using QS-21 as the adjuvant. After challenge, the course of infection was established by analysis of morbidity, C. abortus burden in the liver, and histopathological changes. The immune response induced was studied by real-time PCR techniques. Experiments involving transfer of immune serum from vaccinated or previously infected mice were also carried out. The lack of B cells reduced the protection conferred by the QS-21 adjuvant vaccine. Vaccinated B-cell-deficient mice showed a 1,000-fold-greater bacterial burden in the liver than their wild-type counterparts. Obvious differences existed in the liver, where a severe neutrophilic reaction and extended areas of necrosis were observed with vaccinated B-cell-deficient mice. An analysis of the immune response pointed to a significant increase in inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the deficient production of transforming growth factor beta. The transfer of antibodies restored the level of protection. This study demonstrates that B cells play a crucial role in controlling C. abortus multiplication and prevent an exacerbated inflammatory response. PMID:19703981

  10. Immune responses of elk to initial and booster vaccinations with Brucella abortus strain RB51 or 19.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S C; Fach, S J; Palmer, M V; Sacco, R E; Stoffregen, W C; Waters, W R

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that currently available brucellosis vaccines induce poor or no protection in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). In this study, we characterized the immunologic responses of elk after initial or booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strains RB51 (SRB51) and 19 (S19). Elk were vaccinated with saline or 10(10) CFU of SRB51 or S19 (n=seven animals/treatment) and booster vaccinated with a similar dosage of the autologous vaccine at 65 weeks. Compared to nonvaccinates, elk vaccinated with SRB51 or S19 had greater (P<0.05) antibody responses to SRB51 or S19 after initial vaccination and after booster vaccination. Compared to nonvaccinated elk, greater (P<0.05) proliferative responses to autologous antigen after initial vaccination occurred at only a few sample times in SRB51 (6, 14, and 22 weeks) and S19 (22 weeks) treatment groups. In general, proliferative responses of vaccinates to nonautologous antigens did not differ (P>0.05) from the responses of nonvaccinated elk. Gamma interferon production in response to autologous or nonautologous Brucella antigens did not differ (P>0.05) between controls and vaccinates after booster vaccination. Flow cytometric techniques suggested that proliferation occurred more frequently in immunoglobulin M-positive cells, with differences between vaccination and control treatments in CD4+ and CD8+ subset proliferation detected only at 22 weeks after initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, one technique ([3H]thymidine incorporation) suggested that proliferative responses to SRB51 antigen, but not S19 antigen, were greater (P<0.05) in vaccinates compared to the responses of nonvaccinates. However, in general, flow cytometric and other techniques failed to detect significant anamnestic responses to autologous or nonautologous Brucella antigens in S19 or SRB51 vaccinates after booster vaccination. Although some cellular immune responses were detected after initial or booster vaccination of elk with SRB51

  11. Vaccination with Brucella abortus recombinant in vivo-induced antigens reduces bacterial load and promotes clearance in a mouse model for infection.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Jake E; Isaak, Dale D; Leonhardt, Jack A; Vernati, Giulia; Pate, Jessie C; Andrews, Gerard P

    2011-01-01

    Current vaccines used for the prevention of brucellosis are ineffective in inducing protective immunity in animals that are chronically infected with Brucella abortus, such as elk. Using a gene discovery approach, in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) on B. abortus, we previously identified ten loci that encode products up-regulated during infection in elk and consequently may play a role in virulence. In our present study, five of the loci (D15, 0187, VirJ, Mdh, AfuA) were selected for further characterization and compared with three additional antigens with virulence potential (Hia, PrpA, MltA). All eight genes were PCR-amplified from B. abortus and cloned into E. coli. The recombinant products were then expressed, purified, adjuvanted, and delivered subcutaneously to BALB/c mice. After primary immunization and two boosts, mice were challenged i.p. with 5 x 10⁴ CFU of B. abortus strain 19. Spleens from challenged animals were harvested and bacterial loads determined by colony count at various time points. While vaccination with four of the eight individual proteins appeared to have some effect on clearance kinetics, mice vaccinated with recombinant Mdh displayed the most significant reduction in bacterial colonization. Furthermore, mice immunized with Mdh maintained higher levels of IFN-γ in spleens compared to other treatment groups. Collectively, our in vivo data gathered from the S19 murine colonization model suggest that vaccination with at least three of the IVIAT antigens conferred an enhanced ability of the host to respond to infection, reinforcing the utility of this methodology for the identification of potential vaccine candidates against brucellosis. Mechanisms for immunity to one protein, Mdh, require further in vitro exploration and evaluation against wild-type B. abortus challenge in mice, as well as other hosts. Additional studies are being undertaken to clarify the role of Mdh and other IVI antigens in B. abortus virulence and induction of

  12. A repA-based ELISA for discriminating cattle vaccinated with Brucella suis 2 from those naturally infected with Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Yu; Wu, Ning; Liu, Wan-Hua; Ren, Juan-Juan; Tang, Pan; Qiu, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Chi-Young; Chang, Ching-Dong; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The commonest ways of diagnosing brucellosis in animals include the Rose-Bengal plate agglutination test, the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA), the slide agglutination test, the complement fixation test, and the indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). However, these methods cannot discriminate the Brucella vaccine strain (Brucella suis strain 2; B. suis S2) from naturally acquired virulent strains. Of the six common Brucella species, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and B. suis are the commonest species occurring in China. To develop an ELISA assay that can differentiate between cows inoculated with B. suis S2 and naturally infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis, genomic sequences from six Brucella spp. (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, Brucella canis, Brucella neotomae and Brucella ovis) were compared using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool software. One particular gene, the repA-related gene, was found to be a marker that can differentiate B. suis from B. abortus and B. melitensis. The repA-related gene of B. suis was PCR amplified and subcloned into the pET-32a vector. Expressed repA-related protein was purified and used as an antigen. The repA-based ELISA was optimized and used as specific tests. In the present study, serum from animals inoculated with the B. suis S2 vaccine strain had positive repA-based ELISA results. In contrast, the test-positive reference sera against B. abortus and B. melitensis had negative repA-based ELISA results. The concordance rate between B. abortus antibody-negative (based on the repA-based ELISA) and the Brucella gene-positive (based on the 'Bruce ladder' multiplex PCR) was 100%. Therefore, the findings suggest that the repA-based ELISA is a useful tool for differentiating cows vaccinated with the B. suis S2 and naturally infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis. PMID:24941369

  13. Experimental infection of nontarget species of rodents and birds with Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Januszewski, M.C.; Olsen, S.C.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Rhyan, Jack C.

    2001-01-01

    The Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 (SRB51) is being considered for use in the management of bnucellosis in wild bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus) populations in the Greater Yellowstone Area (USA). Evaluation of the vaccines safety in non-target species was considered necessary prior to field use. Between June 1998 and December 1999, ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii, n = 21), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, n = 14), prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster, n = 21), and ravens (Corvus corax, n = 13) were orally inoculated with SRB51 or physiologic saline. Oral and rectal swabs and blood samples were collected for bacteriologic evaluation. Rodents were necropsied at 8 to 10 wk and 12 to 21 wk post inoculation (PI), and ravens at 7 and 11 wk PI. Spleen, liver and reproductive tissues were collected for bacteriologic and histopathologic evaluation. No differences in clinical signs, appetite, weight loss or gain, or activity were observed between saline- and SRB51-inoculated animals in all four species. Oral and rectal swabs from all species were negative throughout the study. In tissues obtained from SRB51-inoculated animals, the organism was isolated from six of seven (86%) ground squirrels, one of six (17%) deer mice, none of seven voles, and one of five (20%) ravens necropsied at 8, 8, 10, and 7 wk PI, respectively. Tissues from four of seven (57%) SRB51-inoculated ground squirrels were culture positive for the organism 12 wk PI; SRB51 was not recovered from deer mice, voles. or ravens necropsied 12, 21, or 11 wk, respectively, PI. SRB51 was not recovered from saline-inoculated ground squirrels, deer mice, or voles at any time but was recovered from one saline-inoculated raven at necropsy, 7 wk PI, likely attributable to contact with SRB51-inoculated ravens in an adjacent aviary room. Spleen was time primary tissue site of colonization in ground squirrels, followed by the liver and reproductive organs. The results indicate oral exposure to

  14. Live RB51 vaccine lyophilized hydrogel formulations with increased shelf life for practical ballistic delivery.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Jonathan L; Christie, R James; Pollard, Emily J; Olsen, Steven C; Grainger, David W

    2016-02-10

    Ballistic delivery capability is essential to delivering vaccines and other therapeutics effectively to both livestock and wildlife in many global scenarios. Here, lyophilized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-glycolide dimethacrylate crosslinked but degradable hydrogels were assessed as payload vehicles to protect and deliver a viable bacterial vaccine, Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51), ballistically using commercial thermoplastic cellulosic degradable biobullets. Degradable PEG hydrogel rods loaded with ∼10(10) live RB51 bacteria (CFUs) were fabricated using three different polymerization methods, cut into fixed-sized payload segments, and lyophilized. Resulting dense, glassy RB51 vaccine-loaded monoliths were inserted into thermoplastic biobullet 100-μL payload chambers. Viability studies of lyophilized formulations assessed as a function of time and storage temperature supported the abilities of several conditions to produce acceptable vaccine shelf-lives. Fired from specifically designed air rifles, gel-loaded biobullets exhibit down-range ballistic properties (i.e., kinetic energy, trajectory, accuracy) similar to unloaded biobullets. Delivered to bovine tissue, these hydrogels rehydrate rapidly by swelling in tissue fluids, with complete hydration observed after 5h in serum. Live RB51 vaccine exhibited excellent viability following carrier polymerization, lyophilization, and storage, at levels sufficient for vaccine dosing to wild range bison, the intended target. These data validate lyophilized degradable PEG hydrogel rods as useful drug carriers for remote delivery of both live vaccines and other therapeutics to livestock, wildlife, or other free-range targets using ballistic technologies. PMID:26705151

  15. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M

    2015-06-19

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines. PMID:25902362

  16. Immune Response of Calves Vaccinated with Brucella abortus S19 or RB51 and Revaccinated with RB51

    PubMed Central

    Dorneles, Elaine M. S.; Lima, Graciela K.; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Araújo, Márcio S. S.; Martins-Filho, Olindo A.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Al Qublan, Hamzeh; Heinemann, Marcos B.; Lage, Andrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Brucella abortus S19 and RB51 strains have been successfully used to control bovine brucellosis worldwide; however, currently, most of our understanding of the protective immune response induced by vaccination comes from studies in mice. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the immune responses induced in cattle prime-immunized with B. abortus S19 or RB51 and revaccinated with RB51. Female calves, aged 4 to 8 months, were vaccinated with either vaccine S19 (0.6–1.2 x 1011 CFU) or RB51 (1.3 x 1010 CFU) on day 0, and revaccinated with RB51 (1.3 x 1010 CFU) on day 365 of the experiment. Characterization of the immune response was performed using serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 28, 210, 365, 393 and 575 post-immunization. Results showed that S19 and RB51 vaccination induced an immune response characterized by proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells; IFN-ɣ and IL-17A production by CD4+ T-cells; cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells; IL-6 secretion; CD4+ and CD8+ memory cells; antibodies of IgG1 class; and expression of the phenotypes of activation in T-cells. However, the immune response stimulated by S19 compared to RB51 showed higher persistency of IFN-ɣ and CD4+ memory cells, induction of CD21+ memory cells and higher secretion of IL-6. After RB51 revaccination, the immune response was chiefly characterized by increase in IFN-ɣ expression, proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells and decrease of IL-6 production in both groups. Nevertheless, a different polarization of the immune response, CD4+- or CD8+-dominant, was observed after the booster with RB51 for S19 and RB51 prime-vaccinated animals, respectively. Our results indicate that after prime vaccination both vaccine strains induce a strong and complex Th1 immune response, although after RB51 revaccination the differences between immune profiles induced by prime-vaccination become accentuated. PMID:26352261

  17. Immune Response of Calves Vaccinated with Brucella abortus S19 or RB51 and Revaccinated with RB51.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Elaine M S; Lima, Graciela K; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Araújo, Márcio S S; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Al Qublan, Hamzeh; Heinemann, Marcos B; Lage, Andrey P

    2015-01-01

    Brucella abortus S19 and RB51 strains have been successfully used to control bovine brucellosis worldwide; however, currently, most of our understanding of the protective immune response induced by vaccination comes from studies in mice. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the immune responses induced in cattle prime-immunized with B. abortus S19 or RB51 and revaccinated with RB51. Female calves, aged 4 to 8 months, were vaccinated with either vaccine S19 (0.6-1.2 x 1011 CFU) or RB51 (1.3 x 1010 CFU) on day 0, and revaccinated with RB51 (1.3 x 1010 CFU) on day 365 of the experiment. Characterization of the immune response was performed using serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 28, 210, 365, 393 and 575 post-immunization. Results showed that S19 and RB51 vaccination induced an immune response characterized by proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells; IFN-ɣ and IL-17A production by CD4+ T-cells; cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells; IL-6 secretion; CD4+ and CD8+ memory cells; antibodies of IgG1 class; and expression of the phenotypes of activation in T-cells. However, the immune response stimulated by S19 compared to RB51 showed higher persistency of IFN-ɣ and CD4+ memory cells, induction of CD21+ memory cells and higher secretion of IL-6. After RB51 revaccination, the immune response was chiefly characterized by increase in IFN-ɣ expression, proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells and decrease of IL-6 production in both groups. Nevertheless, a different polarization of the immune response, CD4+- or CD8+-dominant, was observed after the booster with RB51 for S19 and RB51 prime-vaccinated animals, respectively. Our results indicate that after prime vaccination both vaccine strains induce a strong and complex Th1 immune response, although after RB51 revaccination the differences between immune profiles induced by prime-vaccination become accentuated. PMID:26352261

  18. Assessment of Live Plague Vaccine Candidates.

    PubMed

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Motin, Vladimir L

    2016-01-01

    Since its creation in the early twentieth century, live plague vaccine EV has been successfully applied to millions of people without severe complications. This vaccine has been proven to elicit protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague, and it is still in use in populations at risk mainly in the countries of the former Soviet Union. Despite extensive efforts in developing subunit vaccines, there is a reviving interest in creation of a precisely attenuated strain of Yersinia pestis superior to the EV that can serve as a live plague vaccine with improved characteristics. Here we summarize decades of experience of the Russian anti-plague research in developing a standard protocol for early-stage evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of live plague vaccines. This protocol allows step-by-step comparison of the novel test candidates with the EV vaccine by using subcutaneous immunization and bubonic plague infection models in two animal species, e.g., guinea pigs and mice. PMID:27076149

  19. Immune Responses and Protection against Experimental Challenge after Vaccination of Bison with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 or RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes▿

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, S. C.; Boyle, S. M.; Schurig, G. G.; Sriranganathan, N. N.

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination is a tool that could be beneficial in managing the high prevalence of brucellosis in free-ranging bison in Yellowstone National Park. In this study, we characterized immunologic responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) or a recombinant RB51 strain overexpressing superoxide dismutase (sodC) and glycosyltransferase (wboA) genes (RB51+sodC,wboA). Bison were vaccinated with saline only or with 4.6 × 1010 CFU of RB51 or 7.4 × 1010 CFU of RB51+sodC,wboA (n = eight animals/treatment). Bison vaccinated with RB51 or RB51+sodC,wboA had greater (P < 0.05) antibody responses, proliferative responses, and production of gamma interferon to RB51 after vaccination than did nonvaccinates. However, bison vaccinated with RB51+sodC,wboA cleared the vaccine strain from draining lymph nodes faster than bison vaccinated with the parental RB51 strain. Immunologic responses of bison vaccinated with RB51+sodC,wboA were similar to responses of bison vaccinated with RB51. Pregnant bison were intraconjunctivally challenged in midgestation with 107 CFU of B. abortus strain 2308. Bison vaccinated with RB51, but not RB51+sodC,wboA vaccinates, had greater protection from abortion, fetal/uterine, mammary, or maternal infection than nonvaccinates. Our data suggest that the RB51+sodC,wboA strain is less efficacious as a calfhood vaccine for bison than the parental RB51 strain. Our data also suggest that the RB51 vaccine is a currently available management tool that could be utilized to help reduce brucellosis in free-ranging bison. PMID:19176693

  20. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... flulive.html . CDC review information for Live, Intranasal Influenza VIS: Vaccine Information Statement Influenza Page last reviewed: ...

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of Brucella abortus vaccine strain 104M reveals a set of candidate genes associated with its virulence attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dong; Hui, Yiming; Zai, Xiaodong; Xu, Junjie; Liang, Long; Wang, Bingxiang; Yue, Junjie; Li, Shanhu

    2015-01-01

    The Brucella abortus strain 104M, a spontaneously attenuated strain, has been used as a vaccine strain in humans against brucellosis for 6 decades in China. Despite many studies, the molecular mechanisms that cause the attenuation are still unclear. Here, we determined the whole-genome sequence of 104M and conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis against the whole genome sequences of the virulent strain, A13334, and other reference strains. This analysis revealed a highly similar genome structure between 104M and A13334. The further comparative genomic analysis between 104M and A13334 revealed a set of genes missing in 104M. Some of these genes were identified to be directly or indirectly associated with virulence. Similarly, a set of mutations in the virulence-related genes was also identified, which may be related to virulence alteration. This study provides a set of candidate genes associated with virulence attenuation in B.abortus vaccine strain 104M. PMID:26039674

  2. Developing live vaccines against Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Three great plague pandemics caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis have killed nearly 200 million people and it has been linked to biowarfare in the past. Plague is endemic in many parts of the world. In addition, the risk of plague as a bioweapon has prompted increased research to develop plague vaccines against this disease. Injectable subunit vaccines are being developed in the United States and United Kingdom. However, the live attenuated Y. pestis-EV NIIEG strain has been used as a vaccine for more than 70 years in the former Soviet Union and in some parts of Asia and provides a high degree of efficacy against plague. This vaccine has not gained general acceptance because of safety concerns. In recent years, modern molecular biological techniques have been applied to Y. pestis to construct strains with specific defined mutations designed to create safe, immunogenic vaccines with potential for use in humans and as bait vaccines to reduce the load of Y. pestis in the environment. In addition, a number of live, vectored vaccines have been reported using attenuated viral vectors or attenuated Salmonella strains to deliver plague antigens. Here we summarize the progress of live attenuated vaccines against plague. PMID:21918302

  3. A combined DNA vaccine encoding BCSP31, SOD, and L7/L12 confers high protection against Brucella abortus 2308 by inducing specific CTL responses.

    PubMed

    Yu, Da-Hai; Hu, Xi-Dan; Cai, Hong

    2007-06-01

    We constructed a combined DNA vaccine comprising genes encoding the antigens BCSP31, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and L7/L12 and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Immunization of mice with the combined DNA vaccine offered high protection against Brucella abortus (B. abortus) infection. The vaccine induced a vigorous specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response, with higher IgG2a than IgG1 titers. Cytokine profiling performed at the same time showed a biased Th1-type immune response with significantly increased interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation. CD8(+), but not CD4(+), T cells accumulated at significantly higher levels after administration of the vaccine. Granzyme B-producing CD8(+) T cells were significantly higher in number in samples prepared from combined DNA-vaccinated mice compared with S19-vaccinated mice, demonstrating that the cytotoxicity lysis pathway is involved in the response to Brucella infection. The success of our combined DNA vaccine in a mouse model suggests its potential efficacy against brucellosis infection in large animals. PMID:17570767

  4. MLVA genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates from different animal species and humans and identification of Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from cattle in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai; Wang, Heng; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Guiying; Ma, Junying; Xiao, Pei; Fan, Weixing; Di, Dongdong; Tian, Guozhong; Fan, Mengguang; Mi, Jingchuan; Yu, Ruiping; Song, Litao; Zhao, Hongyan; Piao, Dongri; Cui, Buyun

    2013-01-01

    In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3) is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82) belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the 'East Mediterranean' group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the 'Americas' group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal). The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70) were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs. PMID:24124546

  5. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental brucella abortus challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the d...

  6. Serological profile of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) female calves vaccinated with standard Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine using rose bengal, 2-mercaptoethanol and complement fixation tests.

    PubMed

    Nardi, G Júnior; Ribeiro, M G; Jorge, A M; Megid, J; Silva, L M P

    2012-03-01

    The serological profiles of 21 female buffaloes vaccinated between 3 and 8 months of age using Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19) were evaluated by rose bengal (RBT), 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) and complement fixation (CFT) tests. The serum strains were collected in day zero, 15, 30, 45, 60th days and subsequently to each 30 months, until 720th day after vaccination. No animal showed reaction in day zero. In 15th day above 95% of animals revealed reaction in all tests. All the animals presented absence of reactions in CFT, RBT and 2ME tests at 270, 300 and 360 days after vaccination, respectively. Our finding highlighted early response in CFT compared than other conventional agglutination tests. None of animals presented oscillation of titers or reactions in any test after 360 day of study, which enables the use of these tests after this period without interference of antibodies from S19 vaccine origin between 3 and 8 months in buffalo heifers. PMID:22284623

  7. Influenza virus vaccine live intranasal--MedImmune vaccines: CAIV-T, influenza vaccine live intranasal.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    MedImmune Vaccines (formerly Aviron) has developed a cold-adapted live influenza virus vaccine [FluMist] that can be administered by nasal spray. FluMist is the first live virus influenza vaccine and also the first nasally administered vaccine to be marketed in the US. The vaccine will be formulated to contain live attenuated (att) influenza virus reassortants of the strains recommended by the US Public Health Service for each 'flu season. The vaccine is termed cold-adapted (ca) because the virus has been adapted to replicate efficiently at 25 degrees C in the nasal passages, which are below normal body temperature. The strains used in the seasonal vaccine will also be made temperature sensitive (ts) so that their replication is restricted at 37 degrees C (Type B strains) and 39 degrees C (Type A strains). The combined effect of the antigenic properties and the att, ca and ts phenotypes of the influenza strains contained in the vaccine enables the viruses to replicate in the nasopharynx to produce protective immunity. The original formulation of FluMist requires freezer storage throughout distribution. Because many international markets do not have distribution channels well suited to the sale of frozen vaccines, Wyeth and MedImmune are collaborating to develop a second generation, refrigerator-stable, liquid trivalent cold-adapted influenza vaccine (CAIV-T), which is in phase III trials. Initially, the frozen formulation will only be available in the US. For the 2003-2004 season, FluMist will contain A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) (A/Moscow/10/99-like) and B/Hong Kong/330/2001. Aviron was acquired by MedImmune on 15 January 2002. Aviron is now a wholly-owned subsidiary of MedImmune and is called MedImmune Vaccines. Aviron acquired FluMist in March 1995 through a Co-operative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the US NIAID, and a licensing agreement with the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. In June 2000, the CRADA was

  8. DETECTION OF Leptospira spp. AND Brucella abortus ANTIBODIES IN FREE-LIVING JAGUARS (Panthera onca) IN TWO PROTECTED AREAS OF NORTHERN PANTANAL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    ONUMA, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; KANTEK, Daniel Luis Zanella; CRAWSHAW, Peter Gransden; MORATO, Ronaldo Gonçalves; MAY-JÚNIOR, Joares Adenilson; de MORAIS, Zenaide Maria; FERREIRA, José Soares; de AGUIAR, Daniel Moura

    2015-01-01

     This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection. PMID:25923900

  9. Brucellosis: The Case for Live, Attenuated Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ficht, Thomas A.; Kahl-McDonagh, Melissa M.; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M.; Rice-Ficht, Allison C.

    2009-01-01

    The successful control of animal brucellosis and associated reduction in human exposure has limited the development of human brucellosis vaccines. However, the potential use of Brucella in bioterrorism or biowarfare suggests that direct intervention strategies are warranted. Although the dominant approach has explored the use of live attenuated vaccines, side-effects associated with their use has prevented widespread use in humans. Development of live, attenuated Brucella vaccines that are safe for use in humans has focused on the deletion of important genes required for survival. However, the enhanced safety of deletion mutants is most often associated with reduced efficacy. For this reason recent efforts have sought to combine the optimal features of a attenuated live vaccine that is safe, free of side effects and efficacious in humans with enhanced immune stimulation through microencapsulation. The competitive advantages and innovations of this approach are: (1) use of a highly attenuated, safe, gene knockout, live Brucella mutants; (2) manufacturing with unique disposable closed system technologies, and (3) oral/intranasal delivery in a novel microencapsulation-mediated controlled release formula to optimally provide the long term mucosal immunostimulation required for protective immunity. Based upon preliminary data, it is postulated that such vaccine delivery systems can be storage stable, administered orally or intranasally, and generally applicable to a number of agents. PMID:19837284

  10. Protective Immunity Elicited by a Divalent DNA Vaccine Encoding Both the L7/L12 and Omp16 Genes of Brucella abortus in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Deyan; Ni, Bing; Li, Peng; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Songle; Han, Yue; Mao, Liwei; He, Yangdong; Wu, Yuzhang; Wang, Xiliang

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the immunogenicity and the protective efficacy of a divalent fusion DNA vaccine encoding both the Brucella abortus L7/L12 protein (ribosomal protein) and Omp16 protein (outer membrane lipoprotein), designated pcDNA3.1-L7/L12-Omp16. Intramuscular injection of this divalent DNA vaccine into BALB/c mice elicited markedly both humoral and cellular immune responses. The specific antibodies exhibited a dominance of immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) over IgG1. In addition, the dual-gene DNA vaccine elicited a strong T-cell proliferative response and induced a large amount of gamma interferon-producing T cells upon restimulation in vitro with recombinant fusion protein L7/L12-Omp16, suggesting the induction of a typical T-helper-1-dominated immune response in vivo. This divalent DNA vaccine could also induce a significant level of protection against challenge with the virulent strain B. abortus 544 in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, the protection level induced by the divalent DNA vaccine was significantly higher than that induced by the univalent DNA vaccines pcDNA3.1-L7/L12 or pcDNA3.1-Omp16. Taken together, the results of this study verify for the first time that the Omp16 gene can be a candidate target for a DNA vaccine against brucellosis. Additionally, a divalent genetic vaccine based on the L7/L12 and Omp16 genes can elicit a stronger cellular immune response and better immunoprotection than the relevant univalent vaccines can. PMID:16622210

  11. Deletion of znuA virulence factor attenuates Brucella abortus and confers protection against wild-type challenge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinghong; Becker, Todd; Walters, Nancy; Pascual, David W

    2006-07-01

    znuA is known to be an important factor for survival and normal growth under low Zn(2+) concentrations for Escherichia coli, Haemophilus spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Pasteurella multocida. We hypothesized that the znuA gene present in Brucella melitensis 16 M would be similar to znuA in B. abortus and questioned whether it may also be an important factor for growth and virulence of Brucella abortus. Using the B. melitensis 16 M genome sequence, primers were designed to construct a B. abortus deletion mutant. A znuA knockout mutation in B. abortus 2308 (DeltaznuA) was constructed and found to be lethal in low-Zn(2+) medium. When used to infect macrophages, DeltaznuA B. abortus showed minimal growth. Further study with DeltaznuA B. abortus showed that its virulence in BALB/c mice was attenuated, and most of the bacteria were cleared from the spleen within 8 weeks. Protection studies confirmed the DeltaznuA mutant as a potential live vaccine, since protection against wild-type B. abortus 2308 challenge was as effective as that obtained with the RB51 or S19 vaccine strain. PMID:16790759

  12. Mycoplasma gallisepticum: Control by live attenuated vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially available attenuated strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) are commonly used within the layer industry to control MG-induced mycoplasmosis. Among these are two live MG vaccines derived from the moderately pathogenic MG “chick F” strain. In the present study, the commercially availa...

  13. An Oral Vaccine Based on U-Omp19 Induces Protection against B. abortus Mucosal Challenge by Inducing an Adaptive IL-17 Immune Response in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pasquevich, Karina A.; Ibañez, Andrés E.; Coria, Lorena M.; García Samartino, Clara; Estein, Silvia M.; Zwerdling, Astrid; Barrionuevo, Paula; Oliveira, Fernanda S.; Seither, Christine; Warzecha, Heribert; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Cassataro, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    As Brucella infections occur mainly through mucosal surfaces, the development of mucosal administered vaccines could be radical for the control of brucellosis. In this work we evaluated the potential of Brucella abortus 19 kDa outer membrane protein (U-Omp19) as an edible subunit vaccine against brucellosis. We investigated the protective immune response elicited against oral B. abortus infection after vaccination of mice with leaves from transgenic plants expressing U-Omp19; or with plant-made or E. coli-made purified U-Omp19. All tested U-Omp19 formulations induced protection against Brucella when orally administered without the need of adjuvants. U-Omp19 also induced protection against a systemic challenge when parenterally administered. This built-in adjuvant ability of U-Omp19 was independent of TLR4 and could be explained at least in part by its capability to activate dendritic cells in vivo. While unadjuvanted U-Omp19 intraperitoneally administered induced a specific Th1 response, following U-Omp19 oral delivery a mixed specific Th1-Th17 response was induced. Depletion of CD4+ T cells in mice orally vaccinated with U-Omp19 resulted in a loss of the elicited protection, indicating that this cell type mediates immune protection. The role of IL-17 against Brucella infection has never been explored. In this study, we determined that if IL-17A was neutralized in vivo during the challenge period, the mucosal U-Omp19 vaccine did not confer mucosal protection. On the contrary, IL-17A neutralization during the infection did not influence at all the subsistence and growth of this bacterium in PBS-immunized mice. All together, our results indicate that an oral unadjuvanted vaccine based on U-Omp19 induces protection against a mucosal challenge with Brucella abortus by inducing an adaptive IL-17 immune response. They also indicate different and important new aspects i) IL-17 does not contribute to reduce the bacterial burden in non vaccinated mice and ii) IL-17 plays a

  14. MLVA Genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus Isolates from Different Animal Species and Humans and Identification of Brucella suis Vaccine Strain S2 from Cattle in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liqing; Hu, Guiying; Ma, Junying; Xiao, Pei; Fan, Weixing; Di, Dongdong; Tian, Guozhong; Fan, Mengguang; Mi, Jingchuan; Yu, Ruiping; Song, Litao; Zhao, Hongyan; Piao, Dongri; Cui, Buyun

    2013-01-01

    In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3) is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82) belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the ‘East Mediterranean’ group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the ‘Americas’ group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal). The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70) were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs. PMID:24124546

  15. RESULTS OF VACCINE TRIALS USING BRUCELLA ABORTUS RB51 IN DOMESTIC SWINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the near complete eradication of swine brucellosis from domestic pigs in the US, there is a reemergence of interest in new strategies, including candidate vaccines, to control swine brucellosis particularly in light of the wide distribution of Brucella-infected feral swine across the US. One s...

  16. Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines. PMID:25309747

  17. Stabilization of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines during vaccination with second generation Spray-Vac® vaccine stabilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dilutions and application of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines without the use of vaccine stabilizing compounds may lead to significant loss of vaccine viability and loss of vaccine efficacy. Vaccine viability may decreases due to osmotic lysis of the mycoplasma as well as the presence of chlo...

  18. Immune Responses and Protection against Experimental Brucella suis Biovar 1 Challenge in Nonvaccinated or B. abortus Strain RB51-Vaccinated Cattle▿

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, S. C.; Hennager, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty Hereford heifers approximately 9 months of age were vaccinated with saline (control) or 2 × 1010 CFU of the Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccine. Immunologic responses after inoculation demonstrated significantly greater (P < 0.05) antibody and proliferative responses to RB51 antigens in cattle vaccinated with RB51 than in the controls. Pregnant cattle received a conjunctival challenge at approximately 6 months of gestation with 107 CFU of B. suis bv. 1 strains isolated from naturally infected cattle. The fluorescence polarization assay and the buffered acid plate agglutination test had the highest sensitivities in detecting B. suis-infected cattle between 2 and 12 weeks after experimental infection. Serologic responses and lymphocyte proliferative responses to B. suis antigens did not differ between control and RB51 vaccinees after experimental infection. No abortions occurred in cattle in either treatment group after challenge, although there appeared to be an increased incidence of retained placenta after parturition in both the control and the RB51 vaccination treatment groups. Our data suggest that the mammary gland is a preferred site for B. suis localization in cattle. Vaccination with RB51 did not reduce B. suis infection rates in maternal or fetal tissues. In conclusion, although B. suis is unlikely to cause abortions and fetal losses in cattle, our data suggest that RB51 vaccination will not protect cattle against B. suis infection after exposure. PMID:20943881

  19. Mass vaccination as a complementary tool in the control of a severe outbreak of bovine brucellosis due to Brucella abortus in Extremadura, Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Cristina; Sáez, José Luis; Alvarez, Julio; Cortés, María; Pereira, Gema; Reyes, Aurelia; Rubio, Félix; Martín, Javier; García, Nerea; Domínguez, Lucas; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, María; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, Javier

    2010-11-01

    We report the evolution of an outbreak of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in the region of Extremadura (Spain) involving more than 1000 herds and nearly 40,000 animals. S19 vaccination of young cattle combined with a test and slaughter strategy did not result in a rapid decrease in herd prevalence and animal incidence; these parameters showed a constant decreasing trend only when a combination of restriction of cattle movements, increased test frequency, S19 vaccination and mass RB51 vaccination (with yearly revaccinations) were applied to all susceptible populations. These measures were applied for 5 years; abortions following RB51 vaccination of pregnant cows were limited to the first inoculation and the involvement of the vaccine strain could only be demonstrated in 78 out of 897 abortions. Our results demonstrate the usefulness - and lack of significant side effects - of RB51 mass vaccination as a complementary tool to control bovine brucellosis outbreaks in areas where the disease cannot be contained using more conservative approaches. PMID:20833439

  20. Genetic engineering of live rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, K; McGettigan, J P; Foley, H D; Hooper, D C; Dietzschold, B; Schnell, M J

    2001-05-14

    Rabies virus is not a single entity but consists of a wide array of variants that are each associated with different host species. These viruses differ greatly in the antigenic makeup of their G proteins, the primary determinant of pathogenicity and major inducer of protective immunity. Due to this diversity, existing rabies vaccines have largely been targeted to individual animal species. In this report, a novel approach to the development of rabies vaccines using genetically modified, reverse-engineered live attenuated rabies viruses is described. This approach entails the engineering of vaccine rabies virus containing G proteins from virulent strains and modification of the G protein to further reduce pathogenicity. Strategies employed included exchange of the arginine at position 333 for glutamine and modification of the cytoplasmic domain. The recombinant viruses obtained were non-neuroinvasive when administered via a peripheral route. The ability to confer protective immunity depended largely upon conservation of the G protein antigenic structure between the vaccine and challenge virus, as well as on the route of immunization. PMID:11348722

  1. Live bacterial vaccine vectors: An overview

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Adilson José; Zangirolami, Teresa Cristina; Novo-Mansur, Maria Teresa Marques; Giordano, Roberto de Campos; Martins, Elizabeth Angélica Leme

    2014-01-01

    Genetically attenuated microorganisms, pathogens, and some commensal bacteria can be engineered to deliver recombinant heterologous antigens to stimulate the host immune system, while still offering good levels of safety. A key feature of these live vectors is their capacity to stimulate mucosal as well as humoral and/or cellular systemic immunity. This enables the use of different forms of vaccination to prevent pathogen colonization of mucosal tissues, the front door for many infectious agents. Furthermore, delivery of DNA vaccines and immune system stimulatory molecules, such as cytokines, can be achieved using these special carriers, whose adjuvant properties and, sometimes, invasive capacities enhance the immune response. More recently, the unique features and versatility of these vectors have also been exploited to develop anti-cancer vaccines, where tumor-associated antigens, cytokines, and DNA or RNA molecules are delivered. Different strategies and genetic tools are constantly being developed, increasing the antigenic potential of agents delivered by these systems, opening fresh perspectives for the deployment of vehicles for new purposes. Here we summarize the main characteristics of the different types of live bacterial vectors and discuss new applications of these delivery systems in the field of vaccinology. PMID:25763014

  2. Expression of Babesia bovis rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP1) in Brucella abortus S19.

    PubMed

    Sabio y García, Julia V; Farber, Marisa; Carrica, Mariela; Cravero, Silvio; Macedo, Gilson C; Bigi, Fabiana; Oliveira, Sergio C; Rossetti, Osvaldo; Campos, Eleonora

    2008-05-01

    Brucella abortus strain 19 (live vaccine) induces a strong humoral and cellular immune response and therefore, it is an attractive vector for the delivery of heterologous antigens. The objective of the present study was to express the rhoptry-associated protein (RAP1) of Babesia bovis in B. abortus S19, as a model for heterologous expression of immunostimulatory antigens from veterinary pathogens. A plasmid for the expression of recombinant proteins fused to the aminoterminal of the outer membrane lipoprotein OMP19 was created, pursuing the objective of increasing the immunogenicity of the recombinant antigen being expressed by its association to a lipid moiety. Recombinant strains of B. abortus S19 expressing RAP1 as a fusion protein either with the first amino acids of beta-galactosidase (S19pBB-RAP1) or B. abortus OMP19 (S19pBB19-RAP1) were generated. Plasmid stability and the immunogenicity of the heterologous proteins were analyzed. Mice immunized with S19pBB-RAP1 or S19pBB19-RAP1 developed specific humoral immune response to RAP1, IgG2a being the predominant antibody isotype. Furthermore, a specific cellular immune response to recombinant RAP1 was elicited in vitro by lymphocytes from mice immunized with both strains. Therefore, we concluded that B. abortus S19 expressing RAP1 is immunostimulatory and may provide the basis for combined heterologous vaccines for babesiosis and brucellosis. PMID:18462974

  3. Excretion of Brucella abortus vaccine B19 strain during a reproductive cycle in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, W. A.; Genovez, M. E.; Pozzi, C. R.; Silva, L. M. P.; Azevedo, S. S.; Did, C. C.; Piatti, R. M.; Pinheiro, E. S.; Castro, V.; Miyashiro, S.; Gambarini, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to determine the excretion period of B19 vaccine strain during a complete reproductive cycle (from estrus synchronization, artificial insemination, pregnancy and until 30 days after parturition) of dairy cows from 3 to 9 years old that were previously vaccinated from 3 to 8 months. Three groups were monitored with monthly milk and urine collection during 12 months: G1 with seven cows from 3 to 4 years old; G2 with three cows from 5 to 6 years old; and G3 with four cows from 7 to 9 years old. Urine and milk samples were submitted to bacteriological culture and urine and PCR reactions for detection of Brucella spp. and PCR-multiplex for B19 strain identification. Ring test (RT) was also performed in the milk samples, and serum samples were tested by buffered acidified plate antigen test (BAPA). All animals were serologically negative at BAPA and Brucella spp. was not isolated from both urine and milk samples. RT revealed 13/210 (6.2%) positive milk samples. PCR reactions detected DNA of Brucella spp. in 86/420 (20.5%) samples. In urine it was found a significantly higher frequency (35.2%; 74/210) than in milk (5.7%; 12/210), more frequently from the estrus to 150 days of pregnancy and after parturition (6.7%; 10/150), and from 150 days of pregnancy to parturition (3.4%; 2/60), and they were all identified as B19 strain. In three groups, intermittent excretion of B19 strain was detected mainly in urine samples, which confirmed its multiplication and persistence in cows for until 9 years. PMID:24031869

  4. Use of a current varicella vaccine as a live polyvalent vaccine vector.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kouki; Mori, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the causative agent of varicella and zoster. The varicella vaccine was developed to control VZV infection in children. The currently available Oka vaccine strain is the only live varicella vaccine approved by the World Health Organization. We previously cloned the complete genome of the Oka vaccine strain into a bacterial artificial chromosome vector and then successfully reconstituted the virus. We then used this system to generate a recombinant Oka vaccine virus expressing mumps virus gene(s). The new recombinant vaccine may be an effective polyvalent live vaccine that provides protection against both varicella and mumps viruses. In this review, we discussed about possibility of polyvalent live vaccine(s) using varicella vaccine based on our recent studies. PMID:25444800

  5. The protein moiety of Brucella abortus outer membrane protein 16 is a new bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern that activates dendritic cells in vivo, induces a Th1 immune response, and is a promising self-adjuvanting vaccine against systemic and oral acquired brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Pasquevich, Karina A; García Samartino, Clara; Coria, Lorena M; Estein, Silvia M; Zwerdling, Astrid; Ibañez, Andrés E; Barrionuevo, Paula; Oliveira, Fernanda Souza de; Carvalho, Natalia Barbosa; Borkowski, Julia; Oliveira, Sergio Costa; Warzecha, Heribert; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Cassataro, Juliana

    2010-05-01

    Knowing the inherent stimulatory properties of the lipid moiety of bacterial lipoproteins, we first hypothesized that Brucella abortus outer membrane protein (Omp)16 lipoprotein would be able to elicit a protective immune response without the need of external adjuvants. In this study, we demonstrate that Omp16 administered by the i.p. route confers significant protection against B. abortus infection and that the protective response evoked is independent of the protein lipidation. To date, Omp16 is the first Brucella protein that without the requirement of external adjuvants is able to induce similar protection levels to the control live vaccine S19. Moreover, the protein portion of Omp16 (unlipidated Omp16 [U-Omp16]) elicits a protective response when administered by the oral route. Either systemic or oral immunization with U-Omp16 elicits a Th1-specific response. These abilities of U-Omp16 indicate that it is endowed with self-adjuvanting properties. The adjuvanticity of U-Omp16 could be explained, at least in part, by its capacity to activate dendritic cells in vivo. U-Omp16 is also able to stimulate dendritic cells and macrophages in vitro. The latter property and its ability to induce a protective Th1 immune response against B. abortus infection have been found to be TLR4 dependent. The facts that U-Omp16 is an oral protective Ag and possesses a mucosal self-adjuvanting property led us to develop a plant-made vaccine expressing U-Omp16. Our results indicate that plant-expressed recombinant U-Omp16 is able to confer protective immunity, when given orally, indicating that a plant-based oral vaccine expressing U-Omp16 could be a valuable approach to controlling this disease. PMID:20351187

  6. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the d...

  7. DNA-launched live-attenuated vaccines for biodefense applications.

    PubMed

    Pushko, Peter; Lukashevich, Igor S; Weaver, Scott C; Tretyakova, Irina

    2016-09-01

    A novel vaccine platform uses DNA immunization to launch live-attenuated virus vaccines in vivo. This technology has been applied for vaccine development against positive-strand RNA viruses with global public health impact including alphaviruses and flaviviruses. The DNA-launched vaccine represents the recombinant plasmid that encodes the full-length genomic RNA of live-attenuated virus downstream from a eukaryotic promoter. When administered in vivo, the genomic RNA of live-attenuated virus is transcribed. The RNA initiates limited replication of a genetically defined, live-attenuated vaccine virus in the tissues of the vaccine recipient, thereby inducing a protective immune response. This platform combines the strengths of reverse genetics, DNA immunization and the advantages of live-attenuated vaccines, resulting in a reduced chance of genetic reversions, increased safety, and improved immunization. With this vaccine technology, the field of DNA vaccines is expanded from those that express subunit antigens to include a novel type of DNA vaccines that launch live-attenuated viruses. PMID:27055100

  8. Vaccination with recombinant flagellar proteins FlgJ and FliN induce protection against Brucella abortus 544 infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianbo; Xu, Jie; Xie, Yongfei; Qiu, Yefeng; Fu, Simei; Yuan, Xitong; Ke, Yuehua; Yu, Shuang; Du, Xinying; Cui, Mingquan; Chen, Yanfen; Wang, Tongkun; Wang, Zhoujia; Yu, Yaqing; Huang, Kehe; Huang, Liuyu; Peng, Guangneng; Chen, Zeliang; Wang, Yufei

    2012-12-28

    Brucella has been considered as a non-motile, facultative intracellular pathogenic bacterium. However, the genome sequences of different Brucella species reveal the presence of the flagellar genes needed for the construction of a functional flagellum. Due to its roles in the interaction between pathogen and host, we hypothesized that some of the flagellar proteins might induce protective immune responses and these proteins will be good subunit vaccine candidates. This study was conducted to screening of protective antigens among these flagellar proteins. Firstly, according to the putative functional roles, a total of 30 flagellar genes of Brucella abortus were selected for in vitro expression. 15 of these flagellar genes were successfully expressed as his-tagged recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli ER2566. Then, these proteins were purified and used to analyze their T cell immunity induction activity by an in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-γ) assay. Five of the flagellar proteins could stimulate significantly higher levels of IFN-γ secretion in splenocytes from S19 immunized mice, indicating their T cell induction activity. Finally, immunogenicity and protection activity of these 5 flagellar proteins were evaluated in BALB/c mice. Results showed that immunization with FlgJ (BAB1_0260) or FliN (BAB2_0122) plus adjuvant could provide protection against B. abortus 544 infection. Furthermore, mice immunized with FlgJ and FliN developed a vigorous immunoglobulin G response, and in vitro stimulation of their splenocytes with immunizing proteins induced the secretion of IFN-γ. Altogether, these data suggest that flagellar proteins FlgJ and FliN are protective antigens that could produce humoral and cell-mediated responses in mice and candidates for use in future studies of vaccination against brucellosis. PMID:22854331

  9. Recent Developments in Livestock and Wildlife Brucellosis Vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Live attenuated brucellosis vaccines have been available for protecting domestic livestock against B. melitensis or B. abortus for more than 60 years. Current vaccines are effective in preventing abortion and transmission of brucellosis, but poor at preventing infection or seroconversion. In addit...

  10. 76 FR 3075 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live Canarypox Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live Canarypox Vector. The.... Product: Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live Canarypox Vector. Field Test Locations: Alabama,...

  11. Brucella melitensis Biovar 1 and Brucella abortus S19 Vaccine Strain Infections in Milkers Working at Cattle Farms in the Khartoum Area, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Amira E. F.; Hassan, Abdullahi N.; Ali, Ali E.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human brucellosis is a preventable zoonoses that may become persistent, causing, if left untreated, severe localized disease. Occupational exposure to infected animals or animal products and consumption of fresh contaminated dairy are main risk factors. Methods One hundred farmworkers employed at two cattle farms one in Khartoum North and one in Omdurman were screened for the presence of specific antibodies and seropositive workers were invited to donate a blood sample for blood culture. Molecular typing was used to characterize Brucella isolates. Results Ten percent of farmworkers tested seropositive and while Brucella melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the blood of three individuals, an isolate identical to the B. abortus S19 vaccine strain was isolated from a fourth person. All four bacteremic individuals were employed as milkers and did not have obvious disease. Conclusions The isolation of the highly infectious pathogen B. melitensis from seropositive workers is consistent with the notion that the pathogen may persist in the blood without causing overt disease. While vaccination with strain S19 is essential for the control of bovine brucellosis the vaccine strain may be transmitted to the human population and protective measures remain important to prevent exposure also in view of the presence of B. melitensis. To create awareness for this potentially severe disease more information on the prevalence of the pathogen in different risk groups and in livestock in the Sudan is needed. PMID:25938483

  12. Evaluation of Brucella abortus S19 vaccine strains by bacteriological tests, molecular analysis of ery loci and virulence in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Falguni; Jain, Jainendra; Grilló, Maria Jesús; Blasco, José María; Nair, Mrinalini

    2005-09-01

    Two Brucella abortus S19 commercial vaccine strains used for vaccination against brucellosis in India and three S19 strains available as international reference were examined by microbiological assays and molecular analysis of the ery loci involved in erythritol metabolism, and tested for residual virulence in BALB/c mice. According to the sensitivity to penicillin and i-erythritol, the five strains tested had the phenotypic characteristics of strain S19. However, on culture medium containing i-erythritol, all strains developed spontaneous i-erythritol resistant colonies at mutation rates ranging from 1.42x10(-2) to 1.33x10(-6). The S19 characteristic 702 bp deletion in the erythrulose 1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of the ery locus was present only in the three reference strains but not in the two commercial vaccines. Both commercial strains and one of the reference strains showed reduced virulence in BALB/c mice. The presence or absence in S19 strains of the 702 bp deletion in the ery locus had no correlation with either the rates of spontaneous mutation to erythritol resistance or the residual virulence in mice. PMID:16081301

  13. "R"-living vaccine against colibacillosis. Communication I.

    PubMed

    Parnas, J; Dam, A; Jorgensen, J B

    1977-04-01

    After our estimation of the LD100 of enteropathogenic E. coli 0149 and 0138 (and their toxins) in rabbits and mice (intravenously and subcutaneously or intraperitoneally, respectively), rabbits and mice were vaccinated subcutaneously by the living "R" 0149 vaccine. All animals showed resistance against the LD100 of both E. coli serotypes; this state of resistance lasted 1-5 months in rabbits, and 1-3 months in mice. Sera of vaccinated rabbits showed bactericidal activity against both E. coli serotypes. The R-E-system of rabbits which were immunized by the endotoxin of "R" 0149 living vaccine, showed mobilization of immunocytes. The vaccine seems to be harmless to newborn piglets after oral vaccination; 2 colostrum deprived piglets, despite vaccination at once after birth, did not survive the big chalenge with 100 ml of broth culture of E. coli 0149 "S" (anapylactic shock). But in comparison to 1 not vaccinated control piglet, the two piglests showed only few E. coli colonies in the intestines, while the intestine of the control animal was very massively colonized by the virulent strain. As the immunizing potency of the "R" 0149 living vaccine was clearly shown in rabbits and mice, further investigations on piglets (newborns, weaning epriod, and after weaning) are needed, to state whether the value of this vaccine corresponds with the immunizing potency shown in our preliminary experiments. The "R"-vaccine seems to open some perspective in colibacillosis prevention of children and animals, and therefore it deserves our attention. PMID:325952

  14. The second Geneva Consensus: Recommendations for novel live TB vaccines.

    PubMed

    Walker, K B; Brennan, M J; Ho, M M; Eskola, J; Thiry, G; Sadoff, J; Dobbelaer, R; Grode, L; Liu, M A; Fruth, U; Lambert, P H

    2010-03-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to be a major public health burden in most developing parts of the world and efforts to develop effective strategies for containing the disease remain a priority. It has long been evident that effective mass vaccination programmes are a cost effective and efficient approach to controlling communicable diseases in a public health setting and tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major target. One approach with increasing acceptance is based upon on live mycobacterial vaccines, either as recombinant BCG or rationally attenuated M. tuberculosis, thus generating a new live TB vaccine. The Geneva Consensus published in March 2005 set out the opinion on priorities and requirements for developing live mycobacterial vaccines for Phase I trials. In the intervening period much progress has been made in both preclinical and clinical development of new TB vaccines and has provided the impetus for organising the second Geneva Consensus (held at WHO headquarters, April 2009) to discuss issues, including: i. Explore the regulatory requirements for live TB vaccines to enter Phase I trials, in particular those based on attenuated M. tuberculosis. Particular attention was paid to the characterisation and safety package likely to be required, including issues of attenuation, the presence of antibiotic resistance markers in live vaccines and the nature of any attenuated vaccine phenotype. ii. To identify the general criteria for further clinical development from Phase I through to Phase III. iii. Obtain a perspective of the regulatory landscape of developing countries where Phase II and III trials are to be held. iv. Review manufacturing considerations for live TB vaccines and relevance of the WHO and European Pharmacopeia guidelines and requirements for BCG vaccine. v. Consider requirements and associated issues related to the use of these new vaccines within an existing BCG vaccination programme. PMID:20074686

  15. Live Vaccination Tactics: Possible Approaches for Controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Saljoughian, Noushin; Taheri, Tahareh; Rafati, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with durable immunity is the main goal and fundamental to control leishmaniasis. To stimulate the immune response, small numbers of parasites are necessary to be presented in the mammalian host. Similar to natural course of infection, strategy using live vaccine is more attractive when compared to other approaches. Live vaccines present the whole spectrum of antigens to the host immune system in the absence of any adjuvant. Leishmanization was the first effort for live vaccination and currently used in a few countries against cutaneous leishmaniasis, in spite of their obstacle and safety. Then, live attenuated vaccines developed with similar promotion of creating long-term immunity in the host with lower side effect. Different examples of attenuated strains are generated through long-term in vitro culturing, culturing under drug pressure, temperature sensitivity, and chemical mutagenesis, but none is safe enough and their revision to virulent form is possible. Attenuation through genetic manipulation and disruption of virulence factors or essential enzymes for intracellular survival are among other approaches that are intensively under study. Other designs to develop live vaccines for visceral form of leishmaniasis are utilization of live avirulent microorganisms such as Lactococcus lactis, Salmonella enterica, and Leishmania tarentolae called as vectored vaccine. Apparently, these vaccines are intrinsically safer and can harbor the candidate antigens in their genome through different genetic manipulation and create more potential to control Leishmania parasite as an intracellular pathogen. PMID:24744757

  16. The impact of deposition site on vaccination efficiency of a live bacterial poultry vaccine.

    PubMed

    Evans, J D; Leigh, S A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Kim, E J; Boykin, D L; Branton, S L

    2015-08-01

    Vaccines are utilized within the poultry industry to minimize disease-associated losses and spray vaccination is a commonly utilized means for the mass application of poultry vaccines. During this process, vaccine-laden particles are deposited upon target areas (e.g., eyes, nares, and oral cavity) resulting in the direct internalization of the vaccine. However, particles are also deposited on nontarget areas such as the exterior of the subject and its surrounding environment. To better determine the fate of particles deposited upon nontarget areas and the impact of deposition site on the efficiency of vaccine application, a live bacterial poultry vaccine (AviPro(®) MG F) was applied via spray using a spray cabinet with a slotted partition allowing for head-only, body-only, and whole-bird spray application. At 11 wk age, Hy-Line(®) W-36 pullets (n = 280) were allocated equally among 7 treatments including: nonvaccinated controls, pullets spray-vaccinated at the manufacturer's recommended dose (1X) in a site-specific manner (head-only, body-only, and whole-bird), pullets spray-vaccinated at 5X the recommended level (body-only), pullets vaccinated by manual eye-drop application (1X), and pullets eye-drop vaccinated at a level approximating that achieved during the spray vaccination process (1/700X). At 6 to 7 wk postvaccination, vaccination efficiency was assessed via serological-based assays [serum plate agglutination (SPA) and ELISA] and the detection of vaccine-derived in vivo populations. Results indicate an additive contribution of the vaccine deposited on the body to the overall vaccination efficiency of this live bacterial live poultry vaccine. PMID:26049801

  17. Transmission of a live Eimeria acervulina vaccine strain and response to infection in vaccinated and contact-vaccinated broilers.

    PubMed

    Velkers, Francisca C; Bouma, Annemarie; Stegeman, J Arjan; de Jong, Mart C M

    2012-01-01

    Live vaccines for coccidiosis control are infrequently used in broilers, mainly due to variability in efficacy and relatively high costs. More insight in transmission of vaccine and wild-type strains can facilitate optimization of vaccination strategies and might increase its use as an alternative for anticoccidial drugs. The aim of this study was to quantify transmission of a live Eimeria acervulina vaccine strain and to determine the degree of protection against a subsequent infection with a wild-type E. acervulina strain. An experiment was carried out with 4 groups of 22 SPF broilers. At 2 days of age, 11 birds of groups 2 to 4 were vaccinated directly by oral application of E. acervulina oocysts of the Paracox™ vaccine and 11 birds were placed in contact with these birds (contact-vaccinated). Birds in group 1 remained unvaccinated (controls) and were not exposed to vaccinated birds. At day 28 of age, 6 groups of 10 birds were formed, with 2 groups (duplo) for each treatment group, i.e. vaccinated, contact-vaccinated or unvaccinated control birds. Five birds of each group were orally inoculated with wild-type E. acervulina oocysts and five were contact-exposed. Single droppings were examined daily from days 5 to 49 of age for oocyst output and to determine the time of infection. The transmission rate of the vaccine strain was estimated to be 1.6 per day and of the wild-type strain 2.3, 8.7 and 20.8 per day for vaccinated, contact-vaccinated and unvaccinated birds, respectively. Although transmission of wild-type coccidia was not significantly reduced in vaccinated or contact-vaccinated groups, both groups were equally protected against high oocyst output after infection compared to unvaccinated groups. These results suggest that factors influencing transmission of live vaccine strains in flocks may be important targets for improvement of vaccine efficacy and warrant further research. PMID:22075084

  18. Influenza vaccination with live-attenuated and inactivated virus-vaccines during an outbreak of disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rocchi, G.; Ragona, G.; Piga, C.; Pelosio, A.; Volpi, A.; Vella, S.; Legniti, N.; de Felici, A.

    1979-01-01

    Immunization procedures with live attenuated and inactivated vaccines were carried out on a group of young recruits at the beginning of an outbreak of infection due to an A/Victoria/3/75-related virus strain, which occurred in February 1977 in a military camp. A retrospective investigation on protection from clinical influenza was then performed in order to investigate whether immunization with live virus vaccines, administered at the beginning of an epidemic, could provide early protection from the disease. In the course of the two weeks following vaccination, laboratory-confirmed clinical influenza cases occurred in 4 subjects among the 110 volunteers of the control group which received placebo, and in 8, 7 and 4 subjects respectively of the 3 groups of about 125 individuals, each of which received one of the following vaccine preparations: (a), live attenuated A/Victoria/3/75 influenza virus oral vaccine, grown on chick embryo kidney culture; (b), live attenuated nasal vaccine, a recombinant of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 with A/Victoria/3/75 virus; and (c), inactivated A/Victoria/3/75 virus intramuscular vaccine. These data do not support the hypothesis that, during an epidemic of infection, early protection from clinical influenza can be achieved through immunization with live attenuated or inactivated influenza virus vaccines, in spite of the high immunizing capability of the vaccine preparations. PMID:512351

  19. Evaluation of immune responses by live infectious bursal disease vaccines to avoid vaccination failures.

    PubMed

    Jakka, P; Reddy, Y K; Kirubaharan, J J; Chandran, N D J

    2014-06-01

    Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) is a viral, contagious immunosuppressive disease posing an important threat to the commercial poultry industry. Evolution of highly virulent strains of IBD virus warranted the need for detailed characterization of the immune responses offered by the currently available vaccines. Two extensively used live vaccines of varied attenuation levels - intermediate and intermediate plus - strains were analyzed for the induction of immune responses. Both the vaccines induced protective antibody titers with the onset, quicker and higher with the intermediate plus vaccine. The intermediate plus strain vaccinate was observed to induce higher levels of IFN-γ in the birds. These results were supported by immunophenotype analyses with an increase in CD8+ and simultaneous decrease in CD4+ cell population. Both vaccine strains conferred protective immunity against virulent challenge. The study warrants the use of intermediate plus vaccines in disease endemic regions and intermediate vaccines in non-endemic regions to prevent IBD infection. PMID:24883198

  20. Immune responses and safety after dart or booster vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One alternative in the Bison remote vaccination environmental impact statement (EIS) for Yellowstone National Park includes inoculation of both calves and yearlings. Although RB51 vaccination of bison does protect against experimental challenge, it was unknown whether booster vaccination might enhan...

  1. A Novel Live-Attenuated Vaccine Candidate for Mayaro Fever

    PubMed Central

    Weise, William J.; Hermance, Meghan E.; Forrester, Naomi; Adams, A. Paige; Langsjoen, Rose; Gorchakov, Rodion; Wang, Eryu; Alcorn, Maria D. H.; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin; Weaver, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an emerging, mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes a dengue-like illness in many regions of South America, and which has the potential to urbanize. Because no specific treatment or vaccine is available for MAYV infection, we capitalized on an IRES-based approach to develop a live-attenuated MAYV vaccine candidate. Testing in infant, immunocompetent as well as interferon receptor-deficient mice demonstrated a high degree of attenuation, strong induction of neutralizing antibodies, and efficacy against lethal challenge. This vaccine strain was also unable to infect mosquito cells, a major safety feature for a live vaccine derived from a mosquito-borne virus. Further preclinical development of this vaccine candidate is warranted to protect against this important emerging disease. PMID:25101995

  2. Live attenuated influenza vaccine tetravalent: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Bandell, Allyn R; Simões, Eric A F

    2015-07-01

    Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has been available as a trivalent formulation in the EU since 2012. Influenza B strains from two lineages have co-circulated outside Asia in Europe, Israel and North America since the early 2000s. The trivalent vaccine contained a single influenza B lineage virus chosen primarily on the basis of the previous year's circulating lineage. Failure to align the vaccine virus with the circulating virus leaves even vaccinated patients, particularly children, at risk for infection with B viruses from the other lineage. Recently, a tetravalent formulation was approved and use will begin during the 2014-2015 influenza season. Approval of LAIV Tetra was based on the established efficacy and safety of trivalent LAIV and studies demonstrating similar immunogenicity between the trivalent and tetravalent vaccines. Addition of a fourth strain to the vaccine will address the issue of co-circulation of influenza B viruses and provide a broader range of protection. PMID:25864428

  3. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  4. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  5. Oral immunization of mice with recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase of Brucella abortus triggers protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Darwin; Fernández, Pablo; Rivera, Alejandra; Andrews, Edilia; Oñate, Angel

    2012-02-01

    Brucella infections mainly occur through mucosal surfaces. Thus, the development of mucosal administered vaccines could be instrumental for the control of brucellosis. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of recombinant Lactococcus lactis secreting Brucella abortus Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) as oral antigen delivery system, when administered alone or in combination with L. lactis expressing IL-12. To this end, mice were vaccinated by oral route with L. lactis NZ9000 transformed with pSEC derivatives encoding for SOD (pSEC:SOD) and IL-12 (pSEC:scIL-12). In animals receiving L. lactis pSEC:SOD alone, anti-SOD-specific IgM antibodies were detected in sera at day 28 post-vaccination, together with an IgG2a dominated IgG response. SOD-specific sIgA was also detected in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavages. In addition, T-cell-proliferative responses upon re-stimulation with either recombinant SOD or crude Brucella protein extracts were observed up to 6 months after the last boost, suggesting the induction of long term memory. Vaccinated animals were also protected against challenge with the virulent B. abortus 2308 strain. Responses were mildly improved when L. lactis pSEC:SOD was co-administered with L. lactis pSEC:scIL-12. These results indicated that vaccines based on lactococci-derived live carriers are promising interventions against B. abortus infections. PMID:22222868

  6. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections

    PubMed Central

    Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. PMID:27114893

  7. Live Attenuated Tularemia Vaccines: Recent Developments and Future Goals

    PubMed Central

    Marohn, Mark E.; Barry, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax attacks in the U.S., numerous efforts were made to increase the level of preparedness against a biological attack both in the US and worldwide. As a result, there has been an increase in research interest in the development of vaccines and other countermeasures against a number of agents with the potential to be used as biological weapons. One such agent, Francisella tularensis, has been the subject of a surge in the level of research being performed, leading to a substantial increase in knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of the organism and the induced immune responses. This information has facilitated the development of multiple new Francisella vaccine candidates. Herein we review the latest live attenuated F. tularensis vaccine efforts. Historically, live attenuated vaccines have demonstrated the greatest degree of success in protection against tularemia and the greatest promise in recent efforts to develop of a fully protective vaccine. This review summarizes recent live attenuated Francisella vaccine candidates and the lessons learned from those studies, with the goal of collating known characteristics associated with successful attenuation, immunogenicity, and protection. PMID:23764535

  8. Rational Considerations about Development of Live Attenuated Y. pestis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The risk of plague as a bioweapon has prompted increasing research efforts to develop plague vaccines due to its extreme virulence and the ease of its transmission. Subunit vaccines that contain F1 and LcrV antigens of Y. pestis have been tested for safety and immunogenicity, but doubts have been raised about whether subunit vaccines that engender antibody responses will protect against pneumonic plague, which requires both humeral and cellular immune responses for protection. The live, attenuated vaccine EV76, a pgm locus deficient Y. pestis strain, has been used for a long time in the Former Soviet Union and some Asian countries, but is not commercially available in the US and Europe due to safety concerns. However, the live attenuated Y. pestis vaccines are still considered to be the most effective way to prevent plague. In this review, we present our opinions about rationally creating live, safe and immunogenic Y. pestis vaccines with potential use for human based on established researches. PMID:24372254

  9. Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines.

    PubMed

    Frey, Joachim

    2007-07-26

    Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity as well as antibody-mediated immunity, which is particularly beneficial in inducing mucosal immune responses, is obtained by the vaccine-strain's ability to colonize and multiply in the host without causing disease. For this reason, live vaccines require attenuation of virulence of the bacterium to which immunity must be induced. Traditionally attenuation was achieved simply by multiple passages of the microorganism on growth medium, in animals, eggs or cell cultures or by chemical or physical mutagenesis, which resulted in random mutations that lead to attenuation. In contrast, novel molecular methods enable the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) targeted to specific genes that are particularly suited to induce attenuation or to reduce undesirable effects in the tissue in which the vaccine strains can multiply and survive. Since live vaccine strains (attenuated by natural selection or genetic engineering) are potentially released into the environment by the vaccinees, safety issues concerning the medical as well as environmental aspects must be considered. These involve (i) changes in cell, tissue and host tropism, (ii) virulence of the carrier through the incorporation of foreign genes, (iii) reversion to virulence by acquisition of complementation genes, (iv) exchange of genetic information with other vaccine or wild-type strains of the carrier organism and (v) spread of undesired genes such as antibiotic resistance genes. Before live vaccines are applied, the safety issues must be thoroughly evaluated case-by-case. Safety assessment

  10. Evaluation of Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays and IgG Avidity Assays Using a Protein A-Peroxidase Conjugate for Serological Distinction between Brucella abortus S19-Vaccinated and -Infected Cows ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pajuaba, Ana C. A. M.; Silva, Deise A. O.; Mineo, José R.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of protein A-peroxidase (horseradish peroxidase [HRPO]) in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISAs) and IgG avidity assays for serological distinction between Brucella abortus S19-vaccinated and -infected cows. Four groups were analyzed: GI, 41 nonvaccinated seropositive cows; GII, 79 S19-vaccinated heifers analyzed at 3 months postvaccination; GIII, 105 S19-vaccinated cows analyzed after 24 months of age; and GIV, 278 nonvaccinated seronegative cows. IgG levels and avidity to B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) were determined using anti-bovine IgG-HRPO or protein A-HRPO conjugates. Similar levels of IgG anti-S-LPS were found with GI using both conjugates. Lower IgG levels were detected with GII, GIII, and GIV using protein A-HRPO. Both conjugates showed high performance in discriminating GI from GIII, with high sensitivity (Se; 97.6%) and specificity (Sp; 97.1%). Protein A-HRPO was better in distinguishing GI from GIV (Se, 97.6%; Sp, 94.6%) and GI from GII (Se, 80.5%; Sp, 94.9%). Protein A-HRPO excluded a higher number of positive samples with GII and GIV. IgG avidity showed that protein A-HRPO, but not anti-IgG-HRPO, was able to distinguish nonvaccinated from vaccinated cattle, showing a higher avidity index (AI) with GI than with GII, with 78% of serum samples in GII showing an AI of <50%. Therefore, the iELISA using B. abortus S-LPS antigen and protein A-HRPO conjugate for preferential detection of the IgG2 subclass was shown to be suitable for serological distinction between S19-vaccinated and -infected cows. Also, antibodies generated after vaccination showed lower avidity, suggesting a role for the IgG2 subclass as an antibody of higher-affinity maturation after infection, constituting an additional tool for differentiating vaccinated from infected cattle. PMID:20147498

  11. Evaluation of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and IgG avidity assays using a protein A-peroxidase conjugate for serological distinction between Brucella abortus S19-vaccinated and -infected cows.

    PubMed

    Pajuaba, Ana C A M; Silva, Deise A O; Mineo, José R

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of protein A-peroxidase (horseradish peroxidase [HRPO]) in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISAs) and IgG avidity assays for serological distinction between Brucella abortus S19-vaccinated and -infected cows. Four groups were analyzed: GI, 41 nonvaccinated seropositive cows; GII, 79 S19-vaccinated heifers analyzed at 3 months postvaccination; GIII, 105 S19-vaccinated cows analyzed after 24 months of age; and GIV, 278 nonvaccinated seronegative cows. IgG levels and avidity to B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) were determined using anti-bovine IgG-HRPO or protein A-HRPO conjugates. Similar levels of IgG anti-S-LPS were found with GI using both conjugates. Lower IgG levels were detected with GII, GIII, and GIV using protein A-HRPO. Both conjugates showed high performance in discriminating GI from GIII, with high sensitivity (Se; 97.6%) and specificity (Sp; 97.1%). Protein A-HRPO was better in distinguishing GI from GIV (Se, 97.6%; Sp, 94.6%) and GI from GII (Se, 80.5%; Sp, 94.9%). Protein A-HRPO excluded a higher number of positive samples with GII and GIV. IgG avidity showed that protein A-HRPO, but not anti-IgG-HRPO, was able to distinguish nonvaccinated from vaccinated cattle, showing a higher avidity index (AI) with GI than with GII, with 78% of serum samples in GII showing an AI of <50%. Therefore, the iELISA using B. abortus S-LPS antigen and protein A-HRPO conjugate for preferential detection of the IgG2 subclass was shown to be suitable for serological distinction between S19-vaccinated and -infected cows. Also, antibodies generated after vaccination showed lower avidity, suggesting a role for the IgG2 subclass as an antibody of higher-affinity maturation after infection, constituting an additional tool for differentiating vaccinated from infected cattle. PMID:20147498

  12. Effectiveness of live or killed plague vaccines in man

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, K. F.

    1970-01-01

    While the safety of the available live plague vaccine EV 76 (Paris) continues to be the subject of further study, the USP formol-killed, virulent Pasteurella pestis (Yersinia pestis) suspension capable of protecting 60% of non-human primates, particularly Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus), warrants further clinical tests and field trials. Inoculated in a dosage of 2×109 killed plague bacilli (1 ml), followed by a booster of 400 million organisms (0.2 ml) in 1-3 months, this vaccine stimulates the appearance of passive mouse-protection antibodies (below an index of 10) and passive haemagglutinins in 60%-65% of human subjects. Recent experiences in Viet-Nam demonstrate that personnel vaccinated with the USP vaccine, although frequently exposed, enjoy almost complete freedom from the disease. One of the 4 known and confirmed cases of bubonic plague in North Americans occurred in an unvaccinated individual. Among individuals inoculated with the USP vaccine, 2 confirmed cases of pneumonic plague and 1 case of asymptomatic pharyngeal plague have been recorded. The incidence of plague in the Republic of Viet-Nam during the past 3 years is estimated at 13 263 cases in a population in part vaccinated with a live plague which exhibited inadequate immunogenic efficacy in experimental tests. PMID:4988692

  13. Live vaccines for human metapneumovirus designed by reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Ursula J; Nagashima, Kunio; Murphy, Brian R; Collins, Peter L

    2006-10-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was first described in 2001 and has quickly become recognized as an important cause of respiratory tract disease worldwide, especially in the pediatric population. A vaccine against HMPV is required to prevent severe disease associated with infection in infancy. The primary strategy is to develop a live-attenuated virus for intranasal immunization, which is particularly well suited against a respiratory virus. Reverse genetics provides a means of developing highly characterized 'designer' attenuated vaccine candidates. To date, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed, each using a different mode of attenuation. One candidate involves deletion of the G glycoprotein, providing attenuation that is probably based on reduced efficiency of attachment. A second candidate involves deletion of the M2-2 protein, which participates in regulating RNA synthesis and whose deletion has the advantageous property of upregulating transcription and increasing antigen synthesis. A third candidate involves replacing the P protein gene of HMPV with its counterpart from the related avian metapneumovirus, thereby introducing attenuation owing to its chimeric nature and host range restriction. Another live vaccine strategy involves using an attenuated parainfluenza virus as a vector to express HMPV protective antigens, providing a bivalent pediatric vaccine. Additional modifications to provide improved vaccines will also be discussed. PMID:17181442

  14. Efficacy of live adjuvanted mesogenic Newcastle disease vaccine in chickens.

    PubMed

    Roy, P; Venugopalan, A T; Koteeswaran, A

    1999-06-01

    120 white leghorn chickens primed with a lentogenic Newcastle disease (ND) live vaccine at 7 days of age were divided into three equal groups of 8 weeks of age and vaccinated with a live mesogenic ND vaccine (NDV). One group received only Newcastle disease mesogenic vaccine (RDVK) in normal saline, the second group received RDVK with groundnut oil as adjuvant and the third group received RDVK with liquid paraffin as adjuvant. Sera were collected at different time points for the assessment of antibody level against ND virus (NDV) by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The commonly used non-adjuvanted RDVK could not evince 100% protective HI titre beyond 11 weeks of age but in both the adjuvanted groups 100% protective HI titre was evident up to 20 weeks of age. On challenge at 20 weeks of age both the adjuvanted groups withstood challenge but in the non-adjuvanted group 80% of chickens withstood the challenge. A significant difference in immune response between the adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted groups was seen but not between both the adjuvanted groups. The advantage of vegetable oil (groundnut oil) as an adjuvant for live mesogenic ND vaccine has been discussed. PMID:10418918

  15. The Sabin live poliovirus vaccination trials in the USSR, 1959.

    PubMed Central

    Horstmann, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Widespread use of the Sabin live attenuated poliovirus vaccine has had tremendous impact on the disease worldwide, virtually eliminating it from a number of countries, including the United States. Early proof of its safety and effectiveness was presented in 1959 by Russian investigators, who had staged massive trials in the USSR, involving millions of children. Their positive results were at first viewed in the United States and elsewhere with some skepticism, but the World Health Organization favored proceeding with large-scale trials, and responded to the claims made by Russian scientists by sending a representative to the USSR to review in detail the design and execution of the vaccine programs and the reliability of their results. The report that followed was a positive endorsement of the findings and contributed to the acceptance of the Sabin vaccine in the United States, where it has been the polio vaccine of choice since the mid-1960s. PMID:1814062

  16. HPV Vaccine Awareness and Knowledge Among Women Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Wigfall, L T; Bynum, S A; Brandt, H M; Hébert, J R

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer risk is increased among women living with HIV (WLH). Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been shown to be safe and immunogenic among WLH. We examined HPV vaccine awareness and HPV knowledge among WLH. This cross-sectional study collected data from 145 WLH between March 2011 and April 2012. An interviewer-administered survey assessed HPV vaccine awareness and knowledge. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Our sample was 90 % non-Hispanic black and 64 % earned <$10,000/year. Few (38 %) had heard of the HPV vaccine. Half (50 %) knew that HPV caused cervical cancer. HPV vaccine awareness was ten times higher among WLH who knew HPV caused cervical cancer (OR = 10.17; 95 % CI 3.82-27.06). HPV vaccine awareness is low among WLH. Cancer prevention efforts aimed at raising awareness about the HPV vaccine and increasing knowledge about HPV are necessary first steps in reducing cervical cancer disparities among WLH. PMID:26561426

  17. Global antibody response to Staphylococcus aureus live-cell vaccination.

    PubMed

    Selle, Martina; Hertlein, Tobias; Oesterreich, Babett; Klemm, Theresa; Kloppot, Peggy; Müller, Elke; Ehricht, Ralf; Stentzel, Sebastian; Bröker, Barbara M; Engelmann, Susanne; Ohlsen, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus causes a broad range of severe diseases and is feared for its ability to rapidly develop resistance to antibiotic substances. The increasing number of highly resistant S. aureus infections has accelerated the search for alternative treatment options to close the widening gap in anti-S. aureus therapy. This study analyses the humoral immune response to vaccination of Balb/c mice with sublethal doses of live S. aureus. The elicited antibody pattern in the sera of intravenously and intramuscularly vaccinated mice was determined using of a recently developed protein array. We observed a specific antibody response against a broad set of S. aureus antigens which was stronger following i.v. than i.m. vaccination. Intravenous but not intramuscular vaccination protected mice against an intramuscular challenge infection with a high bacterial dose. Vaccine protection was correlated with the strength of the anti-S. aureus antibody response. This study identified novel vaccine candidates by using protein microarrays as an effective tool and showed that successful vaccination against S. aureus relies on the optimal route of administration. PMID:27103319

  18. Global antibody response to Staphylococcus aureus live-cell vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Selle, Martina; Hertlein, Tobias; Oesterreich, Babett; Klemm, Theresa; Kloppot, Peggy; Müller, Elke; Ehricht, Ralf; Stentzel, Sebastian; Bröker, Barbara M.; Engelmann, Susanne; Ohlsen, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus causes a broad range of severe diseases and is feared for its ability to rapidly develop resistance to antibiotic substances. The increasing number of highly resistant S. aureus infections has accelerated the search for alternative treatment options to close the widening gap in anti-S. aureus therapy. This study analyses the humoral immune response to vaccination of Balb/c mice with sublethal doses of live S. aureus. The elicited antibody pattern in the sera of intravenously and intramuscularly vaccinated mice was determined using of a recently developed protein array. We observed a specific antibody response against a broad set of S. aureus antigens which was stronger following i.v. than i.m. vaccination. Intravenous but not intramuscular vaccination protected mice against an intramuscular challenge infection with a high bacterial dose. Vaccine protection was correlated with the strength of the anti-S. aureus antibody response. This study identified novel vaccine candidates by using protein microarrays as an effective tool and showed that successful vaccination against S. aureus relies on the optimal route of administration. PMID:27103319

  19. Efficacy of a modified live Flavobacterium columnare vaccine in fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is an aquatic bacterium that is responsible for columnaris disease. This aquatic pathogen has a worldwide distribution and is highly infectious to both warm and cold water fish. A modified live F. columnare vaccine was developed through repeated passage of a virulent strai...

  20. In-Depth Characterization of Live Vaccines Used in Europe for Oral Rabies Vaccination of Wildlife.

    PubMed

    Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mojzis, Miroslav; Dirbakova, Zuzana; Muizniece, Zita; Jaceviciene, Ingrida; Mutinelli, Franco; Matulova, Marta; Frolichova, Jitka; Rychlik, Ivan; Celer, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Although rabies incidence has fallen sharply over the past decades in Europe, the disease is still present in Eastern Europe. Oral rabies immunization of wild animal rabies has been shown to be the most effective method for the control and elimination of rabies. All rabies vaccines used in Europe are modified live virus vaccines based on the Street Alabama Dufferin (SAD) strain isolated from a naturally-infected dog in 1935. Because of the potential safety risk of a live virus which could revert to virulence, the genetic composition of three commercial attenuated live rabies vaccines was investigated in two independent laboratories using next genome sequencing. This study is the first one reporting on the diversity of variants in oral rabies vaccines as well as the presence of a mix of at least two different variants in all tested batches. The results demonstrate the need for vaccine producers to use new robust methodologies in the context of their routine vaccine quality controls prior to market release. PMID:26509266

  1. In-Depth Characterization of Live Vaccines Used in Europe for Oral Rabies Vaccination of Wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mojzis, Miroslav; Dirbakova, Zuzana; Muizniece, Zita; Jaceviciene, Ingrida; Mutinelli, Franco; Matulova, Marta; Frolichova, Jitka; Rychlik, Ivan; Celer, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Although rabies incidence has fallen sharply over the past decades in Europe, the disease is still present in Eastern Europe. Oral rabies immunization of wild animal rabies has been shown to be the most effective method for the control and elimination of rabies. All rabies vaccines used in Europe are modified live virus vaccines based on the Street Alabama Dufferin (SAD) strain isolated from a naturally-infected dog in 1935. Because of the potential safety risk of a live virus which could revert to virulence, the genetic composition of three commercial attenuated live rabies vaccines was investigated in two independent laboratories using next genome sequencing. This study is the first one reporting on the diversity of variants in oral rabies vaccines as well as the presence of a mix of at least two different variants in all tested batches. The results demonstrate the need for vaccine producers to use new robust methodologies in the context of their routine vaccine quality controls prior to market release. PMID:26509266

  2. Molecular and immunological characterisation of recombinant Brucella abortus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase, a T- and B-cell reactive protein that induces partial protection when co-administered with an interleukin-12-expressing plasmid in a DNA vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Rosinha, Gracia M S; Myioshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Splitter, Gary A; Oliveira, Sergio C

    2002-08-01

    To identify antigens of Brucella spp. that are potentially involved in stimulating a protective T-cell-mediated immune response, previous studies identified 10 clones from a Brucella abortus 2308 genomic library with primed lymphocytes as probes. One selected positive clone (182) contained an insert of 1.2 kb which was identified, sequenced and characterised. The deduced amino acid sequence of the open reading frame (ORF) revealed 82% and 81% identity to the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) enzymes from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Xanthobacter flavus, respectively. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the gap gene is present in only one copy in the Brucella genome. B. abortus GAPDH was then expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with the maltose-binding protein (MBP). To demonstrate the functional activity of Brucella GAPDH, E. coli gap mutants were transformed with a Brucella pMAL-gap construct. Genetic complementation was achieved and as a result E. coli mutants were able to grow on glucose or other carbon source medium. The humoral and cellular immune responses to the recombinant (r) GAPDH were characterised. In Western blots, sera from naturally infected cattle and sheep showed antibody reactivity against rGAPDH. In response to in-vitro stimulation by rGAPDH, splenocytes from mice vaccinated with rGAPDH or B. abortus S19 were able to produce gamma-interferon and tumour necrosis factor-a but not interleukin (IL)-4. Furthermore, gap associated with murine IL-12 gene in a DNA vaccine formulation partially protected mice against experimental infection. PMID:12171297

  3. Live Attenuated Rubella Vaccine (Cendehill Strain) in School Children

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Patricia A.; Izumi, Toshiaki; Davidson, W. George; Grocott, H. C.; Martin, Hulda M.

    1970-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further determine the efficacy and safety in school children of the Cendehill strain of live attenuated rubella vaccine. Parental permission was requested for 255 children in Grades I, II and VI, attending two adjacent schools, to have blood taken for rubella hemagglutination-inhibition studies at the beginning and end of the study, and for each child seronegative on initial testing to participate as a vaccinee or a control. Vaccinees received either 0.5 ml. (full recommended dose) or 0.25 ml. of rubella virus vaccine, live attenuated, Cendehill strain (Smith Kline & French). Eighty-one per cent of the parents consented to have their child take part. Seventy-nine per cent of Grade I and II pupils and 41% of Grade VI pupils were found to be susceptible to rubella at the time of the initial test (HI titres [unk] 8). Eighty children received rubella vaccine and 98.7% showed at least a four-fold rise in antibody titre. One child who received 0.25 ml. showed only a two-fold rise. Clinical reactions to the vaccine were absent or minimal. Thirty-eight controls remained serologically negative during the study. The good response to half-doses of Cendehill vaccine is not significant because there were >3000 TCID50 in a full dose (three times the dose recommended). This information was unknown by the investigators until the termination of the study. PMID:5506107

  4. Use of S-[2,3-Bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-Propyl]-R-Cysteinyl-Amido-Monomethoxy Polyethylene Glycol as an Adjuvant Improved Protective Immunity Associated with a DNA Vaccine Encoding Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase of Brucella abortus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Retamal-Díaz, Angello; Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Sáez, Darwin; Rivera, Alejandra; Fernández, Pablo; Cabrera, Alex; Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding Brucella abortus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) using the Toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist S-[2,3-bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-amido-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (BPPcysMPEG) as an adjuvant. Intranasal coadministration of BPPcysMPEG with a plasmid carrying the SOD-encoding gene (pcDNA-SOD) into BALB/c mice elicited antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Humoral responses were characterized by the stimulation of IgG2a and IgG1 and by the presence of SOD-specific secretory IgA in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Furthermore, T-cell proliferative responses and increased production of gamma interferon were also observed upon splenocyte restimulation with recombinant SOD. Cytotoxic responses were also stimulated, as demonstrated by the lysis of RB51-SOD-infected J774.A1 macrophages by cells recovered from immunized mice. The pcDNA-SOD/BPPcysMPEG formulation induced improved protection against challenge with the virulent strain B. abortus 2308 in BALB/c mice over that provided by pcDNA-SOD, suggesting the potential of this vaccination strategy against Brucella infection. PMID:25165025

  5. New approaches to the development of live attenuated rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dietzschold, Bernhard; Schnell, Matthias J

    2002-04-01

    In the United States, extensive reservoirs of the rabies virus exist in many diverse wild animal species, which continue to pose a serious risk of lethal infection of humans and cause an economic burden exceeding $1 billion annually. Previous experience with rabies control in foxes in Europe has clearly demonstrated that oral immunization with live vaccines is the only practical approach to eradicate rabies in free-ranging animals. However, unlike Europe where vulpine rabies was the only major reservoir, the Americas harbor a variety of species including raccoons, skunks, coyotes, and bats that serve as the primary reservoirs of rabies. Each of these animal reservoirs carries an antigenically distinct virus variant. The currently available modified-live rabies virus vaccines have either safety problems or do not induce sufficient protective immunity in particular wildlife species. Therefore, there is a need for the development of new live rabies virus vaccines that are very safe and highly effective in particular wildlife species. Based on previous observations indicating that the potency of a vaccine is significantly increased if the G protein of the vaccine strain is identical to that of the target virus, we have used a reverse genetics approach to engineer viruses that contain G proteins from virus strains associated with relevant wildlife species. Furthermore, because our recent data also indicate that the pathogenicity of a particular rabies virus strain is inversely proportional to its ability to induce apoptosis and that low-level apoptosis-inducing ability is associated with low anti-viral immune responses, we inserted genes encoding pro-apoptotic proteins to stimulate immunity or otherwise interfere with viral pathogenesis into these recombinant viruses to enhance their efficacy and safety. PMID:12031103

  6. Delta-pgm, a new live-attenuated vaccine against Brucella suis.

    PubMed

    Czibener, Cecilia; Del Giudice, Mariela Giselda; Spera, Juan Manuel; Fulgenzi, Fabiana Rosa; Ugalde, Juan Esteban

    2016-03-18

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonosis in the world affecting many domestic and wild animals including bovines, goats, pigs and dogs. Each species of the Brucella genus has a particular tropism toward different mammals being the most relevant for human health Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis that infect bovines, goats/camelids and swine respectively. Although for B. abortus and B. melitensis there are vaccines available, there is no efficient vaccine to protect swine from B. suis infection so far. We describe here the construction of a novel vaccine strain that confers excellent protection against B. suis in a mouse model of infection. This strain is a clean deletion of the phosphoglucomutase (pgm) gene that codes for a protein that catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-P to glucose-1-P, which is used as a precursor for the biosynthesis of many polysaccharides. The Delta-pgm strain lacks a complete lipopolysaccharide, is unable to synthesize cyclic beta glucans and is sensitive to several detergents and Polymyxin B. We show that this strain replicates in cultured cells, is completely avirulent in the mouse model of infection but protects against a challenge of the virulent strain inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This novel strain could be an excellent candidate for the control of swine brucellosis, a disease of emerging concern in many parts of the world. PMID:26899373

  7. Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, Philip D.

    2015-05-15

    Live attenuated vaccines against human viral diseases have been amongst the most successful cost effective interventions in medical history. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980; poliomyelitis is nearing global eradication and measles has been controlled in most parts of the world. Vaccines function well for acute diseases such as these but chronic infections such as HIV are more challenging for reasons of both likely safety and probable efficacy. The derivation of the vaccines used has in general not been purely rational except in the sense that it has involved careful clinical trials of candidates and subsequent careful follow up in clinical use; the identification of the candidates is reviewed. - Highlights: • Live vaccines against human diseases caused by viruses have been very successful. • They have been developed by empirical clinical studies and problems identified in later use. • It can be difficult to balance ability to cause disease and ability to immunise for a strain. • There is currently no reliable basis for predicting success from pure virological studies. • Vaccinia, which eradicated smallpox, is the paradigm for all successes and issues.

  8. Characterization of a multicomponent live, attenuated Shigella flexneri vaccine.

    PubMed

    DeLaine, BreOnna C; Wu, Tao; Grassel, Christen L; Shimanovich, Avital; Pasetti, Marcela F; Levine, Myron M; Barry, Eileen M

    2016-07-01

    Shigella flexneri is a leading cause of diarrheal disease in children under five in developing countries. There is currently no licensed vaccine and broad spectrum protection requires coverage of multiple serotypes. The live attenuated vaccines CVD 1213 and CVD 1215 were derived from two prominent S. flexneri serotypes: S. flexneri 3a and S. flexneri 6. To provide broad-spectrum immunity, they could be combined with CVD 1208S, a S. flexneri 2a strain that demonstrated promising results in phase I and II clinical trials. Each strain contains a mutation in the guaBA operon. These vaccine candidates were tested in vitro and in vivo and were found to be auxotrophic for guanine and defective in intracellular replication, but capable of inducing cytokine production from both epithelial cells and macrophages. Both strains were attenuated for virulence in the guinea pig Serény test and induced robust serotype-specific antibody responses following immunization. Each strain induced homologous serotype protection against challenge and a mixed inoculum of the three S. flexneri vaccines conferred protection against all three virulent wild-type strains. These data support the use of CVD 1213, CVD 1215 and CVD 1208S in a multivalent vaccine to confer broad protection against disease caused by Shigella flexneri. PMID:27106253

  9. Principles underlying rational design of live attenuated influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yo Han

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent innovative advances in molecular virology and the developments of vaccines, influenza virus remains a serious burden for human health. Vaccination has been considered a primary countermeasure for prevention of influenza infection. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are particularly attracting attention as an effective strategy due to several advantages over inactivated vaccines. Cold-adaptation, as a classical means for attenuating viral virulence, has been successfully used for generating safe and effective donor strains of LAIVs against seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Recently, the advent of reverse genetics technique expedited a variety of rational strategies to broaden the pool of LAIVs. Considering the breadth of antigenic diversity of influenza virus, the pool of LAIVs is likely to equip us with better options for controlling influenza pandemics. With a brief reflection on classical attenuating strategies used at the initial stage of development of LAIVs, especially on the principles underlying the development of cold-adapted LAIVs, we further discuss and outline other attenuation strategies especially with respect to the rationales for attenuation, and their practicality for mass production. Finally, we propose important considerations for a rational vaccine design, which will provide us with practical guidelines for improving the safety and effectiveness of LAIVs. PMID:23596576

  10. Live bacterial vaccines – a review and identification of potential hazards

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, Ann; Glenting, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The use of live bacteria to induce an immune response to itself or to a carried vaccine component is an attractive vaccine strategy. Advantages of live bacterial vaccines include their mimicry of a natural infection, intrinsic adjuvant properties and their possibility to be administered orally. Derivatives of pathogenic and non-pathogenic food related bacteria are currently being evaluated as live vaccines. However, pathogenic bacteria demands for attenuation to weaken its virulence. The use of bacteria as vaccine delivery vehicles implies construction of recombinant strains that contain the gene cassette encoding the antigen. With the increased knowledge of mucosal immunity and the availability of genetic tools for heterologous gene expression the concept of live vaccine vehicles gains renewed interest. However, administration of live bacterial vaccines poses some risks. In addition, vaccination using recombinant bacteria results in the release of live recombinant organisms into nature. This places these vaccines in the debate on application of genetically modified organisms. In this review we give an overview of live bacterial vaccines on the market and describe the development of new live vaccines with a focus on attenuated bacteria and food-related lactic acid bacteria. Furthermore, we outline the safety concerns and identify the hazards associated with live bacterial vaccines and try to give some suggestions of what to consider during their development. PMID:16796731

  11. Demystifying FluMist, a new intranasal, live influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2003-09-01

    FluMist--a cold-adapted, live-attenuated, trivalent, intranasal influenza virus vaccine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on June 17, 2003--has been shown to be safe and effective, but its role in the general prevention of influenza is yet to be defined. Intranasal administration is expected to be more acceptable than parenteral, particularly in children, but the potential for the shedding of live virus may pose a risk to anyone with a compromised immune system. PMID:14518575

  12. Infection of C57BL/6 mice by Trypanosoma musculi modulates host immune responses during Brucella abortus cocolonization.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Jake E; Leonhardt, Jack A; Yao, Chaoqun; Belden, E Lee; Andrews, Gerard P

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis, which results in fetal abortions in domestic and wildlife animal populations, is of major concern in the US and throughout much of the world. The disease, caused by Brucella abortus, poses an economic threat to agriculture-based communities. A moderately efficacious live attenuated vaccine (B. abortus strain RB51) exists. However, even with vaccine use, outbreaks occur. Evidence suggests that elk (Cervus canadensis), a wild host reservoir, are the source of recent outbreaks in domestic cattle herds in Wyoming, USA. Brucella abortus establishes a chronic, persistent infection in elk. The molecular mechanisms allowing the establishment of this persistent infective state are currently unknown. A potential mechanism could be that concurrent pathogen burdens contribute to persistence. In Wyoming, elk are chronically infected with Trypanosoma cervi, which may modulate host responses in a similar manner to that documented for other trypanosomes. To identify any synergistic relationship between the two pathogens, we simulated coinfection in the well-established murine brucellosis model using Trypanosoma musculi and B. abortus S19. Groups of C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) were infected with either B. abortus strain 19 (S19) or T. musculi or both. Sera were collected weekly; spleens from euthanized mice were tested to determine bacterial load near the end of normal brucellosis infection. Although changes in bacterial load were observed during the later stages of brucellosis in those mice coinfected with T. musculi, the most significant finding was the suppression of gamma interferon early during the infection along with an increase in interleukin-10 secretion compared with mice infected with either pathogen alone. These results suggest that immune modulatory events occur in the mouse during coinfection and that further experiments are warranted to determine if T. cervi impacts Brucella infection in elk. PMID:24171573

  13. Immunization of mice with recombinant protein CobB or AsnC confers protection against Brucella abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Simei; Xu, Jie; Li, Xianbo; Xie, Yongfei; Qiu, Yefeng; Du, Xinying; Yu, Shuang; Bai, Yaoxia; Chen, Yanfen; Wang, Tongkun; Wang, Zhoujia; Yu, Yaqing; Peng, Guangneng; Huang, Kehe; Huang, Liuyu; Wang, Yufei; Chen, Zeliang

    2012-01-01

    Due to drawbacks of live attenuated vaccines, much more attention has been focused on screening of Brucella protective antigens as subunit vaccine candidates. Brucella is a facultative intracellular bacterium and cell mediated immunity plays essential roles for protection against Brucella infection. Identification of Brucella antigens that present T-cell epitopes to the host could enable development of such vaccines. In this study, 45 proven or putative pathogenesis-associated factors of Brucella were selected according to currently available data. After expressed and purified, 35 proteins were qualified for analysis of their abilities to stimulate T-cell responses in vitro. Then, an in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-γ) assay was used to identify potential T-cell antigens from B. abortus. In total, 7 individual proteins that stimulated strong IFN-γ responses in splenocytes from mice immunized with B. abortus live vaccine S19 were identified. The protective efficiencies of these 7 recombinant proteins were further evaluated. Mice given BAB1_1316 (CobB) or BAB1_1688 (AsnC) plus adjuvant could provide protection against virulent B. abortus infection, similarly with the known protective antigen Cu-Zn SOD and the license vaccine S19. In addition, CobB and AsnC could induce strong antibodies responses in BALB/c mice. Altogether, the present study showed that CobB or AsnC protein could be useful antigen candidates for the development of subunit vaccines against brucellosis with adequate immunogenicity and protection efficacy. PMID:22383953

  14. Development of a live attenuated antigenic marker classical swine fever vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical Swine Fever, caused by Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), is a highly contagious disease affecting swine worldwide. The two main strategies for disease control are prophylactic vaccination and non-vaccination “stamping out” policies. In a vaccination-to-live strategy, marker vaccines coul...

  15. Live-attenuated influenza A virus vaccines using a B virus backbone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The currently FDA-licensed live attenuated influenza virus vaccine contains a trivalent mixture of types A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B vaccine viruses. The two A virus vaccines have the backbone of a cold-adapted influenza A virus and the B virus vaccine has the six backbone segments derived from a cold-...

  16. Immunization with Recombinant Brucella Species Outer Membrane Protein Omp16 or Omp19 in Adjuvant Induces Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells as Well as Systemic and Oral Protection against Brucella abortus Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Pasquevich, Karina A.; Estein, Silvia M.; Samartino, Clara García; Zwerdling, Astrid; Coria, Lorena M.; Barrionuevo, Paula; Fossati, Carlos A.; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Cassataro, Juliana

    2009-01-01

    Available vaccines against Brucella spp. are live attenuated Brucella strains. In order to engineer a better vaccine to be used in animals and humans, our laboratory aims to develop an innocuous subunit vaccine. Particularly, we are interested in the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of B. abortus: Omp16 and Omp19. In this study, we assessed the use of these proteins as vaccines against Brucella in BALB/c mice. Immunization with lipidated Omp16 (L-Omp16) or L-Omp19 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) conferred significant protection against B. abortus infection. Vaccination with unlipidated Omp16 (U-Omp16) or U-Omp19 in IFA induced a higher degree of protection than the respective lipidated versions. Moreover, the level of protection induced after U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 immunization in IFA was similar to that elicited by live B. abortus S19 immunization. Flow cytometric analysis showed that immunization with U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 induced antigen-specific CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells producing gamma interferon. In vivo depletion of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells in mice immunized with U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 plus IFA resulted in a loss of the elicited protection, indicating that both cell types are mediating immune protection. U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 vaccination induced a T helper 1 response, systemic protection in aluminum hydroxide formulation, and oral protection with cholera toxin adjuvant against B. abortus infection. Both immunization routes exhibited a similar degree of protection to attenuated Brucella vaccines (S19 and RB51, respectively). Overall these results indicate that U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 would be a useful candidate for a subunit vaccine against human and animal brucellosis. PMID:18981242

  17. Immunization with recombinant Brucella species outer membrane protein Omp16 or Omp19 in adjuvant induces specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as systemic and oral protection against Brucella abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Pasquevich, Karina A; Estein, Silvia M; García Samartino, Clara; Samartino, Clara García; Zwerdling, Astrid; Coria, Lorena M; Barrionuevo, Paula; Fossati, Carlos A; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Cassataro, Juliana

    2009-01-01

    Available vaccines against Brucella spp. are live attenuated Brucella strains. In order to engineer a better vaccine to be used in animals and humans, our laboratory aims to develop an innocuous subunit vaccine. Particularly, we are interested in the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of B. abortus: Omp16 and Omp19. In this study, we assessed the use of these proteins as vaccines against Brucella in BALB/c mice. Immunization with lipidated Omp16 (L-Omp16) or L-Omp19 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) conferred significant protection against B. abortus infection. Vaccination with unlipidated Omp16 (U-Omp16) or U-Omp19 in IFA induced a higher degree of protection than the respective lipidated versions. Moreover, the level of protection induced after U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 immunization in IFA was similar to that elicited by live B. abortus S19 immunization. Flow cytometric analysis showed that immunization with U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 induced antigen-specific CD4(+) as well as CD8(+) T cells producing gamma interferon. In vivo depletion of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in mice immunized with U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 plus IFA resulted in a loss of the elicited protection, indicating that both cell types are mediating immune protection. U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 vaccination induced a T helper 1 response, systemic protection in aluminum hydroxide formulation, and oral protection with cholera toxin adjuvant against B. abortus infection. Both immunization routes exhibited a similar degree of protection to attenuated Brucella vaccines (S19 and RB51, respectively). Overall these results indicate that U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 would be a useful candidate for a subunit vaccine against human and animal brucellosis. PMID:18981242

  18. Maternal outcomes among pregnant women receiving live attenuated influenza vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Toback, Seth L.; Beigi, Richard; Tennis, Patricia; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Calingaert, Brian; Ambrose, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Toback et al. (2012) Maternal outcomes among pregnant women receiving live attenuated influenza accine. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(1), 44–51. Background  Although the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) prescribing information contains warnings/precautions against use during pregnancy, administration of LAIV to pregnant women does occur. Data regarding maternal outcomes after LAIV administration during pregnancy are limited. Objectives  Maternal outcomes after LAIV vaccination during pregnancy were examined. Methods  Data from a health insurance claims database that covers approximately 50 million individuals were analyzed for the six influenza seasons from 2003–2004 through 2008–2009. Emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations occurring within 42 days of vaccination were analyzed by primary diagnosis; outcomes were categorized as cardiopulmonary, obstetric, and other. Cohort characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results  Of 834 999 pregnancies identified, 138 (0·017%) were among women who received LAIV vaccinations. Of the 138 pregnant women, 13% were ≤19 years, 67% were 20–34 years, and 20% were ≥35 years of age. Eight events occurred within 42 days of vaccination: one ED visit for bronchitis, two hospitalizations for hyperemesis gravidarum and premature labor, and five ED visits/hospitalizations for common medical conditions. All outcomes identified after LAIV exposure occurred at rates similar to rates in unvaccinated pregnant women reported in the medical literature. Conclusions  Administration of LAIV to pregnant women is rare; the rate has remained constant since 2004–2005. In this cohort, there was no evidence of significant maternal adverse outcomes after receipt of LAIV. These data may offer some reassurance to providers and pregnant women in the event of inadvertent LAIV administration, but do not support the routine use of LAIV in

  19. Comparison of Biological and Immunological Characterization of Lipopolysaccharides From Brucella abortus RB51 and S19

    PubMed Central

    Kianmehr, Zahra; Kaboudanian Ardestani, Sussan; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Fotouhi, Fatemeh; Alamian, Saeed; Ahmadian, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brucella abortus RB51 is a rough stable mutant strain, which has been widely used as a live vaccine for prevention of brucellosis in cattle instead of B. abortus strain S19. B. abortus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has unique properties in comparison to other bacterial LPS. Objectives: In the current study, two types of LPS, smooth (S-LPS) and rough (R-LPS) were purified from B. abortus S19 and RB51, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate biological and immunological properties of purified LPS as an immunogenical determinant. Materials and Methods: Primarily, S19 and RB51 LPS were extracted and purified by two different modifications of the phenol water method. The final purity of LPS was determined by chemical analysis (2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (KDO), glycan, phosphate and protein content) and different staining methods, following sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). C57BL/6 mice were immunized subcutaneously three times at biweekly intervals with the same amount of purified LPSs. The humoral immunity was evaluated by measuring specific IgG levels and also different cytokine levels, such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10, were determined for assessing T-cell immune response. Results: Biochemical analysis data and SDS-PAGE profile showed that the chemical nature of S19 LPS is different from RB51 LPS. Both S and R-LPS induce an immune response. T-cell immune response induced by both S and R-LPS had almost the same pattern whereas S19 LPS elicited humoral immunity, which was higher than RB51 LPS. Conclusions: Purified LPS can be considered as a safe adjuvant and can be used as a component in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines targeting infectious disease, cancer and allergies. PMID:26862376

  20. H5N1 Vaccine-Specific B Cell Responses in Ferrets Primed with Live Attenuated Seasonal Influenza Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Zhou, Helen; Kulkarni, Deepali; Subbarao, Kanta; Kemble, George; Jin, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Background Live attenuated influenza H5N1 vaccines have been produced and evaluated in mice and ferrets that were never exposed to influenza A virus infection (Suguitan et al., Plos Medicine, e360:1541, 2006). However, the preexisting influenza heterosubtypic immunity on live attenuated H5N1 vaccine induced immune response has not been evaluated. Methodology and Principal Findings Primary and recall B cell responses to live attenuated H5N1 vaccine viruses were examined using a sensitive antigen-specific B cell ELISpot assay to investigate the effect of preexisting heterosubtypic influenza immunity on the development of H5N1-specific B cell immune responses in ferrets. Live attenuated H5N1 A/Hong Kong/213/03 and A/Vietnam/1203/04 vaccine viruses induced measurable H5-specific IgM and IgG secreting B cells after intranasal vaccination. However, H5-specific IgG secreting cells were detected significantly earlier and at a greater frequency after H5N1 inoculation in ferrets previously primed with trivalent live attenuated influenza (H1N1, H3N2 and B) vaccine. Priming studies further revealed that the more rapid B cell responses to H5 resulted from cross-reactive B cell immunity to the hemagglutinin H1 protein. Moreover, vaccination with the H1N1 vaccine virus was able to induce protective responses capable of limiting replication of the H5N1 vaccine virus to a level comparable with prior vaccination with the H5N1 vaccine virus without affecting H5N1 vaccine virus induced antibody response. Conclusion The findings indicate that previous vaccination with seasonal influenza vaccine may accelerate onset of immunity by an H5N1 ca vaccine and the heterosubtypic immunity may be beneficial for pandemic preparedness. PMID:19209231

  1. Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J; Miller, C A; Catalan, J; Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World afflicting humans, horses and birds, the success of this recombinant technology has prompted the rapid development of a live-virus attenuated candidate vaccine against West Nile virus. PMID:11516995

  2. Characterization and Protective Property of Brucella abortus cydC and looP Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Quang Lam; Cho, Youngjae; Barate, Abhijit Kashinath; Kim, Suk

    2014-01-01

    Brucella abortus readily multiplies in professional or nonprofessional phagocytes in vitro and is highly virulent in mice. Isogenic mutants of B. abortus biovar 1 strain IVKB9007 lacking the ATP/GDP-binding protein motif A (P-loop) (named looP; designated here the IVKB9007 looP::Tn5 mutant) and the ATP-binding/permease protein (cydC; designated here the IVKB9007 cydC::Tn5 mutant) were identified and characterized by transposon mutagenesis using the mini-Tn5Km2 transposon. Both mutants were found to be virtually incapable of intracellular replication in both murine macrophages (RAW264.7) and the HeLa cell line, and their virulence was significantly impaired in BALB/c mice. Respective complementation of the IVKB9007 looP::Tn5 and IVKB9007 cydC::Tn5 mutants restored their ability to survive in vitro and in vivo to a level comparable with that of the wild type. These findings indicate that the cydC and looP genes play important roles in the virulence of B. abortus. In addition, intraperitoneal immunization of mice with a dose of the live IVKB9007 looP::Tn5 and IVKB9007 cydC::Tn5 mutants provided a high degree of protection against challenge with pathogenic B. abortus strain 544. Both mutants should be evaluated further as a live attenuated vaccine against bovine brucellosis for their ability to stimulate a protective immune response. PMID:25253663

  3. Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Amy; Greenberg, Lauren; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo; Alvarado, Marlon; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Vampire bat rabies is a public and animal health concern throughout Latin America. As part of an ecological study of vampire bat depredation on cattle in southern Guatemala, we conducted a vaccine seroconversion study among three dairy farms. The main objectives of this cross sectional and cohort study were to understand factors associated with bat bites among cattle, to determine whether unvaccinated cattle had evidence of rabies virus exposure and evaluate whether exposure was related to bat bite prevalence, and to assess whether cattle demonstrate adequate seroconversion to two commercial vaccines used in Guatemala. In 2012, baseline blood samples were collected immediately prior to intramuscular inoculation of cattle with one of two modified live rabies vaccines. Post vaccination blood samples were collected 13 and 393 days later. Sera were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA) by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Across two years of study, 36% (254/702) of inspected cattle presented gross evidence of vampire bat bites. Individual cattle with a bat bite in 2012 were more likely have a bat bite in 2013. Prior to vaccination, 12% (42/350) of cattle sera demonstrated rVNA, but bite status in 2012 was not associated with presence of rVNA. Vaccine brand was the only factor associated with adequate rVNA response of cattle by day 13. However, vaccine brand and rVNA status at day 13 were associated with an adequate rVNA titer on day 393, with animals demonstrating an adequate titer at day 13 more likely to have an adequate titer at day 393. Our findings support stable levels of vampire bat depredation and evidence of rVNA in unvaccinated cattle. Brand of vaccine may be an important consideration impacting adequate rVNA response and long-term maintenance of rVNA in cattle. Further, the results demonstrate that initial response to vaccination is associated with rVNA status over one year following vaccination. PMID:25466762

  4. Live Eimeria vaccination success in the face of artificial non-uniform vaccine administration in conventionally reared pullets.

    PubMed

    Price, Kayla R; Hafeez, Mian A; Bulfon, Julia; Barta, John R

    2016-01-01

    Live Eimeria vaccines against coccidiosis in poultry initiate immunity using a vaccine dose containing few oocysts; protection is enhanced through subsequent faecal-oral transmission ("cycling") of parasites in the poultry house. Spray-administered Eimeria vaccines can permit wide variations in doses ingested by individual chicks; some chicks may receive no primary vaccination at all. Consequently, protective immunity for the entire flock depends on successful environmental cycling of vaccine progeny. Pullets missing primary vaccination at day of age can become protected from coccidial challenge through cycling of vaccine progeny oocysts from vaccinated (V) cage mates. This study tested whether 40% cage floor coverage (CFC) with a durable material could improve protection against challenge in these "contact-vaccinated" (CV) or successfully V pullets. The six treatment groups tested were CV, V or sham-vaccinated pullets cage-reared on either 0% or 40% CFC. Oocyst output was measured separately for each group for 30 days following vaccine administration. Lesion scores, body weights and total oocyst outputs were measured to quantify protection at 30 days of age against single or mixed Eimeria species challenge infections. Use of 40% CFC to promote low-level oocyst cycling impacted the flock in two ways: (1) more uniform flock immunity was achieved in the 40% CFC (CV similar to V pullets) compared with 0% CFC and (2) protection was enhanced in the 40% CFC compared with the 0% CFC. The use of CFC is an easily adopted means of improving live Eimeria vaccination of caged pullets. PMID:26743571

  5. Efficacy of HVT-IBD vector vaccine compared to attenuated live vaccine using in-ovo vaccination against a Korean very virulent IBDV in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Roh, J-H; Kang, M; Wei, B; Yoon, R-H; Seo, H-S; Bahng, J-Y; Kwon, J-T; Cha, S-Y; Jang, H-K

    2016-05-01

    The production performance, efficacy, and safety of two types of vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were compared with in-ovo vaccination of Cobb 500 broiler chickens for gross and microscopic examination of the bursa of Fabricius, bursa/body weight (b/B) ratio, flow cytometry, and serologic response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccination. One vaccine was a recombinant HVT-IBD vector vaccine (HVT as for herpesvirus of turkeys) and the other was an intermediate plus live IBDV vaccine. A significant difference was detected at 21 d. Eight of 10 chickens that received the IBDV live vaccine had severe bursal lesions and a relatively low b/B ratio of 0.95, and an inhibited NDV vaccine response. On the other hand, the HVT-IBD vector vaccine resulted in mild bursal lesions and a b/B ratio of 1.89. Therefore, the live vaccine had lower safety than that of the HVT-IBD vector vaccine. To determine the protective efficacy, chickens were intraocularly challenged at 24 d. Eight of 10 chickens in the IBDV live vaccination group showed gross and histological lesions characterized by hemorrhage, cyst formation, lymphocytic depletion, and a decreased b/B ratio. In contrast, the HVT-IBD vector vaccinated chickens showed mild gross and histological lesions in three of 10 chickens with a b/B ratio of 1.36, which was similar to that of the unchallenged controls. Vaccinated chickens showed a significant increase in IBDV antibody titers, regardless of the type of vaccine used. In addition, significantly better broiler flock performance was observed with the HVT-IBD vector vaccine compared to that of the live vaccine. Our results revealed that the HVT-IBD vector vaccine could be used as an alternative vaccine to increase efficacy, and to have an improved safety profile compared with the IBDV live vaccine using in-ovo vaccination against the Korean very virulent IBDV in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:26944964

  6. Transcriptional profiling of recall responses to Francisella live vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Paranavitana, Chrysanthi; DaSilva, Luis; Vladimirova, Antoaneta; Pittman, Phillip R; Velauthapillai, Mahendran; Nikolich, Mikeljon

    2014-03-01

    Global gene expression profile changes were monitored in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after challenge with the live vaccine strain (LVS) of Francisella tularensis. Because these PBMCs were from individuals previously immunized with LVS, stimulating these cells with LVS should activate memory responses. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool identified pathways, functions, and networks associated with this in vitro recall response, including novel pathways triggered by the memory response. Dendritic cell (DC) maturation was the most significant among the more than 25 relevant pathways discovered. Interleukin 15, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 signaling pathways were also significant. Pathway analysis indicated that Class 1 antigen presentation may not be optimal with LVS vaccination. The top three biological functions were antigen presentation, cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. Network analysis revealed that the top network associated with these functions had IFNγ and TNFα in central interactive positions. Our results suggest that DC maturation is a key factor in the recall responses and that more effective antigen processing and presentation is needed for cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. Taken together, these considerations are critical for future tularemia vaccine development studies. PMID:24453125

  7. Efficacy of combined killed-in-oil emulsion and live Newcastle disease vaccines in chickens.

    PubMed

    Folitse, R; Halvorson, D A; Sivanandan, V

    1998-01-01

    Following the introduction of routine vaccination regimes with different types of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines, the incidence of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (VVND) in commercial poultry worldwide has declined dramatically. Unfortunately, these vaccination regimes are not feasible in free-range and backyard systems of poultry production practiced in many developing countries. In this study, we sought to develop a single vaccination regime in chickens with ND vaccines to elicit a long-lasting high level of ND virus (NDV) antibodies adequate to protect chickens against ND. The level of antibody response, as measured by the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test, and the degree of protection against the virulent strain of NDV were studied in chickens immunized with different vaccines. The vaccines used were: killed-in-oil emulsion (subcutaneous; s.c.) plus live virus (oculanasal; o.n.), given concurrently; experimental vaccine (s.c.) plus live virus (o.n.), given concurrently; killed-in-oil (s.c.); experimental vaccine prepared by homogenizing commercial live vaccine and oil emulsion (s.c.); and live virus (o.n.). The results obtained in this study indicate that concurrent administration of oil emulsion and live NDV vaccines induced the best antibody response, but there was no significant difference in protection among the vaccinated groups. PMID:9533096

  8. Brucella abortus in captive bison. I. Serology, bacteriology, pathogenesis, and transmission to cattle.

    PubMed

    Davis, D S; Templeton, J W; Ficht, T A; Williams, J D; Kopec, J D; Adams, L G

    1990-07-01

    Two groups of six, non-brucellosis vaccinated, brucellosis seronegative pregnant American bison (Bison bison) were individually challenged with 1 x 10(7) colony forming units (CFU) of Brucella abortus strain 2308. Three days after challenge, each bison group was placed in a common paddock with six non-vaccinated, brucellosis susceptible, pregnant domestic heifers. In a parallel study, two groups of six susceptible, pregnant cattle were simultaneously challenged with the identical dose as the bison and each group was placed with six susceptible cattle in order to compare bison to cattle transmission to that observed in cattle to cattle transmission. Blood samples were collected from bison and cattle weekly for at least 1 mo prior to exposure to B. abortus and for 180 days post-exposure (PE). Sera from the bison and cattle were evaluated by the Card, rivanol precipitation, standard plate agglutination, standard tube agglutination, cold complement fixation tube, warm complement fixation tube, buffered acidified plate antigen, rapid screening, bovine conjugated enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, bison or bovine conjugated enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and the hemolysis-in-gel techniques for the presence of antibodies to Brucella spp. At the termination of pregnancy by abortion or birth of a live-calf, quarter milk samples, vaginal swabs, and placenta were collected from the dam. Rectal swabs were collected from live calves, and mediastinal lymph nodes, abomasal contents and lung were taken at necropsy from aborted fetuses for culture of Brucella spp. These tissues and swabs were cultured on restrictive media for the isolation and identification of Brucella spp. Pathogenesis of brucellosis in bison was studied in an additional group of six pregnant bison which were challenged with 1 x 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308. One animal was euthanatized each week PE. Tissues were collected at necropsy and later examined bacteriologically and histologically. Lesions of

  9. Ontology representation and analysis of vaccine formulation and administration and their effects on vaccine immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A vaccine is a processed material that if administered, is able to stimulate an adaptive immune response to prevent or ameliorate a disease. A vaccination process may protect the host against subsequent exposure to an infectious agent and result in reduced disease or total prevention of the disease. Vaccine formulation and administration methods may affect vaccine safety and efficacy significantly. Results In this report, the detailed classification and definitions of vaccine components and vaccine administration processes are represented using OWL within the framework of the Vaccine Ontology (VO). Different use cases demonstrate how different vaccine formulations and routes of vaccine administration affect the protection efficacy, general immune responses, and adverse events following vaccination. For example, vaccinations of mice with Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 using intraperitoneal or intranasal administration resulted in different protection levels. As shown in the vaccine adverse event data provided by US FDA, live attenuated and nonliving vaccines are usually administered in different routes and have different local and systematic adverse effect manifestations. Conclusions Vaccine formulation and administration route can independently or collaboratively affect host response outcomes (positive protective immunity or adverse events) after vaccination. Ontological representation of different vaccine and vaccination factors in these two areas allows better understanding and analysis of the causal effects between different factors and immune responses. PMID:23256535

  10. Association of serum antibody levels following vaccination with a modified live BVDV vaccine and protection from clinical disease upon challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Measurements of antigen specific serum antibodies following vaccination of cattle with a modified live vaccine (MLV) were conducted to examine the range of responses elicited against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2). Cattle averaging 130 weeks of age were housed in a commercial setting ...

  11. Arenavirus Genome Rearrangement for the Development of Live Attenuated Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Benson Yee Hin; Ortiz-Riaño, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several members of the Arenaviridae family cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose serious public health problems in their geographic regions of endemicity as well as a credible biodefense threat. To date, there have been no FDA-approved arenavirus vaccines, and current antiarenaviral therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. Arenaviruses are enveloped viruses with a bisegmented negative-stranded RNA genome. Each genome segment uses an ambisense coding strategy to direct the synthesis of two viral polypeptides in opposite orientations, separated by a noncoding intergenic region. Here we have used minigenome-based approaches to evaluate expression levels of reporter genes from the nucleoprotein (NP) and glycoprotein precursor (GPC) loci within the S segment of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We found that reporter genes are expressed to higher levels from the NP than from the GPC locus. Differences in reporter gene expression levels from the NP and GPC loci were confirmed with recombinant trisegmented LCM viruses. We then used reverse genetics to rescue a recombinant LCMV (rLCMV) containing a translocated viral S segment (rLCMV/TransS), where the viral NP and GPC open reading frames replaced one another. The rLCMV/TransS showed slower growth kinetics in cultured cells and was highly attenuated in vivo in a mouse model of lethal LCMV infection, but immunization with rLCMV/TransS conferred complete protection against a lethal challenge with wild-type LCMV. Attenuation of rLCMV/TransS was associated with reduced NP expression levels. These results open a new avenue for the development of arenavirus live attenuated vaccines based on rearrangement of their viral genome. IMPORTANCE Several arenaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and also pose a credible bioterrorism threat. Currently, no FDA-licensed vaccines are available to combat arenavirus infections and

  12. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section 113.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise specified by the Administrator or elsewhere exempted... Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section....

  13. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section 113.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise specified by the Administrator or elsewhere exempted... Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section....

  14. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section 113.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise specified by the Administrator or elsewhere exempted... Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section....

  15. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section 113.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise specified by the Administrator or elsewhere exempted... Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section....

  16. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section 113.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise specified by the Administrator or elsewhere exempted... Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section....

  17. The efficacy of Mycoplasma gallisepticum K-strain live vaccine in broiler and layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Noel, N M; Williams, S M

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine candidate (K-strain) was compared to commercially available vaccines in broiler-type chickens (Trial 1) and layer-type chickens (Trial 2). In Trial 1, three-week-old broiler-type chickens were vaccinated via aerosol with K-strain or an F-strain vaccine. The vaccinated chickens and 10 non-vaccinated controls were subsequently challenged with virulent R-strain via aerosol at six weeks post vaccination; both K-strain and F-strain vaccination resulted in significant protection from air sac and tracheal lesions, as well as R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). In Trial 2, commercial layer-type chickens were vaccinated with ts-11 (via eye drop) or K-strain (via aerosol) at 12 weeks of age. At 25 weeks of age these birds were challenged with R-strain via aerosol. The ts-11 and K-strain vaccinated groups both had significantly lower air sac lesion scores and a lower prevalence of ovarian regression after challenge as compared to non-vaccinated chickens (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain vaccination also prevented significant tracheal lesions and R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain shows great potential as a highly efficacious live MG vaccine in broiler and layer-type chickens for protection of the respiratory and reproductive systems as well as prevention of infection with field strains. PMID:25571953

  18. Shedding of live Eimeria vaccine progeny is delayed in chicks with delayed access to feed after vaccination.

    PubMed

    Price, Kayla R; Freeman, Megan; Van-Heerden, Kobus; Barta, John R

    2015-03-15

    Hatching, processing and transportation result in inevitable delays before chicks are placed into brooding and receive their first feed and drinking water after hatching. To determine if delayed access to feed for different durations following live Eimeria vaccination affected initial shedding of vaccine progeny, replacement layer chicks (480, Lohmann-LSL Lite) aged approximately 6h after hatch were administered a commercial live Eimeria vaccine. Vaccinated chicks were divided randomly into groups and were provided access to feed immediately (0 h) or after a delay of 6, 12, or 24 h (4 treatments × 6 replicates per treatment × 20 pullets per replicate). All pullets were provided drinking water immediately following vaccination. Fecal oocysts shed per gram of feces for each cage replicate was determined daily from 4 to 9 days post inoculation. Chicks provided feed immediately had peak oocyst shedding at 5 days post-inoculation but delayed access to feed for 24h was associated with a 2 days delay in peak oocyst shedding to 7 days post-inoculation. Chicks with delays in access to feed of intermediate duration (i.e. 6 or 12h) had peak oocyst shedding at 6 days post-inoculation. Overall oocyst shedding was not affected. Live Eimeria vaccination success may be measured by evaluating initial shedding of oocysts at some pre-established time after vaccine application, usually by a single fecal collection conducted at 5, 6 or 7 days post-inoculation. Recognizing that withholding feed following live Eimeria vaccination shifts the time of the resultant peak oocyst shedding complicates the assessment of vaccine application; if delayed access to feed is not taken into account, it is possible that false conclusions could be drawn regarding the relative success of vaccine administration. PMID:25638718

  19. Efficacy of a live Cryptobia salmositica vaccine, and the mechanism of protection in vaccinated rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, against cryptobiosis.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Woo, P T

    1995-10-01

    An attenuated strain of Cryptobia salmositica was used as a live vaccine to protect rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, against cryptobiosis. Fish immunized with 1.0 x 10(4) or 5.5 x 10(4) attenuated C. salmositica per fish were protected 3 weeks after immunization; however, this period was reduced to 2 weeks if fish were vaccinated with 1.0 x 10(5) attenuated parasites per fish. Fish were still protected at 6, 12 and 24 months after vaccination. Complement fixing antibodies in the blood of immunized fish lysed C. salmositica under in vitro conditions. The titre of complement fixing antibodies in vaccinated fish increased rapidly 1-2 weeks post-challenge. In vitro phagocytosis was enhanced by antiserum and by activated macrophages from vaccinated fish. There was also evidence of antibody independent and antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vaccinated fish. PMID:8578692

  20. Vaccination of pigs against Aujeszky's disease by the intradermal route using live attenuated and inactivated virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vannier, P; Cariolet, R

    1989-09-01

    A study was undertaken of the protection induced by inactivated and live Aujeszky's disease virus vaccines. The vaccines were administered using a special device which, without the use of a needle, delivered the preparation intradermally. The trials were performed on 88 pigs which were vaccinated at the beginning of the fattening period both in experimental conditions and in pig herds. All the pigs were challenged at the end of the fattening period in isolation units. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the same vaccines injected intramuscularly. It was shown that vaccination via the intradermal route induced good protection in the vaccinated animals and was similar to that conferred by live virus vaccine injected intramuscularly. The results, with the inactivated virus vaccine, were not so good when it was injected via the intradermal route. Studies with intradermal vaccination showed no local lesion or very small nodules strictly localized to the dermis. The results also confirmed that the effects of challenge exposure depended on the health status of animals prior to infection and show the necessity to use a synthetic value (delta G) to interpret the data and mainly to compare the results objectively. In fattening pigs this vaccination procedure is attractive because (i) less animal constraint is needed than would be for intramuscular injections, (ii) injection can be checked by the presence of a visible papula at the site of inoculation and, (iii) pigs can be vaccinated in the ham while they are feeding. Injection without a needle also contributes to avoiding bacterial contamination under practical farm conditions of vaccination. PMID:2554623

  1. Live attenuated and inactivated viral vaccine formulation and nasal delivery: potential and challenges.

    PubMed

    Tlaxca, José L; Ellis, Scott; Remmele, Richard L

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are cost-effective for the prevention of infectious diseases and have significantly reduced mortality and morbidity. Novel approaches are needed to develop safe and effective vaccines against disease. Major challenges in vaccine development include stability in a suitable dosage form and effective modes of delivery. Many live attenuated vaccines are capable of eliciting both humoral and cell mediated immune responses if physicochemically stable in an appropriate delivery vehicle. Knowing primary stresses that impart instability provides a general rationale for formulation development and mode of delivery. Since most pathogens enter the body through the mucosal route, live-attenuated vaccines have the advantage of mimicking natural immunization via non-invasive delivery. This presentation will examine aspects of formulation design, types of robust dosage forms to consider, effective routes of delivery (invasive and noninvasive), and distinctions between live attenuated or inactivated vaccines. PMID:25312673

  2. The bovine immune response to Brucella abortus. II. Elimination of some sporadic serological reactions by chelation of divalent cations.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, K; Samagh, B S; Speckmann, G; Stemshorn, B

    1979-01-01

    The standard agglutination tests for detecting antibody to Brucella abortus were modified by addition of chelating agents (EDTA and EGTA) to the antigens. Approximately 80% of "singleton" agglutination test reactions, negative on the diagnostic complement fixation test, obtained with cattle sera were eliminated while no decrease in titer was apparent when sera from B. abortus infected or vaccinated cattle were tested. PMID:121242

  3. Vaccination of full-sib channel catfish families against enteric septicemia of catfish with an oral live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study evaluated the efficacy of an oral live-attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine against enteric septicemia of catfish in 20 full-sib fingerling channel catfish families. Each family was split into vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups. The vaccine was delivered orally by feeding fish diet...

  4. [Standardization of the seeding material in producing live anthrax vaccine].

    PubMed

    Gladus, M A; Nikolaenko, Iu P; Lazareva, E S; Fatkhinurova, T I; Mashilova, G M

    1978-09-01

    Technology of obtaining dry concentrated seeding material of the anthrax bacillus STI-1 vaccine strain was worked out. The use of dry seeding material for making dry anthrax vaccine rendered the preparations obtained more standard, reduced the time required for their production, led to increase of AKM-SH productivity, and to greater profitability of the vaccine production. The vaccine preparations obtained with the use of dry seeding material did not differ from control by immunogenicity. PMID:106609

  5. Characterization and Immunogenicity of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Brucella abortus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Singh, Satparkash; Sunil Kumar, B V; Mahajan, Kanika; Verma, Ramneek

    2016-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a worldwide spread zoonotic disease. The objectives of this study were characterization of outer membrane vesicles from B. abortus and to evaluate their immunogenicity in mice. For this purpose, OMVs were derived from B. abortus strain 99 using ultracentrifugation method. Isolated OMVs were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy which revealed spherical 20-300 nm structures rich in proteins. OMVs also showed immuno-reactivity with mice antisera in Western blot. Further, indirect ELISA showed specific and high-titer immune responses against the antigens present in OMVs suggesting their potential for a safe acellular vaccine candidate. PMID:26684926

  6. Expression and validation of D-erythrulose 1-phosphate dehydrogenase from Brucella abortus: a diagnostic reagent for bovine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Eoh, Hyungjin; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Zhiyeol; Kim, Seung-Cheol; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2010-07-01

    Brucella abortus is a bacterium of brucellosis causing abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of bovine brucellosis mainly relies on serologic tests using smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) from B. abortus. However, the usefulness of this method is limited by false-positive reactions due to cross-reaction with other Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, the eryC gene encoding B. abortus d-erythrulose 1-phosphate dehydrogenase, which is involved in the erythritol metabolism in virulent B. abortus strain but is absent from a B. abortus vaccine strain (S19), was cloned. Recombinant EryC was expressed and purified for the evaluation as a diagnostic reagent for bovine brucellosis. Other B. abortus proteins, Omp16, PP26, and CP39 were also purified and their seroreactivities were compared. Recombinant EryC, Omp16, PP26, and PP39 were all reactive to B. abortus-positive serum. The specificity of recombinant Omp16, PP26, CP39, and EryC, were shown to be approximately 98%, whereas that of B. abortus whole cell lysates was shown to be 95%. The sensitivity of Omp16, PP26, CP39, and EryC were 10%, 51%, 64%, and 43%, respectively, whereas that of B. abortus whole cell lysates was 53%. These results suggested that B. abortus EryC would be a potential reagent for diagnosis for bovine brucellosis as a single protein antigen. PMID:20622221

  7. The bovine immune response to Brucella abortus IV. Studies with a double immunodiffusion test for antibody against A2.

    PubMed Central

    Stemshorn, B; Nielsen, K

    1981-01-01

    A double immunodiffusion test for precipitins against Brucella antigen A2 was developed and applied to a variety of samples. The A2 precipitins were produced by a heifer infected with B. abortus strain 2308, cattle vaccinated with killed B. melitensis strain H38 or live B. abortus strain 19 and by a dog infected with B. canis. Precipitins were also detected in the second International Standard for anti-Brucella abortus serum, in several anti-B. canis sera and at low levels in one anti-B. ovis serum tested. Antisera produced in calves against Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:9 had no anti-A2 activity despite titers greater than or equal to 1/1024 and greater than or equal to 1/80 in standard Brucella agglutination and CF tests, respectively. The test for A2 precipitins lacked specificity as weak reactions were obtained with five of 295 sera from brucellosis-free herds. This test was relatively insensitive, detecting precipitins in only 16 of 24 sera from infected cattle and 27 of 54 sera positive by complement fixation and enzyme labelled antiglobulin tests performed with whole cell and smooth lipopolysaccharide antigens, respectively. The A2 precipitins were detected in nine sera from five cattle, in two infected herds, which were negative by agglutination and complement fixation tests. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6790144

  8. Demonstration of Complement Fixing Antibody in the Sera of Cattle Vaccinated with Combined Living Blackleg-anthrax Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Cho, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    Complement fixing antibodies could be detected in the sera of cattle vaccinated with combined living blackleg-anthrax vaccine by modified complement fixation tests. Conventional direct complement fixation tests with bovine antibody-antigen systems often caused false negative reactions; however, in the modified test, when guinea pig complement was supplemented with fresh unheated normal rabbit serum, positive reactions were obtained and the sensitivity of the test was increased without loss of specificity. PMID:17647601

  9. Evolutionary reversion of live viral vaccines: Can genetic engineering subdue it?

    PubMed Central

    Bull, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Attenuated, live viral vaccines have been extraordinarily successful in protecting against many diseases. The main drawbacks in their development and use have been reliance on an unpredictable method of attenuation and the potential for evolutionary reversion to high virulence. Methods of genetic engineering now provide many safer alternatives to live vaccines, so if live vaccines are to compete with these alternatives in the future, they must either have superior immunogenicity or they must be able to overcome these former disadvantages. Several live vaccine designs that were historically inaccessible are now feasible because of advances in genome synthesis. Some of those methods are addressed here, with an emphasis on whether they enable predictable levels of attenuation and whether they are stable against evolutionary reversion. These new designs overcome many of the former drawbacks and position live vaccines to be competitive with alternatives. Not only do new methods appear to retard evolutionary reversion enough to prevent vaccine-derived epidemics, but it may even be possible to permanently attenuate live vaccines that are transmissible but cannot evolve to higher virulence under prolonged adaptation. PMID:27034780

  10. Intermediate rough Brucella abortus S19Δper mutant is DIVA enable, safe to pregnant guinea pigs and confers protection to mice.

    PubMed

    Lalsiamthara, Jonathan; Gogia, Neha; Goswami, Tapas K; Singh, R K; Chaudhuri, Pallab

    2015-05-21

    Brucella abortus S19 is a smooth strain used as live vaccine against bovine brucellosis. Smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is responsible for its residual virulence and serological interference. Rough mutants defective of LPS are more attenuated but confers lower level of protection. We describe a modified B. abortus S19 strain, named as S19Δper, which exhibits intermediate rough phenotype with residual O-polysaccharide (OPS). Deletion of perosamine synthetase gene resulted in substantial attenuation of S19Δper mutant without affecting immunogenic properties. It mounted strong immune response in Swiss albino mice and conferred protection similar to S19 vaccine. Immunized mice produced higher levels of IFN-γ, IgG2a and thus has immune response inclined towards Th1 cell mediated immunity. Sera from immunized animals did not show agglutination reaction with RBPT antigen and thus could serve as DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccine. S19Δper mutant displayed more susceptibility to serum complement mediated killing and sensitivity to polymyxin B. Pregnant guinea pigs injected with S19Δper mutant completed full term of pregnancy and did not cause abortion, still birth or birth of weak offspring. S19Δper mutant with intermediate rough phenotype displayed remarkable resemblance to S19 vaccine strain with improved properties of safety, immunogenicity and DIVA capability for control of bovine brucellosis. PMID:25869887

  11. Comparative trial of live attenuated measles vaccine in Hong Kong by intramuscular and intradermal injection

    PubMed Central

    1967-01-01

    Between April and July 1966 a comparative trial of two live attenuated measles vaccines (Schwarz and Beckenham 31), given intramuscularly or intradermally, was conducted in Hong Kong. Some 910 non-immune children completed the trial. The Beckenham 31 vaccine caused significantly more complications than Schwarz vaccine, but it also resulted in a much higher mean antibody titre by both intramuscular and intradermal injection than did Schwarz vaccine. The seroconversion rates were satisfactory for both vaccines given intramuscularly but not for either given intradermally (at one-fifth the recognized intramuscular dose). The authors suggest that either vaccine may usefully be given for measles prophylaxis. The choice between Beckenham 31, with a higher complication rate and higher antibody levels, and Schwarz, with fewer complications but lower antibody levels, would depend on the type of community, the adequacy of the medical services, the severity of measles and an assessment of how either vaccine, with its known complications, might affect other immunization programmes. PMID:5299670

  12. Laboratory investigations on "postvaccinall rabies" caused by live sheep-brain vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, K J

    1976-01-01

    The viral ethiology of postvaccinal complications among 30 dogs vaccinated by live antirabies vaccine (Umeno-Doi type, sheep brain vaccine) was fully confirmed. Three lots of virulent vaccine were inoculated subcutaneously into groups of "Wistar" rats according to the different schemes. Between the 1st and 12th day after the end of the vaccination there were no isolations of fixed virus in direct and blind i.c. passages of suspensions made from the thalamus area on succkling mice and rats. Also the viral antigen in the CNS of vaccinated but apparently healthy rats was undetectable. The "postvaccinal rabies" with the next isolation of fixed r.v. in the CNS was developed experimentally in rats only following the subcutaneous injection of the crude sheep-brain's and spinal cord's suspensions--composing the materials to production of antirabies vaccine. PMID:59530

  13. Potential drug interaction between Rho(D) immune globulin and live virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Amy; Wright, Debra

    2014-12-01

    Women often receive Rho(D) immune globulin as well as a live virus vaccine in the immediate postpartum period. The immune globulin product has the potential to interfere with appropriate immune response to the vaccine. Here we describe our approach to identifying and following up on this often overlooked potential drug interaction. PMID:25495973

  14. Inactivated or Live-Attenuated Bivalent Vaccines That Confer Protection against Rabies and Ebola Viruses ▿

    PubMed Central

    Blaney, Joseph E.; Wirblich, Christoph; Papaneri, Amy B.; Johnson, Reed F.; Myers, Carey J.; Juelich, Terry L.; Holbrook, Michael R.; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Bernbaum, John G.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Paragas, Jason; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2011-01-01

    The search for a safe and efficacious vaccine for Ebola virus continues, as no current vaccine candidate is nearing licensure. We have developed (i) replication-competent, (ii) replication-deficient, and (iii) chemically inactivated rabies virus (RABV) vaccines expressing Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) glycoprotein (GP) by a reverse genetics system based on the SAD B19 RABV wildlife vaccine. ZEBOV GP is efficiently expressed by these vaccine candidates and is incorporated into virions. The vaccine candidates were avirulent after inoculation of adult mice, and viruses with a deletion in the RABV glycoprotein had greatly reduced neurovirulence after intracerebral inoculation in suckling mice. Immunization with live or inactivated RABV vaccines expressing ZEBOV GP induced humoral immunity against each virus and conferred protection from both lethal RABV and EBOV challenge in mice. The bivalent RABV/ZEBOV vaccines described here have several distinct advantages that may speed the development of inactivated vaccines for use in humans and potentially live or inactivated vaccines for use in nonhuman primates at risk of EBOV infection in endemic areas. PMID:21849459

  15. Inactivated or live-attenuated bivalent vaccines that confer protection against rabies and Ebola viruses.

    PubMed

    Blaney, Joseph E; Wirblich, Christoph; Papaneri, Amy B; Johnson, Reed F; Myers, Carey J; Juelich, Terry L; Holbrook, Michael R; Freiberg, Alexander N; Bernbaum, John G; Jahrling, Peter B; Paragas, Jason; Schnell, Matthias J

    2011-10-01

    The search for a safe and efficacious vaccine for Ebola virus continues, as no current vaccine candidate is nearing licensure. We have developed (i) replication-competent, (ii) replication-deficient, and (iii) chemically inactivated rabies virus (RABV) vaccines expressing Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) glycoprotein (GP) by a reverse genetics system based on the SAD B19 RABV wildlife vaccine. ZEBOV GP is efficiently expressed by these vaccine candidates and is incorporated into virions. The vaccine candidates were avirulent after inoculation of adult mice, and viruses with a deletion in the RABV glycoprotein had greatly reduced neurovirulence after intracerebral inoculation in suckling mice. Immunization with live or inactivated RABV vaccines expressing ZEBOV GP induced humoral immunity against each virus and conferred protection from both lethal RABV and EBOV challenge in mice. The bivalent RABV/ZEBOV vaccines described here have several distinct advantages that may speed the development of inactivated vaccines for use in humans and potentially live or inactivated vaccines for use in nonhuman primates at risk of EBOV infection in endemic areas. PMID:21849459

  16. Efficacy, Safety, and Interactions of a Live Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine for Chickens Based on Strain IBD V877.

    PubMed

    Geerligs, Harm J; Ons, Ellen; Boelm, Gert Jan; Vancraeynest, Dieter

    2015-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious disease in young chickens which can result in high morbidity and mortality and also in great economic losses. The main target for the virus is the lymphoid tissue with a special predilection for the bursa of Fabricius. Several vaccines are available to control the disease. Intermediate plus vaccines are used in chickens with high maternal antibody titers which face high infection pressure. An example of an intermediate plus vaccine is a live vaccine based on IBD strain V877. The results of an efficacy study in commercial broilers with different levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) showed that the V877-based IBD vaccine can break through maternal antibody titers of higher than 1100 as determined by an IBD ELISA. The safety of the vaccine was demonstrated in a study in which specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were vaccinated with a tenfold dose of the vaccine strain and a tenfold dose of the vaccine strain after five back passages in SPF chickens. The vaccine virus caused lesions, as could be expected for an intermediate plus vaccine, but the scores were not much higher than the maximal scores allowed for mild IBD vaccines in the European Pharmacopoeia, and reversion to virulence was absent. In studies in SPF chickens, there were no negative impacts by the IBD V877 vaccine on the efficacy of a live QX-like IB vaccine and a live Newcastle disease La Sota vaccine in vaccination challenge studies, although the IBD vaccine had a negative effect on the antibody response generated by the QX-like IB vaccine. It is concluded that the IBD V877 vaccine has the capacity to break through high levels of MDA, has a satisfactory safety profile, and interactions with other live vaccines are limited. In order to limit bursal lesions after vaccination it is recommended to confirm the presence of MDA before vaccinating with the V877 vaccine. PMID:26292544

  17. Spray application of live attenuated F Strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Live attenuated vaccines (LAVs) are commonly utilized to protect commercial table egg producers from economic losses associated with challenges by the respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). Currently there are four MG LAVs commercially available within the United States. Consistent am...

  18. Isolation of rifampicin resistant Flavobacterium psychrophilum strains and their potential as live attenuated vaccine candidates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that passage of pathogenic bacteria on increasing concentrations of the antibiotic rifampicin leads to the attenuation of virulence and these resistant strains may serve as live attenuated vaccines. Two rifampicin resistant strains of Flavobacterium psychrophilum,...

  19. Mutant Brucella abortus membrane fusogenic protein induces protection against challenge infection in mice.

    PubMed

    de Souza Filho, Job Alves; de Paulo Martins, Vicente; Campos, Priscila Carneiro; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Santos, Nathalia V; de Oliveira, Fernanda Souza; Menezes, Gustavo B; Azevedo, Vasco; Cravero, Silvio Lorenzo; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-04-01

    Brucella species can cause brucellosis, a zoonotic disease that causes serious livestock economic losses and represents a public health threat. The mechanism of virulence of Brucella spp. is not yet fully understood. Therefore, it is crucial to identify new molecules that serve as virulence factors to better understand this host-pathogen interplay. Here, we evaluated the role of the Brucella membrane fusogenic protein (Mfp) and outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) in bacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we showed that B. abortus Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan deletion mutant strains have reduced persistence in vivo in C57BL/6 and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) knockout (KO) mice. Additionally, 24 h after macrophage infection with a Δmfp::kan or Δomp19::kan strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) approximately 80% or 65% of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) retained the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP-1, respectively, whereas around 60% of BCVs containing wild-type S2308 were found in LAMP-1-negative compartments. B. abortus Δomp19::kan was attenuated in vivo but had a residual virulence in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, whereas the Δmfp::kan strain had a lower virulence in these same mouse models. Furthermore, Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan strains were used as live vaccines. Challenge experiments revealed that in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, the Δmfp::kan strain induced greater protection than the vaccine RB51 and protection similar that of vaccine S19. However, a Δomp19::kan strain induced protection similar to that of RB51. Thus, these results demonstrate that Brucella Mfp and Omp19 are critical for full bacterial virulence and that the Δmfp::kan mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies. PMID:25644010

  20. Mutant Brucella abortus Membrane Fusogenic Protein Induces Protection against Challenge Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Filho, Job Alves; Martins, Vicente de Paulo; Campos, Priscila Carneiro; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Santos, Nathalia V.; de Oliveira, Fernanda Souza; Menezes, Gustavo B.; Azevedo, Vasco; Cravero, Silvio Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Brucella species can cause brucellosis, a zoonotic disease that causes serious livestock economic losses and represents a public health threat. The mechanism of virulence of Brucella spp. is not yet fully understood. Therefore, it is crucial to identify new molecules that serve as virulence factors to better understand this host-pathogen interplay. Here, we evaluated the role of the Brucella membrane fusogenic protein (Mfp) and outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) in bacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we showed that B. abortus Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan deletion mutant strains have reduced persistence in vivo in C57BL/6 and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) knockout (KO) mice. Additionally, 24 h after macrophage infection with a Δmfp::kan or Δomp19::kan strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) approximately 80% or 65% of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) retained the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP-1, respectively, whereas around 60% of BCVs containing wild-type S2308 were found in LAMP-1-negative compartments. B. abortus Δomp19::kan was attenuated in vivo but had a residual virulence in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, whereas the Δmfp::kan strain had a lower virulence in these same mouse models. Furthermore, Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan strains were used as live vaccines. Challenge experiments revealed that in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, the Δmfp::kan strain induced greater protection than the vaccine RB51 and protection similar that of vaccine S19. However, a Δomp19::kan strain induced protection similar to that of RB51. Thus, these results demonstrate that Brucella Mfp and Omp19 are critical for full bacterial virulence and that the Δmfp::kan mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies. PMID:25644010

  1. Comparative genomics of the Mycobacterium signaling architecture and implications for a novel live attenuated Tuberculosis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peifu; Xie, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), remains a major threat to global public health. A new TB vaccine affording superior immune protection to M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is imperative. The advantage of a live attenuated vaccine is that it can mimic the bona fide pathogen, elicit immune responses similar to natural infection, and potentially provide more protection than other vaccines. BCG, the only vaccine and a live attenuated vaccine that is the result of cumulative mutations by serial passage of M. bovis, has provided clues for the construction of novel improved vaccines. A strategy is put forward for identifying a new live attenuated TB vaccine generated by cumulative mutation based on M.tb. Given the important role of the M.tb signaling network consisting of a two-component system, eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr protein kinase system and sigma factor system based on comparisons among M.tb H37Rv, M. bovis, and BCG, we have put a premium on this signaling circuit as the starting point for the generation of an attenuated TB vaccine. PMID:24013364

  2. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses after vaccination of human volunteers with the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Waag, D M; McKee, K T; Sandstrom, G; Pratt, L L; Bolt, C R; England, M J; Nelson, G O; Williams, J C

    1995-03-01

    The specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses of human volunteers vaccinated with the Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) were evaluated. In the search for an optimal antigen to measure the immunogenicity of the vaccine in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we tested irradiation-killed LVS, an aqueous ether extract of the LVS (EEx), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from LVS, and a virulent strain (SCHU4). Volunteers were immunized with LVS by scarification. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to LVS and LPS gave the highest background titers when tested with sera from unimmunized volunteers, whereas IgA, IgG, and IgM background titers to EEx and SCHU4 were low. Vaccination caused a significant rise (P < 0.01) in IgA, IgG, and IgM titers to all antigens tested, except for the IgG response to LPS. Eighty percent of vaccinated volunteers developed a positive IgG response to EEx 14 days postvaccination, while 50% were positive to LVS. By day 14 after vaccination, 70% of immunized volunteers exhibited a positive response to EEx in an in vitro peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation assay. EEx, a specific and sensitive antigen for evaluating immune responses of vaccinated volunteers, may be a superior antigen for the diagnosis of tularemia. PMID:7697521

  3. The Case for Live Attenuated Vaccines against the Neglected Zoonotic Diseases Brucellosis and Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Aseem; Cabello, Ana; Akoolo, Lavoisier; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela; McMurray, David; Ficht, Thomas A.; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of humans and animals with live attenuated organisms has proven to be an effective means of combatting some important infectious diseases. In fact, the 20th century witnessed tremendous improvements in human and animal health worldwide as a consequence of large-scale vaccination programs with live attenuated vaccines (LAVs). Here, we use the neglected zoonotic diseases brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTb) caused by Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), respectively, as comparative models to outline the merits of LAV platforms with emphasis on molecular strategies that have been pursued to generate LAVs with enhanced vaccine safety and efficacy profiles. Finally, we discuss the prospects of LAV platforms in the fight against brucellosis and BTb and outline new avenues for future research towards developing effective vaccines using LAV platforms. PMID:27537413

  4. Evaluation of the field efficacy of an avirulent live Lawsonia intracellularis vaccine in foals.

    PubMed

    Nogradi, N; Slovis, N M; Gebhart, C J; Wolfsdorf, K E; McCracken, J L; Scoggin, C F; Kass, P H; Mapes, S M; Toth, B; Lundquist, M L; Pusterla, N

    2012-06-01

    Equine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis is an emerging disease with as yet unaddressed preventative measures. The hypothesis of this study was that vaccination will prevent clinical and sub-clinical disease. Weanling Thoroughbreds (n=202) from Central Kentucky were randomly assigned into two groups (vaccinated and non-vaccinated). Vaccinated foals received 30 mL of an avirulent, live L. intracellularis vaccine intra-rectally twice, 30 days apart. Foals were monitored for clinical disease, total solids and average weight gain until yearling age. There was an overall decreased disease incidence on the farms involved in the study that did not differ significantly between the groups. This decreased disease prevalence in the study population may be associated with the ongoing vaccine trial on these farms, as disease prevalence in Central Kentucky did not change in 2009 compared to 2008. PMID:21741284

  5. Modified live virus vaccine induces a distinct immune response profile compared to inactivated influenza A virus vaccines in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and antigenic diversity within H1 influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes circulating in swine is increasing. The need for cross-protective influenza vaccines in swine is necessary as the virus becomes more diverse. This study compared the humoral and cell-mediated immune response of modified live ...

  6. Effect of Dosage and Vaccination Route on Transmission of a Live Attenuated Mycoplasma gallesepticum Vaccine: A Broiler Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an economically significant pathogen of poultry species and among the table egg sector of the poultry industry, live attenuated strains of MG are commonly utilized to limit production losses associated with MG-induced disease. The vaccine, however, may be problemati...

  7. Experimental Infection of Richardson's Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) with Attenuated and Virulent Strains of Brucella abortus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of non-target species to wildlife vaccines is an important concern when evaluating a candidate vaccine for use in the field. A previous investigation of the safety of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (sRB51) in various non-target species suggested that Richardson’s ground squirrels (Spermophil...

  8. Efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine in classical swine fever virus postnatally persistently infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Sara; Perez-Simó, Marta; Muñoz, Marta; Bohorquez, José Alejandro; Rosell, Rosa; Summerfield, Artur; Domingo, Mariano; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ganges, Llilianne

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) causes major losses in pig farming, with various degrees of disease severity. Efficient live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are used routinely in endemic countries. However, despite intensive vaccination programs in these areas for more than 20 years, CSF has not been eradicated. Molecular epidemiology studies in these regions suggests that the virus circulating in the field has evolved under the positive selection pressure exerted by the immune response to the vaccine, leading to new attenuated viral variants. Recent work by our group demonstrated that a high proportion of persistently infected piglets can be generated by early postnatal infection with low and moderately virulent CSFV strains. Here, we studied the immune response to a hog cholera lapinised virus vaccine (HCLV), C-strain, in six-week-old persistently infected pigs following post-natal infection. CSFV-negative pigs were vaccinated as controls. The humoral and interferon gamma responses as well as the CSFV RNA loads were monitored for 21 days post-vaccination. No vaccine viral RNA was detected in the serum samples and tonsils from CSFV postnatally persistently infected pigs for 21 days post-vaccination. Furthermore, no E2-specific antibody response or neutralising antibody titres were shown in CSFV persistently infected vaccinated animals. Likewise, no of IFN-gamma producing cell response against CSFV or PHA was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the absence of a response to vaccination in CSFV persistently infected pigs. PMID:26159607

  9. Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... a situation where unvaccinated children have more natural immunity than vaccinated children, and therefore get less malaria," ... may allow a person to develop some natural immunity to the parasite, Plowe suggested. "You're basically ...

  10. Methods to Evaluate the Preclinical Safety and Immunogenicity of Genetically Modified Live-Attenuated Leishmania Parasite Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Ismail, Nevien; Avishek, Kumar; Salotra, Poonam; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Satoskar, Abhay; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2016-01-01

    Live-attenuated parasite vaccines are being explored as potential vaccine candidates since other approaches of vaccination have not produced an effective vaccine so far. In order for live-attenuated parasite vaccines to be tested in preclinical studies and possibly in clinical studies, the safety and immunogenicity of these organisms must be rigorously evaluated. Here we describe methods to test persistence in the immunized host and immunogenicity, and to identify biomarkers of vaccine safety and efficacy with particular reference to genetically attenuated Leishmania parasites. PMID:27076157

  11. Comparison of antibody response to a non-adjuvanted, live canarypox-vectored recombinant rabies vaccine and a killed, adjuvanted rabies vaccine in Eld's deer (Rucervus eldi thamin).

    PubMed

    Marrow, Judilee C; Padilla, Luis R; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Bush, Mitch; Murray, Suzan

    2014-06-01

    Captive Eld's deer (Rucervus eldi thamin) were evaluated for the presence of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies using a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition after vaccination with either a live canarypox-vectored recombinant rabies vaccine or a killed monovalent rabies vaccine. Twelve deer were vaccinated with 1.0 ml of killed, adjuvanted, monovalent rabies vaccine at 5-33 mo of age then annually thereafter, and 14 deer were vaccinated with 1.0 ml nonadjuvanted, live canarypox-vectored rabies vaccine at 3-15 mo of age then annually thereafter. Banked serum was available or collected prospectively from deer at 6 mo and 1 yr after initial vaccination, then collected annually. Rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies considered adequate (>0.5 IU/ml) were present in 20/34 samples vaccinated with canarypox-vectored rabies vaccine and in 12/14 samples vaccinated with killed adjuvanted rabies vaccine. Poor seroconversion was noted in deer less than 6 mo of age vaccinated with the canarypox-vectored rabies vaccine. PMID:25000692

  12. Live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: Current status and future direction.

    PubMed

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) was reported in the late 1980s. PRRS still is a huge economic concern to the global pig industry with a current annual loss estimated at one billion US dollars in North America alone. It has been 20 years since the first modified live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine (PRRSV-MLV) became commercially available. PRRSV-MLVs provide homologous protection and help in reducing shedding of heterologous viruses, but they do not completely protect pigs against heterologous field strains. There have been many advances in understanding the biology and ecology of PRRSV; however, the complexities of virus-host interaction and PRRSV vaccinology are not yet completely understood leaving a significant gap for improving breadth of immunity against diverse PRRS isolates. This review provides insights on immunization efforts using infectious PRRSV-based vaccines since the 1990s, beginning with live PRRSV immunization, development and commercialization of PRRSV-MLV, and strategies to overcome the deficiencies of PRRSV-MLV through use of replicating viral vectors expressing multiple PRRSV membrane proteins. Finally, powerful reverse genetics systems (infectious cDNA clones) generated from more than 20 PRRSV isolates of both genotypes 1 and 2 viruses have provided a great resource for exploring many innovative strategies to improve the safety and cross-protective efficacy of live PRRSV vaccines. Examples include vaccines with diminished ability to down-regulate the immune system, positive and negative marker vaccines, multivalent vaccines incorporating antigens from other porcine pathogens, vaccines that carry their own cytokine adjuvants, and chimeric vaccine viruses with the potential for broad cross-protection against heterologous strains. To combat this devastating pig disease in the future, evaluation and commercialization of such improved live PRRSV vaccines is a shared goal among PRRSV researchers, pork

  13. Comparison of infectious bursal disease live vaccines and a HVT-IBD vector vaccine and their effects on the immune system of commercial layer pullets.

    PubMed

    Prandini, Francesco; Simon, Birgid; Jung, Arne; Pöppel, Manfred; Lemiere, Stéphane; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an economically important disease affecting poultry production worldwide. Previous experimental studies indicated that IBD live vaccination may induce transient immunosuppression, leading to suboptimal vaccine responses and therefore insufficient protection against other pathogens. Layer pullets are commonly not only vaccinated against IBD within their rearing period, but also against a variety of other pathogens. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the effects of different IBD vaccination regimes on conventionally applied vaccines against other pathogens, and possible protection against widely spread very virulent IBD-virus (vvIBDV). A commercially available Herpesvirus of turkey vector vaccine (vHVT-IBD) expressing viral protein 2 of IBDV, and two IBD live vaccines were compared in commercial pullets for their effects on circulating B cell numbers, the ability of vaccinated birds to mount a humoral immune response against different antigens as well as their ability to induce protection against vvIBDV challenge. The results of this study demonstrate a clear immunosuppressive effect of the intermediate plus IBD live vaccine on the humoral branch of the immune system. On the other hand, no detectable effects of vHVT-IBD vaccination on these parameters were observed. All tested IBD vaccines protected against clinical IBD, although none induced sterile immunity in commercial layer pullets. vHVT-IBD-vaccinated birds showed significantly less lesions after vvIBDV challenge than IBD live-vaccinated or non-vaccinated birds (P < 0.05). Therefore, vHVT-IBD may be a suitable alternative to conventional IBD live vaccines, and may be applied even in the presence of maternally derived IBD antibodies without induction of detectable humoral immunosuppression. PMID:26743805

  14. Genetic stability of Brucella abortus isolates from an outbreak by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA16)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus is one of the most important zoonoses in the world. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA16) has been shown be a useful tool to epidemiological traceback studies in B. abortus infection. Thus, the present study aimed (i) to evaluate the genetic diversity of B. abortus isolates from a brucellosis outbreak, and (ii) to investigate the in vivo stability of the MLVA16 markers. Results Three-hundred and seventy-five clinical samples, including 275 vaginal swabs and 100 milk samples, were cultured from a brucellosis outbreak in a cattle herd, which adopted RB51 vaccination and test-and-slaughter policies. Thirty-seven B. abortus isolates were obtained, eight from milk and twenty-nine from post-partum/abortion vaginal swabs, which were submitted to biotyping and genotyping by MLVA16. Twelve B. abortus isolates obtained from vaginal swabs were identified as RB51. Twenty four isolates, seven obtained from milk samples and seventeen from vaginal swabs, were identified as B. abortus biovar 3, while one isolate from vaginal swabs was identified as B. abortus biovar 1. Three distinct genotypes were observed during the brucellosis outbreak: RB observed in all isolates identified as RB51; W observed in all B. abortus biovar 3 isolates; and Z observed in the single B. abortus biovar 1 isolate. Epidemiological and molecular data show that the B. abortus biovar 1 genotype Z strain is not related to the B. abortus biovar 3 genotype W isolates, and represents a new introduction B. abortus during the outbreak. Conclusions The results of the present study on typing of multiple clinical B. abortus isolates from the same outbreak over a sixteen month period indicate the in vivo stability of MLVA16 markers, a low genetic diversity among B. abortus isolates and the usefulness of MLVA16 for epidemiological studies of bovine brucellosis. PMID:25015840

  15. A Single Mutation at PB1 Residue 319 Dramatically Increases the Safety of PR8 Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in a Murine Model without Compromising Vaccine Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is preferentially recommended for use in most children yet remains unsafe for the groups most at risk. Here we have improved the safety of a mouse-adapted live attenuated influenza vaccine containing the same attenuating amino acid mutations as in human LAIV by adding an additional mutation at PB1 residue 319. This results in a vaccine with a 20-fold decrease in protective efficacy and a 10,000-fold increase in safety. PMID:26676793

  16. Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, H S; Oleksiewicz, M B; Forsberg, R; Stadejek, T; Bøtner, A; Storgaard, T

    2001-06-01

    A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates was sequenced and compared with the parental strain of the vaccine virus (VR2332). This revealed five mutations that had occurred independently in all three vaccine-derived field isolates, indicating strong parallel selective pressure on these positions in the vaccine virus when used in swine herds. Two of these parallel mutations were direct reversions to the parental VR2332 sequence and were situated in a papain-like cysteine protease domain and in the helicase domain. The remaining parallel mutations might be seen as second-site compensatory mutations for one or more of the mutations that accumulated in the vaccine virus sequence during cell-culture adaptation. Evaluation of the remaining mutations in the ORF1 sequence revealed stronger selective pressure for amino acid conservation during spread in pigs than during vaccine production. Furthermore, it was found that the selective pressure did not change during the time period studied. The implications of these findings for PRRS vaccine attenuation and reversion are discussed. PMID:11369869

  17. Α1-giardin based live heterologous vaccine protects against Giardia lamblia infection in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Jenikova, Gabriela; Hruz, Petr; Andersson, Mattias K; Tejman-Yarden, Noa; Ferreira, Patricia C D; Andersen, Yolanda S; Davids, Barbara J; Gillin, Frances D; Svärd, Staffan G; Curtiss, Roy; Eckmann, Lars

    2011-11-28

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, yet preventive medical strategies are not available. A crude veterinary vaccine has been licensed for cats and dogs, but no defined human vaccine is available. We tested the vaccine potential of three conserved antigens previously identified in human and murine giardiasis, α1-giardin, α-enolase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase, in a murine model of G. lamblia infection. Live recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains were constructed that stably expressed each antigen, maintained colonization capacity, and sustained total attenuation in the host. Oral administration of the vaccine strains induced antigen-specific serum IgG, particularly IgG(2A), and mucosal IgA for α1-giardin and α-enolase, but not for ornithine carbamoyl transferase. Immunization with the α1-giardin vaccine induced significant protection against subsequent G. lamblia challenge, which was further enhanced by boosting with cholera toxin or sublingual α1-giardin administration. The α-enolase vaccine afforded no protection. Analysis of α1-giardin from divergent assemblage A and B isolates of G. lamblia revealed >97% amino acid sequence conservation and immunological cross-reactivity, further supporting the potential utility of this antigen in vaccine development. Together. These results indicate that α1-giardin is a suitable candidate antigen for a vaccine against giardiasis. PMID:22001876

  18. Oral vaccination reduces the incidence of tuberculosis in free-living brushtail possums

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, D. M.; Ramsey, D. S. L.; Cross, M. L.; Aldwell, F. E.; de Lisle, G. W.; Buddle, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (Tb) caused by Mycobacterium bovis has proved refractory to eradication from domestic livestock in countries with wildlife disease reservoirs. Vaccination of wild hosts offers a way of controlling Tb in livestock without wildlife culling. This study was conducted in a Tb-endemic region of New Zealand, where the introduced Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is the main wildlife reservoir of Tb. Possums were trapped and vaccinated using a prototype oral-delivery system to deliver the Tb vaccine bacille Calmette–Guerin. Vaccinated and control possums were matched according to age, sex and location, re-trapped bimonthly and assessed for Tb status by palpation and lesion aspiration; the site was depopulated after 2 years and post-mortem examinations were conducted to further identify clinical Tb cases and subclinical infection. Significantly fewer culture-confirmed Tb cases were recorded in vaccinated possums (1/51) compared with control animals (12/71); the transition probability from susceptible to infected was significantly reduced in both males and females by vaccination. Vaccine efficacy was estimated at 95 per cent (87–100%) for females and 96 per cent (82–99%) for males. Hence, this trial demonstrates that orally delivered live bacterial vaccines can significantly protect wildlife against natural disease exposure, indicating that wildlife vaccination, along with existing control methods, could be used to eradicate Tb from domestic animals. PMID:19493904

  19. [The effect of coccidiostats on the growth capacity and the survival ability of Salmonella live vaccine agents].

    PubMed

    Martin, G; Meyer, H

    1994-11-01

    Anticoccidial agents are obligatory feed additives during several rearing periods of poultry. The success of an oral immunization of young chicken with Salmonella live vaccines depends on the insensitivity of the vaccine strain against such anticoccidial agents because the vaccination success depends on the survival of the vaccine strain in the gut of the chick and the temporary colonization of lymphatic tissue. We investigated the in vitro sensitivity of the vaccine strain in the S. typhimurium live vaccine "Zoosaloral H" registered for the vaccination of poultry in Germany in connection with often used anticoccidial agents (Diclazuril, Monensin, Narasin and Salinomycin). No differences in growth and survival between the samples containing and lacking anticoccidial agents were found even by using double amounts of the permitted concentration of the anticoccidial agents. No negative effects of the tested anticoccidial agents on Salmonella being used as oral live vaccines in poultry should be expected. PMID:7872948

  20. Safety and immunogenicity of a live attenuated mumps vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Ma, Jingchen; Li, Changgui; Chen, Yuguo; Liu, Longding; Liao, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Li; Wang, Xuan-Yi; Che, Yanchun; Deng, Wei; Li, Hong; Cui, Xiaoyu; Ma, Na; Ding, Dong; Xie, Zhongping; Cui, Pingfang; Ji, Qiuyan; Wang, Jingjing; Zhao, Yuliang; Wang, Junzhi; Li, Qihan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mumps, a communicable, acute and previously well-controlled disease, has had recent and occasional resurgences in some areas. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, controlled and multistep phase I study of an F-genotype attenuated mumps vaccine produced in human diploid cells was conducted. A total of 300 subjects were enrolled and divided into 4 age groups: 16–60 years, 5–16 years, 2–5 years and 8–24 months. The groups were immunized with one injection per subject. Three different doses of the F-genotype attenuated mumps vaccine, A (3.5 ± 0.25 logCCID50), B (4.25 ± 0.25 logCCID50) and C (5.0 ± 0.25 logCCID50), as well as a placebo control and a positive control of a licensed A-genotype vaccine (S79 strain) were used. The safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine were compared with those of the controls. Results: The safety evaluation suggested that mild adverse reactions were observed in all groups. No serious adverse event (SAE) was reported throughout the trial. The immunogenicity test showed a similar seroconversion rate of the neutralizing and ELISA antibody in the 2- to 5-year-old and 8- to 24-month-old groups compared with the seroconversion rate in the positive control. The GMT of the neutralizing anti-F-genotype virus antibodies in the vaccine groups was slightly higher than that in the positive control group. Conclusions: The F-genotype attenuated mumps vaccine evaluated in this clinical trial was demonstrated to be safe and have effective immunogenicity vs. control. PMID:24614759

  1. CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS ANTIBODY TITERS IN DOMESTIC CATS AFTER DELIVERY OF A LIVE ATTENUATED VIRUS VACCINE.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Edward; Sadler, Ryan; Rush, Robert; Seimon, Tracie; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Fleetwood, Ellen A; McAloose, Denise; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-06-01

    Three methods for delivering a live attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine to domestic cats ( Felis catus ) were investigated, as models for developing vaccination protocols for tigers (Panthera tigris). Twenty domestic cats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: saline injection (negative controls); and oral, intranasal, and subcutaneous vaccinates. Cats were injected with saline or a CDV vaccine (Nobivac DP, Merck) at wk 0 and 4. Blood and nasal swabs were collected at wk 0 (prior to the initial vaccination) and weekly thereafter for 9 wk. Urine samples were collected on wk 1 to 9 after initial vaccination. Forty-nine weeks following the initial vaccination series, three cats from the subcutaneous group and three cats from the intranasal group were revaccinated. Blood was collected immediately prior, and 7 and 21 days subsequent to revaccination. Nasal swabs and urine samples were collected from each cat prior to wk 49 revaccination and daily for 7 days thereafter. Nasal swabs and urine were analyzed by quantitative PCR for vaccine virus presence. Sera were tested for CDV antibodies by virus neutralization. All cats were sero-negative for CDV antibodies at the beginning of the study, and saline-injected cats remained sero-negative throughout the study. A dramatic anamnestic response was seen following wk 4 subcutaneous vaccinations, with titers peaking at wk 6 (geometric mean = 2,435.5). Following wk 49 revaccination, subcutaneous vaccinates again mounted impressive titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 2,048). Revaccination of the intranasal group cats at wk 49 produced a small increase in titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 203). CDV viral RNA was detected in six nasal swabs but no urine samples, demonstrating low viral shedding postvaccination. The strong antibody response to subcutaneous vaccination and the lack of adverse effects suggest this vaccine is safe and potentially protective against CDV infection in domestic cats. PMID:27468028

  2. Comparative Immunogenicity of Heat-Killed and Living Oral Salmonella Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Frank M.; Carter, Philip B.

    1972-01-01

    CD-1 mice were vaccinated intragastrically or intramuscularly with one or two doses of 200 μg of heat-killed Salmonella enteritidis 5694. Control mice were vaccinated with sublethal doses of living S. enteritidis Se795. The mice were challenged intragastrically with approximately 106S. enteritidis 5694 SMR 7 to 14 days later, and the growth of the challenge population in the liver, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, lungs, and intestine was measured quantitatively. Mice receiving two doses of heat-killed vaccine by mouth were able to delay the systemic emergence of a gastrically introduced salmonella infection by 1 to 2 days. The corresponding liver and spleen populations were slightly lower than those seen in the normal controls. On the other hand, mice receiving the living, attenuated vaccine (either intravenously or intragastrically) developed an effective anti-salmonella immunity against subsequent reinfection. PMID:4564282

  3. Effect of vaccination with a multivalent modified-live viral vaccine on reproductive performance in synchronized beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Walz, Paul H; Edmondson, Misty A; Riddell, Kay P; Braden, Timothy D; Gard, Julie A; Bayne, Jenna; Joiner, Kellye S; Galik, Patricia K; Zuidhof, Sjoert; Givens, M Daniel

    2015-03-15

    Prebreeding vaccination should provide fetal and abortive protection against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) but not impede reproduction when administered to cattle before estrus synchronization and breeding. The objective was to assess reproductive performance when naive beef heifers were vaccinated with modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine 2 days after unsynchronized estrus, and then revaccinated with MLV vaccine at 10 or 31 days before synchronized natural breeding. Sixty beef heifers naive to BVDV and BoHV-1 were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. Groups A and B (n = 20 per group) were vaccinated with MLV vaccine containing BVDV and BoHV-1 at 2 days after initial detected estrus, and then revaccinated 30 days later, which corresponded to 10 days (group A) or 31 days (group B) before synchronized natural breeding. Groups C and D (n = 10 per group) served as controls and were vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine that did not contain BVDV or BoHV-1 at the same time points as groups A and B, respectively. Estrous behavior was assessed using radio frequency technology. Estrus synchronization was performed, with initiation occurring at revaccination (groups A and C) or 21 days after revaccination (groups B and D). After synchronization, heifers were submitted to a bull breeding pasture for 45 days. At the end of the breeding period, heifers were assessed for pregnancy using ultrasonography. Progesterone concentrations were evaluated at estrus and 10 days after unsynchronized and synchronized estrus, at initial pregnancy check, and at the end of the study. All pregnant heifers in groups A and B and five pregnant heifers in group C were euthanized between 44 and 62 days of gestation and ovarian and conceptus tissues were assayed for BVDV and BoHV-1. Vaccination with MLV vaccine did not result in significant negative reproductive impact based on the duration of interestrus intervals, proportion of heifers

  4. No Evidence of Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Viruses in Live Attenuated Human Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Zheng, HaoQiang; Simmons, Graham; Zhou, Yanchen; Tang, Shaohua; Shankar, Anupama; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric L.; Heneine, Walid

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome reported in previous studies remains controversial as these results have been questioned by recent data. Nonetheless, concerns have been raised regarding contamination of human vaccines as a possible source of introduction of XMRV and MLV into human populations. To address this possibility, we tested eight live attenuated human vaccines using generic PCR for XMRV and MLV sequences. Viral metagenomics using deep sequencing was also done to identify the possibility of other adventitious agents. Results All eight live attenuated vaccines, including Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) (SA-14-14-2), varicella (Varivax), measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR-II), measles (Attenuvax), rubella (Meruvax-II), rotavirus (Rotateq and Rotarix), and yellow fever virus were negative for XMRV and highly related MLV sequences. However, residual hamster DNA, but not RNA, containing novel endogenous gammaretrovirus sequences was detected in the JEV vaccine using PCR. Metagenomics analysis did not detect any adventitious viral sequences of public health concern. Intracisternal A particle sequences closest to those present in Syrian hamsters and not mice were also detected in the JEV SA-14-14-2 vaccine. Combined, these results are consistent with the production of the JEV vaccine in Syrian hamster cells. Conclusions We found no evidence of XMRV and MLV in eight live attenuated human vaccines further supporting the safety of these vaccines. Our findings suggest that vaccines are an unlikely source of XMRV and MLV exposure in humans and are consistent with the mounting evidence on the absence of these viruses in humans. PMID:22216219

  5. Live Attenuated S. Typhimurium Vaccine with Improved Safety in Immuno-Compromised Mice

    PubMed Central

    Periaswamy, Balamurugan; Maier, Lisa; Vishwakarma, Vikalp; Slack, Emma; Kremer, Marcus; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.; McClelland, Michael; Grant, Andrew J.; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines are of great value for preventing infectious diseases. They represent a delicate compromise between sufficient colonization-mediated adaptive immunity and minimizing the risk for infection by the vaccine strain itself. Immune defects can predispose to vaccine strain infections. It has remained unclear whether vaccine safety could be improved via mutations attenuating a vaccine in immune-deficient individuals without compromising the vaccine's performance in the normal host. We have addressed this hypothesis using a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea and a live attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain (ssaV). Vaccination with this strain elicited protective immunity in wild type mice, but a fatal systemic infection in immune-deficient cybb−/−nos2−/− animals lacking NADPH oxidase and inducible NO synthase. In cybb−/−nos2−/− mice, we analyzed the attenuation of 35 ssaV strains carrying one additional mutation each. One strain, Z234 (ssaV SL1344_3093), was >1000-fold attenuated in cybb−/−nos2−/− mice and ≈100 fold attenuated in tnfr1−/− animals. However, in wt mice, Z234 was as efficient as ssaV with respect to host colonization and the elicitation of a protective, O-antigen specific mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) response. These data suggest that it is possible to engineer live attenuated vaccines which are specifically attenuated in immuno-compromised hosts. This might help to improve vaccine safety. PMID:23029007

  6. Understanding the host-pathogen interaction saves lives: lessons from vaccines and vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Garon, Julie R; Orenstein, Walter A

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are one of the most successful and cost-effective public health tools employed to date, yet these benefits are only realized when the life-saving intervention reaches each and every targeted individual. Vaccine development is prioritized based on a number of factors such as health burden, feasibility, and determination of potential target populations. But only through an arduous process of pre-clinical development and progressive clinical trials does a vaccine become licensed and recommended for use. Once used in a wider and more diverse population safety issues, long-term impact and other unintended outcomes may become apparent, influencing policy modification. This commentary explores the role host-pathogen interaction plays in vaccine development and the operational and policy considerations that may impact vaccine success post-licensure. PMID:25974089

  7. TLR3 and TLR9 Agonists Improve Postexposure Vaccination Efficacy of Live Smallpox Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Israely, Tomer; Erez, Noam; Politi, Boaz; Waner, Trevor; Lustig, Shlomo; Paran, Nir

    2014-01-01

    Eradication of smallpox and discontinuation of the vaccination campaign resulted in an increase in the percentage of unvaccinated individuals, highlighting the need for postexposure efficient countermeasures in case of accidental or deliberate viral release. Intranasal infection of mice with ectromelia virus (ECTV), a model for human smallpox, is curable by vaccination with a high vaccine dose given up to 3 days postexposure. To further extend this protective window and to reduce morbidity, mice were vaccinated postexposure with Vaccinia-Lister, the conventional smallpox vaccine or Modified Vaccinia Ankara, a highly attenuated vaccine in conjunction with TLR3 or TLR9 agonists. We show that co-administration of the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) even 5 days postexposure conferred protection, avoiding the need to increase the vaccination dose. Efficacious treatments prevented death, ameliorated disease symptoms, reduced viral load and maintained tissue integrity of target organs. Protection was associated with significant elevation of serum IFNα and anti-vaccinia IgM antibodies, modulation of IFNγ response, and balanced activation of NK and T cells. TLR9 agonists (CpG ODNs) were less protective than the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C). We show that activation of type 1 IFN by poly(I:C) and protection is achievable even without co-vaccination, requiring sufficient amount of the viral antigens of the infective agent or the vaccine. This study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of postexposure immune modulation by TLR activation, allowing to alleviate the disease symptoms and to further extend the protective window of postexposure vaccination. PMID:25350003

  8. Nebulized Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Provides Protection in Ferrets at a Reduced Dose

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer Humberd; Papania, Mark; Knaus, Darin; Brooks, Paula; Haas, Debra L.; Mair, Raydel; Barry, James; Tompkins, S. Mark; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2011-01-01

    Live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is delivered to vaccine recipients using a nasal spray syringe. LAIV delivered by this method is immunogenic at current doses; however, improvements in nasal delivery might allow for significant dose reduction. We investigated LAIV vaccination in ferrets using a high efficiency nebulizer designed for nasal delivery. LAIV nasal aerosol elicited high levels of serum neutralizing antibodies and protected ferrets from homologous virus challenge at conventional (107 TCID50) and significantly reduced (103 TCID50) doses. Aerosol LAIV also provided a significant level of subtype-specific cross protection. These results demonstrate the dose-sparing potential of nebulizer-based nasal aerosol LAIV delivery. PMID:22075083

  9. Successful comeback of the single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Effective and easy to administer cholera vaccines are in need more than ever, for at risk populations and travellers alike. In many parts of the world cholera is still endemic, causing outbreaks and constituting repeatedly serious public health problems. The oral live cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Orochol, Mutachol), the first genetically modified organism (GMO) used as vaccine, was in its time (launched 1993, Switzerland) the ideal cholera vaccine: single-dose, protective efficacy of 80-100% against moderate to severe cholera, acting within 8 days and exhibiting excellent safety, indiscernible from placebo. However, there were strong headwinds: In the 1990s the indication for cholera vaccines was generally downplayed by experts and in 1997 the European Commission called for a moratorium of GMOs which blocked the registration in the European Union. Thus, demand for this vaccine remained low and in 2003 it was taken off the market for economic reasons. After a decade in obscurity it (Vaxchora) has resurfaced again, now produced in the U.S. and equipped with a U.S. FDA license (June 10, 2016). What had happened? This commentary gives a critical account of an almost unbelievable string of misadventures, emerging adverse circumstances and man-made failures which nearly killed this single-dose live oral cholera vaccine. The good news is that patience and persistence lead to success in the end, allowing good science to prevail for the benefit of those in need. PMID:27425792

  10. Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Enhances Colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mina, Michael J.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Klugman, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community interactions at mucosal surfaces between viruses, like influenza virus, and respiratory bacterial pathogens are important contributors toward pathogenesis of bacterial disease. What has not been considered is the natural extension of these interactions to live attenuated immunizations, and in particular, live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs). Using a mouse-adapted LAIV against influenza A (H3N2) virus carrying the same mutations as the human FluMist vaccine, we find that LAIV vaccination reverses normal bacterial clearance from the nasopharynx and significantly increases bacterial carriage densities of the clinically important bacterial pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (serotypes 19F and 7F) and Staphylococcus aureus (strains Newman and Wright) within the upper respiratory tract of mice. Vaccination with LAIV also resulted in 2- to 5-fold increases in mean durations of bacterial carriage. Furthermore, we show that the increases in carriage density and duration were nearly identical in all aspects to changes in bacterial colonizing dynamics following infection with wild-type (WT) influenza virus. Importantly, LAIV, unlike WT influenza viruses, had no effect on severe bacterial disease or mortality within the lower respiratory tract. Our findings are, to the best of our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that vaccination with a live attenuated viral vaccine can directly modulate colonizing dynamics of important and unrelated human bacterial pathogens, and does so in a manner highly analogous to that seen following wild-type virus infection. PMID:24549845

  11. Successful vaccination with a polyvalent live vector despite existing immunity to an expressed antigen.

    PubMed

    Flexner, C; Murphy, B R; Rooney, J F; Wohlenberg, C; Yuferov, V; Notkins, A L; Moss, B

    1988-09-15

    A global vaccination strategy must take into account production and delivery costs as well as efficacy and safety. A heat-stable, polyvalent vaccine that requires only one inoculation and induces a high level of humoral and cellular immunity against several diseases is therefore desirable. A new approach is to use live microorganisms such as mycobacteria, enteric bacteria, adenoviruses, herpesviruses and poxviruses as vaccine vectors. A potential limitation of live polyvalent vaccines, however, is existing immunity within the target population not only to the vector, but to any of the expressed antigens. This could restrict replication of the vector, curtail expression of antigens, and reduce the total immune response to the vaccine. Recently acquired immunity to vaccinia virus can severely limit the efficacy of a live recombinant vaccinia-based vaccine, so a strategy involving closely spaced inoculations with the same vector expressing different antigens may present difficulties. We have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses surface proteins from two diverse pathogens, influenza A virus haemagglutinin and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D. Mice that had recently recovered from infection with either HSV-1 or influenza A virus could still be effectively immunized with the double recombinant. PMID:2842693

  12. [PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT OF LIVE RECOMBINANT ANTHRAX VACCINES BASED ON OPPORTUNISTIC AND APATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS].

    PubMed

    Popova, P Yu; Mikshis, N I

    2016-01-01

    Live genetic engineering anthrax vaccines on the platform of avirulent and probiotic micro-organisms are a safe and adequate alternative to preparations based on attenuated Bacillus anthracis strains. Mucosal application results in a direct contact of the vaccine preparations with mucous membranes in those organs arid tissues of the macro-organisms, that are exposed to the pathogen in the first place, resulting in a development of local and systemic immune response. Live recombinant anthrax vaccines could be used both separately as well as in a prime-boost immunization scheme. The review focuses on immunogenic and protective properties of experimental live genetic engineering prearations, created based on members of geni of Salmonella, Lactobacillus and adenoviruses. PMID:27029122

  13. Room temperature stabilization of oral, live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi-vectored vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ohtake, Satoshi; Martin, Russell; Saxena, Atul; Pham, Binh; Chiueh, Gary; Osorio, Manuel; Kopecko, Dennis; Xu, Deqi; Lechuga-Ballesteros, David; Truong-Le, Vu

    2011-03-24

    Foam drying, a modified freeze drying process, was utilized to produce a heat-stable, live attenuated Salmonella Typhi 'Ty21a' bacterial vaccine. Ty21a vaccine was formulated with pharmaceutically approved stabilizers, including sugars, plasticizers, amino acids, and proteins. Growth media and harvesting conditions of the bacteria were also studied to enhance resistance to desiccation stress encountered during processing as well as subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. The optimized Ty21a vaccine, formulated with trehalose, methionine, and gelatin, demonstrated stability for approximately 12 weeks at 37°C (i.e., time required for the vaccine to decrease in potency by 1log(10)CFU) and no loss in titer at 4 and 25°C following storage for the same duration. Furthermore, the foam dried Ty21a elicited a similar immunogenic response in mice as well as protection in challenge studies compared to Vivotif™, the commercial Ty21a vaccine. The enhanced heat stability of the Ty21a oral vaccine, or Ty21a derivatives expressing foreign antigens (e.g. anthrax), could mitigate risks of vaccine potency loss during long-term storage, shipping, delivery to geographical areas with warmer climates or during emergency distribution following a bioterrorist attack. Because the foam drying process is conducted using conventional freeze dryers and can be readily implemented at any freeze drying manufacturing facility, this technology appears ready and appropriate for large scale processing of foam dried vaccines. PMID:21300096

  14. Room Temperature Stabilization of Oral, Live Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi-Vectored Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ohtake, Satoshi; Martin, Russell; Saxena, Atul; Pham, Binh; Chiueh, Gary; Osorio, Manuel; Kopecko, Dennis; Xu, DeQi; Lechuga-Ballesteros, David; Truong-Le, Vu

    2011-01-01

    Foam drying, a modified freeze drying process, was utilized to produce a heat-stable, live attenuated Salmonella Typhi ‘Ty21a’ bacterial vaccine. Ty21a vaccine was formulated with pharmaceutically approved stabilizers, including sugars, plasticizers, amino acids, and proteins. Growth media and harvesting conditions of the bacteria were also studied to enhance resistance to desiccation stress encountered during processing as well as subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. The optimized Ty21a vaccine, formulated with trehalose, methionine, and gelatin, demonstrated stability for approximately 12 weeks at 37°C (i.e., time required for the vaccine to decrease in potency by 1log10 CFU) and no loss in titer at 4 and 25°C following storage for the same duration. Furthermore, the foam dried Ty21a elicited a similar immunogenic response in mice as well as protection in challenge studies compared to Vivotif™, the commercial Ty21a vaccine. The enhanced heat stability of the Ty21a oral vaccine, or Ty21a derivatives expressing foreign antigens (e.g. anthrax), could mitigate risks of vaccine potency loss during long term storage, shipping, delivery to geographical areas with warmer climates or during emergency distribution following a bioterrorist attack. Because the foam drying process is conducted using conventional freeze dryers and can be readily implemented at any freeze drying manufacturing facility, this technology appears ready and appropriate for large scale processing of foam dried vaccines. PMID:21300096

  15. Safety evaluation of adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine live, oral in military recruits.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Azhar; Mathena, Julie; Albano, Jessica D; Yacovone, Margaret; Collins, Limone

    2016-08-31

    Before the widespread adoption of vaccination, adenovirus type 4 and type 7 were long associated with respiratory illnesses among military recruits. When supplies were depleted and vaccination was suspended in 1999 for approximately a decade, respiratory illnesses due to adenovirus infections resurged. In March 2011, a new live, oral adenovirus vaccine was licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration and was first universally administered to military recruits in October 2011, leading to rapid, dramatic elimination of the disease within a few months. As part of licensure, a postmarketing study (Sentinel Surveillance Plan) was performed to detect potential safety signals within 42days after immunization of military recruits. This study retrospectively evaluated possible adverse events related to vaccination using data from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) database. Among 100,000 recruits who received the adenovirus vaccine, no statistically significant greater risk of prespecified medical events was observed within 42days after vaccination when compared with a historical cohort of 100,000 unvaccinated recruits. In an initial statistical analysis of International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes, a statistically significant higher risk for 19 other (not prespecified) medical events occurring in 5 or more recruits was observed among vaccinated compared with unvaccinated groups. After case record data abstraction for attribution and validation, two events (psoriasis [21 vs 7 cases] and serum reactions [12 vs 4 cases]) occurred more frequently in the vaccinated cohort. A causal relation of these rare events with adenovirus vaccination could not be established given confounding factors in the DMSS, such as coadministration of other vaccines and incomplete or inaccurate medical information, for some recruits. Prospective surveillance assessing these uncommon, but potentially

  16. Conjunctival and intramuscular vaccination of pigs with a live avirulent strain of Salmonella cholerae-suis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, T T; Pardon, P; Marly, J; Bernard, S

    1987-07-01

    An avirulent mutant strain of Salmonella cholerae-suis was cloned for resistance to streptomycin and nalidixic acid. The mutant strain 33-13 also was used because of its avirulence and immunogenicity in mice. Weaned pigs were vaccinated with live strain 33-13; 5 pigs were vaccinated by conjunctivally administered 5.5 X 10(7) organisms (low dose), 5 were conjunctivally administered 5.5 X 10(9) organisms (high dose), and 5 pigs were administered 5.5 X 10(9) organisms (high dose) IM. Transient fever and transient fecal shedding of the vaccine strain developed in pigs vaccinated IM, but not in 2 groups of pigs vaccinated conjunctivally. After intratracheal administration of virulent strain 38-9, nonvaccinated control pigs (n = 9) developed persistent high fever, anorexia, bacteremia, diarrhea, and fecal shedding of strain 38-9, whereas vaccinated pigs remained afebrile and clinically normal. Nonvaccinated and uninfected sentinel pigs (n = 8) were kept in units of 2 pigs with each group of experimental pigs, and remained healthy throughout the experiment. Thirteen vaccinated and 7 nonvaccinated control pigs were killed 42 days after vaccination, and 2 vaccinated, 2 nonvaccinated, and 8 sentinel control pigs were killed 58 days after vaccination. Ten organs were evaluated by quantitative bacteriology on necropsy of all pigs for the presence of vaccine strain 33-13, and for virulent strain 38-9. Strain 33-13 was not found. Lung and liver, lesions were found in most of the nonvaccinated control pigs, with a high frequency of recovery of large numbers of strain 38-9 from the mesenteric lymph nodes, lungs, liver, and ileum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3631689

  17. Replication and transmission of live attenuated infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Avila, Andrés; Oldoni, Ivomar; Riblet, Sylva; García, Maricarmen

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the replication of live attenuated infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines in selected tissues and their ability to transmit to contact-exposed birds. Four-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were eye drop-inoculated with tissue culture origin (TCO) and chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines. Contact-exposed chickens were housed in direct contact with eye drop-inoculated chickens from the first day postinoculation. Virus isolation and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the presence of live virus and viral DNA, respectively, in the trachea, trigeminal ganglia, eye conjunctiva, cecal tonsils, and cloaca from eye drop-inoculated and contact-exposed birds at days 2, 4, 5 to 10, 14, 18, 21, 24, and 28 postinoculation. No differences were observed in the ability of the TCO and CEO vaccines to replicate in the examined tissues. Both vaccines presented a localized replication in the eye conjunctiva and the trachea. Both vaccines were capable of transmitting to contact-exposed birds, attaining peaks of viral DNA as elevated as those observed in inoculated birds. The CEO vaccine replicated faster and reached higher viral genome copy number than the TCO vaccine in the conjunctiva and trachea of eye drop-inoculated and contact-exposed birds. The viral DNA from both vaccines migrated to the trigeminal ganglia during early stages of infection. Although the CEO and TCO vaccines were not recovered from the cecal tonsils and the cloaca, low levels of viral DNA were detected at these sites during the peak of viral replication in the upper respiratory tract. PMID:18251401

  18. Development of a stable liquid formulation of live attenuated influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    White, Jessica A; Estrada, Marcus; Flood, E Alexander; Mahmood, Kutub; Dhere, Rajeev; Chen, Dexiang

    2016-07-12

    Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing influenza. However, the cost of producing annual seasonal influenza vaccines puts them out of reach for most developing countries. While live attenuated influenza vaccines are among the most efficacious and can be manufactured at low cost, they may require lyophilization to be stable enough for developing-country use, which adds a significant cost burden. The development of a liquid live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine that is stable for around a year-the duration of an annual influenza season-would significantly improve not only the production output but also the use and accessibility of influenza vaccines in low-resource settings. In this study, potential stabilizing excipients were screened and optimized using the least stable influenza vaccine strain presently known, H1N1 (A/California/07/2009), as a model. The stability-conferring properties of the lead formulations were also tested with a Type B strain of influenza virus (B/Brisbane/60/2008). Stability was also evaluated with higher titers of influenza virus and exposure to agitation and freeze-thaw stresses to further confirm the stability of the lead formulations. Through this process, we identified a liquid formulation consisting of sucrose phosphate glutamate buffer with 1% arginine and 0.5% recombinant human serum albumin that provided storage stability of one year at 2-8°C for the influenza A and B strains tested. PMID:27155495

  19. The effect of a live Neospora caninum tachyzoite vaccine in naturally infected pregnant dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mazuz, M L; Fish, L; Wolkomirsky, R; Leibovich, B; Reznikov, D; Savitsky, I; Golenser, J; Shkap, V

    2015-06-15

    Neosporosis, caused by the intracellular protozoan Neospora caninum, is a major cause of abortion and reproductive failure in cattle worldwide. The principal route of transmission of neosporosis is via in utero infection of the offspring. There is no effective prophylactic treatment or vaccine available against bovine neosporosis. A N. caninum NcIs491 isolate was examined for its ability to immunize and reduce abortions in naturally infected dairy cows under field conditions. N. caninum-seropositive pregnant dams were inoculated with 10(8) live tachyzoites during mid-term pregnancy. A total of 520 N. caninum seropositive dams were included in this study, of these, 146 were immunized and 374 cows served as a non-vaccinated control group. A significantly lower incidence of abortion was observed in vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated cows, 16 and 26% respectively (P=0.01), with a vaccine efficacy of 39%. However, the number of seropositive offspring remained similar in both groups. Overall, this field trial suggests that vaccination with live N. caninum tachyzoites should be considered as an effective measure to reduce abortions caused by neosporosis in naturally infected cows. PMID:25890821

  20. Use of Arthrobacter davidanieli as a live vaccine against Renibacterium salmoninarum and Piscirickettsia salmonis in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Salonius, K; Siderakis, C; MacKinnon, A M; Griffiths, S G

    2005-01-01

    Arthrobacter davidanieli (proposed species nomenclature) is a non-pathogenic Gram-variable bacterium related to, but taxonomically distinct from, Renibacterium salmoninarum, the aetiological agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). We have demonstrated that vaccination with live A. davidanieli is effective against BKD in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) showing above 80 relative percent survival in experimental challenge trials. Good protection was also demonstrated in long-term field trials where Atlantic salmon were naturally exposed to R. salmoninarum challenge until 23 months after vaccination. The same vaccine, which is licensed in Canada against BKD has also proved effective in reducing mortality from experimental challenge of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with Piscirickettsia salmonis, the causative agent of piscirickettsiosis. Under field conditions in Chile, use of the vaccine led to a significant reduction in piscirickettsiosis mortality in coho salmon over 10 months following sea transfer. The vaccine strain is unique in that it is the first live organism to be licensed as a vaccine for use in aquaculture. Potential mechanisms of protection against the two taxonomically disparate pathogens are discussed. PMID:15962482

  1. Stability of live attenuated rotavirus vaccine with selected preservatives and primary containers.

    PubMed

    Lal, Manjari; Jarrahian, Courtney; Zhu, Changcheng; Hosken, Nancy A; McClurkan, Chris L; Koelle, David M; Saxon, Eugene; Roehrig, Andrew; Zehrung, Darin; Chen, Dexiang

    2016-05-11

    Rotavirus infection, which can be prevented by vaccination, is responsible for a high burden of acute gastroenteritis disease in children, especially in low-income countries. An appropriate formulation, packaging, and delivery device for oral rotavirus vaccine has the potential to reduce the manufacturing cost of the vaccine and the logistical impact associated with introduction of a new vaccine, simplify the vaccination procedure, and ensure that the vaccine is safely and accurately delivered to children. Single-dose prefilled presentations can be easy to use; however, they are typically more expensive, can be a bottleneck during production, and occupy a greater volume per dose vis-à-vis supply chain storage and medical waste disposal, which is a challenge in low-resource settings. Multi-dose presentations used thus far have other issues, including increased wastage of vaccine and the need for separate delivery devices. In this study, the goals were to evaluate both the technical feasibility of using preservatives to develop a liquid multi-dose formulation and the primary packaging alternatives for orally delivered, liquid rotavirus vaccines. The feasibility evaluation included evaluation of commonly used preservatives for compatibility with rotavirus vaccines and stability testing of rotavirus vaccine in various primary containers, including Lameplast's plastic tubes, BD's oral dispenser version of Uniject™ (Uniject DP), rommelag's blow-fill-seal containers, and MEDInstill's multi-dose vial and pouch. These presentations were compared to a standard glass vial. The results showed that none of the preservatives tested were compatible with a live attenuated rotavirus vaccine because they had a detrimental effect on the viability of the virus. In the presence of preservatives, vaccine virus titers declined to undetectable levels within 1 month. The vaccine formulation without preservatives maintained a stability profile over 12 months in all primary containers

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of a live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (IMOJEV®) in children.

    PubMed

    Chokephaibulkit, K; Houillon, G; Feroldi, E; Bouckenooghe, A

    2016-01-01

    JE-CV (IMOJEV®, Sanofi Pasteur, France) is a live attenuated virus vaccine constructed by inserting coding sequences of the prM and E structural proteins of the Japanese encephalitis SA14-14-2 virus into the genome of yellow fever 17D virus. Primary immunization with JE-CV requires a single dose of the vaccine. This article reviews clinical trials of JE-CV in children aged up to 6 years conducted in countries across South-East Asia. Strong and persistent antibody responses were observed after single primary and booster doses, with 97% of children seroprotected up to five years after booster vaccination. Models of long-term antibody persistence predict a median duration of protection of approximately 30 years after a booster dose. The safety and reactogenicity profiles of JE-CV primary and booster doses are comparable to other widely used childhood vaccines. PMID:26588242

  3. Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of a Live Attenuated H5N1 Vaccine in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shufang; Gao, Yuwei; Shinya, Kyoko; Li, Chris Kafai; Li, Yanbing; Shi, Jianzhong; Jiang, Yongping; Suo, Yongbing; Tong, Tiegang; Zhong, Gongxun; Song, Jiasheng; Zhang, Ying; Tian, Guobin; Guan, Yuntao; Xu, Xiao-Ning; Bu, Zhigao; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Chen, Hualan

    2009-01-01

    The continued spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses among poultry and wild birds, together with the emergence of drug-resistant variants and the possibility of human-to-human transmission, has spurred attempts to develop an effective vaccine. Inactivated subvirion or whole-virion H5N1 vaccines have shown promising immunogenicity in clinical trials, but their ability to elicit protective immunity in unprimed human populations remains unknown. A cold-adapted, live attenuated vaccine with the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of an H5N1 virus A/VN/1203/2004 (clade 1) was protective against the pulmonary replication of homologous and heterologous wild-type H5N1 viruses in mice and ferrets. In this study, we used reverse genetics to produce a cold-adapted, live attenuated H5N1 vaccine (AH/AAca) that contains HA and NA genes from a recent H5N1 isolate, A/Anhui/2/05 virus (AH/05) (clade 2.3), and the backbone of the cold-adapted influenza H2N2 A/AnnArbor/6/60 virus (AAca). AH/AAca was attenuated in chickens, mice, and monkeys, and it induced robust neutralizing antibody responses as well as HA-specific CD4+ T cell immune responses in rhesus macaques immunized twice intranasally. Importantly, the vaccinated macaques were fully protected from challenge with either the homologous AH/05 virus or a heterologous H5N1 virus, A/bar-headed goose/Qinghai/3/05 (BHG/05; clade 2.2). These results demonstrate for the first time that a cold-adapted H5N1 vaccine can elicit protective immunity against highly pathogenic H5N1 virus infection in a nonhuman primate model and provide a compelling argument for further testing of double immunization with live attenuated H5N1 vaccines in human trials. PMID:19412338

  4. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses induced by scarification vaccination of human volunteers with a new lot of the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed Central

    Waag, D M; Galloway, A; Sandstrom, G; Bolt, C R; England, M J; Nelson, G O; Williams, J C

    1992-01-01

    Tularemia is a disease caused by the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. We evaluated a new lot of live F. tularensis vaccine for its immunogenicity in human volunteers. Scarification vaccination induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Indications of a positive immune response after vaccination included an increase in specific antibody levels, which were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunoblot assays, and the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to respond to whole F. tularensis bacteria as recall antigens. Vaccination caused a significant rise (P less than 0.05) in immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM titers. Lymphocyte stimulation indices were significantly increased (P less than 0.01) in vaccinees 14 days after vaccination. These data verify that this new lot of live F. tularensis vaccine is immunogenic. Images PMID:1400988

  5. Vaccination of children with a live-attenuated, intranasal influenza vaccine – analysis and evaluation through a Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Andersohn, Frank; Bornemann, Reinhard; Damm, Oliver; Frank, Martin; Mittendorf, Thomas; Theidel, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a worldwide prevalent infectious disease of the respiratory tract annually causing high morbidity and mortality in Germany. Influenza is preventable by vaccination and this vaccination is so far recommended by the The German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) as a standard vaccination for people from the age of 60 onwards. Up to date a parenterally administered trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) has been in use almost exclusively. Since 2011 however a live-attenuated vaccine (LAIV) has been approved additionally. Consecutively, since 2013 the STIKO recommends LAIV (besides TIV) for children from 2 to 17 years of age, within the scope of vaccination by specified indications. LAIV should be preferred administered in children from 2 to 6 of age. The objective of this Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is to address various research issues regarding the vaccination of children with LAIV. The analysis was performed from a medical, epidemiological and health economic perspective, as well as from an ethical, social and legal point of view. Method: An extensive systematic database research was performed to obtain relevant information. In addition a supplementary research by hand was done. Identified literature was screened in two passes by two independent reviewers using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included literature was evaluated in full-text using acknowledged standards. Studies were graded with the highest level of evidence (1++), if they met the criteria of European Medicines Agency (EMA)-Guidance: Points to consider on applications with 1. meta-analyses; 2. one pivotal study. Results: For the medical section, the age of the study participants ranges from 6 months to 17 years. Regarding study efficacy, in children aged 6 months to ≤7 years, LAIV is superior to placebo as well as to a vac-cination with TIV (Relative Risk Reduction – RRR – of laboratory confirmed influenza infection approx. 80% and 50

  6. A comparative study of live attenuated F strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially available attenuated strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) are commonly used within the layer industry to control MG-induced mycoplasmosis. Among these are two live MG vaccines derived from the moderately pathogenic MG “chick F” strain. In the present study, the commercially availa...

  7. Development of live attenuated sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae polyvalent vaccines to protect Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resi...

  8. Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae as potential vaccines by selecting for resistance to sparfloxacin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resi...

  9. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. 113.71 Section 113.71 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS...

  10. Novel methods for expression of foreign antigens in live vector vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin Yuan; Harley, Regina H.; Galen, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial live vector vaccines represent a vaccine development strategy that offers exceptional flexibility. In this approach, genes encoding protective antigens of unrelated bacterial, viral or parasitic pathogens are expressed in an attenuated bacterial vaccine strain that delivers these foreign antigens to the immune system, thereby eliciting relevant immune responses. Rather than expressing these antigens using low copy expression plasmids, here we pursue expression of foreign proteins from the live vector chromosome. Our strategy is designed to compensate for the inherent disadvantage of loss of gene dosage (vs. plasmid-based expression) by integrating antigen-encoding gene cassettes into multiple chromosomal sites already inactivated in an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine candidate. We tested expression of a cassette encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) integrated separately into native guaBA, htrA or clyA chromosomal loci. Using single integrations, we show that expression levels of GFPuv are significantly affected by the site of integration, regardless of the inclusion of additional strong promoters within the incoming cassette. Using cassettes integrated into both guaBA and htrA, we observe cumulative synthesis levels from two integration sites superior to single integrations. Most importantly, we observe that GFPuv expression increases in a growth phase-dependent manner, suggesting that foreign antigen synthesis may be “tuned” to the physiology of the live vaccine. We expect this novel platform expression technology to prove invaluable in the development of a wide variety of multivalent live vector vaccines, capable of expressing multiple antigens from both chromosomal and plasmid-based expression systems within a single strain. PMID:23406777